A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The most common of the microsatellite tandem repeats (MICROSATELLITE REPEATS) dispersed in the euchromatic arms of chromosomes. They consist of two nucleotides repeated in tandem; guanine and thymine, (GT)n, is the most frequently seen.
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
Microsatellite repeats consisting of three nucleotides dispersed in the euchromatic arms of chromosomes.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The occurrence of highly polymorphic mono- and dinucleotide MICROSATELLITE REPEATS in somatic cells. It is a form of genome instability associated with defects in DNA MISMATCH REPAIR.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Copies of DNA sequences which lie adjacent to each other in the same orientation (direct tandem repeats) or in the opposite direction to each other (INVERTED TANDEM REPEATS).
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Tandem arrays of moderately repetitive, short (10-60 bases) DNA sequences which are found dispersed throughout the GENOME, at the ends of chromosomes (TELOMERES), and clustered near telomeres. Their degree of repetition is two to several hundred at each locus. Loci number in the thousands but each locus shows a distinctive repeat unit.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
An increased number of contiguous trinucleotide repeats in the DNA sequence from one generation to the next. The presence of these regions is associated with diseases such as FRAGILE X SYNDROME and MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY. Some CHROMOSOME FRAGILE SITES are composed of sequences where trinucleotide repeat expansion occurs.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
MutS homolog 2 protein is found throughout eukaryotes and is a homolog of the MUTS DNA MISMATCH-BINDING PROTEIN. It plays an essential role in meiotic RECOMBINATION and DNA REPAIR of mismatched NUCLEOTIDES.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).
Protein motif that contains a 33-amino acid long sequence that often occurs in tandem arrays. This repeating sequence of 33-amino acids was discovered in ANKYRIN where it is involved in interaction with the anion exchanger (ANION EXCHANGE PROTEIN 1, ERYTHROCYTE). Ankyrin repeats cooperatively fold into domains that mediate molecular recognition via protein-protein interactions.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
A DNA repair pathway involved in correction of errors introduced during DNA replication when an incorrect base, which cannot form hydrogen bonds with the corresponding base in the parent strand, is incorporated into the daughter strand. Excinucleases recognize the BASE PAIR MISMATCH and cause a segment of polynucleotide chain to be excised from the daughter strand, thereby removing the mismatched base. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence.
The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.
A group of autosomal-dominant inherited diseases in which COLON CANCER arises in discrete adenomas. Unlike FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI with hundreds of polyps, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal neoplasms occur much later, in the fourth and fifth decades. HNPCC has been associated with germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. It has been subdivided into Lynch syndrome I or site-specific colonic cancer, and LYNCH SYNDROME II which includes extracolonic cancer.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A type of mutation in which a number of NUCLEOTIDES deleted from or inserted into a protein coding sequence is not divisible by three, thereby causing an alteration in the READING FRAMES of the entire coding sequence downstream of the mutation. These mutations may be induced by certain types of MUTAGENS or may occur spontaneously.
A region of DNA that is highly polymorphic and is prone to strand breaks, rearrangements or other MUTATIONS because of the nature of its sequence. These regions often harbor palindromic, or repetitive sequences (REPETITIVE SEQUENCES, NUCLEIC ACID). Variability in stability of the DNA sequence is seen at CHROMOSOME FRAGILE SITES.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
Copies of nucleic acid sequence that are arranged in opposing orientation. They may lie adjacent to each other (tandem) or be separated by some sequence that is not part of the repeat (hyphenated). They may be true palindromic repeats, i.e. read the same backwards as forward, or complementary which reads as the base complement in the opposite orientation. Complementary inverted repeats have the potential to form hairpin loop or stem-loop structures which results in cruciform structures (such as CRUCIFORM DNA) when the complementary inverted repeats occur in double stranded regions.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An increase number of repeats of a genomic, tandemly repeated DNA sequence from one generation to the next.
An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Establishing the father relationship of a man and a child.
Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.

