A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a very sharp conducting needle is swept just a few angstroms above the surface of a sample. The tiny tunneling current that flows between the sample and the needle tip is measured, and from this are produced three-dimensional topographs. Due to the poor electron conductivity of most biological samples, thin metal coatings are deposited on the sample.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
The performance of dissections, injections, surgery, etc., by the use of micromanipulators (attachments to a microscope) that manipulate tiny instruments.
The behaviors of materials under force.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
Scanning microscopy in which a very sharp probe is employed in close proximity to a surface, exploiting a particular surface-related property. When this property is local topography, the method is atomic force microscopy (MICROSCOPY, ATOMIC FORCE), and when it is local conductivity, the method is scanning tunneling microscopy (MICROSCOPY, SCANNING TUNNELING).
Functionally and structurally differentiated, purple-pigmented regions of the cytoplasmic membrane of some strains of Halobacterium halobium. The membrane develops under anaerobic conditions and is made almost entirely of the purple pigment BACTERIORHODOPSINS. (From Singleton & Sainsbury Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The force applied by the masticatory muscles in dental occlusion.
Fluorescence microscopy utilizing multiple low-energy photons to produce the excitation event of the fluorophore. Multiphoton microscopes have a simplified optical path in the emission side due to the lack of an emission pinhole, which is necessary with normal confocal microscopes. Ultimately this allows spatial isolation of the excitation event, enabling deeper imaging into optically thick tissue, while restricting photobleaching and phototoxicity to the area being imaged.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
A type of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY in which the object is examined directly by an extremely narrow electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point and using the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen to create the image. It should not be confused with SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
Relating to the size of solids.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A giant elastic protein of molecular mass ranging from 2,993 kDa (cardiac), 3,300 kDa (psoas), to 3,700 kDa (soleus) having a kinase domain. The amino- terminal is involved in a Z line binding, and the carboxy-terminal region is bound to the myosin filament with an overlap between the counter-connectin filaments at the M line.
The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.
Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
The branch of physics which deals with the motions of material bodies, including kinematics, dynamics, and statics. When the laws of mechanics are applied to living structures, as to the locomotor system, it is referred to as BIOMECHANICAL PHENOMENA. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A technique that uses LASERS to trap, image, and manipulate small objects (biomolecules, supramolecular assembles, DENDRIMERS) in three dimensional space. (From Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology Terms, 4th ed.)
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The properties and processes of materials that affect their behavior under force.
The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.
A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].
Conformational transitions of the shape of a protein to various unfolded states.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A test to determine the relative hardness of a metal, mineral, or other material according to one of several scales, such as Brinell, Mohs, Rockwell, Vickers, or Shore. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.
A change of a substance from one form or state to another.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
Surface resistance to the relative motion of one body against the rubbing, sliding, rolling, or flowing of another with which it is in contact.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.
A generic term for all substances having the properties of stretching under tension, high tensile strength, retracting rapidly, and recovering their original dimensions fully. They are generally POLYMERS.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins that are chemically bound to a substrate material which renders their location fixed. The immobilization of proteins allows their use in chemical reactions without being diluted by solvent.
The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Inorganic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Spherical particles of nanometer dimensions.
A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria widely distributed in fresh water as well as marine and hypersaline habitats.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.
Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
A scientific tool based on ULTRASONOGRAPHY and used not only for the observation of microstructure in metalwork but also in living tissue. In biomedical application, the acoustic propagation speed in normal and abnormal tissues can be quantified to distinguish their tissue elasticity and other properties.
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.
The branch of science that deals with the geometric description of crystals and their internal arrangement. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.
Manufacturing technology for making microscopic devices in the micrometer range (typically 1-100 micrometers), such as integrated circuits or MEMS. The process usually involves replication and parallel fabrication of hundreds or millions of identical structures using various thin film deposition techniques and carried out in environmentally-controlled clean rooms.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Force exerted when gripping or grasping.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The technique of spraying a tissue specimen with a thin coat of a heavy metal such as platinum. The specimen is sprayed from an oblique angle, which results in the uneven deposition of the coating. The varying thicknesses create a shadow effect and give a three-dimensional appearance to the specimen.

Ligand substitution of receptor targeted DNA complexes affects gene transfer into hepatoma cells. (1/3462)

We have targeted the serpin enzyme complex receptor for gene transfer in human hepatoma cell lines using peptides < 30 amino acids in length which contain the five amino acid recognition sequence for this receptor, coupled to poly K of average chain length 100 K, using the heterobifunctional coupling reagent sulfo-LC SPDP. The number of sulfo-LC SPDP modified poly-L-lysine residues, as well as the degree of peptide substitution was assessed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Conjugates were prepared in which 3.5%, 7.8% or 26% of the lysine residues contained the sulfo-LC SPDP moiety. Each of these conjugates was then coupled with ligand peptides so that one in 370, one in 1039, or one in 5882 lysines were substituted with receptor ligand. Electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to assess complex structure and size. HuH7 human hepatoma cells were transfected with complexes of these conjugates with the plasmid pGL3 and luciferase expression measured 2 to 16 days after treatment. All the protein conjugates in which 26% of the K residues were modified with sulfo-LC SPDP were poor gene transfer reagents. Complexes containing less substituted poly K, averaged 17 +/- 0.5 nm in diameter and gave peak transgene expression of 3-4 x 10(6) ILU/mg which persisted (> 7 x 10(5) ILU) at 16 days. Of these, more substituted polymers condensed DNA into complexes averaging 20 +/- 0.7 nm in diameter and gave five-fold less luciferase than complexes containing less substituted conjugates. As few as eight to 11 ligands per complex are optimal for DNA delivery via the SEC receptor. The extent of substitution of receptor-mediated gene transfer complexes affects the size of the complexes, as well as the intensity and duration of transgene expression. These observations may permit tailoring of complex construction for the usage required.  (+info)

Electrically excitable normal rat kidney fibroblasts: A new model system for cell-semiconductor hybrids. (2/3462)

In testing various designs of cell-semiconductor hybrids, the choice of a suitable type of electrically excitable cell is crucial. Here normal rat kidney (NRK) fibroblasts are presented as a cell line, easily maintained in culture, that may substitute for heart or nerve cells in many experiments. Like heart muscle cells, NRK fibroblasts form electrically coupled confluent cell layers, in which propagating action potentials are spontaneously generated. These, however, are not associated with mechanical disturbances. Here we compare heart muscle cells and NRK fibroblasts with respect to action potential waveform, morphology, and substrate adhesion profile, using the whole-cell variant of the patch-clamp technique, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and reflection interference contrast microscopy (RICM), respectively. Our results clearly demonstrate that NRK fibroblasts should provide a highly suitable test system for investigating the signal transfer between electrically excitable cells and extracellular detectors, available at a minimum cost and effort for the experimenters.  (+info)

The vacuolating toxin from Helicobacter pylori forms hexameric pores in lipid bilayers at low pH. (3/3462)

Pathogenic strains of Helicobacter pylori secrete a cytotoxin, VacA, that in the presence of weak bases, causes osmotic swelling of acidic intracellular compartments enriched in markers for late endosomes and lysosomes. The molecular mechanisms by which VacA causes this vacuolation remain largely unknown. At neutral pH, VacA is predominantly a water-soluble dodecamer formed by two apposing hexamers. In this report, we show by using atomic force microscopy that below pH approximately 5, VacA associates with anionic lipid bilayers to form hexameric membrane-associated complexes. We propose that water-soluble dodecameric VacA proteins disassemble at low pH and reassemble into membrane-spanning hexamers. The surface contour of the membrane-bound hexamer is strikingly similar to the outer surface of the soluble dodecamer, suggesting that the VacA surface in contact with the membrane is buried within the dodecamer before protonation. In addition, electrophysiological measurements indicate that, under the conditions determined by atomic force microscopy for membrane association, VacA forms pores across planar lipid bilayers. This low pH-triggered pore formation is likely a critical step in VacA activity.  (+info)

Atomic force microscopy: a forceful way with single molecules. (4/3462)

The atomic force microscope (AFM) now routinely provides images that reveal subnanometer surface structures of biomolecules. The sensitivity and precision of AFM provide new opportunities for studying the mechanical properties of biomolecules and their interactions in their native environment.  (+info)

In situ atomic force microscopy study of Alzheimer's beta-amyloid peptide on different substrates: new insights into mechanism of beta-sheet formation. (5/3462)

We have applied in situ atomic force microscopy to directly observe the aggregation of Alzheimer's beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) in contact with two model solid surfaces: hydrophilic mica and hydrophobic graphite. The time course of aggregation was followed by continuous imaging of surfaces remaining in contact with 10-500 microM solutions of Abeta in PBS (pH 7.4). Visualization of fragile nanoscale aggregates of Abeta was made possible by the application of a tapping mode of imaging, which minimizes the lateral forces between the probe tip and the sample. The size and the shape of Abeta aggregates, as well as the kinetics of their formation, exhibited pronounced dependence on the physicochemical nature of the surface. On hydrophilic mica, Abeta formed particulate, pseudomicellar aggregates, which at higher Abeta concentration had the tendency to form linear assemblies, reminiscent of protofibrillar species described recently in the literature. In contrast, on hydrophobic graphite Abeta formed uniform, elongated sheets. The dimensions of those sheets were consistent with the dimensions of beta-sheets with extended peptide chains perpendicular to the long axis of the aggregate. The sheets of Abeta were oriented along three directions at 120 degrees to each other, resembling the crystallographic symmetry of a graphite surface. Such substrate-templated self-assembly may be the distinguishing feature of beta-sheets in comparison with alpha-helices. These studies show that in situ atomic force microscopy enables direct assessment of amyloid aggregation in physiological fluids and suggest that Abeta fibril formation may be driven by interactions at the interface of aqueous solutions and hydrophobic substrates, as occurs in membranes and lipoprotein particles in vivo.  (+info)

Mechanical and chemical unfolding of a single protein: a comparison. (6/3462)

Is the mechanical unraveling of protein domains by atomic force microscopy (AFM) just a technological feat or a true measurement of their unfolding? By engineering a protein made of tandem repeats of identical Ig modules, we were able to get explicit AFM data on the unfolding rate of a single protein domain that can be accurately extrapolated to zero force. We compare this with chemical unfolding rates for untethered modules extrapolated to 0 M denaturant. The unfolding rates obtained by the two methods are the same. Furthermore, the transition state for unfolding appears at the same position on the folding pathway when assessed by either method. These results indicate that mechanical unfolding of a single protein by AFM does indeed reflect the same event that is observed in traditional unfolding experiments. The way is now open for the extensive use of AFM to measure folding reactions at the single-molecule level. Single-molecule AFM recordings have the added advantage that they define the reaction coordinate and expose rare unfolding events that cannot be observed in the absence of chemical denaturants.  (+info)

Probing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae centromeric DNA (CEN DNA)-binding factor 3 (CBF3) kinetochore complex by using atomic force microscopy. (7/3462)

Yeast centromeric DNA (CEN DNA) binding factor 3 (CBF3) is a multisubunit protein complex that binds to the essential CDEIII element in CEN DNA. The four CBF3 proteins are required for accurate chromosome segregation and are considered to be core components of the yeast kinetochore. We have examined the structure of the CBF3-CEN DNA complex by atomic force microscopy. Assembly of CBF3-CEN DNA complexes was performed by combining purified CBF3 proteins with a DNA fragment that includes the CEN region from yeast chromosome III. Atomic force microscopy images showed DNA molecules with attached globular bodies. The contour length of the DNA containing the complex is approximately 9% shorter than the DNA alone, suggesting some winding of DNA within the complex. The measured location of the single binding site indicates that the complex is located asymmetrically to the right of CDEIII extending away from CDEI and CDEII, which is consistent with previous data. The CEN DNA is bent approximately 55 degrees at the site of complex formation. A significant fraction of the complexes are linked in pairs, showing three to four DNA arms, with molecular volumes approximately three times the mean volumes of two-armed complexes. These multi-armed complexes indicate that CBF3 can bind two DNA molecules together in vitro and, thus, may be involved in holding together chromatid pairs during mitosis.  (+info)

Ethanol-induced structural transitions of DNA on mica. (8/3462)

The effect of ethanol on the structure of DNA confined to mica in the presence of Mg2+was examined by varying the ethanol concentration and imaging the DNA by atomic force microscopy. Contour length measurements of the DNA show a transition from all-B-form at 0% ethanol to all-A-form at >25% ethanol. At intermediate ethanol concentrations, contour lengths suggest that individual molecules of air-dried DNA are trapped with mixed compositions of A-form and B-form. The relative composition depends on the ethanol concentration. Fitting the length distributions at intermediate ethanol concentrations to a simple binomial model results in an upper bound estimate for the A-form and B-form domains of approximately 54 bp in the individual molecules. In addition to length changes, the apparent persistence length of DNA decreases with increasing ethanol concentration. At high concentrations of ethanol (>20%), DNA formed several higher order structures, including flower shaped condensates and toroids.  (+info)

