The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Fluorescence microscopy utilizing multiple low-energy photons to produce the excitation event of the fluorophore. Multiphoton microscopes have a simplified optical path in the emission side due to the lack of an emission pinhole, which is necessary with normal confocal microscopes. Ultimately this allows spatial isolation of the excitation event, enabling deeper imaging into optically thick tissue, while restricting photobleaching and phototoxicity to the area being imaged.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a very sharp conducting needle is swept just a few angstroms above the surface of a sample. The tiny tunneling current that flows between the sample and the needle tip is measured, and from this are produced three-dimensional topographs. Due to the poor electron conductivity of most biological samples, thin metal coatings are deposited on the sample.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.
Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
A type of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY in which the object is examined directly by an extremely narrow electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point and using the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen to create the image. It should not be confused with SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Scanning microscopy in which a very sharp probe is employed in close proximity to a surface, exploiting a particular surface-related property. When this property is local topography, the method is atomic force microscopy (MICROSCOPY, ATOMIC FORCE), and when it is local conductivity, the method is scanning tunneling microscopy (MICROSCOPY, SCANNING TUNNELING).
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A scientific tool based on ULTRASONOGRAPHY and used not only for the observation of microstructure in metalwork but also in living tissue. In biomedical application, the acoustic propagation speed in normal and abnormal tissues can be quantified to distinguish their tissue elasticity and other properties.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Relating to the size of solids.
Microscopy in which the image is formed by ultraviolet radiation and is displayed and recorded by means of photographic film.
Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
The technique of using a microtome to cut thin or ultrathin sections of tissues embedded in a supporting substance. The microtome is an instrument that hold a steel, glass or diamond knife in clamps at an angle to the blocks of prepared tissues, which it cuts in sections of equal thickness.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The recording of images in three-dimensional form on a photographic film by exposing it to a laser beam reflected from the object under study.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The technique of washing tissue specimens with a concentrated solution of a heavy metal salt and letting it dry. The specimen will be covered with a very thin layer of the metal salt, being excluded in areas where an adsorbed macromolecule is present. The macromolecules allow electrons from the beam of an electron microscope to pass much more readily than the heavy metal; thus, a reversed or negative image of the molecule is created.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The technique of using a cryostat or freezing microtome, in which the temperature is regulated to -20 degrees Celsius, to cut ultrathin frozen sections for microscopic (usually, electron microscopic) examination.
Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
Methods of preparing tissue for examination and study of the origin, structure, function, or pathology.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.
A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A tissue preparation technique that involves the injecting of plastic (acrylates) into blood vessels or other hollow viscera and treating the tissue with a caustic substance. This results in a negative copy or a solid replica of the enclosed space of the tissue that is ready for viewing under a scanning electron microscope.
Behavior of LIGHT and its interactions with itself and materials.
The technique of placing cells or tissue in a supporting medium so that thin sections can be cut using a microtome. The medium can be paraffin wax (PARAFFIN EMBEDDING) or plastics (PLASTIC EMBEDDING) such as epoxy resins.
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
Fluorescent probe capable of being conjugated to tissue and proteins. It is used as a label in fluorescent antibody staining procedures as well as protein- and amino acid-binding techniques.
An analytical transmission electron microscopy method using an electron microscope fitted with an energy filtering lens. The method is based on the principle that some of the ELECTRONS passing through the specimen will lose energy when they ionize inner shell electrons of the atoms in the specimen. The amount of energy loss is dependent upon the element. Analysis of the energy loss spectrum (ELECTRON ENERGY-LOSS SPECTROSCOPY) reveals the elemental composition of a specimen. It is used analytically and quantitatively to determine which, how much of, and where specific ELEMENTS are in a sample. For example, it is used for elemental mapping of PHOSPHORUS to trace the strands of NUCLEIC ACIDS in nucleoprotein complexes.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.
LIGHT, it's processes and properties, and the characteristics of materials interacting with it.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Methods used to study CELLS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Light-induced change in a chromophore, resulting in the loss of its absorption of light of a particular wave length. The photon energy causes a conformational change in the photoreceptor proteins affecting PHOTOTRANSDUCTION. This occurs naturally in the retina (ADAPTATION, OCULAR) on long exposure to bright light. Photobleaching presents problems when occurring in PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY, and in FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY. On the other hand, this phenomenon is exploited in the technique, FLUORESCENCE RECOVERY AFTER PHOTOBLEACHING, allowing measurement of the movements of proteins and LIPIDS in the CELL MEMBRANE.
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A scanning probe microscopy technique that uses an ultramicroelectrode as the scanning probe that simultaneously records changes in electrochemical potential as it scans thereby creating topographical images with localized electrochemical information.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A technique encompassing morphometry, densitometry, neural networks, and expert systems that has numerous clinical and research applications and is particularly useful in anatomic pathology for the study of malignant lesions. The most common current application of image cytometry is for DNA analysis, followed by quantitation of immunohistochemical staining.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A modification of the freeze-drying method in which the ice within the frozen tissue is replaced by alcohol or other solvent at a very low temperature.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.
Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
A suspension of metallic gold particles.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.
Investigative and diagnostic methods and procedures based on the photoacoustic effect, which is the generation of SOUND WAVES from the absorption of ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.
Photography of objects viewed under a microscope using ordinary photographic methods.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
Agents employed in the preparation of histologic or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all of the constituent elements. Great numbers of different agents are used; some are also decalcifying and hardening agents. They must quickly kill and coagulate living tissue.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.

Examination of the transverse tubular system in living cardiac rat myocytes by 2-photon microscopy and digital image-processing techniques. (1/4047)

The transverse tubular system (t-system) of cardiac muscle is a structure that allows rapid propagation of excitation into the cell interior. Using 2-photon molecular excitation microscopy and digital image-processing methods, we have obtained a comprehensive overview of the t-system of rat ventricular myocytes in living cells. We show that it is possible to quantify the morphology of the t-system in terms of average local tubule diameter, branching pattern, and local abundance of the t-system by immersing living myocytes in a dextran-linked fluorescein solution. Our data suggest that previous electron microscopic examinations of t-system structure have underestimated both the geometric complexity of the t-system morphology and the fraction of cell volume occupied by the t-system (3.6% in this species). About 40% of tubules occur between Z-lines, and the t-tubule diameter is 255+/-0.85 nm (mean+/-SEM). The t-tubules leave the outer surface of the cell in an approximately rectangular array; however, at some points junctions between the t-tubules and the surface membrane are missing. In view of the complexity of the t-system apparent from our images, we propose that the t-system be renamed the "sarcolemmal Z rete." The methods presented here are generally applicable to the quantification of the sarcolemmal Z rete and other structures within cells by fluorescence microscopy in a variety of cell types.  (+info)

Nuclear chromatin variations in human spermatozoa undergoing swim-up and cryopreservation evaluated by the flow cytometric sperm chromatin structure assay. (2/4047)

The sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) is a flow cytometric (FCM) technique which exploits the metachromatic properties of Acridine Orange to monitor the susceptibility of sperm chromatin DNA to in-situ acid denaturation. SCSA was used to study the chromatin structure variations of human spermatozoa in semen, both before and after swim-up and after cryopreservation. Semen samples were provided by 19 healthy normozoospermic subjects attending pre-marriage checks. Each sample was divided into three aliquots: the first aliquot was evaluated without further treatment, the second underwent swim-up, and the third was stored according to standard cryopreservation techniques in liquid nitrogen at -196 degrees C. Samples were also analysed by light and fluorescence microscopy (after Acridine Orange staining to evaluate the number of green fluorescent sperm heads), and by computer-assisted semen analysis. The results showed that post-rise spermatozoa represent a subpopulation characterized by a general improvement of the morphological (reduction of the percentage of abnormal forms and heads, increase of the green head sperm percentage) and kinetic parameters. This subpopulation also exhibited improved chromatin structure properties, confirming that these cells have the best structural and functional characteristics, indicative of optimal fertilizing ability. On the other hand, overall sperm quality deteriorates after cryopreservation. When thawed spermatozoa underwent an additional swim-up round, a general improvement of nuclear maturity was seen in the post-rise spermatozoa.  (+info)

The effect of mannitol versus dimethyl thiourea at attenuating ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury to skeletal muscle. (3/4047)

OBJECTIVE: Mannitol is used as a treatment for skeletal muscle ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in humans, despite the fact that its effectiveness in vivo is still disputed. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of mannitol in attenuating I/R injury at the microcirculatory level. METHODS: The study was designed as an experimental study with male Wistar rats. The main outcome measures were intravital microscopy, which was used to measure capillary perfusion, capillary and venular red blood cell velocity (VRBC), and leukocyte-endothelial interactions in the extensor digitorum longus muscle of the rat hind limb before and after ischemia. In addition, tissue injury was assessed during reperfusion with the fluorescent vital dyes bisbenzimide and ethidium bromide. Dimethyl thiourea (DMTU), a highly effective therapeutic agent of experimental I/R injury, was used as a positive control. RESULTS: No-flow ischemia (2 hour) resulted in a 40% drop in capillary perfusion, a decline in capillary and venular VRBC, and increased leukocyte venular adherence and tissue infiltration. Tissue injury increased to a constant level during reperfusion. Mannitol attenuated capillary malperfusion during the first 60 minutes of reperfusion and prevented a decline in capillary VRBC. However, mannitol did not reduce tissue injury or leukocyte adherence and infiltration during reperfusion. By comparison, DMTU not only prevented the perfusion deficits and the increases in leukocyte venular adherence and tissue infiltration but significantly reduced the magnitude of tissue injury. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that mannitol may be of limited value for the prevention of early reperfusion-induced injury after no-flow ischemia in skeletal muscle. By comparison, DMTU was highly efficacious by not only reducing microvascular perfusion deficits but by also reducing leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions and the incidence of cellular injury.  (+info)