Superimposed histologic and genetic mapping of chromosome 9 in progression of human urinary bladder neoplasia: implications for a genetic model of multistep urothelial carcinogenesis and early detection of urinary bladder cancer. (1/8354)

The evolution of alterations on chromosome 9, including the putative tumor suppressor genes mapped to the 9p21-22 region (the MTS genes), was studied in relation to the progression of human urinary bladder neoplasia by using whole organ superimposed histologic and genetic mapping in cystectomy specimens and was verified in urinary bladder tumors of various pathogenetic subsets with longterm follow-up. The applicability of chromosome 9 allelic losses as non-invasive markers of urothelial neoplasia was tested on voided urine and/or bladder washings of patients with urinary bladder cancer. Although sequential multiple hits in the MTS locus were documented in the development of intraurothelial precursor lesions, the MTS genes do not seem to represent a major target for p21-23 deletions in bladder cancer. Two additional tumor suppressor genes involved in bladder neoplasia located distally and proximally to the MTS locus within p22-23 and p11-13 regions respectively were identified. Several distinct putative tumor suppressor gene loci within the q12-13, q21-22, and q34 regions were identified on the q arm. In particular, the pericentromeric q12-13 area may contain the critical tumor suppressor gene or genes for the development of early urothelial neoplasia. Allelic losses of chromosome 9 were associated with expansion of the abnormal urothelial clone which frequently involved large areas of urinary bladder mucosa. These losses could be found in a high proportion of urothelial tumors and in voided urine or bladder washing samples of nearly all patients with urinary bladder carcinoma.  (+info)

Level of retinoblastoma protein expression correlates with p16 (MTS-1/INK4A/CDKN2) status in bladder cancer. (2/8354)

Recent studies have shown that patients whose bladder cancer exhibit overexpression of RB protein as measured by immunohistochemical analysis do equally poorly as those with loss of RB function. We hypothesized that loss of p16 protein function could be related to RB overexpression, since p16 can induce transcriptional downregulation of RB and its loss may lead to aberrant RB regulation. Conversely, loss of RB function has been associated with high p16 protein expression in several other tumor types. In the present study RB negative bladder tumors also exhibited strong nuclear p16 staining while each tumor with strong, homogeneous RB nuclear staining were p16 negative, supporting our hypothesis. To expand on these immunohistochemical studies additional cases were selected in which the status of the p16 encoding gene had been determined at the molecular level. Absent p16 and high RB protein expression was found in the tumors having loss of heterozygosity within 9p21 and a structural change (mutation or deletion) of the remaining p16 encoding gene allele, confirming the staining results. These results strongly support the hypothesis that the RB nuclear overexpression recently associated with poor prognosis in bladder cancer is also associated with loss of p16 function and implies that loss of p16 function could be equally deleterious as RB loss in bladder and likely other cancers.  (+info)

Multiple target sites of allelic imbalance on chromosome 17 in Barrett's oesophageal cancer. (3/8354)

Twelve Barrett's adenocarcinomas have been analysed for the occurrence of allelic imbalance (LOH) on chromosome 17 using 41 microsatellite markers. This study provides evidence for 13 minimal regions of LOH, six on 17p and seven on 17q. Four of these centre in the vicinity of the known tumour suppressor genes (TSGs) TP53 (17p13.1), NFI (17q11.2), BRCA1 (17q21.1), and a putative TSG (17p13.3). The tumours all displayed relatively small regions of LOH (1-10 cM), and in several tumours extensive regions of LOH were detected. One tumour displayed only two very small regions of LOH; 17p11.2 and 17p13.1. The frequency of allelic imbalance has been calculated based on the LOH encompassing only one minimal region, and based on all the LOH observations. By both evaluations the highest LOH frequencies were found for regions II (p53), III (17p13.1 centromeric to p53), IV (17p12), V (17p11.2) and VII (NF1, 17q11.2). Our data supports the existence of multiple TSGs on chromosome 17 and challenges the view that p53 is the sole target of LOH on 17p in Barrett's adenocarcinoma.  (+info)

p73 at chromosome 1p36.3 is lost in advanced stage neuroblastoma but its mutation is infrequent. (4/8354)