Diociaiuti M, Bordi F, Motta A, Carosi A, Ercolini E, Arancia G, Cametti C, Coluzza C. Gramicidin A aggregation in phospholipid Langmuir-Blodget monolayers: an atomic force microscopy study. In: 12. European Congress on Electron Microscopy. Proceedings ; July 9-14, 2000; Brno. 2000. p.B535-B536 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tapping mode atomic force microscopy of scleroglucan networks. AU - Vuppu, A. K.. AU - Garcia, Antonio. AU - Vernia, C.. PY - 1997/1/1. Y1 - 1997/1/1. N2 - Tapping mode Atomic Force Microscopy (TniAFM) has been used to study the fungal polysaccharide scleroglucan deposited from aqueous solution and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) onto a mica surface. The solutions from which the microscope samples were produced were prepared by first dissolving the solid scleroglucan in 0.1M NaOH, then neutralizing the solution with HCl, followed by dilution to the required concentration in either water or DMSO. It was found that from the aqueous solution described above, scleroglucan forms networks. Based on a comparison of the denatured-renatured and aqueous solution samples, nehvork formation is due to the imperfect registration bet\veen the chains fanning the triple helices. The relatively large stiffness of the scleroglucan triple helix is also assumed to contribute to the formation of the ...
Park Systems, a leader in Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) since 1997 announces their first AFM image contest winner, Namuna Panday, a Graduate Student at Florida International University. Her winning submission is an AFM image taken using Park XE Bio of a HeLa Cell used in her research studying drug delivery methods for cancer research.
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) for single-cell force spectroscopy (SCFS) and Poisson statistic were used to analyze the detachment work recorded during the removal of gold-covered microspheres from cardiac fibroblasts. The effect of Cytochalasin D, a disruptor of the actin cytoskeleton, on cell adhesion was also tested. The adhesion workwas assessed using a Poisson analysis also derived fromsingle-cell force spectroscopy retracting curves. The use of Poisson analysis to get adhesionwork fromAFM curves is quite a novel method, and in this case, proved to be effective to study the short-range and long-range contributions to the adhesion work. This method avoids the difficult identification of minor peaks in the AFMretracting curves by creating what can be considered an average adhesionwork. Even though the effect of actin depolymerisation iswell documented, its use revealed that control cardiac fibroblasts (CT) exhibit a work of adhesion at least 5 times higher than that of the Cytochalasin treated ...
In this thesis properties and influence of modification techniques of porous silicon were studied by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). This device permits to visualize the surface topography and to study properties of the samples on atomic scale, which was necessary for recent investigation. Samples of porous silicon were obtained by electrochemical etching. Nickel particles were deposited by two methods: electrochemical deposition and extracting from NiCl2 ethanol solution. Sample growth was conducted in Saint-Petersburg State Electrotechnical University, LETI ...
From consumer productions to energy production, algae is used in many industrial processes. Understanding the mechanical behavior of algae is important to optimize these processes. To obtain a better understanding of algae cell response, we mechanically characterized single, dried Scenedesmus dimorphus cells. To accomplish this, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to image S. dimorphus cells, which enabled us to map the AFM measurements to a location on the individual cells. We were then able to perform force measurements on the AFM to determine the Youngs modulus of S. dimorphus. These findings enable a more detailed understanding of the mechanical properties of a single S. dimorphus cell, which may be useful in many applications.. Copyright © 2013 by ASME ...
Advanced atomic force microscopy techniques IV is a Thematic Issue edited by Thilo Glatzel in the Open Access Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Imaging and force-distance analysis of human fibroblasts in vitro by atomic force microscopy. AU - Bushell, Gillian R.. AU - Cahill, Colm. AU - Clarke, Frank M.. AU - Gibson, Christopher T.. AU - Myhra, Sverre. AU - Watson, Gregory S.. PY - 1999/7/1. Y1 - 1999/7/1. N2 - The structure of human fibroblasts have been characterised in vitro by atomic force microscopy (AFM) operated in the imaging or in the force versus distance (F-d) modes. The choice of cell substrate is important to ensure good adhesion. Of greater significance in the context of AFM analysis, is the observation that the substrate affects the imaging conditions for in vitro analysis of live cells. For instance, very rarely will glass coverslips lead to acceptable outcomes (i.e., resolved cytoskeletal structure). Activated tissue culture dishes, on the other hand, promote conditions that routinely result in good quality images. Those conditions are then unaffected by adoption of relatively high force loadings (more ...
Kenta Iwashima, Kenji Watanabe, and Jiro Kumaki. Department of Organic Materials Science, Yamagata University, Japan. Polymer monolayers spread on a water surface transform from an isolated chain to amorphous, then to a crystalline state upon compression, which can be transferred at each stage onto a substrate for observation by atomic force microcopy (AFM) [1]. Previously, we successfully observed a folded chain crystal (FCC) of an isotactic poly(methyl methacrylate) (it-PMMA) [2], its melting behavior in situ at high temperature [3], and crystallization of single isolated chains [4] at a molecular level by AFM.. In contrast to the it-PMMA, polylactide (PLA) crystallizes into an extended chain crystal (ECC) on a water surface [5]. Since the width of the crystal corresponds to the molecular weight (Mw), the chain packing in the crystal can be specifically identified. We studied the crystallization of a mixture of high and low Mw PLAs and found that the high Mw PLA first crystallized, followed by ...
Titin (also known as connectin) is the main determinant of physiological levels of passive muscle force. experiments using Ig-domain unfolding parameters obtained in earlier single-molecule atomic force microscopy experiments recover the phenomenology of stress AG-490 relaxation and predict large-scale unfolding in titin during an extended period (>20 min) of relaxation. By contrast, immunolabeling experiments failed to demonstrate large-scale unfolding. Thus, under physiological conditions in relaxed human soleus fibers, Ig domains are more stable than predicted by atomic force microscopy experiments. Ig-domain unfolding did not become more pronounced after gelsolin treatment, suggesting that the thin filament is unlikely to significantly contribute to AG-490 the mechanical stability of the domains. We conclude that in human soleus fibers, Ig unfolding cannot solely explain stress relaxation. INTRODUCTION When nonactivated striated muscle is stretched, passive force ensues. Passive force is ...
In this thesis methods for investigation of orientation and conformation of individual macromolecules on surfaces are presented as well as novel methods for functionalization of silicon chips with the possibility to get an ordered immobilization of antibodies. Two novel methods are presented which makes it possible to investigate the orientation of individual macromolecules on different kinds of surfaces with AFM. One is based on threshold patterning where, depending on substrate, side- and end-on adsorbed immunoglobulin molecules could be detected. The other method is using the principle of site-specific ligands where the orientation of proteins adsorbed to various surfaces was evaluated. By measuring the increase in protein volume of the formed protein-ligand complexes with AFM, the amount of protein having an orientation that allows binding can be estimated. The influence of surface chemistry on protein structure was examined using human serum fibronectin adsorbed to hydrophilic and ...
Публикации за 2009 год. Strekal, N.; Kulakovich, O.; Askirka, V.; Sveklo, I.; Maskevich, S. Features of the Secondary Emission Enhancement Near Plasmonic Gold Film, - Plasmonics, 2009, Vol. 4, pp. 1-7.. A.V. Belko, A.V. Nikitin, N.D. Strekal, A.E. German. Fractal Structure of Gold Clusters Formed under Vacuum Deposition on Dielectric Substrates // X-ray, Synchrotron and Neutron Techniques, 2009, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 338-342.. A Hyper-Raman Spectroscopy, Spectrophotometry and Atomic Force Microscopy Study of Photochromism of Spirocyclic Compounds on Nanostructured Metal Films / G.T. Vasilyuk, S.A. Maskevich, A.E. German, I.F. Sveklo, B.S. Lukyanov, L.A. Ageev. // High Energy Chemistry, 2009,Vol.43, No.7, pp.623-627.. ...
This paper demonstrates an acoustic sensor that can resolve atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip blunting with a frequency sensitivity of 0.007%. The AFM tip is fabricated on a thin film piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) membrane that is excited as a film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR). We demonstrate that cutting 0.98 μm off of the tip apex results in a resonance frequency change of 0.4MHz at 6.387GHz. This work demonstrates the potential for in-situ monitoring of AFM tip wear.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural and Nanomechanical Properties of Paperboard Coatings Studied by Peak Force Tapping Atomic Force Microscopy. AU - Sababi, Majid. AU - Kettle, John. AU - Rautkoski, Hille. AU - Claesson, Per M.. AU - Thormann, Esben. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - Paper coating formulations containing starch, latex, and clay were applied to paperboard and have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy and Peak Force tapping atomic force microscopy. A special focus has been on the measurement of the variation of the surface topography and surface material properties with a nanometer scaled spatial resolution. The effects of coating composition and drying conditions were investigated. It is concluded that the air-coating interface of the coating is dominated by close-packed latex particles embedded in a starch matrix and that the spatial distribution of the different components in the coating can be identified due to their variation in material properties. Drying the coating at an ...
Looking for atomic force microscope? Find out information about atomic force microscope. device that uses a spring-mounted probe to image individual atoms on the surface of a material, first developed by Gerd Binnig Binnig, Gerd , 1947-, German... Explanation of atomic force microscope
To examine this behavior, the group used atomic force microscopy on clusters of one such FG domain, called cNup153, tethered at one end to gold nanodots. The forces exerted by the cluster just nanometers above the dot were reminiscent of the behavior of a physical phenomenon known as polymer brushes. Specifically, random flexible movements of polymers (or unfolded FG domains) create a large exclusion volume. Interactions between hydrophobic FG repeats were not seen, suggesting that FG Nups do not form a meshwork. ...
Author: Vollhardt, D. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 1996; Title: Nucleation and growth of three-dimensional structures in supersaturated arachidic acid monolayers: An atomic force microscopy study
Author: Vollhardt, D. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 1996; Title: Nucleation and growth of three-dimensional structures in supersaturated arachidic acid monolayers: An atomic force microscopy study
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cross-species mechanical fingerprinting of cardiac myosin binding protein-C. AU - Karsai, Árpád. AU - Kellermayer, Miklós S Z. AU - Harris, Samantha P.. PY - 2013/6/4. Y1 - 2013/6/4. N2 - Cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) is a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily of proteins and consists of 8 Ig- and 3 fibronectin III (FNIII)-like domains along with a unique regulatory sequence referred to as the MyBP-C motif or M-domain. We previously used atomic force microscopy to investigate the mechanical properties of murine cMyBP-C expressed using a baculovirus/insect cell expression system. Here, we investigate whether the mechanical properties of cMyBP-C are conserved across species by using atomic force microscopy to manipulate recombinant human cMyBP-C and native cMyBP-C purified from bovine heart. Force versus extension data obtained in velocity-clamp experiments showed that the mechanical response of the human recombinant protein was remarkably similar to that of ...
Posch, S. and Aponte-Santamaría, C. and Schwarzl, R. and Karner, A. and Radtke, M. and Gräter, F. and Obser, T. and König, G. and Brehm, M. A. and Gruber, H. J. and Netz, R. R. and Baldauf, C. and Schneppenheim, R. and Tampé, R. and Hinterdorfer, P. - 2016 ...
Tenascin-X is an extracellular matrix protein and binds a variety of molecules in extracellular matrix and on cell membrane. Tenascin-X plays important roles in regulating the structure and mechanical properties of connective tissues. Using single-molecule atomic force microscopy, we have investigated the mechanical properties of bovine tenascin-X in detail. Our results indicated that tenascin-X is an elastic protein and the fibronectin type III (FnIII) domains can unfold under a stretching force and refold to regain their mechanical stability upon the removal of the stretching force. All the 30 FnIII domains of tenascin-X show similar mechanical stability, mechanical unfolding kinetics, and contour length increment upon domain unfolding, despite their large sequence diversity. In contrast to the homogeneity in their mechanical unfolding behaviors, FnIII domains fold at different rates. Using the 10th FnIII domain of tenascin-X (TNXfn10) as a model system, we constructed a polyprotein chimera ...
The nanomechanical properties of living cells, such as their surface elastic response and adhesion, have important roles in cellular processes such as morphogenesis, mechano-transduction, focal adhesion, motility, metastasis and drug delivery. Techniques based on quasi-static atomic force microscopy …
TY - CHAP. T1 - Characterization of DNA bound cyclic GMP-AMP synthase using atomic force microscopy imaging. AU - Lushnikov, Alexander. AU - Hooy, Richard. AU - Sohn, Jungsan. AU - Krasnoslobodtsev, Alexey. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - The protocol described herein allows for acquiring topography images of DNA-protein complexes using Atomic Force Microscopy imaging. Since the very beginning of this method, AFM has been an indispensable tool for characterization of biomolecular complexes with exceptional capability of observing single complexes. This method can visualize structural characteristics of DNA-protein assemblies and evaluate differences between individual complexes. Although this protocol is generally applicable to a large number of various proteins complexed with DNA, we use cyclic G/AMP synthase (cGAS) enzyme as a case study for the protocol description.. AB - The protocol described herein allows for acquiring topography images of DNA-protein complexes using Atomic Force ...
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We use a single molecule atomic force spectroscopy combined with the steered molecular dynamics simulation to determine a mechanical behavior of neural cell adhesion protein contactin during its unfolding. Force curves typical for modular proteins were observed, showing at most four unfolding peaks. The analysis of force spectra performed within worm-like chain model of polymer elasticity showed the presence of three unfolding lengths. Small plateaus, most likely resulting from forced transitions within domains were observed for the first time. Steered molecular dynamics simulations help to determine atomistic picture of domain unfolding ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Atomic force microscopy observation and characterization of single virions and virus-like particles by nano-indentation. AU - Marchetti, M.. AU - Wuite, G.J.L.. AU - Roos, W.H.. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - Structure and function of viruses are intimately related, and one of the goals in virology is to elucidate the mechanisms behind this relation. A variety of research endeavours is focused on studying these mechanisms and a relatively new technique in this field is Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Using AFM virions and virus-like particles can be imaged and manipulated at the single particle level. Here we review recent AFM nano-indentations studies unveiling for instance the mechanics of capsid-genome interactions, morphological changes that drive viral maturation, capsid stabilizing factors and viral uncoating. We show that in an increasing amount of literature a clear link between mechanics and infectivity is observed, which not only provides us with new fundamental insights ...