Comparison of a parasite lactate dehydrogenase-based immunochromatographic antigen detection assay (OptiMAL) with microscopy for the detection of malaria parasites in human blood samples. (4/4047)

Microscopic examination of blood smears remains the gold standard for malaria diagnosis, but is labor-intensive and requires skilled operators. Rapid dipstick technology provides a potential alternative. A study was conducted in The Gambia to compare the performance of OptiMAL, an immunochromatographic antigen detection assay for the diagnosis of malaria using parasite lactate dehydrogenase, against standard microscopy in patients with suspected malaria. For initial diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum, irrespective of stage, this assay had a sensitivity of 91.3%, a specificity of 92%, a positive predictive value of 87.2%, and a negative predictive value of 94.7%. The sensitivity of the test decreased markedly at parasitemias < 0.01%. This assay can be used for the diagnosis of malaria in areas where microscopy is not available and for urgent malaria diagnosis at night and at weekends, when routine laboratories are closed and when relatively inexperienced microscopists may be on duty.  (+info)

Comparison of five methods of malaria detection in the outpatient setting. (5/4047)

In eastern Africa where 90% of the malaria is due to Plasmodium falciparum, the accuracy of malaria diagnosis at the outpatient level is becoming increasingly important due to problems of drug resistance and use of alternative, costly antimalarial drugs. The quantitative buffy coat (QBC) technique, acridine orange staining with an interference filter system, and the ParaSight-F test have been introduced as alternative methods to conventional microscopy for the diagnosis of malaria. Two hundred thirteen outpatients were tested using these alternative methods and conventional microscopy by five experienced technologists; two were randomly allocated to read the results of each test. Paired results showed the highest level of agreement with the ParaSight-F test (99%), followed by Field stain (92%). The results of the QBC technique showed the least agreement (73%). Using conventional microscopy as the reference standard, the ParaSight-F test had a sensitivity range of 90-92% and a specificity of 99%, staining with acridine orange had a sensitivity range of 77-96% and a specificity range of 81-98% and the QBC technique had a sensitivity range of 88-98% and a specificity range of 58-90%. All microscopic tests showed lower sensitivities (as low as 20% using staining with acridine orange) in detecting low parasitemias (< or = 320/microl) than the ParaSight-F test (70%). Due to the high cost of the ParaSight-F test, Field-stained blood films remain the most appropriate method for diagnosis of P. falciparum in eastern Africa. The ParaSight-F test may be used in situations where no trained microscopists are available, or where malaria is strongly suspected and the results of microscopy are negative.  (+info)

Semi-nested, multiplex polymerase chain reaction for detection of human malaria parasites and evidence of Plasmodium vivax infection in Equatorial Guinea. (6/4047)

A semi-nested, multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on the amplification of the sequences of the 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssrRNA) gene was tested in a field trial in Equatorial Guinea (a hyperendemic focus of malaria in west central Africa). The method uses a primary PCR amplification reaction with a universal reverse primer and two forward primers specific for the genus Plasmodium and to mammals (the mammalian-specific primer was included as a positive control to distinguish uninfected cases from inhibition of the PCR). The second amplification is carried out with the same Plasmodium genus-specific forward primer and four specific reverse primers for each human Plasmodium species. The PCR amplified products are differentiated by fragment size after electrophoresis on a 2% agarose gel. Four villages from three regions of the island of Bioko (Equatorial Guinea) and two suspected Plasmodium vivax-P. ovale infections from the hospital of Malabo were tested by microscopy and PCR. The PCR method showed greater sensitivity and specificity than microscopic examination and confirmed the existence of a focus of P. vivax infections in Equatorial Guinea suspected by microscopic examination. It also provided evidence of several mixed infections, mainly P. falciparum and P. malariae, the two predominant species causing malaria in Equatorial Guinea.  (+info)

Rapid dendritic morphogenesis in CA1 hippocampal dendrites induced by synaptic activity. (7/4047)

Activity shapes the structure of neurons and their circuits. Two-photon imaging of CA1 neurons expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein in developing hippocampal slices from rat brains was used to characterize dendritic morphogenesis in response to synaptic activity. High-frequency focal synaptic stimulation induced a period (longer than 30 minutes) of enhanced growth of small filopodia-like protrusions (typically less than 5 micrometers long). Synaptically evoked growth was long-lasting and localized to dendritic regions close (less than 50 micrometers) to the stimulating electrode and was prevented by blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Thus, synaptic activation can produce rapid input-specific changes in dendritic structure. Such persistent structural changes could contribute to the development of neural circuitry.  (+info)

Mound-cell movement and morphogenesis in Dictyostelium. (8/4047)

To examine the mechanisms of cell locomotion within a three-dimensional (3-D) cell mass, we have undertaken a systematic 3-D analysis of individual cell movements in the Dictyostelium mound, the first 3-D structure to form during development of the fruiting body. We used time-lapse deconvolution microscopy to examine two strains whose motion represents endpoints on the spectrum of motile behaviors that we have observed in mounds. In AX-2 mounds, cell motion is slow and trajectories are a combination of random and radial, compared to KAX-3, in which motion is fivefold faster and most trajectories are rotational. Although radial or rotational motion was correlated with the optical-density wave patterns present in each strain, we also found small but significant subpopulations of cells that moved differently from the majority, demonstrating that optical-density waves are at best insufficient to explain all motile behavior in mounds. In examining morphogenesis in these strains, we noted that AX-2 mounds tended to culminate directly to a fruiting body, whereas KAX-3 mounds first formed a migratory slug. By altering buffering conditions we could interchange these behaviors and then found that mound-cell motions also changed accordingly. This demonstrates a correlation between mound-cell motion and subsequent development, but it is not obligatory. Chimeric mounds composed of only 10% KAX-3 cells and 90% AX-2 cells exhibited rotational motion, suggesting that a diffusible molecule induces rotation, but many of these mounds still culminated directly, demonstrating that rotational motion does not always lead to slug migration. Our observations provide a detailed analysis of cell motion for two distinct modes of mound and slug formation in Dictyostelium.  (+info)