Park Systems provides the widest range of atomic force microscopes and Bio SICM featuring one-click AFM imaging and True Non-Contact atomic force microscopy.
Knowledge of the surface properties of microbial cells is a key to gain a detailed understanding of their functions in the natural environment and to efficiently exploit them in biotechnological processes. In this paper, we present force-distance curves recorded, by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in aqueous solutions, on various microbial samples: reconstituted S-layers, whole fungal spores and several bacterial strains. The approach and retraction curves exhibited important differences--depending on the type of microorganism, on the physiological state (dormancy versus germination) and on the environmental conditions (ionic strength)--which were shown to reflect differences in long-range surface forces, adhesion forces and mechanical properties. These data illustrate the great potential of AFM force measurements to elucidate the physical properties of microbial cells and to understand, at the molecular level, biointerfacial phenomena such as cell adhesion and cell aggregation. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Direct atomic force microscopy observation of DNA tile crystal growth at the single-molecule level. AU - Evans, Constantine G.. AU - Hariadi, Rizal F.. AU - Winfree, Erik. PY - 2012/6/27. Y1 - 2012/6/27. N2 - While the theoretical implications of models of DNA tile self-assembly have been extensively researched and such models have been used to design DNA tile systems for use in experiments, there has been little research testing the fundamental assumptions of those models. In this paper, we use direct observation of individual tile attachments and detachments of two DNA tile systems on a mica surface imaged with an atomic force microscope (AFM) to compile statistics of tile attachments and detachments. We show that these statistics fit the widely used kinetic Tile Assembly Model and demonstrate AFM movies as a viable technique for directly investigating DNA tile systems during growth rather than after assembly.. AB - While the theoretical implications of models of DNA tile ...
When a material breaks into more than one piece, the cleavage occurs through some combination of brittle and ductile failure. During brittle failure, bonds are ruptured and there is little overall stretching of the material. During ductile failure, atoms or molecules slide past each other and the material deforms plastically before finally breaking. Glass is typically thought to break only through brittle failure, although it is known that plastic deformation will occur when glass is indented or scratched. Recent observations also suggested that cavities formed during glass fracture, implying that brittle materials also fracture via plastic flow instead of via bond rupture.. Guin and Wiederhorn used atomic force microscopy to study the topology of slowly fractured silica and soda-lime-silicate glasses. Mapping the high-contrast points from one of the fracture surfaces revealed that they mirror those on the opposing surface. Line scans of the two surfaces revealed that the vertical error between ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Probing intra-molecular mechanics of single circularly permuted green fluorescent protein with atomic force microscopy. AU - Wang, Tong. AU - Nakajima, Ken. AU - Miyawaki, Atsushi. AU - Hara, Masahiko. PY - 2005/11/1. Y1 - 2005/11/1. N2 - We investigated the mechanical unfolding of single circularly permuted green fluorescent protein (cpGFP) with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The molecule was stretched from its N- and C-termini by an external force causing an elongation of the polypeptide chain up to its full length. The features of the force-extension (F-E) curves were found to depend on the stretching speed. At fast speeds, we detected one peak in the F-E curves before final rupture of the extended molecule, which we interpreted as the unfolding of two terminal halves within cpGFP. We observed several more force peaks in a sawtooth pattern at much slower speeds, and explained the appearance of such force peaks as cooperative unfolding of the hidden sub-structures inside each ...
Several techniques have been used in studying the structure of DNA, one of which is electron microscopy (EM). However, several issues on sample preservation have arisen with this technique due to its tedious sample preparation requirements. As a result, the atomic force microscope (AFM) was developed to overcome such shortcomings.
TY - JOUR. T1 - A method to provide rapid in situ determination of tip radius in dynamic atomic force microscopy. AU - Santos, Sergio. AU - Guang, Li. AU - Souier, Tewfik. AU - Gadelrab, Karim. AU - Chiesa, Matteo. AU - Thomson, Neil H.. PY - 2012/4. Y1 - 2012/4. N2 - We provide a method to characterize the tip radius of an atomic force microscopy in situ by monitoring the dynamics of the cantilever in ambient conditions. The key concept is that the value of free amplitude for which transitions from the attractive to repulsive force regimes are observed, strongly depends on the curvature of the tip. In practice, the smaller the value of free amplitude required to observe a transition, the sharper the tip. This general behavior is remarkably independent of the properties of the sample and cantilever characteristics and shows the strong dependence of the transitions on the tip radius. The main advantage of this method is rapid in situ characterization. Rapid in situ characterization enables one to ...
Recent developments in dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy where several eigenmodes are simultaneously excited in liquid media are proving to be an excellent tool in biological studies. Despite its relevance, the search for a reliable, efficient, and strong cantilever excitation method is still in progress. Herein, we present a theoretical modeling and experimental results of different actuation methods compatible with the operation of Atomic Force Microscopy in liquid environments: ideal acoustic, homogeneously distributed force, distributed applied torque (MAC Mode™), photothermal and magnetostrictive excitation. From the analysis of the results, it can be concluded that magnetostriction is the strongest and most efficient technique for higher eigenmode excitation when using soft cantilevers in liquid media. ...
2014 AIP Publishing LLC. Recent developments in dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy where several eigenmodes are simultaneously excited in liquid media are proving to be an excellent tool in biological studies. Despite its relevance, the search for a reliable, efficient, and strong cantilever excitation method is still in progress. Herein, we present a theoretical modeling and experimental results of different actuation methods compatible with the operation of Atomic Force Microscopy in liquid environments: ideal acoustic, homogeneously distributed force, distributed applied torque (MAC Mode™), photothermal and magnetostrictive excitation. From the analysis of the results, it can be concluded that magnetostriction is the strongest and most efficient technique for higher eigenmode excitation when using soft cantilevers in liquid media ...
With its ability to explore the surface of the sample by means of a local scanning probe and its use of dedicated software allows to be visualize results, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has revolutionized the study of the smallest aspects of life. Atomic Force Microscopy in Biomedical Research:
The environmental circumstances related to altering the hydration state of lively pharmaceutical components (API) are essential to understanding their stability, bioperformance, and manufacturability. Identifying the dehydration occasion utilizing , 1μg of materials is an more and more vital problem. Atomic Force Microscopy indentation mapping is carried out at managed temperatures between 25-100°C, for nanoscale volumes … Read more Atomic Force Microscopy to Identify Dehydration Temperatures for Small Volumes of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients.. ...
PSIs Experts Perform Atomic Force Microscopy Or AFM Analysis To Measure Differences In Modulus And Height Of Materials In The Nanoscale Size.
Evaluation of peptide-material interaction by force mapping method with an atomic force microscopeEvaluation of peptide-material interaction by force mapping method with an atomic force microscope ...
The displacement adsorption process of 4-mercaptopyridine (4-MP) on trisodium citrate preadsorbed gold surface in aqueous solution was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The measurement was done by monitoring the interaction force between a gold-coated AFM tip and a gold substrate, both presaturated by trisodium citrate. The addition of 4-MP was found to result in a remarkable change of tip−substrate adhesion force, which showed a gradual increase and finally reached a maximum. Using the chemical force titration technique, we estimated the surface pK1/2 of thus-formed 4-MP displacement film and compared with pure 4-MP self-assembled monolayer (SAM) formed on gold in ethanol solution. Our results indicate that the 4-MP molecules are more strongly adsorbed on gold than citrate anions, mostly via Au−S bonding, forming a less dense and mixed displacement film. The displacement adsorption kinetics seems very fast and it takes only ca. 2 min to establish more than 50% surface coverage of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The micro-mechanics of single molecules studied with atomic force microscopy. AU - Fisher, Thomas E.. AU - Marszalek, Piotr E.. AU - Oberhauser, Andres. AU - Carrion-Vazquez, Mariano. AU - Fernandez, Julio M.. PY - 1999/10/1. Y1 - 1999/10/1. N2 - The atomic force microscope (AFM) in its force-measuring mode is capable of effecting displacements on an angstrom scale (10 Å = 1 nm) and measuring forces of a few piconewtons. Recent experiments have applied AFM techniques to study the mechanical properties of single biological polymers. These properties contribute to the function of many proteins exposed to mechanical strain, including components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The force-bearing proteins of the ECM typically contain multiple tandem repeats of independently folded domains, a common feature of proteins with structural and mechanical roles. Polysaccharide moieties of adhesion glycoproteins such as the selectins are also subject to strain. Force-induced extension of ...
Understanding how cell adhesion proteins form adhesion domains is a key challenge in cell biology. Here, we use single-molecule atomic force microscopy (AFM) to demonstrate the force-induced formation and propagation of adhesion nanodomains in living fungal cells, focusing on the covalently anchored cell-wall protein Als5p from Candida albicans. We show that pulling on single adhesins with AFM tips terminated with specific antibodies triggers the formation of adhesion domains of 100-500 nm and that the force-induced nanodomains propagate over the entire cell surface. Control experiments (with cells lacking Als5p, single-site mutation in the protein, bare tips, and tips modified with irrelevant antibodies) demonstrate that Als5p nanodomains result from protein redistribution triggered by force-induced conformational changes in the initially probed proteins, rather than from nonspecific cell-wall perturbations. Als5p remodeling is independent of cellular metabolic activity because heat-killed ...
The self-assembly of peptides and proteins into amyloid fibrils of nanometric thickness and up to several micrometres in length, a phenomenon widely observed in biological systems, has recently aroused a growing interest in nanotechnology and nanomedicine. Here we have applied atomic force microscopy and single molecule force spectroscopy to study the amyloidogenesis of a peptide derived from human amylin and of its reverse sequence. The spontaneous formation of protofibrils and their orientation along well-defined directions on graphite and DMSO-coated graphite substrates make the studied peptides interesting candidates for nanotechnological applications. The measured binding forces between peptides correlate with the number of hydrogen bonds between individual peptides inside the fibril structure according to molecular dynamics simulations ...
The self-assembly of peptides and proteins into amyloid fibrils of nanometric thickness and up to several micrometres in length, a phenomenon widely observed in biological systems, has recently aroused a growing interest in nanotechnology and nanomedicine. Here we have applied atomic force microscopy and single molecule force spectroscopy to study the amyloidogenesis of a peptide derived from human amylin and of its reverse sequence. The spontaneous formation of protofibrils and their orientation along well-defined directions on graphite and DMSO-coated graphite substrates make the studied peptides interesting candidates for nanotechnological applications. The measured binding forces between peptides correlate with the number of hydrogen bonds between individual peptides inside the fibril structure according to molecular dynamics simulations ...
Currently, there is a growing need for methods that can quantify and map the molecular interactions of biological samples, both with high-force sensitivity and high spatial resolution. Force-distance (FD) curve-based atomic force microscopy is a valuable tool to simultaneously contour the surface and map the biophysical properties of biological samples at the nanoscale. In this webinar, we will report the use of advanced FD-based technology combined with chemically functionalized tips to probe the localization and interactions of chemical and biological sites on single native proteins and on living cells at high-resolution. I will present how an atomic force and confocal microscopy set-up allows the surface receptor landscape of cells to be imaged and the virus binding events within the first millisecond of contact with the cell to be mapped at high resolution (,50 nm). I will also highlight theoretical approaches to contour the free-energy landscape of early binding events between an engineered ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Order in crystalline cellulose detected by atomic force microscopy (AFM). AU - Kuutti, Lauri. AU - Pere, Jaakko. AU - Peltonen, Jouko. AU - Teleman, Olle. N1 - Project code: BEL3009. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - In this work we applied AFM for the surface study of cellulose microcrystals using highly crystalline Valonia macrophysa vesicles as the substrate. Vesicles were pretreated with dilute alkali and an excess of distilled water prior to imaging with AFM. An AFM image of a vesicle showed a group of closely packed microcrystals. A more detailed image of the membrane was also obtained. In the area of 14 × 14 nm2 the surface roughness was typically 1 nm. We calculated the two-dimensional fast fourier transform (FFT) of the raw data and obtained crystal parameters as well as a highly filtered inverse-transformed image. This image showed a periodicity of 1.01 nm, which may correspond to the fibre repeat unit length. Molecular modelling was used to generate a Connolly model surface ...
Deflection images of living outer Annulus cells from Bovine Intervertebral discs, day 6 (after seeding), imaged in culture medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) using Contact Mode. Left image was acquired before a series of force curves were taken on the area of the cell that is circled in red. Right image was acquired 45 minutes later. Displayed force curve was acquired on the cell marked with an X. It can be clearly seen that the cells have moved, undergone cytoskeletal reorganization and, where the force curves were taken, were damaged by the AFM tip, 54µm.. Data Courtesy of Y. Dror and J. Klein, Oxford University and Weizmann Institute, NanoInteract consortium.. ...
Abstract: This thesis uses a Veeco Icon Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) to educate undergraduate students about the nanoscale world and to perform archaeological research. In chapter 2, an educational resource is developed to provide hands-on nanotechnology experience for undergraduate students. With the rapid growth of atomic force microscopy at many levels of industry and academia, it is important to expose the next generation to this technique. This learning module attempts to provide an experimental approach to learning about AFM phase imaging and its many applications. In chapters 3 and 4, AFM is used as one of several techniques for classifying the use of Neanderthal flint tools from Weasel Cave, Russia. These stone tools were identified as being used for tasks such as wood working, hide scraping, and meat cutting. Depending on the type of flint and the task involved, various degrees of abrasion occurred, leaving behind microwear polishes. These microwear traces are localized regions where ...