The microscopic observation drug susceptibility assay (MODS) is a novel and promising test for the early diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). We evaluated the MODS assay for the early diagnosis of TB in HIV-positive patients presenting to Pham Ngoc Thach Hospital for Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases in southern Vietnam. A total of 738 consecutive sputum samples collected from 307 HIV-positive individuals suspected of TB were tested by smear, MODS, and the mycobacteria growth indicator tube method (MGIT). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of MODS compared to the microbiological gold standard (either smear or MGIT) were 87 and 93%, respectively. The sensitivities of smear, MODS, and MGIT were 57, 71, and 75%, respectively, against clinical gold standard (MODS versus smear, P|0.001; MODS versus MGIT, P=0.03). The clinical gold standard was defined as patients who had a clinical examination and treatment consistent with TB, with or without microbiological confirmation. For the diagnosis of smear-negative
what is a dark field microscopy? dark field microscopy of sugar crystals,Dark Field illumination is a technique used to observe unstained samples causing them to appear brightly lit against a dark, almost purely black, background.Pictured right: Highly magnified image of …. ...
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Automated optical tweezers-based robotic manipulation of microscale objects requires real-time visual perception for estimating the states, i.e., positions and orientations, of the objects. Such visual perception is particularly challenging in heterogeneous environments comprising mixtures of biological and colloidal objects, such as cells and microspheres, when the popular imaging modality of low contrast bright field microscopy is used. In this paper, we present an accurate method to address this challenge. Our method combines many well-established image processing techniques such as blob detection, histogram equalization, erosion, and dilation with a convolutional neural network in a novel manner. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our processing pipeline in perceiving objects of both regular and irregular shapes in heterogeneous microenvironments of varying compositions. The neural network, in particular, helps in distinguishing the individual microspheres present in dense clusters ...
Dark Field microscopy or Live Blood Cell Analysis is a method in both light and electron microscopy, in which the field around the specimen (i.e. where there is
The condenser lens used by the dark field microscopy is called cardioid condenser and there are two types: dry and wet. The wet one requires a liquid medium between the objective and the slide, while the dry one does not. The wet one provides clearer images, in opposite of the dry one. For this reason, the most frequently used type of condenser is the wet one and the liquid used between the slide and the objective is the immersion oil ...
Near field microscopies cover a whole of techniques making it possible to visualize the surface of materials at a nanometric scale. These microscopies gather: - Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) - Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) - Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM) All these techniques have in common the positioning nanometric of a tip on top of the sample whose position is controlled according to the selected signal (current, force).
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what dark field microscopy? What is a Dark Field Microscopy? The dark field microscopic examination of freshly collected, vital blood is a pillar of the Paracelsus Clinica al Ronc holistic medical diagnosis. It provides information on the internal milieu and function of the …. ...
Contrary to conventional wisdom, technologys advance into the vanishingly small realm of molecules and atoms may not be out of sight for the venerable optical microscope, after all. In fact, research at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) suggests that a hybrid version of the optical microscope might be able to image and measure features smaller than 10 nanometers-a tiny fraction of the wavelength of visible light.. In a preliminary test of the embryonic technique, NIST scientists used violet light with a wavelength of 436 nanometers to image features as small as 40 nanometers, about five times smaller than possible with a conventional optical microscope.. Roughly speaking, such a feat is akin to picking up a solitary dime with a clumsy front-end loader. If successfully developed, the imaging technology could be readily incorporated into chip-making and other commercial-scale processes for making parts and products with nanometer-scale dimensions.. The wavelengths of light ...
Jual Carestart Malaria Rapid Test G0131-SK lengkap dan resmi. Dapatkan harga Carestart Malaria Rapid Test G0131-SK murah hanya di Medicalogy.
Preparation of thick and thin blood films Thick blood films Thin blood films Combination thick and thin blood films (on the same slide) Combination thick and thin blood films (can be stained as either) Buffy coat blood films Staining blood films Giemsa stain Wright's stain General notes on staining procedures Proper examination of thin and thick blood films Thin blood films Thick blood films Determination of parasitemia Diagnosis of malaria: review of alternatives to conventional microscopy QBC microhematocrit centrifugation method ParaSight F test NOW malaria test Flow anti-pLDH Plasmodium monoclonal antibodies Molecular testing Automated blood cell analyzers Diagnosis of leishmaniasis: review of alternatives to conventional microscopy ICT for detection of anti-rK-39 antibodies Concentration procedures Cytocentrifugation technique Knott concentration procedure Membrane filtration technique Gradient centrifugation technique Triple-centrifugation method for trypanosomes Special stain for
Box 1. Label-free imaging modalities in life sciences Label-free imaging modalities generate image contrast by exploiting intrinsic material, structural or chemical properties of the sample.. In optical coherence tomography and microscopy (OCT and OCM, respectively), a 3D image is reconstructed based on variations in the time-delay and scattering pattern of the excitation light, which is reflected by tissue structures and interfaces. OCT creates contrast in a similar manner to that of ultrasound; however, by using light instead of the long wavelengths of sound or radio frequency, it achieves higher resolution. OCT provides images of large fields of view in real-time with several millimeters of penetration depth while typically maintaining lateral and axial resolution in the micrometer range. Similar to THG, OCT provides structural but not molecular contrast. When combined with Doppler imaging for label-free micro-angiography, OCT delivers powerful structure-function insight into, for example, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Visualising Individual Green Fluorescent Proteins With a Near Field Optical Microscope. AU - Garcia Parajo, M.F.. AU - Veerman, J.A.. AU - Segers-Nolten, Gezina M.J.. AU - de Grooth, B.G.. AU - Greve, Jan. AU - van Hulst, N.F.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - The use of the green fluorescence protein (GFP) as an individual marker for applications in molecular biology requires detailed understanding of its photophysical and photodynamical properties. We investigated individual S65T mutants of GFP both o-n a glass surface and embedded in a water- pore gel. An aperture-type near field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) with two polarisation detection channels was applied to afford high spatial (approximate to 70 nm) and temporal (0.5 ms) resolution. Shear-force and near field fluorescence imaging were performed simultaneously, allowing direct correlation between topographic and optical features. Polarisation data showed that the emission dipole moment of the proteins is fixed in space ...
A super-resolution platform for correlative live single-molecule imaging and STED microscopy. Super-resolution microscopy offers tremendous opportunities to unravel the complex and dynamic architecture of living cells. However, current super-resolution microscopes are well suited for revealing protein distributions or cell morphology, but not both. We present a super-resolution platform that permits correlative single-molecule imaging and stimulated emission depletion microscopy in live cells. It gives nanoscale access to the positions and movements of synaptic proteins within the morphological context of growth cones and dendritic spines.. ...
gamricstone writes Scientists have produced the worlds most powerful optical microscope, which could help understand the causes of many viruses and diseases. Previously, the standard optical microscope could only see items around one micrometre — 0.001 millimetres — clearly. But now, b...
Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) can be applied to the study of interfacial protein or surfactant monolayers (films) and can aid the understanding of interactions within colloid systems.
The kappa statistic comparing the two field microscopists results was 0.95 (p,0.001), indicating good reliability. There were 19 (5%) discordant microscopy results between the first and the second microscopy readers, which were settled by the reference laboratory microscopist. Discordant microscopy results showed that 94% (18 of 19) of the first microscopists readings were false negatives and 6% (1 of 19) was false positive. Parasite counts were conducted in approximately 52% (10 of 19) of the discordant results. Nine slides were poorly stained or prepared, and parasite counts could not be confirmed on them. Those slides that did have parasite counts showed high-level parasitaemias (range: 560 - ,20 000 parasites/µl of blood), implying that these were missed by the first microscopist. Of the 405 patients tested, 198 (49%) were positive for malaria by ICT Pf, and 191 (47%) were positive by microscopy. Of the 191 positive for Pf on malaria microscopy, 190 were positive by ICT Pf test (p,0.001), ...
Zeiss has added the Elyra P.1 module to its 3-D microscopy portfolio. The system enables superresolution photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM)
Structural characterization by super-resolution microscopy has become increasingly widespread, particularly in the biological community. The technique is powerful because it can produce real-space images with resolutions of tens of nanometers, while sample preparation is relatively non-invasive. Previous studies have applied these techniques to important scientific problems in the life sciences, but relatively little work has explored the attainable limit of resolution using samples of known structure. In this work, we apply photo-activated localization microscopy (PALM) to polymer films that have been nanopatterned using electron-beam lithography. Trace amounts of a rhodamine spiroamide dye are dispersed into nanostructured poly(methyl methacrylate), and UV-induced switching of the fluorophores enables nanoscale localization of single molecules to generate a final composite super-resolution image. Features as small as 25 nm half-pitch are clearly resolvable.. We also explore the effect of ...
Until recently, the diffraction of light had placed a fundamental limit on how far biologists could peer into cells with optical microscopes, preventing them from resolving features less than 250 nm in size, missing critical structures within cells. Over the past 20 years scientists have developed several ingenious techniques allowing them to resolve features as small as 20 nm. The Essential Knowledge Briefing, published by Wiley & Sons in partnership with Leica Microsystems, provides a general introduction to the field of super-resolution microscopy, describes potential problems and reveals forthcoming advances.. ...
The wet cupping I found particularly fascinating and was curious to know more about the blood, which was being extracted via the cup from various areas of the body. From this viewpoint I started analyzing the blood under dark field and light field microscopy. This proved very insightful and proved to me something I had suspected. The dry layered blood sample viewed under light field microscopy consistently showed high concentrations of toxic metals and chemicals, as well as showing evidence of bacterial and parasitic activity. The appearance of the live blood under the dark field microscope showed that there were high concentrations of acids and inflammatory proteins often referred to as fibrin. These phenomena were more frequently present when the blood was removed from an area where the patient was experiencing pain and inflammation. I conclude from this that the area of pain appears to act like a magnet for acids, toxins and pathogens. It is therefore very logical to assume that removal of ...
Researchers from the Institut Pasteur and CNRS have set up a new optical microscopy approach that combines two recent imaging techniques in order to visualize molecular assemblies without affecting their biological functions, ...
Dark Field Microscopy thus allows a health professional to evaluate the shapes and other properties of individual blood cells, indicating nutritional conditions which can be adversely affecting a persons health. The advantage of this analysis over standard blood tests, which detect chemical changes in the blood, is the ability of dark field microscopy to detect nutritional disorders sooner, when the problem is in its infancy. By monitoring the bloods condition, a health professional can assist in balancing the blood by giving dietary and lifestyle recommendations which can enhance health ...
The field of optical microscopy has been revolutionized in the last few years, starting with the invention of so-called super-resolution microscopes in the early 2000 s. We have long been involved in this process, and we created optimal ways to prepare and analyze samples for this microscopy technology. We will use here super-resolution microscopy to detect and image synuclein aggregates in the cerebro-spinal fluid from PD patients and healthy control persons. We will compare the amount, the size and the shape of the aggregates between PD patients and controls, and we will thus verify which of these parameters can be used reliably as a diagnostic.. Relevance to Diagnosis/Treatment of Parkinson s Disease ...
Expanding its 3D microcopy portfolio, ZEISS introduced superresolution photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) in 3D at the Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting in San Diego, California.
When Eric Betzig and colleagues first described their new microscopy method, PALM, they chose to highlight its power by comparing it to an ultra-high-resolution approach: transmission electron microscopy (TEM). PALM, or photoactivated localization microscopy, is a super-resolution fluorescence technique allowing users to circumvent the 200 nm diffraction limit that constrains optical microscopy, mapping fluorophores to within…
( -Advances in light-sheet microscopy have led to impressive images and videos of the brain in action. With this technique, a plane of light is scanned through the sample to excite fluorescent calcium sensors which ...
Author: Subramaniam, V. et al.; Genre: Book Chapter; Published in Print: 2003; Keywords: Energy Transfer Fluorescence *Luminescent Proteins /ch [Chemistry] *Photochemistry Support, Non-U.S. Gov't|br/|; Title: Photophysics of green and red fluorescent proteins: Implications for quantitative microscopy
Find Molecular Probes® fluorescent labels for multiplexed super-resolution microscopy (SRM) applications, including STORM, STED, SIM, and two-photon microscopy.
Overview. Microfluidic biochips are an attractive tool for live cell microscopy as their dimensions can mimic the dimensions of human capillaries thereby enabling researchers to simulate in vivo microenvironments. Biochips offer distinct advantages over traditional glass capillaries (known for optical aberrations) or perfusion chambers as cutting edge fabrication techniques result in in vitro models that allow high-resolution digital microscopy for brightfield, phase contrast, fluorescent imaging and confocal microscopy. The surface of the microcapillaries may be pretreated to support adhesion of proteins / ligands or culturing of different cells types; thereby resulting in a very flexible and adaptable research tool.. Assays:. ...
A Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Approach to Analyzing Large Volumes of Tissue to Detect Nanoparticles - Volume 19 Issue 5 - Paul J. Kempen, Avnesh S. Thakor, Cristina Zavaleta, Sanjiv S. Gambhir, Robert Sinclair
This course will cover the theory and practical application of current super-resolution microscopy techniques to biological questions.
The ideal fluorescent probe for bioimaging is bright, absorbs at long wavelengths and can be implemented flexibly in living cells and in vivo. However, the design of synthetic fluorophores that combine all of these properties has proved to be extremely difficult. Here, we introduce a biocompatible near-infrared silicon-rhodamine probe that can be coupled specifically to proteins using different labelling techniques. Importantly, its high permeability and fluorogenic character permit the imaging of proteins in living cells and tissues, and its brightness and photostability make it ideally suited for live-cell super-resolution microscopy. The excellent spectroscopic properties of the probe combined with its ease of use in live-cell applications make it a powerful new tool for bioimaging ...
Systems microscopy approaches to understand cancer cell migration and metastasis. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Researchers from UCL, the National Physical Laboratory and the Royal Free Hospital have differentiated between patients with a rare bleeding disorder and healthy volunteers using super-resolution microscopy, providing an alternative method for accurately and cost-effectively diagnosing rare platelet diseases.
Get an introduction to the technologies, unique benefits, practical examples, and future developments of super-resolution microscopy.
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Reliable autofocus is required to obtain accurate measurements of fluorescent stained cellular components from a system capable of scanning multiple microscope fields. Autofocus could be performed directly with fluorescence images, but due to photobleaching and destructive fluorescence by-products, it is best to minimize fluorescence exposure for photosensitive specimens and live cells. This exposure problem could be completely avoided by using phase-contrast microscopy, implemented through the same optics as fluorescence microscopy. Functions for both phase-contrast and fluorescence autofocus were evaluated using the present invention and the suitability of phase-contrast autofocus for fluorescence microscopy was determined. The present autofocus system for scanning microscopy can be performed at least as fast as 0.25 s/field without loss of precision. The speed of autofocus can be further increased by a volume image which is obtained by observing an image object at each image plane of a plurality of
The size of a particle smaller than the diffraction limit is measured using a conventional optical microscope by adopting a standing wave evanescent field illumination. The scattering intensity from a nanoparticle is periodically modulated by shifting the intensity fringes of standing evanescent field. By measuring the intensity variation of scattered light during one cycle of modulation, particle sizes can be easily estimated. Furthermore, this technique has weak dependence on the material of particles. From the experimental result, the particle size ranging from 20 to 250 nm is successfully determined. This technique offers a low-cost size measurement for nanoparticles ...
The Advanced Light Microscopy Core will be holding a Focus on Microscopy forum on Friday, August 2, 2013. The event will be held at the Jungers Center in Vollum M1441 from 2 to 4:30 p.m. The forum will feature presentations on: New EM Capabilities at OHSU by Chris Arthur, Ph.D., from the FEI Living Lab Devil in the Details: Sample Processing for Electron Superressolution and Correlative Light Microscopy by Danielle Robinson from the Zhong Lab Photoactivated Localization Microscopy with … Read More. ...
The cytoskeleton is involved in many cellular processes. Over the last decade, super-resolution microscopy has become widely available to image cytoskeletal structures, such as microtubules and actin, with great detail. For example, Single-Molecule Localization Microscopy (SMLM) achieves resolutions of 5-50 nm through repetitive sparse labeling of samples, followed by Point-Spread-Function ... read more analysis of individual fluorophores. Whereas initially this approach depended on the controlled photoswitching of fluorophores targeted to the structure of interest, alternative techniques now depend on the transient binding of fluorescently labeled probes, such as the small polypeptide lifeAct that can transiently interact with polymerized actin. These techniques allow for simple multicolor imaging and are no longer limited by a fluorophores blinking properties. Here we describe a detailed step-by-step protocol to purify, label, and utilize the lifeAct fragment for SMLM. This purification and ...
Inverted Optical Microscope. Jun. 21, 2017Products Park Systems Introduces Park NX12 for Unsurpassed Affordable High Resolution NanoScale Imaging Park Systems, world-leading manufacturer of Atomic
Scattering-Assisted Localization Microscopy (SALM) is a super-resolution microscopy tool where high resolution is obtained based on the size of the grain in the speckle pattern on the sample.
Press release - TMR Research - Optical Microscope Market - Deep elaboration of magnifying lens 2025 | Danish Micro Engineering - published on
The report Compound Optical Microscope Market in Finland to 2020 - Market Size, Development, and Forecasts offers the most up-to-date industry data on the actual ...
Two new and very cool microscopy techniques have been announced recently. One, the optofluidic microscope, could put an entire microscope, including display, into a device the size of an iPod. The other, photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM), was invented by two...
TBDx automated microscopy is a novel technology that processes digital microscope images to identify acid-fast bacilli (AFB). TBDx as part of a diagnostic algorithm could improve the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB), but its performance characteristics have not been formally tested. The objective was to evaluate the performance of the TBDx automated microscopy system in algorithms for diagnosis of TB.. ...
Microscopy[edit]. In super-resolution microscopy, the moiré pattern can be used to obtain images with a resolution higher than ... "Surpassing the lateral resolution limit by a factor of two using structured illumination microscopy". Journal of Microscopy. ... Williams, David B.; Carter, C. Barry (2009-01-01). Transmission electron microscopy : a textbook for materials science. ... In scanning tunneling microscopy, moiré fringes appears if surface atomic layers have a different crystal structure than the ...
Scanning electron microscopy[edit]. Fly larvae and fly eggs are used to aid in the determination of a PMI. In order for the ... When scanning electron microscopy is not available, a faster, lower cost technique is potassium permanganate staining. The ... A study in 2007 demonstrates a technique that can use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to identify key morphological features ... "Identification of fly eggs using scanning electron microscopy for forensic investigations". Micron. 39 (7): 802-7. doi:10.1016/ ...