DNA is the bio-polymer containing the genetic information needed for the development and functioning for all living organisms. It has a polymeric structure consisting of units called nucleotides, each consisting of a non-polar, hydrophobic interior (the base pairs) and polar, hydrophilic exterior which is negatively charged due to the phosphate groups along the backbone of the DNA. Its heterogeneous properties permit DNA molecule to interact with other molecules and different types of substrates at the same time. It is important to understand the DNA morphology on flat surface that serves as a template for DNA based sensors and microarray applications, particularly under an electric field. Taken together, the ability to deposit a single DNA molecule on the electrode is essential to increase its specificity. In our study, we optimize the conditions in order to control a single DNA molecule adsorbing and desorbing to/from the electrode. Simultaneously dynamic imaging enables us to analyze its ...
Atomic force microscopy. High vacuum enables high Q factors on the cantilever oscillation. Scanning tunneling microscopy. High ... Field emission microscopy and Field ion microscopy Atom Probe Tomography (APT) UHV is necessary for these applications to ... Atomic physics experiments which use cold atoms, such as ion trapping or making Bose-Einstein condensates and, while not ... atomic layer deposition (ALD) and UHV pulsed laser deposition (PLD) Angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) ...
and atomic force microscopy. In 1994 Professor Gerd Binnig founded Definiens which turned in the year 2000 into a commercial ... G. Binnig, "Atomic force microscope and method for imaging surfaces with atomic resolution", US Patent US4724318 (priority date ... In 1985, Binnig invented the atomic force microscope (AFM) and Binnig, Christoph Gerber and Calvin Quate went on to develop a ... "A low-temperature atomic force/scanning tunneling microscope for ultrahigh vacuum" (PDF). Journal of Vacuum Science & ...
... whereas atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are being frequently utilised to observe surface ... Giessibl FJ (2003-07-29). "Advances in atomic force microscopy". Reviews of Modern Physics. 75 (3): 949-983. arXiv:cond-mat/ ... How Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) works on YouTube Leskelä M, Ritala M (April 2002). "Atomic layer deposition (ALD): from ... "Atomic Layer Deposition Process Development - 10 steps to successfully develop, optimize and characterize ALD recipes - Atomic ...
Atomic force microscopy (AFM), a type of scanning force microscopy, was developed for mapping three-dimensional topographical ... atomic force microscopy uses laser beam deflection to measure the variations in atomic surfaces. The method does not rely on ... Atomic Force Microscopy, NanoScience Instruments. 2011 http://www.nanoscience.com/education/afm.html Balazs, D. J. "Surface ... In these cases, the surface characteristics of the polymer and material, and the resulting forces between them largely ...
Klapetek, P.; Valtr, M.; Nečas, D.; Salyk, O.; Dzik, P. (2011). "Atomic force microscopy analysis of nanoparticles in non-ideal ... Frederix, P. L. T. M.; Bosshart, P. D.; Engel, A. (2009). "Atomic Force Microscopy of Biological Membranes". Biophysical ... AFM probes and accessories distributed by NanoAndMore are used for Atomic Force Microscopy in material science, physics, ... cited as supplier in research papers and is therefore considered an important source for products for Atomic Force Microscopy. ...
"Science: Microscope reveals molecules at work". Atomic Force Microscopy in Cell Biology. 2002-05-30. ISBN 9780080549446. "DNA ... In the late 1980s, Hansma then worked on the development of atomic force microscopes and their use in research. This included ... He is also the inventor of Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy. Hansma is the namesake of the Paul Hansma Research Group at the ... researching the use of probe microscopy and its use in a variety of different fields. As a part of this work, he co-developed ...
For example, high-resolution fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy are both being used to show just how ... Dufrêne, YF (Sep 2008). "Towards nanomicrobiology using atomic force microscopy". Nat Rev Microbiol. 6 (9): 674-80. doi:10.1038 ...
Techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), ... Polarized Light and Atomic Force Microscopy". Materials. 8 (11): 7873-7888. Bibcode:2015Mate....8.7873G. doi:10.3390/ma8115427 ... When the shearing forces are removed the gel regains much of its original state. The fibrils are isolated from any cellulose ... Chinga-Carrasco, G.; Yu, Y.; Diserud, O. (21 July 2011). "Quantitative Electron Microscopy of Cellulose Nanofibril Structures ...
Hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene has been imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM) providing the first example of a molecule in which ... "Bond-Order Discrimination by Atomic Force Microscopy". Science. 337 (6100): 1326-9. doi:10.1126/science.1225621. PMID 22984067 ...
Kuznetsov YG, Malkin AJ, Lucas RW, Plomp M, McPherson A (September 2001). "Imaging of viruses by atomic force microscopy". The ... The capsid and entire virus structure can be mechanically (physically) probed through atomic force microscopy. In general, ... When infected, a host cell is forced to rapidly produce thousands of identical copies of the original virus. When not inside an ... When infected, the host cell is forced to rapidly produce thousands of identical copies of the original virus. Their life cycle ...
... scanning electron microscopy, microprobing, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic-force microscopy, and mass spectroscopy. ... Chernoff; Sherman (2010). "Resurrecting dirty atomic force microscopy calibration standards". J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 28 (3): ... The effectiveness of carbon dioxide snow cleaning has been demonstrated via light microscopy, particle counting, ...
Quate is known for his work on acoustic and atomic force microscopy. The scanning acoustic microscope, invented with a ... Giessibl, Franz J.; Quate, Calvin F. (2006). "Exploring the nanoworld with atomic force microscopy". Physics Today. 59 (12): 44 ... Binnig, Quate and Gerber were rewarded with the Kavli-Prize in 2016 for developing the Atomic Force Microscope. Quate was a ... Calvin Forrest Quate (December 7, 1923 - July 6, 2019) was one of the inventors of the atomic force microscope. He was a ...
This is called Atomic Force Microscopy or AFM. The purpose is to not cause permanent damage to the cell or provoke cellular ... The force plate is arranged to measure the force actually applied to the injection chip (that is, not including the stiffness ... The magnitude of the force is measured using a force plate on a small number of injections to obtain an estimate of the manual ... A manual force is applied to a center fixture of the injection device, moving the lances through cell membranes and into the ...
Humphris, A. D. L.; Miles, M. J.; Hobbs, J. K. (17 January 2005). "A mechanical microscope: High-speed atomic force microscopy ... Atomic Force Microscopy for Biologists(Imperial College Press, 1999).. ... D. Sarid, Scanning Force Microscopy, (Oxford Series in Optical and Imaging Sciences, Oxford University Press, New York, 1991). ... This idea was enhanced to create the atomic force microscope (AFM), which is a very high-resolution type of scanning probe ...
... and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is the defining instrument for the whole field of ... Its AFM probes cover the full range of Atomic force microscopy and Scanning probe microscopy applications. NanoWorld AFM probes ... Lee, D.; Lee, H.; Lee, N. S.; Kim, K. B.; Seo, Y. (2012). "High-Speed Atomic Force Microscopy with Phase-detection". Current ... Braunsmann, C.; Schäffer, T. E. (2010). "High-speed atomic force microscopy for large scan sizes using small cantilevers". ...
His thesis was entitled "The Study of Contact, Adhesion and Friction at the Atomic Scale by Atomic Force Microscopy". His PhD ... Carpick, Robert William (1997). The study of contact, adhesion and friction at the atomic scale by atomic force microscopy ( ... Ogletree, D. F.; Carpick, R. W.; Salmeron, M. (1996). "Calibration of frictional forces in atomic force microscopy". Review of ... who pioneered the use of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in tribology. During his PhD, Carpick devised a method to obtain ...
Atomic force Microscopy: mechanical forces of the membrane. Micropipette Aspiration: Pressure to cells. 3D simulations ... MSCs also allow plants to distinguish up from down by sensing the force of gravity. MSCs are not pressure-sensitive, but ... Bezanilla, F.; Perozo, E. (2002). "Force and voltage sensors in one structure". Science. 298 (5598): 1562-1563. doi:10.1126/ ... 2002). "Physical principles underlying the transduction of bilayer deformation forces during mechanosensitive channel gating". ...
Advanced microscopy methods, such as atomic force microscopy and electron microscopy, have contributed the most to nanoparticle ... to be observed under atomic force microscopy (AFM). Gold nanoparticles can be used to optimize the biodistribution of drugs to ... "Size measurement of nanoparticles using atomic force microscopy". In McNeil SE (ed.). Characterization of nanoparticles ... Electron microscopy: principles and techniques for biologists (2nd ed.). Jones and Bartlett. October 1998. ISBN 978-0-7637-0192 ...
"Top-Down Nanomechanical Machining of Three-Dimensional Nanostructures by Atomic Force Microscopy". Small. 6 (6): 724-728. doi: ... "Electrostatic nanolithography in polymers using atomic force microscopy". Nature Materials. 2 (7): 468-472. Bibcode:2003NatMa ... Another way of writing such magnetic patterns is field-assisted magnetic force microscopy patterning, where an external ... "Direct three-dimensional nanoscale thermal lithography at high speeds using heated atomic-force microscope cantilevers". ...
2007). "Atomic Force Microscopy of Mammalian Urothelial Surface". Journal of Molecular Biology. 374 (2): 365-373. doi:10.1016/j ... It is also used for immobilization of proteins in western blots and atomic force microscopy for its nonspecific affinity for ...
"Atomic force microscopy of DNA on mica and chemically modified mica". Scanning Microscopy. 6 (4): 911-8. PMID 1295085. ... 87-89 in Atomic Force Microscopy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-957045-4. Weisenhorn, A. L. (1991). "Atomically ... Freshly-cleaved mica surfaces have been used as clean imaging substrates in atomic force microscopy, enabling for example the ... Singh, S; Keller, D. J. (1991). "Atomic force microscopy of supported planar membrane bilayers". Biophysical Journal. 60 (6): ...
Quartz crystal microbalance Atomic force microscopy Eom, Kilho; Park, Harold S.; Yoon, Dae Sung; Kwon, Taeyun (2011). " ...
Atomic force microscopy and polarizing microscopy studies". Nucleic Acids Research. 26 (13): 3228-3234. doi:10.1093/nar/26.13. ... "A convenient method of aligning large DNA molecules on bare mica surfaces for atomic force microscopy". Nucleic Acids Research ... Protein Interaction Studied by Atomic Force Microscopy". Analytical Chemistry. 75 (9): 2112-6. doi:10.1021/ac026182s. PMID ... In the mid-1980s, he successfully designed and developed China's first atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning tunneling ...
Mandrioli M, Manicardi GC (2003). "Analysis of insect holocentric chromosomes by atomic force microscopy". Hereditas. 138 (2): ... an immunological investigation by structured illumination microscopy and scanning electron microscopy". Chromosoma. 124 (4): ... transmission electron microscopy of C. elegans chromosomes revealed that the kinetochore has a trilaminar structure very ... in contrast to monocentric ones in which pulling forces are exerted on a single chromosomal point and chromosome arms trail ...
Kuznetsov, Yurii G.; Daijogo, Sarah; Zhou, Jiashu; Semler, Bert L.; McPherson, A. (March 2005). "Atomic Force Microscopy ... Possible prepore structures have been observed on chromatin before nuclear envelope (NE) formation using electron microscopy. ... at the Wayback Machine Nuclear Pore Complex illustrations Archived 2009-02-07 at the Wayback Machine 3D electron microscopy ...
"Dynamics of podosome stiffness revealed by atomic force microscopy". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... "Bayesian localization microscopy reveals nanoscale podosome dynamics". Nature Methods. 9 (2): 195-200. doi:10.1038/nmeth.1812. ... "Bayesian localization microscopy reveals nanoscale podosome dynamics". Nature Methods. 9 (2): 195-200. doi:10.1038/nmeth.1812. ... possible through the application of Bayesian blinking and bleaching analytics to data gained from standard widefield microscopy ...
doi:10.1002/14356007.a05_489.pub2 Ferrari, L. (2012). "Reaction of clinker surfaces investigated with atomic force microscopy ... its reactions in different electrolytic solutions are investigated by scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscopy ...
Atomic force microscopy can measure mechanical properties of nanotubes. Scanning-electron and atomic-forces microscopy is used ... Indentation atomic force microscopy experiments showed that dry nanotubes on mica gives an average stiffness of 160 N/m and a ... hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic forces. These forces also facilitate the molecular recognition function that the peptides ... Transmission electron microscopy was used. Using computer technology, a molecular model of peptides and their interactions can ...
She then gained a PhD from the University of Nottingham in 2000 for research using atomic force microscopy to investigate ... Atomic force microscopy studies of biomolecular adhesion and mechanics. nottingham.ac.uk (PhD thesis). University of Nottingham ...
Microscopy techniques, including Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM), Atomic-Force Microscope (AFM) and Surface Forces ... "A new force sensor incorporating force‐feedback control for interfacial force microscopy". Review of Scientific Instruments. 62 ... "Atomic Force Microscopy for Better Probing Surface Properties at Nanoscale: Calibration, Design and Application". Joyce, ... "Nanotribology of Diamond Films Studied by Atomic Force Microscopy". MRS Proceedings. 188: 219. doi:10.1557/PROC-188-219. Krim, ...
Atomic force microscopy of Precambrian microscopic fossils Kempe A, Schopf JW, Altermann W, Kudryavtsev AB, Heckl WM ... I was wondering if anyone knows how to force cyanobacteria to produce Hydrogen. I was told all you have to do is sulfur starve ...
In the visual spectrum this is done using Zernike phase-contrast microscopy, differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC ... At the atomic scale, an electromagnetic wave's phase velocity is slowed in a material because the electric field creates a ... an external force or electric field. This effect is called photoelasticity, and can be used to reveal stresses in structures. ... Zernike phase-contrast microscopy introduces a phase shift to the low spatial frequency components of the image with a phase- ...
... characterization methods such as electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, calorimetry, nuclear microscopy (HEFIB), Rutherford ... Atomic structureEdit. This deals with the atoms of the materials, and how they are arranged to give molecules, crystals, etc. ... kinetics is the study of the rates at which systems that are out of equilibrium change under the influence of various forces. ... Materials science examines the structure of materials from the atomic scale, all the way up to the macro scale. ...
"For the 1973 Paris agreement intended to bring about a cease-fire in the Vietnam War and a withdrawal of the American forces"[ ... "for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the ... "for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic ... "who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression's closed rooms"[۱۵] ...
"Fully Automatic Double Beam - Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AA 8000)". Laboratory Equipment. Labindia Analytical ... Microscopy. *Scanning electron microscope (SEM). *Transmission electron microscope (TEM). Thermochemistry. *Calorimeter * ... Force spectroscopy. *Fourier-transform spectroscopy. *Glow-discharge optical emission spectroscopy. *Hadron spectroscopy ...
In late 1969 Elliot Berman joined Exxon's task force which was looking for projects 30 years in the future and in April 1973 he ... Electrons are excited from their current molecular/atomic orbital. Once excited an electron can either dissipate the energy as ... "Characterising degradation of perovskite solar cells through in-situ and operando electron microscopy". Nano Energy. 47: 243- ... Due to heavy government investment, China has become the dominant force in solar cell manufacturing. Chinese companies produced ...
Current Imaging and Electromigration-Induced Splitting of GaN Nanowires As Revealed by Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy» ACS ... G. Dmitri, Y. Bando : «Electron Microscopy of Boron Nitride Nanotubes» Electron Microscopy of Nanotubes (2003) ... D. Golberg, P. M. F. J. Costa, O. Lourie, M. Mitome, X. Bai, K. Kurashima, C. Zhi, C. Tang and Y. Bando : «Direct Force ... D GOLBERG, M MITOME, C MULLER, C TANG, A LEONHARDT and Y BANDO : «Atomic structures of iron-based single-crystalline nanowires ...
In the case of atomic force microscopy, it may also be hard to discriminate the interaction of the tip with the studied ... "Single-molecule force spectroscopy: optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy". Nature Methods. 5 (6): ... optical tweezers and atomic force microscopy. The magnetic interaction is highly specific to the used superparamagnetic ... is the restoring force which is opposed to the stochastic force f. (. t. ). {\displaystyle f(t)}. due to the Brownian motion. ...
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) image of a PTCDA molecule, in which the five six-carbon rings are visible.[1] ... "Chemical structure imaging of a single molecule by atomic force microscopy at room temperature". Nature Communications. 6: 7766 ... but small molecules and even the outlines of individual atoms may be traced in some circumstances by use of an atomic force ... These electron pairs are termed shared pairs or bonding pairs, and the stable balance of attractive and repulsive forces ...
"Towards atomic resolution structural determination by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy". Current Opinion in Structural ... Only proline differs from this basic structure as it contains an unusual ring to the N-end amine group, which forces the CO-NH ... Yuste R (December 2005). "Fluorescence microscopy today". Nature Methods. 2 (12): 902-4. doi:10.1038/nmeth1205-902. PMID ... Cryoelectron microscopy is used to produce lower-resolution structural information about very large protein complexes, ...
"Intermolecular Contrast in Atomic Force Microscopy Images without Intermolecular Bonds". Physical Review Letters. 113 (18): ... "Mapping the force field of a hydrogen-bonded assembly". Nature Communications. 5. Bibcode:2014NatCo...5E3931S. doi:10.1038/ ...
Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. *Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. *Inelastic mean free ... Ponderomotive force. *Princeton field-reversed configuration experiment. *Propulsive Fluid Accumulator, nuclear-powered ... Energy filtered transmission electron microscopy. *Enhancement or quenching of QD, Q-wire and QW radiations ...
... and microscopy-based techniques, such as atomic force microscopy or transmission electron microscopy that are used to identify ... "DNA Base Identification by Electron Microscopy". Microscopy and microanalysis : the official journal of Microscopy Society of ... Microscopy-based techniques[edit]. Main article: Transmission electron microscopy DNA sequencing. This approach directly ... with mechanical forces) large DNA fragments into shorter DNA fragments. The fragmented DNA may then be cloned into a DNA vector ...
a b c d Curtis, Lorenzo J. (2003). Atomic Structure and Lifetimes: A Conceptual Approach. Cambridge University Press. hlm. 74. ... Huang, Kerson (2007). Fundamental Forces of Nature: The Story of Gauge Fields. World Scientific. hlmn. 123-125. ISBN 9812706453 ... "Scanning Electron Microscopy: 1928-1965". University of Cambridge. Diakses tanggal 2009-03-23 ... Born, Max; Blin-Stoyle, Roger John; Radcliffe, J. M. (1989). Atomic Physics. Courier Dover. hlm. 26. ISBN 0486659844. ...
... (AFM) or scanning force microscopy (SFM) is a very-high-resolution type of scanning probe microscopy ( ... Ohnesorge, Frank (1 January 1993). "True atomic resolution by atomic force microscopy through repulsive and attractive forces ... Atomic force microscopy[1] (AFM) is a type of scanning probe microscopy (SPM), with demonstrated resolution on the order of ... Other microscopy technologies[edit]. The major difference between atomic force microscopy and competing technologies such as ...
"Joint Task Force on Adult Radiation Protection. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 19 July 2013.. ... The World Health Organization and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) of the United Nations have also been working in ... "The Reconstruction of a Three-Dimensional Structure from Projections and its Application to Electron Microscopy". Proc. Roy. ... Early estimates of harm from CT are partly based on similar radiation exposures experienced by those present during the atomic ...
The atomic weight is 107.8682(2) u;[18][19] this value is very important because of the importance of silver compounds, ... This is because its filled 4d shell is not very effective in shielding the electrostatic forces of attraction from the nucleus ... Modern Electron Microscopy in Physical and Life Sciences. InTech. doi:10.5772/62288. ISBN 978-953-51-2252-4. .. ... Isotopes of silver range in relative atomic mass from 92.950 u (93Ag) to 129.950 u (130Ag);[22] the primary decay mode before ...
2011). "Radial elasticity of single-walled carbon nanotube measured by atomic force microscopy". Applied Physics Letters. 98 (4 ...
Equating the above expressions for the force applied to the ion yields: (. m. /. Q. ). a. =. E. +. v. ×. B. .. {\displaystyle ( ... An atom probe is an instrument that combines time-of-flight mass spectrometry and field-evaporation microscopy to map the ... Atomic absorption spectrometer. *Flame emission spectrometer. *Gas chromatograph. *High-performance liquid chromatograph ... Lorentz force law);. F. =. m. a. {\displaystyle \mathbf {F} =m\mathbf {a} }. (Newton's second law of motion in the non- ...
The Lorentz force causes further compression of the plasma discharge (see pinch). In addition, a pre-ionization electric or ... Again, different active media - excited atomic nuclei - must be used if yet higher frequency, gamma ray lasers are to be ... X-ray microscopy, phase-resolved medical imaging, material surface research, and weaponry. ...
Atomic force microscopy. *Scanning tunneling microscope. *Electron microscope. *Super resolution microscopy. *Nanotribology ... Bennewitz, R.; Crain, J. N.; Kirakosian, A.; Lin, J.-L.; McChesney, J. L.; Petrovykh, D. Y. & Himpsel, F. J. Atomic scale ...
An Atomic Force and Scanning Electron Microscopy Study". Archives of Histology and Cytology. 65 (1): 37-43. doi:10.1679/aohc. ... functioning to transmit forces. This connection allows tendons to passively modulate forces during locomotion, providing ... The force-extension, or stress-strain curve starts with a very low stiffness region, as the crimp structure straightens and the ... Mechanical forces can be transmitted by focal adhesion sites, integrins, and cell-cell junctions. Changes in the actin ...
"Conducting atomic force microscopy for nanoscale tunnel barrier characterization". Review of Scientific Instruments 75 (8): ... Iver Brevik, V. N. Marachevsky, Kimball A. Milton, Identity of the Van der Waals Force and the Casimir Effect and the ... Smith, R. Angus (1856). Memoir of John Dalton and History of the Atomic Theory. London: H. Bailliere. str. 279. ISBN 1-4021- ... "Observation of Bose-Einstein Condensation in a Dilute Atomic Vapor". Science 269 (5221): 198-201. Bibcode:1995Sci...269..198A. ...
... through the atomic-resolution crystal structures,[bi] fluorescence distance measurements[bj] and cryo-electron microscopy ... slow calcium spikes provide the driving force for a long burst of rapidly emitted sodium spikes. In cardiac muscle cells, on ... Cha A, Snyder GE, Selvin PR, Bezanilla F (1999). "Atomic-scale movement of the voltage-sensing region in a potassium channel ... culminating in the determination of its atomic-resolution structure by X-ray crystallography.[bp] The crystal structures of ...
Physicists in Switzerland and the Netherlands have designed a new form of atomic force microscopy (AFM) capable of revealing ... s. 45-59 i "Basic Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Structure", House, J.E.:Inorganic Chemistry, 2008, Academic Press, Elsevier, ... The Orbitron: a gallery of atomic orbitals and molecular orbitals on the WWW ...
"Interaction of cement model systems with superplasticizers investigated by atomic force microscopy, zeta potential, and ...
"The Asymmetrical Structure of Golgi Apparatus Membranes Revealed by In situ Atomic Force Microscope". PLOS ONE. 8 (4): e61596. ... They can be visualized by electron microscopy or fluorescence microscopy. They are composed of specific proteins, such as ... By the second half of the 19th century, microscopy was still not advanced enough to make a distinction between cell membranes ... Hydrophobic interactions (also known as the hydrophobic effect) are the major driving forces in the formation of lipid bilayers ...
However, advances in microscopy techniques (i.e. electron microscopy (EM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM)) and X-ray ... Collagen contribution to the measure of cardiac performance summarily represents a continuous torsional force opposed to the ... Zylberberg, L.; Laurin, M. (2011). "Analysis of fossil bone organic matrix by transmission electron microscopy". Comptes Rendus ... The D-period of collagen fibrils results in visible 67nm bands when observed by electron microscopy. ...
Atomic and electrostatic force microscopy[edit]. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is mostly used to measure the force between ... The electrostatic force microscopy mode of AFM has been used to detect the surface potential of graphene layers as a function ... Scanning tunneling microscopy[edit]. In scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), a sharp tip scans the surface of a sample in a ... Scanning electron microscopy[edit]. In scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a high-energy electron beam (ranging a few 100 eVs ...
2008). "Detection of nanoscale etch and ash damage to nanoporous methyl silsesquioxane using electrostatic force microscopy". ... For comparison, the atomic radius of an unconstrained silicon is 0.11 nm. Thus about 90 Si atoms would span the channel length ...
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) or scanning force microscopy (SFM) is a very-high-resolution type of scanning probe microscopy ( ... Ohnesorge, Frank (1 January 1993). "True atomic resolution by atomic force microscopy through repulsive and attractive forces ... Atomic force microscopy[1] (AFM) is a type of scanning probe microscopy (SPM), with demonstrated resolution on the order of ... Other microscopy technologies[edit]. The major difference between atomic force microscopy and competing technologies such as ...
... offers many significant advantages over the conventional microscopies used in the biological and medical sciences, its use is ... Although atomic force microscopy (AFM) offers many significant advantages over the conventional microscopies used in the ... Atomic Force Microscopy of Interfacial Monomolecular Films of Pulmonary Surfactant Kaushik Nag, Robert R. Harbottle, Amiyo K. ... In Atomic Force Microscopy: Biomedical Methods and Applications, highly experienced physicians and biologists clearly explain ...
Atomic Force Microscopy News and Research. RSS Atomic force microscopy is a type of scanning probe microscopy used to image the ... Atomic force microscopy reveals nanoscale effects of beverages on tooth enamel KAIST researchers used atomic force microscopy ... High-speed atomic force microscopy reveals diverse amyloid structures and dynamics In the human body, proteins sometimes occur ... These antibodies recognize antigens displayed on foreign cell membranes and thereby recruit attacking forces, called ...
Single molecule atomic force microscopy was used to characterize structure, binding strength (unbinding force), and binding ... Cadherin interaction probed by atomic force microscopy. W. Baumgartner, P. Hinterdorfer, W. Ness, A. Raab, D. Vestweber, H. ... Cadherin interaction probed by atomic force microscopy. W. Baumgartner, P. Hinterdorfer, W. Ness, A. Raab, D. Vestweber, H. ... we applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) (10) as a powerful molecular approach to probe specific trans-interaction forces and ...
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) or scanning force microscopy (SFM) is a very-high-resolution type of scanning probe microscopy ( ... Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a type of scanning probe microscopy (SPM), with demonstrated resolution on the order of ... electrostatic forces, magnetic forces (see magnetic force microscope, MFM), Casimir forces, solvation forces, etc. Along with ... The major difference between atomic force microscopy and competing technologies such as optical microscopy and electron ...
Gallezot P. (1994) Scanning Tunneling and Atomic Force Microscopies. In: Imelik B., Vedrine J.C. (eds) Catalyst ... We will also examine the atomic force microscope (AFM) based on the repulsive force between the atoms of a diamond tip and ... They do not give atomic resolution but do not require a high surface flatness. So far applications in surface science have been ...
Ultrasonic force microscopy, ultrasonic atomic force microscopy, scanning acoustic force microscopy and AFAM all come under the ... Atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM) is a type of scanning probe microscopy (SPM). It is a combination of acoustics and ... Scanning tunneling microscopy Ultrasonic force microscopy Scanning near-field ultrasound holography Scanning probe microscopy ... "Acoustic microscopy by atomic force microscopy". Applied Physics Letters. AIP Publishing. 64 (12): 1493-1495. doi:10.1063/ ...
... in scanning probe techniques Combines basic physical principles and their application to scanning tunneling and atomic force ... Frequency Modulation (FM) Mode in Dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy-Non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy ... Scanning Probe Microscopy. Book Subtitle. Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy. Authors. * Bert ... Scanning Probe Microscopy. Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy. Authors: Voigtlaender, Bert ...
Development and Engineering Center Atomic Force/Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (AFM/STM) Symposium was held on lune 8-10, 1993 ... Atomic Force Microscopy/Scanning Tunneling Microscopy. Editors: Bray, M.T., Cohen, Samuel H., Lightbody, Marcia L. (Eds.) ... Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy Investigations on Organic Material Thin Films and Adsorbate Particles ... Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy Studies of Conducting Polymer Films ...
Filming biomolecular processes by high-speed atomic force microscopy.. Ando T1, Uchihashi T, Scheuring S. ... c) Tip force (blue line) exerted onto the sample when the set point force (black line) is set at a small value. ... b) Tip force (blue line) exerted onto the sample when the set point force (black line) corresponding to the set point amplitude ... a) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of small cantilever. The inset shows an electron-beam-deposited (EBD) tip grown on ...
Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). For thin film and substrate surface characterization, atomic force microscopy is an invaluable ... electric force microscopy (EFM), magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and force modulation modes at room temperature and ambient ... conditions to gain insight into electrostatic force phenomena and magnetic domains at the sample surface. Scans are analyzed ...
Force-Induced Strengthening of the Interaction between Staphylococcus aureus Clumping Factor B and Loricrin Pauline Vitry, ... Binding of Staphylococcus aureus Protein A to von Willebrand Factor Is Regulated by Mechanical Force Staphylococcus aureus ... Emergent Properties in Streptococcus mutans Biofilms Are Controlled through Adhesion Force Sensing by Initial Colonizers A new ... concept in biofilm science is introduced: "adhesion force sensitivity of genes," defining the degree up to which expression of ...
Amplitude Modulation Atomic Force Microscopy / Edition 1. by Ricardo GarciaRicardo Garcia ... Amplitude Modulation Atomic Force Microscopy / Edition 1 available in Hardcover, NOOK Book ... 3.8.1 Tip-Surface Force for a Stiff Material with Surface Adhesion Hysteresis 38 ... 6.5.2 Analytical and Numerical Descriptions in the Presence of Tip-Surface Forces 87 ...