Microscopy[edit]. Culture techniques will often use a microscopic examination to help in the identification of the microbe. ... More detailed identification techniques involve microbial culture, microscopy, biochemical tests and genotyping. Other less ...
The Development of a Modern Microscopy". Imaging & Microscopy.. online. *^ a b c Barry R. Masters: Confocal Microscopy And ... Confocal microscopy, most frequently confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), is an optical imaging technique for increasing ... Barry R. Masters: Confocal Microscopy And Multiphoton Excitation Microscopy. The Genesis of Live Cell Imaging. SPIE Press, ... "Microscopy and Microanalysis. 11 (Supplement 2). doi:10.1017/S1431927605503167.. *^ Patel DV, McGhee CN (2007). "Contemporary ...
Microscopy[edit]. Another principal tool in the diagnosis of infectious disease is microscopy. Virtually all of the culture ... Microscopy may be carried out with simple instruments, such as the compound light microscope, or with instruments as complex as ... Microscopy is often also used in conjunction with biochemical staining techniques, and can be made exquisitely specific when ... Advancements in microscopy were essential to the early study of infectious diseases. ...
Yuste R (Dec 2005). "Fluorescence microscopy today". Nature Methods. 2 (12): 902-4. doi:10.1038/nmeth1205-902. PMID 16299474. ... The availability of GFP and its derivatives has thoroughly redefined fluorescence microscopy and the way it is used in cell ... This has triggered the development of highly automated live-cell fluorescence microscopy systems, which can be used to observe ... will fluoresce when observed under fluorescence microscopy. Analysis of such time lapse movies has redefined the understanding ...
Scanning tunneling microscopy[edit]. In scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), a sharp tip scans the surface of a sample in a ... Scanning electron microscopy[edit]. In scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a high-energy electron beam (ranging a few 100 eVs ... Transmission electron microscopy[edit]. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) uses electrons to generate high-resolution ... Atomic and electrostatic force microscopy[edit]. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is mostly used to measure the force between ...
Microscopy[edit]. A. thaliana is well suited for light microscopy analysis. Young seedlings on the whole, and their roots in ... In: Pawley JB (Editor). Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy - 3rd edition. SpringerScience+Business Media, New York. ... facilitates live cell imaging using both fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy.[56] By wet-mounting seedlings in ...
Virtual microscopy[edit]. Virtual microscopy would allow researchers to obtain images with a decreased amount of imaging ... Confocal microscopy is the microscopic procedure of choice for examining neuron structures as it produces sharp images with ... The specific way this microscopy works allows one to look at one confocal plane at a time, which is optimal when viewing ... A variety of techniques have been used to study neuromorphology, including confocal microscopy, design-based stereology, neuron ...
Microscopy, electrochemistry, and conductivity analyzer[edit]. A prototype wet chemistry beaker showing some of the ... 2.5 Microscopy, electrochemistry, and conductivity analyzer *2.5.1 Sample wheel and translation stage ... The wet chemistry lab (WCL)[98] was part of the suite of tools called the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity ... The Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) is an instrument package originally designed for the ...
Microscopy[edit]. A. thaliana is well suited for light microscopy analysis. Young seedlings on the whole, and their roots in ... Scanning electron microscopy pictures of root surfaces from natural A. thaliana populations showing the complex microbial ... In: Pawley JB (Editor). Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy - 3rd edition. SpringerScience+Business Media, New York. ... facilitates live cell imaging using both fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy.[60] By wet-mounting seedlings in ...
Microscopy and imaging[edit]. An infrared microscope allows samples to be observed and spectra measured from regions as small ... of FTIR can be further improved below the micrometer scale by integrating it into scanning near-field optical microscopy ...
Microscopy can be categorized into three different fields: optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and scanning probe ... Further information: Microscopy. The visualization of single molecules, single cells, biological tissues and nanomaterials is ... microscopy. Recently, this field is rapidly progressing because of the rapid development of the computer and camera industries ... "Subdiffraction Multicolor Imaging of the Nuclear Periphery with 3D Structured Illumination Microscopy". Science. 320 (5881): ...
Microscopy[edit]. The tumor consists of sheets of a monotonous (i.e., similar in size and morphology) population of medium- ...
... in light microscopy[edit]. When performing microscopy on live samples, one needs to be aware that too high light ... "Phototoxicity in live fluorescence microscopy, and how to avoid it". BioEssays. 39 (8): 1700003. doi:10.1002/bies.201700003 ...
Microscopy[edit]. Electron microscopy: The sample is not exposed to a beam of electrons but detectors picks up the expelled ...
Main article: Field ion microscopy. Field ion microscopy is a modification of field emission microscopy where a stream of ... Tsong, T (1990). Atom probe field Ion Microscopy: Field Ion emission and Surfaces and interfaces at atomic resolution. ... "Microscopy and Microanalysis. 23 (S1): 676-677. Bibcode:2017MiMic..23S.676L. doi:10.1017/S1431927617004044. ISSN 1431-9276.. ... "Microscopy and Microanalysis. 12 (2): 1730-1731. Bibcode:2006MiMic..12.1730B. doi:10.1017/S1431927606065809. ISSN 1431-9276.. ...
Transmission electron microscopy can be used to observe dislocations within the microstructure of the material.[22] Thin foils ... "g dot b") analysis.[23] When performing dark field microscopy with the TEM, a diffracted spot is selected to form the image (as ... Williams, David B.; Carter, C. Barry (2008). Transmission electron microscopy : a textbook for materials science. Springer. ... Field ion microscopy and atom probe techniques offer methods of producing much higher magnifications (typically 3 million times ...
Microscopy. Micrograph of a classic Reed-Sternberg cell. Micrograph showing a "popcorn cell", the Reed-Sternberg cell variant ...
"Microscopy UK. Retrieved 17 April 2017.. *. "Anemone coronaria". Gardening help: Plant finder. Missouri Botanical Garden. ...
In the visual spectrum this is done using Zernike phase-contrast microscopy, differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC ... Zernike phase-contrast microscopy introduces a phase shift to the low spatial frequency components of the image with a phase- ... For this reason oil immersion is commonly used to obtain high resolution in microscopy. In this technique the objective is ... Unstained biological structures appear mostly transparent under Bright-field microscopy as most cellular structures do not ...
Using cryo-electron microscopy it has become possible to generate reconstructions with sub-nanometer resolution and near-atomic ... Transmission electron microscopy images are projections of the object showing the distribution of density through the object, ... EM Data Bank (EM Data Bank) Frank, Joachim (2006). Three-dimensional electron microscopy of macromolecular assemblies: ... Journal of Microscopy. 146 (Pt 2): 113-36. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2818.1987.tb01333.x. PMID 3302267. Arias-Palomo E, Recuero-Checa ...
... visible on light microscopy or not thus visible). The other dichotomy is by lineage: Myeloid cells (neutrophils, monocytes, ...
Two-photon microscopy. *Corneal Surgery (see refractive surgery). Femtosecond lasers can be used to create bubbles in the ...
"Microscopy and Microanalysis. 21: 436-441. doi:10.1017/S1431927614014639.. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ...
Landini, Gabriel (2011). "Fractals in microscopy". Journal of Microscopy. 241 (1): 1-8. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2818.2010.03454.x. ...
Klug, A (1978/79) Image Analysis and Reconstruction in the Electron Microscopy of Biological Macromolecules Chemica Scripta vol ... Electron microscopy image of an inorganic tantalum oxide, with its Fourier transform, inset. Notice how the appearance changes ... Electron crystallographic studies on inorganic crystals using high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) images were first ... There was a serious disagreement in the field of electron microscopy of inorganic compounds; while some have claimed that "the ...
Geissinger HD (2011). "The use of silver nitrate as a stain for scanning electron microscopy of arterial intima and paraffin ... It can be used as a stain in scanning electron microscopy.[14] ...
"Microscopy Resource Center , Olympus Life Science". *^ "Circadian Rhythms". ...
Macro & Microscopy Articles. Macro & Microscopy Articles. Here are links to articles for your reading pleasure. You may also ... Blog on UV and other aspects of microscopy and imaging Last post by jmc « Sat Feb 13, 2021 10:30 am. ... GelSight -- I believe this qualifies as microscopy? Last post by rjlittlefield « Mon May 01, 2017 7:27 pm. ... Blog about optical and electron microscopy Last post by ChrisR « Sun Feb 24, 2019 6:34 am. ...
Macro & Microscopy Articles. Macro & Microscopy Articles. Here are links to articles for your reading pleasure. You may also ... Blog on UV and other aspects of microscopy and imaging Last post by jmc « Sat Feb 13, 2021 10:30 am. ... GelSight -- I believe this qualifies as microscopy? Last post by rjlittlefield « Mon May 01, 2017 7:27 pm. ... Blog about optical and electron microscopy Last post by ChrisR « Sun Feb 24, 2019 6:34 am. ... Microscopy Forum. You can also access this page with: ...
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Other Links: Microscopy guide , Podcast , Instagram , Microscopy Shop , MicroWorldArchive. * NEW: Microscopy Wiki ... Microscopy accessories Here you can discuss all microscopy-related accessories and equipment (microtomes, filters...) Topics: ... Microscopy Forum. You can also access this page with: ... Re: New Microscopy Wiki! by microcosmos View the latest post Sat Jun 26, 2021 2:10 pm ... Microscopy Forum. You can also access this page with: ... Microscopy Forum. You can also access this page with: ...
  • Philip oversees the electron microscopy, X-ray analysis, molecular spectroscopy and scanning probe microscopy instruments, giving advice and providing training. (
  • critical to the advance of cryo-electron microscopy , allowing researchers to obtain images of biological materials that more closely resembled the natural state of the material. (
  • Throughout the remainder of his career, he continued to refine techniques for structural imaging of biological materials by cryo-electron microscopy . (
  • essential to the development of cryo-electron microscopy . (
  • using a technique known as cryo-electron microscopy . (
  • Many people will never have heard of cryo-electron microscopy before the announcement that Jacques Dubochet, Joachim Frank and Richard Henderson had won the 2017 Nobel Prize in chemistry for their work developing this technology. (
  • Cryo-electron microscopy - or cryo-EM - is an imaging technology that allows scientists to obtain pictures of the biological "machines" that work inside our cells. (