Photoconductive atomic force microscopy (PC-AFM) provides a new way to investigate this effect. In this study, PC-AFM was used ... films were characterised using transmission electron microscopy in combination with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. This ... Keywords: InGaN; photoconductive atomic force microscopy; dislocations InGaN; photoconductive atomic force microscopy; ... Photoconductive atomic force microscopy (PC-AFM) provides a new way to investigate this effect. In this study, PC-AFM was used ...
A course on atomic-force microscopy (AFM) that has been previously taught to undergraduates and graduate students over a ... A course on atomic-force microscopy (AFM) that has been previously taught to undergraduates and graduate students over a ... T An Intensive Short Course on Atomic-Force Microscopy. %S BFY Conference. %D July 22-24 2015. %P 24-27. %C College Park, MD. % ... BFY 2015, atomic-force microscopy, laboratory experiments in physics education, nano-education. Record Cloner:. Metadata ...
3.8.1 Tip-Surface Force for a Stiff Material with Surface Adhesion Hysteresis 38 ... 6.5.2 Analytical and Numerical Descriptions in the Presence of Tip-Surface Forces 87 ...
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY; CONTROL SYSTEMS; MATERIALS TESTING; ... In this paper, we propose a probe-rotating atomic force microscope that enables scan in an arbitrary direction in the contact ... which is difficult to achieve using a conventional atomic force microscope owing to the orientation-dependent probe and the ... International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Country of Publication:. United States. Language:. English. Subject:. ...
... Terry P ... to the apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever to examine this mechanical response. By combining the force ... At some critical compression, a dramatic decrease in the force is observed. This has previously been attributed to Euler ... we are able to observe the mechanical deformation and correlate points in the force curve with phenomena such as slipping and ...
Forces used for imaging (10(-8) newton) had no observable effect on the polymer strands. These results demonstrate that atomic ... Atomic force microscope images of polymerized monolayers of n-(2-aminoethyl)-10,12-tricosadiynamide revealed parallel rows of ...
Researchers have developed a new method to improve the noise associated with nanoscale chemical imaging using atomic force ... microscopy. The improvements will increase the versatility and the precision of the instrument. ... Atomic force microscopy is used to scan the surfaces of materials to generate an image of their height but the technique cannot ... Developing new techniques to improve atomic force microscopy. (Nanowerk News) Researchers at the Beckman Institute for Advanced ...
Chapter 6. Characterisation of Tendons at Different Length Scales Using Atomic Force Microscopy and Polarised Light Microscopy ... Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM): Principles, Modes of Operation and Limitations. Hongshun Yang (Editor). Food Science and ... Atomic Force Microscopy-Based Study on Morphological and Biomechanical Properties of Cell Membranes. (Hua Jin, Jiang Pi, Fen ... Chapter 9. Atomic Force Microscopy Investigations of Articular Cartilage. (Chrystal Quisenberry and Nehal I. Abu-Lail, Gene and ...
... both with high-force sensitivity and high spatial resolution. Force-distance (FD) curve-based atomic force microscopy is a ... Atomic Force Microscopy has the high resolution and force control to directly probe the mechanical properties of a wide range ... Atomic Force Microscopy has the high resolution and force control to directly probe the mechanical properties of a wide range ... Ultima Multiphoton Microscopy. Opterra Confocal Microscopy. Vutara Super Resolution Microscopy. Luxendo Light-Sheet Microscopy ...
Atomic force microscopy of nucleosomes For AFM analysis, the mono-, di- and oligo- nucleosomes were deposited on mica which was ... Recently, the atomic force microscopy has been used for exploring the structure of chromatin (Allen et al 1993 Leuba et al 1998 ... Ultra-high resolution imaging of DNA and nucleosomes using non-contact atomic force microscopy *Emma Davies ... Visualization of chromatin folding patterns in chicken erythrocytes by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cell Research 1997; 7: ...
Here, we prove by atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy, the structural integrity of complex organic ... Electrospray deposition of structurally complex molecules revealed by atomic force microscopy A. Hinaut, T. Meier, R. Pawlak, S ...
The architecture of neutrophil extracellular traps investigated by atomic force microscopy R. H. Pires, S. B. Felix and M. ... In this work, using a combination of fluorescence and atomic force microscopy, we show that NETs appear as a branching filament ... The presence of DNA duplexes could also be inferred from force spectroscopy and the occurrence of force plateaus that ranged ...
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) brought the atomic scale imaging resolution of scanning tunnelling microscopy, a technique that ... Atomic force microscopy. The first image using AFM was reported by Gerd Binnig, Calvin Quate and Christoph Gerber in 1986, five ... High-sensitivity atomic force microscopy opens up for photosensitive materials. Kakuma, South Korea , Posted on August 7th, ... Atomic force microscopes monitor the forces at play between a surface and a tip attached to a cantilever to extract information ...
3 Ways Industrial Atomic Force Microscopy Is Entirely Attainable. Opis:. Atomic force microscopy has traditionally provided ... In this webinar, you will learn how atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides commercial manufacturers research-grade technology ... Understand the advances in AFM and the immense value atomic force microscopy has provided for semiconductor applications, ... Learn the current technologies, measurements and applications used in commercial atomic force microscopy. ...
  • There are several types of scanning microscopy including scanning probe microscopy (which includes AFM, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and near-field scanning optical microscope (SNOM/NSOM), STED microscopy (STED), and scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical AFM , EC-AFM). (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers in Switzerland have tested an atomic force microscope with an electrically insulated conductive tip. (nanotech-now.com)
  • In this paper, we propose a probe-rotating atomic force microscope that enables scan in an arbitrary direction in the contact imaging mode, which is difficult to achieve using a conventional atomic force microscope owing to the orientation-dependent probe and the inability to rotate the probe head. (osti.gov)
  • The microscopy payload comprises an AFM and Optical Microscope (OM) to which samples are delivered by a robot arm. (bl.uk)
  • To manipulate the fibrin fibers, which are about 100 nm in diameter, they also simultaneously used an atomic force microscope from Veeco Instruments Inc. of Woodbury, N.Y. (photonics.com)
  • They used the sharp needle attached to the cantilever of the atomic force microscope to pull on a fiber, stretching it as far sideways as possible. (photonics.com)
  • We have attached individual plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to the apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever to examine this mechanical response. (hindawi.com)
  • Atomic force microscope images of polymerized monolayers of n-(2-aminoethyl)-10,12-tricosadiynamide revealed parallel rows of molecules with a side-by-side spacing of approximately equal to 0.5 nanometer. (sciencemag.org)
  • These results demonstrate that atomic force microscope images can be obtained for an organic system. (sciencemag.org)
  • Since the original publication of Noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy in 2002, the noncontact atomic force microscope (NC-AFM) has achieved remarkable progress. (springer.com)
  • Here we report a real-space identification of the formation of hydrogen bonding between molecules adsorbed on metal substrate using a non-contact atomic force microscope (nc-AFM). (aps.org)
  • 2. A computer program as in claim 1 wherein the instructions for performing a scan of the write pole include instructions for using an atomic force microscope to perform a scan of the write pole. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In simple terms, the atomic force microscope works by scanning a sharp probe over the surface of a sample in a raster pattern. (doitpoms.ac.uk)
  • Ando T, Kodera N, Takai E, Maruyama D, Saito K, Toda A (2001) A high-speed atomic force microscope for studying biological macromolecules. (springer.com)
  • Bezanilla M, Drake B, Nudler E, Kashlev M, Hansma PK, Hansma HG (1994) Motion and enzymatic degradation of DNA in the atomic force microscope. (springer.com)
  • Binnig G, Quate CF, Gerber C (1986) Atomic force microscope. (springer.com)
  • Colom A, Casuso I, Rico F, Scheuring S (2013) A hybrid high-speed atomic force-optical microscope for visualizing single membrane proteins on eukaryotic cells. (springer.com)
  • In this thesis properties and influence of modification techniques of porous silicon were studied by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). (doria.fi)
  • The Perkins group continues to extend the performance of its unique Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) technology, revealing for the first time a dozen new short-lived intermediate states in the folding and unfolding of a membrane protein that controls the exchange of chemicals and ions into and out of living cells. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) is also explained in detail. (circuitstoday.com)
  • In Nanotechnology, the main scanning probes that have been used from the beginning are the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM). (circuitstoday.com)
  • The detailed working of an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is shown in the figure below. (circuitstoday.com)
  • A new scanner design for a high-speed atomic force microscope (AFM) is presented and discussed in terms of modeling and control. (epfl.ch)
  • The focus of this contribution is on the vertical positioning direction of the scanner, being the crucial axis of motion with the highest bandwidth and precision requirements for gentle imaging with the atomic force microscope. (epfl.ch)
  • The charged tip of an atomic force microscope interacts with surface charges and the space charge layer on surfaces such as membranes. (stanford.edu)
  • In order to more effectively use an atomic force microscope for the investigation of fuel cell membranes for quantitative imaging, a model of the mechanical and electrical dynamics of the probe tip will be developed. (stanford.edu)
  • The adhesion and friction between individual nanotubes was investigated in ambient using a dynamic atomic force microscope (AFM) operating in force-calibration mode to capture force-versus-distance curves. (osu.edu)
  • The atomic force microscope can provide information on the atomic-level frictional properties of surfaces, but reproducible quantitative measurements are difficult to obtain. (upenn.edu)
  • The adsorptive on pure iron and copper surfaces was investigated with angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) and atomic force microscope (AFM). (scientific.net)
  • Abstract: The growth morphology and structure of deposits during the initial stages of amorphous Ni-P electrodeposition was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). (scientific.net)
  • A cantilever beam used in an Atomic Force Microscope is optimized with respect to two different objectives. (dtu.dk)
  • Biochemistry 36 , 461 (1997)], and a new small-cantilever atomic force microscope (AFM) imaged DNA degradation by DNase I at rates as fast as two seconds per image. (jbsdonline.com)
  • For thin film and substrate surface characterization, atomic force microscopy is an invaluable technique. (fz-juelich.de)
  • A fully functioning test-bed of the flight microscopy setup within an environmental chamber to simulate Mars conditions was assembled at Imperial College, enabling characterization of the microscopes. (bl.uk)
  • The study was published in Nature Communications ( 'Closed-Loop Atomic Force Microscopy-Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging for Nanoscale Molecular Characterization' ). (nanowerk.com)
  • The TriboScope seamlessly interfaces with Atomic Force Microscopes to deliver quantitative and repeatable mechanical and tribological characterization over the nanometer-to-micrometer length scales. (bruker.com)
  • Atomic force microscopy and hydrodynamic characterization of the adhesion of staphylococcus aureus to hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrata at different pH values. (ebscohost.com)
  • These results and technologies are now helping evolve NC-AFM toward practical tools for characterization and manipulation of individual atoms/molecules and nanostructures with atomic/subatomic resolution. (springer.com)
  • Presented here is a microfluidic platform for the non-destructive ex vivo microscale mechanical characterization of mammalian tissue samples by atomic force microscopy (AFM). (mdpi.com)
  • Cady, N.C. Microfluidic Platform for the Elastic Characterization of Mouse Submandibular Glands by Atomic Force Microscopy. (mdpi.com)
  • Alexandre Dazzi, Craig B. Prater, Qichi Hu, D. Bruce Chase, John F. Rabolt, and Curtis Marcott, "AFM-IR: Combining Atomic Force Microscopy and Infrared Spectroscopy for Nanoscale Chemical Characterization," Appl. (osapublishing.org)
  • Regina Soufli, Sherry L. Baker, David L. Windt, Eric M. Gullikson, Jeff C. Robinson, William A. Podgorski, and Leon Golub, "Atomic force microscopy characterization of Zerodur mirror substrates for the extreme ultraviolet telescopes aboard NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory," Appl. (osapublishing.org)
  • Atomic force microscopy ( AFM ) or scanning force microscopy ( SFM ) is a very-high-resolution type of scanning probe microscopy (SPM), with demonstrated resolution on the order of fractions of a nanometer , more than 1000 times better than the optical diffraction-limit . (wikipedia.org)
  • In force measurement, AFMs can be used to measure the forces between the probe and the sample as a function of their mutual separation. (wikipedia.org)
  • For imaging, the reaction of the probe to the forces that the sample imposes on it can be used to form an image of the three-dimensional shape (topography) of a sample surface at a high resolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of this include atomic manipulation, scanning probe lithography and local stimulation of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • G.S. Pingali and R. Jain, Imaging models and surface recovery methods for scanning probe microscopy, in "Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Applications of Computer Vision," Palm Springs, CA, 282 (1992). (springer.com)
  • G.S. Pingali and R. Jain, Probe shape recovery in scanning probe microscopy, in "Proceeding of the MVA '82 IAPR Conference on Machine Vision Applications," Tokyo, Japan, 639 (1992). (springer.com)
  • Atomic force microscopy is a type of scanning probe microscopy used to image the surface of a substance, but at an atomic level. (news-medical.net)
  • Atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM) is a type of scanning probe microscopy (SPM). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the present study, we applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) ( 10 ) as a powerful molecular approach to probe specific trans-interaction forces and conformational changes of recombinant VE-cadherin strand dimers in aqueous physiological conditions ( 11 - 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • The various topics inc1uded application of AFM/STM in material sciences, polymers, physics, biology and biotechnology, along with recent developments inc1uding new probe microscopies and frontiers in this exciting area. (springer.com)
  • The meeting's format was designed to encourage communication between members of the general scientific community and those individuals who are at the cutting edge of AFM, STM and other probe microscopies. (springer.com)
  • The Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) system has the ability to probe samples at the nanometer scale, owing to its ability in sensing the sample surface to resolve force interaction at the pico-Newton level [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is an imaging technique where information is gathered by 'touching' the surface with a mechanical probe. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • When the probe tip is brought near the surface, forces between tip and sample lead to a deflection of the cantilever. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • Submicron probe of polymer adhesion with atomic force microscopy: Dependence on topography and. (ebscohost.com)