  • Unlike other modes of optical microscopy based on macroscopic specimen features, such as birefringence, fluorescence microscopy is capable of imaging the distribution of a single molecular species based solely on the properties of fluorescence emission. (
  • Widefield fluorescence and laser scanning confocal microscopy rely on secondary fluorescence emission as an imaging mode, primarily due to the high degree of sensitivity afforded by the techniques. (
  • The lasers employed in optical microscopy are high-intensity monochromatic light sources, which are useful for many techniques including optical trapping, lifetime imaging studies, and photobleaching recovery. (
  • Confocal microscopy , most frequently confocal laser scanning microscopy ( CLSM ), is an optical imaging technique for increasing optical resolution and contrast of a micrograph by means of using a spatial pinhole to block out-of-focus light in image formation. (
  • Two-photon microscopy (also known as two-photon fluorescence light microscopy) was invented in 1990 as a new method of imaging live cells and tissues in three-dimensions. (
  • Confocal microscopy is an optical imaging technique that scans a focused point of light around a sample to reconstruct an image in a point-by-point manner. (
  • In ideal diffraction-limited optical microscopy imaging depth is limited by the multiply scattered wave. (
  • The combination of image scanning microscopy and quantum imaging improves resolution up to fourfold compared with the classical diffraction barrier. (
  • Quantum correlations from photon antibunching enhance the resolution of image scanning microscopy in biological imaging by twofold, four times beyond the diffraction limit. (
  • High-throughput microscopy - Imaging and acquisition on a plate format can be done on an inverted microscope with a motorized stage. (
  • Our latest addition, the AMNIS imaging flow cytometer combines the best of microscopy and flow cytometry, providing a very fast analyses tool to image thousands of cells or particles in suspension for further analyses. (
  • The techniques themselves have also made spectacular progress with the developments in super-resolution microscopy, time-resolved measurements, absorption-based detection, combination with mechanical or electrical manipulation and recording, live-cell imaging, and metal nanoparticle-enhanced phenomena. (
  • Optical microscopy recently underwent a true revolution with superresolution imaging and a broad variety of nonlinear optical imaging modalities. (
  • The Core Microscopy Facility at Scripps Research provides researchers with equipment and expertise required for multi-dimensional imaging of cells and tissues at high resolution and to perform quantitative image analysis. (
  • Resources include widefield, confocal, multi-photon, TIRF, super-resolution and electron microscopy, as well as equipment for live cell imaging and image analysis. (
  • For programs in cancer biology , infectious diseases , ophthalmics, muscle biology, and neuroscience , SRI Biosciences provides clients with histology, morphology, microscopy, imaging and analysis functions for drug discovery and development projects. (
  • a fluorescence microscopy imaging solution consisting of high-end scientific cameras, feature-rich software packages, and a 5-year warranty. (
  • The INFINITY Fluorescence Series Bundle includes an INFINITY3 series camera, with feature-rich software packages to provide customers with a complete imaging solution for fluorescence microscopy. (
  • Equipped with a fluorescence unit and an ultra-fast electric shutter we are able to perform not only widefield but also fluorescence microscopy including live cell imaging. (
  • To investigate the structure and function of the cell and its molecular components, it is necessary to integrate imaging techniques using optical, transmission, and scanning microscopy. (
  • This collection of articles describe how the development of microscopy and the implementation of new developments in microscopic imaging techniques have revolutionized biology. (
  • Located on the 5th floor in the Life Science Laboratories the Light Microscopy facility provides powerful resources for imaging model organisms, tissue, cells, biomaterials, and artificial structures and houses state-of-the-art equipment including almost every light microscopy imaging modality currently available. (
  • Confocal microscopy can be a useful, noninvasive imaging technique helpful in the study, diagnosis, and treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis. (
  • It has been a long pursuit to develop super-resolution imaging techniques for Raman microscopy, which has intrinsic advantages of chemical specificity over the fluorescence counterpart. (
  • With future optimization on the instrumentation and imaging probes, STED-FM-SREF microscopy is envisioned to aid a wide variety of biological applications, with its superb resolution, high sensitivity, unique vibrational contrast, and biocompatible excitation power. (
  • Additional topics include live cell imaging, image processing and analysis and artifacts in fluorescence microscopy. (
  • Fundamentals of Light Microscopy and Electronic Imaging, 2nd Edition. (
  • Within the large range of imaging technologies, methods based on light microscopy are the most widely used imaging modalities in biomedical sciences. (
  • This includes basic conventional approaches such as histology imaging & immunofluorescence-based light microscopy, but also very advanced methods such as intravital imaging, super-resolution fluorescence microscopy & high-content screening. (
  • Furthermore, fast technical developments in light microscopy technologies generate new imaging tools on an annual basis, which allow to address more & more complex research questions. (
  • INFORMATION Registration, abstract forms and enquires: N. America and Europe: Focus on Microscopy '95 c/o Dr. P. C. Cheng Advanced Micrscopy and Imaging Laboratory Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering State University of New York at Buffalo P.O. Box. (
  • Students will have opportunities for extensive hands-on experience with state-of-the-art equipment for optical imaging, digital image processing, and fluorescence and confocal microscopy guided by experienced academic and commercial staff. (
  • The Donald Danforth Plant Science Center's Integrated Microscopy Facility furnishes up-to-date instrumentation for cellular imaging - we encourage you to contact us for your imaging needs. (
  • Using multiple different imaging modalities, scientists have adapted fluorescence microscopy to advance our knowledge in all areas of biology and across length scales that range from tens of millimetres to a few nanometres. (
  • Recent trends in MPM include the two-photon optogenetics studies and deeper imaging with three-photon microscopy. (
  • X-ray microscopy is three-dimensional and non-destructive, allowing for repeated imaging of the same sample for in situ or 4D studies, and providing the ability to "see inside" the sample being studied before sacrificing it to higher resolution techniques. (
  • Advances in Acoustic Microscopy and High Resolution Ultrasonic Imaging: From Principles to New Applications. (
  • The course includes basic knowledge on light microscopy, several aspects of fluorescence microscopy, including the principles of fluorescence, properties of fluorescent dyes and proteins, wide field-, confocal-, SIM-, TIRF- and spinning disc microscopy, advanced fluorescence microscopy techniques such as FRET,FLIM and FCS as well as super resolution microscopy. (
  • This image is similar to that obtained by phase contrast microscopy but without the bright diffraction halo. (
  • Offers a selection of chemicals for electron microscopy, light microscopy and histology including reagents, diamond knives, sputter and carbon coaters, embedding resins, and more. (
  • The development of microscopy revolutionized biology, gave rise to the field of histology and so remains an essential technique in the life and physical sciences. (
  • Confocal microscopy offers the ability to control depth of field, elimination or reduction of background information away from the focal plane, and the capability to collect serial optical sections from thick specimens. (
  • When the technique of fluorescence resonance energy transfer ( FRET ) is applied to optical microscopy, it permits determination of the approach between two molecules within several nanometers. (
  • Confocal microscopy provides the capacity for direct, noninvasive, serial optical sectioning of intact, thick, living specimens with a minimum of sample preparation as well as a marginal improvement in lateral resolution. (
  • In 2006, Xiaowei Zhuang's team at Harvard University first described the superresolution technique known as stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), a single-molecule localization method whose 20-nm lateral ( xy ) resolution beats the diffraction limit by a full order of magnitude. (
  • From optical microscopy through to high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the finest details can be analysed by our experts. (
  • Domains as varied as optical microscopy, quantum optics, nanophotonics, material science and soft-matter physical chemistry all have benefited from the new, average-free insights provided by the optical isolation of single molecules, quantum dots, metal nanoparticles, and other nanometre-sized objects. (
  • A large number of books dealing with various topics in optical microscopy have been published by leading authors and researchers in the field, and many have been utilized as references to prepare discussions included in the Molecular Expressions Optical Microscopy Primer. (
  • Super-resolution #optical # microscopy has never been so accessible. (
  • Tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy. (
  • Tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy (TENOM) is a scanning probe technique capable of providing a broad range of spectroscopic information on single objects and structured surfaces at nanometer spatial resolution and with highest detection sensitivity. (
  • They involve tweaks to structures that are less than 400 nanometres across, which is smaller than the wavelength of the visible light used in ordinary optical microscopy. (
  • Optical light microscopy is used to examine and document sample appearance and features. (
  • There are three well-known branches of microscopy: optical, electron, and scanning probe microscopy, along with the emerging field of X-ray microscopy. (
  • Optical microscopy and electron microscopy involve the diffraction, reflection, or refraction of electromagnetic radiation/electron beams interacting with the specimen, and the collection of the scattered radiation or another signal in order to create an image. (
  • The field of microscopy (optical microscopy) dates back to at least the 17th-century. (
  • Optical or light microscopy involves passing visible light transmitted through or reflected from the sample through a single lens or multiple lenses to allow a magnified view of the sample. (
  • in visible range, the resolution of optical microscopy is limited to approximately 0.2 micrometres (see: microscope) and the practical magnification limit to ~1500x. (
  • Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, also known as Nomarski interference contrast (NIC) or Nomarski microscopy, is an optical microscopy technique used to enhance the contrast in unstained, transparent samples. (
  • Philip jointly manages the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, scanning probe microscopy, and X-ray analysis instrumentation within MC². (
  • The Advanced Light Microscopy Core at The Jungers Center offers research scientists access to high-end instrumentation for fluorescence microscopy. (
  • Effective digital microscopy analysis requires precise preparation equipment, advanced microscopy instrumentation, specialist cameras and image analysis software. (