  • The device was designed to physically hold a tissue sample in a dynamically controllable fluid environment while allowing access by an AFM probe operating in force spectroscopy mode to perform mechanical testing. (mdpi.com)
  • We investigated lateral and normal forces between polymer brush-modified substrates and a silica colloidal probe by atomic force microscopy (AFM). (ufl.edu)
  • Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is part of the family of techniques known as scanning probe microscopy, and has proved itself extremely valuable and versatile as an investigative tool. (doitpoms.ac.uk)
  • Here, I present a brief history of HS-AFM development, describe the current state of HS-AFM, and then discuss which new biological scanning probe microscopy techniques will be coming up next. (springer.com)
  • Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) were utilized for detailed information about surface properties of the samples. (doria.fi)
  • We have investigated the structure of single-stranded (ss) DNA self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold by combining peak force tapping, Kelvin probe and phase contrast atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. (csic.es)
  • Scanning Probe Microscopy is a technique used to produce images of surfaces using mechanical probes. (selectscience.net)
  • This nonlinear force is then used in a macroscopic equation, describing the response of a damped harmonic oscillator, to predict the amplitude response of a nanotube AFM probe. (caltech.edu)
  • Direct imaging of polycyclic aromatic molecules with a subatomic resolution has recently been achieved with noncontact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM). (aps.org)
  • KAIST researchers used atomic force microscopy to quantitatively evaluate how acidic and sugary drinks affect human tooth enamel at the nanoscale level. (news-medical.net)
  • To image the ultrastructure of the anterior lens capsule at the nanoscale level using atomic force microscopy (AFM). (molvis.org)
  • Nanowerk News ) Researchers at the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology have developed a new method to improve the detection ability of nanoscale chemical imaging using atomic force microscopy . (nanowerk.com)
  • These probes are used in PeakForce Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy (PeakForce SECM) for simultaneous capture of topography, conductivity, and quantitative nanomechanical information at the nanoscale, and electrochemical properties at sub-100 nm resolution. (bruker.com)
  • This solution also leverages Bruker's exclusive Peak Force Tapping technology to provide the easiest available fluid imaging with ScanAsyst and to track in situ nanoscale electrode changes during a charging cycle with high-resolution PeakForce QNM property mapping. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Polymer and life science applications of a technique that combines atomic force microscopy (AFM) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy to obtain nanoscale IR spectra and images are reviewed. (osapublishing.org)
  • The nanoscale visualization and control of domain structure with atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the ferroelectric crystal guanidinium aluminum sulfate hexahydrate is reported. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • This can be applied to perform force spectroscopy , to measure the mechanical properties of the sample, such as the sample's Young's modulus , a measure of stiffness. (wikipedia.org)
  • To further understand this phenomenon, V-pit cross sections from the 9% and 15% films were characterised using transmission electron microscopy in combination with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. (mdpi.com)
  • In these single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) experiments, the AFM tip is continuously approached to and retracted from the biological sample, while monitoring the interaction force. (nih.gov)
  • The presence of DNA duplexes could also be inferred from force spectroscopy and the occurrence of force plateaus that ranged from ∼65 pN to 300 pN. (rsc.org)
  • Dufrene YF, Evans E, Engel A, Helenius J, Gaub HE, Müller DJ (2011) Five challenges to bringing single-molecule force spectroscopy into the living cell. (springer.com)
  • Triblock copolymers of the type poly(ethylene oxide-tetrahydrofuran-ethylene oxide) have been adsorbed to the silica-water interface and studied by atomic force microscopy and time resolved spectroscopy. (lu.se)
  • Comprehensive solution for advanced experiments which combine AFM and optical spectroscopy such as TERS, Aperture SNOM and sSNOM, confocal microscopy and nano manipulation in optical fields. (jpk.com)
  • This is a final report summarizing a one-year effort to define the micro-mechanisms of corrosion fatigue of 2024-T3 sheet aluminum alloy in low pH environments using in-situ and ex-situ instrumentation, e. g., atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy, and Auger spectroscopy. (dtic.mil)
  • Studies of polymers near surfaces by conventional transmission electron microscopy (CTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and high resolution electron microscopy (HREM) have provided local information about the reorganization of macromolecules near constraining surfaces. (springer.com)
  • The obtained force-extension curves provide key insight into the molecular elasticity and localization of single molecules, either on isolated systems or on cellular surfaces. (nih.gov)
  • Atomic force microscopy is used to scan the surfaces of materials to generate an image of their height but the technique cannot easily identify the molecular composition. (nanowerk.com)
  • Atomic-force microscopy (AFM) is considered to be one of the most powerful and non-destructive techniques to characterize surfaces with sub-nanometer scale resolution. (anton-paar.com)
  • Atomic force microscopy (AFM) brought the atomic scale imaging resolution of scanning tunnelling microscopy, a technique that won the Nobel Prize in Physics, to non-conducting surfaces. (nanotech-now.com)
  • While making measurements and visualizing surfaces on an atomic scale, mechanical precision and attention to detail is crucial. (anton-paar.com)
  • Mineral surfaces are also studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). (onepetro.org)
  • Atomic force microscopes are used for imaging small-scale surfaces, but the dynamics of the related measurements are not well defined. (stanford.edu)
  • This edition updates the survey of the many rapidly developing subjects concerning the mapping of a variety of forces across surfaces, including basic theory, instrumentation, and applications. (textbookx.com)
  • In this context, recent reports have claimed successful exploitation of the capacity of atomic force microscopy (AFM) for imaging of extremely deformable (even liquid) surfaces under ambient conditions to detect bacterial capsules in the form of tiny amounts of liquid-like substances around bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a method for probing interactions at a molecular level, and can measure (for example) the interaction between substrate and surfaces at a nm-scale. (open.ac.uk)
  • Frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM) is a powerful tool for investigating atomic- and molecular-scale structures of sample surfaces in various environments [1] . (beilstein-journals.org)
  • The major difference between atomic force microscopy and competing technologies such as optical microscopy and electron microscopy is that AFM does not use lenses or beam irradiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • a) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of small cantilever. (nih.gov)
  • Results: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evaluation showed no significant differences among test reagents in smear layer removal. (scirp.org)
  • Researchers have now visualized the process with cryo-electron microscopy. (labroots.com)
  • Collagen type I displays a typical banding periodicity of 67 nm when visualized by atomic force or transmission electron microscopy imaging. (epfl.ch)
  • The shell of Micropilina arntzi (Mollusca: Monoplacophora), a primitive molluscan class, was examined by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) at low voltage and atomic force microscopy (AFM). (scanning-fams.org)
  • Despite their extraordinary biological/biomedical importance, their extremely delicate nature can make them elusive to detection/imaging by high-resolution techniques such as electron microscopy, as they are poorly preserved during the dehydration step ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • A phase-locked loop (PLL) circuit is the central component of frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM). (beilstein-journals.org)
  • Monitoring higher harmonics of the drive frequency in amplitude-modulation atomic force microscopy can give extra information on local surface properties. (ebscohost.com)
  • have done a proteomic analysis of PD vesicles and identified 1341 proteins that putatively belong to the PD (five of them were confirmed to be located inside the PD by confocal microscopy experiments), including glycosylphosphatidyl inositol (GPI)-anchored proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • We have investigated whether raft lipids of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells play any role in microvilli maintenance using a combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and laser scanning confocal microscopy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Applications of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) are ubiquitous in all bioscience areas that involve molecules (nucleic acids, lipids, proteins…), cells (living cells in culture, bacteria…), tissues (bone, cartilage, dentine, cornea…), polymers (biopolymers such as collagen) and other materials. (nanohub.org)
  • Dr. Revenko received two Ph.D.s from Claude Bernard University, Lyon, France, one in 1998 on Applications of Atomic Force Microscopy in Biology and the other in 1994 on the Visualization of Type I Collagen Fibers. (nanohub.org)
  • To this end, they used atomic force microscopes made by Veeco Instruments Inc. of Santa Barbara, Calif., and by JPK Nanowizard AG of Berlin to record topologic (height) and error signal (deflection) images of native bovine digital tendon and rat-tail (or flexor digitalis) tendon collagen fibrils. (photonics.com)
  • Atomic force microscopes monitor the forces at play between a surface and a tip attached to a cantilever to extract information about the surface topography and composition. (nanotech-now.com)
  • Our method is compatible with commercial atomic force microscopes and could be used to analyse mechanical changes in tumours, cells and biofilm formation with sub-10 nm detail. (nih.gov)
  • Bruker releases electrochemical atomic force microscopy solutions for Li battery research. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Scientific instrument provider Bruker (NASDAQ: BRKR) has released the first turnkey solution for Li battery electrochemical atomic force microscopy (EC-AFM) research. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • As the field of scanning force microscopy has matured, a gradual shift in gears has taken place, from activities involving the development of instruments to their use as probes in a large rainbow of disciplines. (textbookx.com)
  • Pedersen, NL 2000, ' Design of cantilever probes for Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) ', Engineering Optimization , vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 373-392. (dtu.dk)
  • Researchers combined fluorescence and atomic force microscopy to view blood clot fibers' elasticity and extensibility. (photonics.com)
  • In this work, using a combination of fluorescence and atomic force microscopy, we show that NETs appear as a branching filament network that results in a substantially organized porous structure with openings with 0.03 ± 0.04 μm 2 on average and thus in the size range of small pathogens. (rsc.org)
  • Here, we used single-molecule atomic force microscopy (AFM) combined with fluorescence microscopy to image the distribution of wall teichoic acids (WTAs) in. (wur.nl)
  • The interactions of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with these structures were also monitored by fluorescence microscopy. (spie.org)
  • All NanoWizard® systems provide true integration of AFM with optical microscopy by means of our patented DirectOverlay™ feature for precise and easy work, and comes with a large variety of options and accessories. (jpk.com)
  • For opaque samples, combining upright optical microscopy with AFM for surface science and life science. (jpk.com)
  • Types of SPM include atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and near field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM). (selectscience.net)
  • Some authors have even suggested that the capsules might be present in the form of nanometer-thick surface envelopes, which would also make them elusive to detection by optical microscopy or even biochemical methods such as India ink staining ( 15 ). (asm.org)
  • The advent of atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides a powerful tool for quantifying the mechanical properties of single living cells in aqueous conditions. (embs.org)
  • In this tutorial review, we describe the principle of such SMFS experiments, and we survey remarkable breakthroughs made in manipulating single polysaccharides and proteins, including understanding the conformational properties of sugars and controlling them by force, measuring the molecular elasticity of mechanical proteins, unfolding and refolding individual proteins, probing protein-ligand interactions, and tuning enzymatic reactions by force. (nih.gov)
  • A popular technique for characterizing the mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes is to apply a one-dimension axial compression and measure its response to the compressive force. (hindawi.com)
  • By combining the force measurements and simultaneous video microscopy, we are able to observe the mechanical deformation and correlate points in the force curve with phenomena such as slipping and bending. (hindawi.com)
  • Analysis of the mechanical response must therefore be interpreted in terms of bending and/or slipping of a tube compressed by an off-normal force. (hindawi.com)
  • Some of the common measurements that are taken are chemical bonding, Van der Waals force, mechanical contact force, capillary forces, Â Casimir forces, and so on. (circuitstoday.com)
  • Such sensor proteins either bind specific ligands (e.g. hormones, adhesion molecules, etc.) or detect mechanical forces and related physical stimuli. (biologists.org)
  • In the first data will be presented using atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the mechanical properties of the cell wall of the gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus through the cell cycle. (cam.ac.uk)
  • electric force microscopy (EFM), magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and force modulation modes at room temperature and ambient conditions to gain insight into electrostatic force phenomena and magnetic domains at the sample surface. (fz-juelich.de)
  • [2] True atomic resolution of the silicon 7x7 surface - the atomic images of this surface obtained by STM had convinced the scientific community of the spectacular spatial resolution of scanning tunneling microscopy - had to wait a little longer before it was shown by Giessibl. (wikipedia.org)
  • In: Cohen S.H., Bray M.T., Lightbody M.L. (eds) Atomic Force Microscopy/Scanning Tunneling Microscopy. (springer.com)
  • Ultrasonic force microscopy, ultrasonic atomic force microscopy, scanning acoustic force microscopy and AFAM all come under the branch of near-field microscopy techniques called contact resonance force microscopy (CRFM). (wikipedia.org)
  • This book explains the operating principles of atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. (springer.com)
  • What I particularly like, is the fact that it discusses common artefacts occurring in scanning tunneling microscopy. (springer.com)
  • The first U. S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center Atomic Force/Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (AFM/STM) Symposium was held on lune 8-10, 1993 in Natick, Massachusetts. (springer.com)
  • Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Imaging of Biomolecules: I. Tubulin in Microtubules and Monolayers II. (springer.com)
  • These models incorporate the forces from the AFM cantilever during scanning, particle-substrate adhesion and particle-tip adhesion. (bl.uk)
  • Here, we will show the structure of the nucleosome core particle of chromatin in chicken erythrocytes examined with tapping-mode scanning force microscopy. (nature.com)