  • A commercial staff representing leading microscopic manufacturers will make available for student use the latest and most advanced instrumentation for light microscopy, image detection and computerized im-age analysis. (
  • This WWW server can provides you with access to up-to-date information about State-of-the-Art Microscopy and Microanalysis programs in the AAEM/TPM effort of the ANL Materials Science Division as well as general information about On-Line information services which are administered for Local, National and International Microscopy/Microanalysis Societies. (
  • The Microscopy Society of America (MSA) is a non-profit organization dedicated to the promotion and advancement of techniques and applications of microscopy and microanalysis in all relevant scientific disciplines. (
  • Receive email alerts on new books, offers and news in Microscopy & Microanalysis 2017 Meeting. (
  • Multiphoton fluorescence microscopy is a powerful tool combining the techniques of laser scanning microscopy with long wavelength multiphoton fluorescence excitation to capture high-resolution and 3-D images of specimens. (
  • The method reduces the risk of photo bleaching and photo toxicity that may limit the application of conventional fluorescence microscopy for living specimens. (
  • The laboratory at Children's Health℠ offers expertise in the field of routine electron microscopy on all tissue specimens. (
  • Electron Microscopy services are performed for analysis of diagnostic specimens. (
  • Electron microscopy can be used to investigate the microstructure of a wide range of biological and inorganic specimens providing morphologic and crystallographic information. (
  • Fluorescence microscopy is an essential technique that allows scientists to visualise molecules (proteins, nucleic acids, ions, metabolites, carbohydrates and lipids), large structures and whole cells in fixed and living specimens as well as single molecules, assemblies and enzymes in vitro . (
  • In a new paper published in Light: Science & Application , a team of scientists, led by Professor Wei Min from Columbia University, USA, has developed a novel super-resolution vibrational microscopy harnessing Stimulated Raman Excited Fluorescence (SREF) as an ultrasensitive vibrational contrast. (
  • Laboratory professionals should have basic knowledge and understanding of routine microscopy procedures and techniques. (
  • This eLearning course will introduce laboratory professionals to microscopy procedures for smear preparation, as well as preparing and interpreting the results of a Gram stain, wet mount, potassium hydroxide (KOH), and India Ink procedures. (
  • This basic level course is designed for new or existing public health and clinical laboratory professionals, individuals with a science background who are entering or reentering the microbiology field, or individuals needing training on basic microscopy procedures. (
  • The Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts is offering the first (of an anticipated annual) light-sheet fluorescence microscopy conference and workshop. (
  • Our electron microscopy laboratory, which is integrated into the Network for Electron Microscopy Tübingen (NET) , not only serves the research and teaching purposes of our own group, but also acts as a service location for other working groups at the Biology Department. (
  • Fluorescence microscopy can be combined with contrast enhancing techniques such as DIC illumination to minimize the effects of photobleaching by locating a specific area of interest in a specimen using DIC . (
  • Conventional fluorescence microscopy illuminates a specimen through the processes of excitation and emission. (
  • One of the main advantages to two-photon microscopy is that the long excitation wavelengths from the two photons are less damaging to the specimen. (
  • The temporal resolution of live specimen microscopy reaches from milliseconds up to days in the case of longitudinal experiments up to weeks or even months. (
  • In multiphoton microscopy, a fluorescent molecule - attached to the specimen, genetically expressed or naturally present - is excited by two or more photons of infrared (IR) light. (
  • Spectral phasor analysis allows unmixing fluorescence microscopy images, but it requires user involvement and has a limited number of labels that can be analyzed and displayed. (
  • The GJ Russell Facility is the electron microscopy suite for the Faculty of Science, Durham University. (
  • The Electron Microscopy Facility (EMF) is one of several core research facilities at Brown University that provides access to specialized, high capital cost research tools. (
  • The Electron Microscopy Facility is administered by IMNI and is operated as a cost center where the annual cost of supplies, service contracts, and personnel is recovered through an hourly charge to users for their instrument beam time. (
  • The Core Microscopy Facility operates on a fee-for-services basis. (
  • The benefits of working with Nikon as an industry collaborator are that UMass Light Microscopy Facility users receive formal and informal training from Nikon engineers, frequent on-site technical support, access to new hardware and software technology, and assistance with cutting-edge experimental set ups. (
  • The Microscopy Core Facility supports both research and teaching needs. (
  • The featured resource is provided as a guide and reference tool for visitors who are exploring the large spectrum of specialized topics in fluorescence and laser scanning confocal microscopy. (
  • and laser scanning confocal and multiphoton microscopy. (
  • STORM, photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM), and ground state depletion microscopy with individual molecule return (GSDIM)-commercialized by Nikon , Zeiss , and Leica , respectively-are stochastic, localization-based methods, using photoactivatable or photoswitchable fluorescent proteins or dyes to switch on a few fluorophores at random while the majority remain dark. (
  • With fluorescence microscopy one is able to determine localization/co-localization as well as mean intensity of a molecule of interest and with some advancements in the techniques structural analysis on a nanoscale is now possible. (
  • New #deeplearning method reduces the number of frames needed for high quality reconstruction of spectral #superresolution single molecule localization # microscopy data. (
  • In Atomic Force Microscopy: Biomedical Methods and Applications, highly experienced physicians and biologists clearly explain the basic technical knowledge needed to use AFM and demonstrate its multifarious uses in biomedicine and the life sciences. (
  • For its customers, ZEISS develops, produces and distributes highly innovative solutions for industrial metrology and quality assurance, microscopy solutions for the life sciences and materials research, and medical technology solutions for diagnostics and treatment in ophthalmology and microsurgery. (
  • Fluorescence microscopy has transformed the life sciences. (
  • Reviewed in this article are key features of fluorescence microscopy such as detecting fluorescent objects that can be faintly visible or very bright relative to the background, as well as common problems with microscope configuration. (
  • Tsien was co-winner of the 2008 Nobel Prize in chemistry for his role in helping develop and expand the use of green fluorescent proteins (GFP), a tool widely employed in light microscopy to peer inside living cells or whole animals and observe molecules interacting in real-time. (
  • These can be tagged with GFP or other fluorescent proteins, but they are visible only with the limited resolution of light microscopy. (
  • Although atomic force microscopy (AFM) offers many significant advantages over the conventional microscopies used in the biological and medical sciences, its use is more familiar to physicists and engineers than to biomedical researchers. (
  • Under conventional fluorescence microscopy, actin in the axons of these neurons appears as a uniform, featureless green. (
  • Two-photon microscopy differs from conventional fluorescence microscopy as the excitation wavelengths of the two photons are longer than the resulting emitted light. (
  • The wavelengths of the two photons in two-photon microscopy are usually in the infrared spectral range whilst the single photon in conventional fluorescence microscopy is in the ultraviolet or blue/green spectral range. (
  • Two vibrational colors are separated by FM-SREF with minimal cross-talk, which is nearly impossible by conventional fluorescence microscopy. (
  • At the chemistry-biology interface, new probes are needed for the study of various biological processes, most of them in live cells or even live organisms, but also for superresolution microscopy. (
  • Looking to get up to speed on #superresolution expansion # microscopy #ExM ? (
  • Fluorescence illumination and observation is the most rapidly expanding microscopy technique employed today, both in the medical and biological sciences, a fact which has spurred the development of more sophisticated microscopes and numerous fluorescence accessories. (
  • When developing the SmarAct Microscopy Stage our aim was to produce a universal stage that can be fitted to microscopes of all major manufacturers. (
  • A method and apparatus are described for remote semiconductor microscopy whereby video signals are broadcast from one or more microscopes to remote viewers. (
  • To make sense of the blur, Backman has ditched standard microscopes in favour of a method called partial wave spectroscopic (PWS) microscopy. (
  • Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye). (
  • Scanning electron microscopy 1971 proceedings of the: part 1 (April 27-29, 1971) Fourth Annual Scanning Electron Microscope Symposium and part 2 (April 30, 1971) Workshop on Forensic Applications of the Scanning Electron Microscope edited by Om Johari and Irene Corvin. (
  • Congratulations to Evelyn Osorio and Zach Balzer on their winning images taken in Microscopy Core in the 2019 U of S Research Photo Contest! (
  • Heterodyne Force Microscopy opens up a way to monitor nanoscale events with high temporal sensitivity from the quasistatic cantilever mechanical-diode response taking advantage of the beat effect. (
  • Similarly as in heterodyne force microscopy, it is expected that the phase response yields information with increased sensitivity due to the beat effect. (
  • The mechanical-diode (MD) approach is based on the detection of the quasistatic response of an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) cantilever when the forces actuating upon the tip vary nonlinearly in the ultrasonic time scale [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • Heterodyne Force Microscopy (HFM) [ 5 ] introduced a novel method, in which the cantilever tip is in contact with the sample surface, and ultrasound is excited both at the tip (from a transducer at the cantilever base) and at the sample surface (from a transducer at the back of the sample) at adjacent frequencies, and mixed at the tip-sample gap. (
  • Here, I propose a novel heterodyne ultrasonic force method, named hereafter Intermittent-Contact Heterodyne Force Microscopy (IC-HFM) in which the cantilever is driven in tapping mode, at its fundamental resonance. (
  • Single molecule atomic force microscopy was used to characterize structure, binding strength (unbinding force), and binding kinetics of a classical cadherin, vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, secreted by transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells as cis-dimerized full-length external domain fused to Fc-portion of human IgG. (
  • In the present study, we applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) ( 10 ) as a powerful molecular approach to probe specific trans-interaction forces and conformational changes of recombinant VE-cadherin strand dimers in aqueous physiological conditions ( 11 - 15 ). (