  • Here, we prove by atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy, the structural integrity of complex organic molecules deposited onto an Au(111) surface using electrospray ionisation deposition. (rsc.org)
  • By applying high-speed, non-contact scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM), we resolved morphodynamics in spread human platelets and observed wave-like movements of the lamellipodium and dynamic protrusions on the platelet body. (berkeley.edu)
  • Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is also known as Scanning force microscopy (SFM). (circuitstoday.com)
  • Figure 2: Hypothetical example of atomic force microscopy data (A) obtained from scanning a charge array (B). (stanford.edu)
  • We have looked for membrane motions in an electric field using atomic (or scanning) force microscopy (AFM) with the intent of studying voltage-dependent conformational changes of ion channels. (rupress.org)
  • High interest and major advances in the technology of scanning force microscopy that have taken place since the 1991 release has made this Revised Edition necessary. (textbookx.com)
  • The tenth anniversary of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, celebrated at the Sixth International Conference on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy in Interlaken, Switzerland August 12-16, 1991, with more than one thousand participants, produced three volumes of papers that attest to the ever-growing interest in this technology. (textbookx.com)
  • It should also be noted that several scanning force microscopy related reviews have appeared, some of which present detailed information on specialized topics. (textbookx.com)
  • We will explore true force and displacement feedback control modes and cover applications from soft polymers to hard ceramics. (bruker.com)
  • The AFM has three major abilities: force measurement, topographic imaging, and manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media The AFM has three major abilities: force measurement, topographic imaging, and manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • We consider the effect of imaging force to establish a statistically reproducible method to compare CAFM current maps. (nist.gov)
  • Forces used for imaging (10(-8) newton) had no observable effect on the polymer strands. (sciencemag.org)
  • B) Schematic drawing of MVs observation using atomic force microscopy phase imaging. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • C) Mapping of MVs' physical properties using atomic force microscopy phase imaging. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • The researchers applied phase imaging atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study the physical properties of MVs produced by E. coli , P. aeruginosa , P. denitrificans and B. subtilis . (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • Lee, Alex J., Sakai, Yuki, and Chelikowsky, James R.. Simulating contrast inversion in atomic force microscopy imaging with real-space pseudopotentials . (osti.gov)
  • Using force clamp force mapping (FCFM), an atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging mode that combines force-distance curves with an added force clamp phase, we observed that the creep behavior of living cells conforms to a power-law material model. (berkeley.edu)
  • In this work, atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the tapping mode of imaging has been employed to investigate the attachment of bacteria onto a structured surface patterned with different hydrophilic and hydrophobic areas. (spie.org)
  • The investigators will examine the properties of solid polymer membranes through modeling of ion transport, impedance, diffusion and atomic force microscopy imaging. (stanford.edu)
  • High-resolution imaging of bacterial capsules by microscopy is of paramount importance in microbiology due to their role in pathogenesis. (asm.org)
  • Using this setup, we performed FM-AFM imaging of calcite dissolution in water at 0.5 s/frame with true atomic resolution. (beilstein-journals.org)
  • The high-speed and high-resolution imaging capabilities of the proposed design will enable a wide range of studies to be conducted on various atomic-scale dynamic phenomena at solid-liquid interfaces. (beilstein-journals.org)
  • Furthermore, recent advances in FM-AFM have enabled atom manipulation and identification at room temperature [6,7] , as well as atomic-scale imaging of intramolecular structures at low temperatures [8] . (beilstein-journals.org)
  • So far, this method has been utilized for atomic-resolution imaging of inorganic crystals [9-14] and subnanometer-scale imaging of biomolecules [15-17] . (beilstein-journals.org)
  • Although FM-AFM enables atomic-scale measurements to be performed in vacuum and in liquids, its imaging speed is relatively slow (ca. 1 min/frame). (beilstein-journals.org)
  • It also permits force measurements such as protein folding or protein adhesion on the picoNewton scale. (nanohub.org)
  • In this webinar, you will learn how atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides commercial manufacturers research-grade technology that is significantly streamlined to produce accurate measurements. (anton-paar.com)
  • Learn the current technologies, measurements and applications used in commercial atomic force microscopy. (anton-paar.com)
  • NanoTracker™ & NanoWizard® - Powerful combination of Optical Tweezers & AFM in one system for force measurements in 2D and 3D from 500fN to 10nN. (jpk.com)
  • A hypothetical example comparing atomic force microscopy measurements and the actual geometry of a circular array of charges is presented in Figure 2. (stanford.edu)
  • We also discuss a number of specific issues related to force and friction measurements using optical lever deflection sensing. (upenn.edu)
  • AFM measurements were made by using functionalized tips in force mode. (open.ac.uk)
  • In Atomic Force Microscopy: Biomedical Methods and Applications, highly experienced physicians and biologists clearly explain the basic technical knowledge needed to use AFM and demonstrate its multifarious uses in biomedicine and the life sciences. (springer.com)
  • To demonstrate the applicability of their approach they measured cantilever resonance curves and the atomic scale topography of a mica surface in phosphate buffered saline solution with various customized cantilevers including those with a megahertz-order resonance frequency. (nanotech-now.com)
  • This device permits to visualize the surface topography and to study properties of the samples on atomic scale, which was necessary for recent investigation. (doria.fi)
  • The past years have witnessed remarkable advances in our use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) for stretching single biomolecules, thereby contributing to answering many outstanding questions in biophysics and chemical biology. (nih.gov)
  • Ando T (2017a) Directly watching biomolecules in action by high-speed atomic force microscopy. (springer.com)
  • Single molecule atomic force microscopy was used to characterize structure, binding strength (unbinding force), and binding kinetics of a classical cadherin, vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, secreted by transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells as cis-dimerized full-length external domain fused to Fc-portion of human IgG. (pnas.org)
  • NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - A study published online earlier this month in the Journal of the American Chemical Society provided details on a proposed single-molecule sequencing approach that brings together sequencing-by-synthesis with atomic force microscopy (AFM). (genomeweb.com)
  • By employing new, efficient algorithms based on real space pseudopotentials, we calculate the forces between the nc-AFM tip and specimen. (aps.org)
  • Although the initial publication about the atomic force microscopy by Binnig, Quate and Gerber in 1986 speculated about the possibility of achieving atomic resolution, profound experimental challenges needed to be overcome before atomic resolution of defects and step edges in ambient (liquid) conditions was demonstrated in 1993 by Ohnesorge and Binnig. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition the normal and lateral force interactions between mono- and bilayers of L-a-dioleoyl lecithin coadsorbed at the solid-aqueous interface with n-dodecyl-b-maltoside surfactant have been investigated. (lu.se)
  • The surface aggregate structures of the zwitterionic surfactant dodecyldimethylammoniopropanesulfonate, (DDAPS) and a series of nonionic polyoxyethlylene glycol alkyl ethers (C10E5, C12E5, C12E8, C10E6, C14E6 and C16E6) have been determined by Atomic Force Microscopy on solids of different hydrophobicity. (lu.se)
  • Are the Soft, Liquid-Like Structures Detected around Bacteria by Ambient Dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy Capsules? (asm.org)
  • The Phoenix Mars Lander includes a Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyser (MECA) instrument for the study of dust and regolith at the Martian arctic. (bl.uk)
  • Here, we present a dynamic atomic force microscopy method to map quantitatively the nanomechanical properties of live cells with a throughput (measured in pixels/minute) that is ∼10-1,000 times higher than that achieved with quasi-static atomic force microscopy techniques. (nih.gov)
  • The interaction between nanotubes altered the oscillation amplitude, phase lag, and average deflection of AFM cantilever, from which the interacting forces between nanotubes are quantitatively derived. (osu.edu)
  • Amplitude and phase response curves of a cantilever as a function of excitation frequency when the cantilever is freely oscillating (solid line) and when the cantilever tip is influenced by negative force gradient (repulsive regime of tip-sample interaction) without energy dissipation (broken line). (nih.gov)
  • This research presented an accurate and efficient contour length estimation method developed for DNA digital curves acquired from Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) images. (hindawi.com)
  • Martin D.C., Ojeda J.R., Anderson J.P., Pingali G. (1994) Atomic Force Microscopy of Polymer Droplets. (springer.com)
  • Atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM) was originally developed by Rabe and Arnold from the Fraunhofer Institute of Nondestructive Testing in 1994. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nanowerk News ) ETH Zurich, Atomic Force F&E GmbH and Asylum Research announce the third Euro AFM Forum 2011 to be held in Zurich, Switzerland on September 7 to 9 in cooperation with Prof. Ralph Spolenak at the campus Science City (H nggerberg) of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETH Z rich). (nanowerk.com)
  • This webinar is cohosted by Bruker's Dr. Teddy Huang and Prof. Fengtao Fan from the Chinese Academy of Sciences, who pioneered spatially-resolved surface photovoltage microscopy for solar fuels research using the open-stage flexibility of the Dimension AFM platform. (bruker.com)
  • This Thematic Series presents the latest research results in atomic force microscopy. (beilstein-journals.org)
  • A new concept in biofilm science is introduced: "adhesion force sensitivity of genes," defining the degree up to which expression of different genes in adhering bacteria is controlled by the environmental adhesion forces they experience. (asm.org)
  • By offering industrial users high accuracy and powerful visualization, Tosca series AFMs have made commercial atomic force microscopy more accessible and useful than ever before. (anton-paar.com)
  • This new microscopy tool has been successfully applied to a variety of proteins, from motor proteins to membrane proteins, antibodies, enzymes, and even to intrinsically disordered proteins. (springer.com)
  • Colom A, Casuso I, Boudier T, Scheuring S (2012) High-speed atomic force microscopy: cooperative adhesion and dynamic equilibrium of junctional microdomain membrane proteins. (springer.com)
  • By using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and mass spectrometry (MS) of purified PD vesicles it is possible to determine the presence of lipid rafts, specific bound proteins and the lipidomic profile of the PD under physiological conditions and after changing transport permeability. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the past years, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has revolutionized the way in which biologists analyze cell surface proteins to molecular resolution. (biologists.org)
  • There is growing evidence that the force-induced deformation of such proteins has an important role in modulating their cellular function. (biologists.org)
  • The article highlights a study which describes the use of new high-speed atomic force microscopy (AFM) approach to follow the kinetics of antimicrobial peptide activity on a bacterial cell surface. (ebscohost.com)
  • In a Biophysical Journal paper published online Oct. 6, the University College London researchers reported a study in which they used atomic force microscopy to confirm the ropelike model of fibril periodicity. (photonics.com)
  • In-situ atomic force microscopy study of beta-amyloid fibrillization. (nih.gov)
  • We report the use of atomic force microscopy to observe the initial stages of beta-amyloid fibrillization in situ. (nih.gov)
  • Using atomic force microscopy, we investigated aggregation of amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ1-42) on model phospholipid membranes as a function of time and membrane composition. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • We developed a combination of AFM with traction force microscopy (TFM) for simultaneous measurement of viscoelastic material properties and traction forces of single living cells. (berkeley.edu)
  • 24 download atomic force microscopy in cell biology 2002 of the short writer in their Grass for State Duma using to manioc social disciplines. (lattery.com)
  • The download atomic force microscopy in cell biology 2002 of 2007 started what both suitable and historical jurisdictions created as an not established inference between human Jews of the concepts that are up a free portion of Putin's economic religiosity. (lattery.com)
  • 1 download atomic force microscopy in cell biology 2002), regarding it the spectral largest garden in the genius in relationship organization. (lattery.com)
  • Here we use conducting atomic force microscopy (CAFM) to characterize aluminum oxide (AlOx)barriers to be used in Josephson-junction qubits. (nist.gov)
  • Although atomic force microscopy (AFM) offers many significant advantages over the conventional microscopies used in the biological and medical sciences, its use is more familiar to physicists and engineers than to biomedical researchers. (springer.com)
  • Researchers have used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to uncover the morphology of collagen fibrils - as seen in the optical image in (a). (photonics.com)
  • Ludger Weisser, General Manager of Atomic Force F&E commented, "We are very pleased to welcome researchers to the EuroForum at ETH Zurich. (nanowerk.com)
  • Understand the advances in AFM and the immense value atomic force microscopy has provided for semiconductor applications, polymer science, and other applications at the nano scale. (anton-paar.com)
  • Thus, even with advanced AFM techniques, it has been difficult to visualize atomic-scale processes occurring at time scales less than about 1 min. (beilstein-journals.org)
  • Filming biomolecular processes by high-speed atomic force microscopy. (nih.gov)
  • Ando T, Uchihashi T, Fukuma T (2008) High-speed atomic force microscopy for nano-visualization of dynamic biomolecular processes. (springer.com)
  • Ando T, Uchihashi T, Scheuring S (2014) Filming biomolecular processes by high-speed atomic force microscopy. (springer.com)
  • Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is now emerging as a powerful technique for characterizing local surface structure but AFM is only reliable when used in conjunction with these other more traditional microscopic techniques. (springer.com)
  • Since the development of atomic force microscopy many modes and related techniques have emerged. (wikipedia.org)
  • Martin Guthold, an assistant professor of physics at Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, N.C., and his colleagues combined two microscopy techniques and discovered that they could acquire quality images of fibrin fibers being mechanically stretched. (photonics.com)
  • Techniques based on quasi-static atomic force microscopy techniques can map these properties, but they lack the spatial and temporal resolution that is needed to observe many of the relevant details. (nih.gov)
  • Among these techniques, high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) holds a unique position. (springer.com)
  • Characterisation of InGaN by Photoconductive Atomic Force Microscopy" Materials 11, no. 10: 1794. (mdpi.com)

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