  • It is a very creative and promising method," says Igor Sokolov of Clarkson University in Potsdam, New York, who is using another nanoscale technique called atomic force microscopy to look for differences between healthy and cancerous cervical cells . (
  • Samples are prepared by methods similar to that in transmission electron microscopy ( TEM ), typically by fixing the sample with aldehyde, staining with heavy metals such as osmium and uranium then embedding in an epoxy resin. (
  • Philip also oversaw, trained and supervised users on various other techniques, including ion chromatography, FTIR microscopy, and UV/vis, near IR and FTIR spectroscopy. (
  • There are countless specialized techniques in the field of electron and light microscopy that require the acquisition of specialized knowledge, particularly for interpretation of results (electron tomography and energy dispersive spectroscopy immediately come to mind), but most laboratories possessing the equipment to effect these approaches have specialists to help the casual user. (
  • It will provide the beginner with the theoretical background and practical information necessary to investigate how materials work using atom probe microscopy techniques. (
  • In this article, we propose a methodology enhancing the reproducibility of scientific experiments in the domain of microscopy techniques. (
  • The rapid advancement of technology in this field and the development of new microscopy techniques have tremendously improved the visualization of biological processes and features of the microscopic world at a nanometer resolution. (
  • The light and electron microscopy service and research unit provides preparative techniques for morphological studies as well as for immunolocalisation of gene products. (
  • In this course students learn various aspects of modern advanced light and fluorescence microscopy techniques. (
  • New microscopy techniques are now lifting the lid on this inner world, potentially offering an early-warning system for cancer or Alzheimer's long before the diseases begin to bite. (
  • The Workshop on LIGHT MICROSCOPY FOR THE BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES will cover basic con-cepts of light microscopy and introduce several advanced techniques relevant to modern cell and molecular biology. (
  • A huge selection of microscopy techniques are available to increase contrast or label a sample. (
  • Atom probe microscopy enables the characterization of materials structure and chemistry in three dimensions with near-atomic resolution. (
  • Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) provides surface images at up to atomic scale and other valuable high-resolution data. (
  • The mission of the Light Microscopy Core is to assist investigators in experiments involving light microscopy with state-of-the-art equipment, training, and image processing capabilities. (
  • We discuss the criteria and attributes needed for reproducibility of microscopy experiments. (
  • The microscopy experiments were carried out at Berkeley Lab's Advanced Light Source. (
  • However, due to technological limitations at the time, no such instrument could be constructed, and it was not until 1959 that Dunn and Fry performed the first acoustic microscopy experiments, though not at very high frequencies. (
  • Electron microscopy is frequently portrayed as a discipline that stands alone, separated from molecular biology, light microscopy, physiology, and biochemistry, among other disciplines. (
  • From van Leeuwenhoek to the new millennium, microscopy was governed by one seemingly unbreakable principle: The ability to resolve two objects is constrained by the wavelength of the light used to view them. (
  • Multiphoton excitation offers several advantages over confocal microscopy: IR light penetrates more deeply in the tissue because of lower absorption and scattering, its longer wavelength is less damaging and the non-linear process excites fluorescence only on the focal plane so that the confocal aperture required with single-photon excitation is no more necessary. (
  • The members of the microscopy research group have interests spanning materials systems across a large range of condensed matter physics, with particular emphasis on organic and inorganic semiconductors, functional ceramics, oxides, molecular electronic systems, two dimensional materials and nanotubes. (
  • When exposed to blue light, the altered protein produces abundant singlet oxygen, a form of molecular oxygen that can be made visible by electron microscopy (EM). (
  • Confocal microscopy provides high-resolution, high-contrast in vivo images and is a powerful tool for studying the ultrastructure of the cell, its molecular components, and their functions. (
  • This process may be carried out by wide-field irradiation, transmitted light of the sample or by scanning of a fine beam over the sample by confocal laser scanning or scanning electron microscopy. (
  • Multiphoton excitation microscopy (MPM) was first reported in 1990 (Denk, Strickler and Webb). (
  • A lecture series on basic principles and applications in fluorescence microscopy. (
  • Atom Probe Microscopy is aimed at researchers of all experience levels. (
  • Microscopy is a powerful and commonly used research tool. (
  • The Electron Microscopy Core provides advice, technical services, training and use of facilities to NHLBI DIR investigators who require electron microscopy (EM) to answer specific research topics. (
  • A warm welcome to the Microscopy Research Group homepage! (
  • Both beginner and expert will value the way that Atom Probe Microscopy is set out in the context of materials science and engineering, and includes references to key recent research outcomes. (
  • Data from microscopy analysis is important to progressing your research and product development programmes, conducting failure analysis where your product or material has failed or resolving contamination issues in manufacturing or other parts of the supply chain. (
  • The Virtual Conference (May 9-11, 2021) will bring together innovators in microscopy from academic institutes, industry, and federal laboratories to share and brainstorm the latest developments taking place in light-sheet research and its biological applications. (
  • Tsien said the development of the small, highly engineered Arabidopsis protein, dubbed "miniSOG," may elevate the abilities of electron microscopy in the same way GFPs have made modern light microscopy in biological research much more powerful and useful. (
  • Hardly any scientific publication with a high impact in the central biomedical research fields, is not at least in part based on results generated by the use of light microscopy. (
  • After having completed the course, you should have a thorough understanding of the essential theory & practical applications of light microscopy, which should provide you with very competitive research skills. (
  • Be it for the detection of malaria parasites in blood smears or even the mitotic count on cancer tissues, Cognex offers a breakthrough automated solution to clinical and research microscopy solutions that previously required human inspection. (
  • The theoretical foundation of two-photon microscopy is two-photon excitation. (
  • Two-photon microscopy produces fluorescence in the area where the laser beam is tightly focused. (
  • In two-photon microscopy, the objective lens collects all the fluorescence photos that constitute the emitting signal - therefore, a detector pinhole is not required. (
  • Two-photon microscopy lasers provide a rapid stream of pulses that can achieve the required high photon density and flux. (
  • This is in contrast with confocal microscopy where the same types of molecules are excited by a single photon of visible or UV light. (
  • The new loading station and sample holder for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) lamella preparation brings more ease-of-use to the TEM lamella preparation workflow and ensures a smooth transition of the sample to the TEM for further analysis. (
  • The Transmission Electron Microscopy Core, part of the Neurosciences Center at Massachusetts General Hospital, aids in elucidating the complex architecture of the nervous system. (
  • Formal courses in scanning and transmission electron microscopy provide training to both graduate and undergraduate students. (
  • Holy shit, transmission microscopy is bloody cool! (
  • We also have the ancillary equipment required for transmission electron microscopy. (
  • The featured discussion is intended to aid in understanding the basics of light detection and to provide a guide for selecting a suitable detector for specific applications in fluorescence microscopy. (
  • Capability of use with ultra-high vacuum makes NREL Scanning Probe Microscopy particularly valuable for certain applications. (
  • Serving a diverse range of industries, we support all types of microscopy applications such as metallurgical and geological samples, chemicals, electronic materials, ceramics, biological samples, particles, residuals and contaminants on various surfaces. (
  • LIGHT MICROSCOPY FOR THE BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES (LMBS) April 9-14, 2000 Carolina Workshops University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill The LMBS workshop provides a solid introduction to the concepts and practical applications of light micros-copy. (
  • Acoustic Microscopy: Fundamentals and Applications. (
  • Light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) is a novel method allowing the digital reconstruction of intact organs or whole animals with sub-cellular resolution within minutes. (
  • Light microscopy delivers high-content images with a spatial resolution of several millimetres down to tens of nanometers. (
  • 1970s, Dubochet developed expertise in dark-field electron microscopy and used the technique to successfully image the tobacco mosaic virus and DNA. (
  • The field is flourishing, and atom probe microscopy is being embraced as a mainstream characterization technique. (
  • Atom Probe Microscopy … provides a much needed update on the topic and introduces the broader scientific community to this developing technique. (
  • The new electron microscopy technique reveals the previously unknown locations of two neuronal proteins called SynCAM1 and SynCAM2. (
  • Popescu's technique, called quantitative phase microscopy, measures the intensity of scattered light close to a cell and compares this with the distance the light has travelled through the cell, in order to detect tiny undulations in the cell's surface. (
  • Serial block-face scanning electron microscopy ( SBEM , SBSEM or SBFSEM ) is a method to generate high resolution three-dimensional images from small samples. (
  • Microscopy refers to any method used to acquire images of nearby objects at resolutions that greatly exceed the resolving ability of the unaided human eye. (
  • The results and images captured must be assessed by qualified and experienced microscopy experts to gain the valuable insight that you will need to solve problems or extend understanding of your materials. (
  • Tandem scanning confocal microscopy was performed on two patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis to provide images detailing characteristic findings of the disease. (
  • B) Tunnel microscopy images of the heterostructures synthesized on gold surfaces. (
  • The SAM was commercially introduced by Leitz Corp and by Olympus Corp. In 1970, the Korpel and Kessler group began to pursue a scanning laser detection system for acoustic microscopy. (
  • More recently, the application of scanning electron microscopy in the biological sciences has enjoyed something of a renaissance, in part because of recent advances in EM technology. (

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