p73, a novel p53 family member, is a recently identified candidate neuroblastoma (NBL) suppressor gene mapped at chromosome 1p36.33 and was found to inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in cell lines. To test the hypothesis that p73 is a NBL suppressor gene, we analysed the p73 gene in primary human NBLs. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for p73 was observed in 19% (28/151) of informative cases which included 92 mass-screening (MS) tumors. The high frequency of p73 LOH was significantly associated with sporadic NBLs (9% vs 34%, P<0.001), N-myc amplification (10% vs 71%, P<0.001), and advanced stage (14% vs 28%, P<0.05). Both p73alpha and p73beta transcripts were detectable in only 46 of 134 (34%) NBLs at low levels by RT-PCR methods, while they were easily detectable in most breast cancers and colorectal cancers under the same conditions. They found no correlation between p73 LOH and its expression levels (P>0.1). We found two mutations out of 140 NBLs, one somatic and one germline, which result in amino acid substitutions in the C-terminal region of p73 which may affect transactivation functions, though, in the same tumor samples, no mutation of the p53 gene was observed as reported previously. These results suggest that allelic loss of the p73 gene may be a later event in NBL tumorigenesis. However, p73 is infrequently mutated in primary NBLs and may hardly function as a tumor suppressor in a classic Knudson's manner.  (+info)

Genomic organization of the KCNQ1 K+ channel gene and identification of C-terminal mutations in the long-QT syndrome. (5/8354)

The voltage-gated K+ channel KVLQT1 is essential for the repolarization phase of the cardiac action potential and for K+ homeostasis in the inner ear. Mutations in the human KCNQ1 gene encoding the alpha subunit of the KVLQT1 channel cause the long-QT syndrome (LQTS). The autosomal dominant form of this cardiac disease, the Romano-Ward syndrome, is characterized by a prolongation of the QT interval, ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden death. The autosomal recessive form, the Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome, also includes bilateral deafness. In the present study, we report the entire genomic structure of KCNQ1, which consists of 19 exons spanning 400 kb on chromosome 11p15.5. We describe the sequences of exon-intron boundaries and oligonucleotide primers that allow polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of exons from genomic DNA. Two new (CA)n repeat microsatellites were found in introns 10 and 14. The present study provides helpful tools for the linkage analysis and mutation screening of the complete KCNQ1 gene. By use of these tools, five novel mutations were identified in LQTS patients by PCR-single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis in the C-terminal part of KCNQ1: two missense mutations, a 20-bp and 1-bp deletions, and a 1-bp insertion. Such mutations in the C-terminal domain of the gene may be more frequent than previously expected, because this region has not been analyzed so far. This could explain the low percentage of mutations found in large LQTS cohorts.  (+info)

Genomic structure and alterations of homeobox gene CDX2 in colorectal carcinomas. (6/8354)

Expression of CDX2, a caudal-related homeobox gene, was found to be decreased in colorectal carcinomas. Heterozygous null mutant mice as to Cdx2 develop multiple intestinal adenomatous polyps. To clarify the role of CDX2 in colorectal carcinogenesis, we determined its genomic structure, and searched for mutations of CDX2 in 49 sporadic colorectal carcinomas and ten hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancers (HNPCC) without microsatellite instability. None of them exhibited a mutation. We further examined 19 HNPCC carcinomas with microsatellite instability for mutations in a (G)7 repeat site within CDX2. One of them (5.3%) exhibited one G insertion. Loss of heterozygosity was observed in 2 of the 20 (10%) informative sporadic carcinomas, and in one of the three (33.3%) informative HNPCC cancers. These data indicate that CDX2 may play only a minor role in colorectal carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Microsatellite instability, Epstein-Barr virus, mutation of type II transforming growth factor beta receptor and BAX in gastric carcinomas in Hong Kong Chinese. (7/8354)

Microsatellite instability (MI), the phenotypic manifestation of mismatch repair failure, is found in a proportion of gastric carcinomas. Little is known of the links between MI and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status and clinicopathological elements. Examination of genes mutated through the MI mechanism could also be expected to reveal important information on the carcinogenic pathway. Seventy-nine gastric carcinomas (61 EBV negative, 18 EBV positive) from local Hong Kong Chinese population, an intermediate-incidence area, were examined. Eight microsatellite loci, inclusive of the A10 tract of type II transforming growth factor beta receptor (TbetaR-II), were used to evaluate the MI status. MI in the BAX and insulin-like growth factor II receptor (IGF-IIR) genes were also examined. High-level MI (>40% unstable loci) was detected in ten cases (12.7%) and low-level MI (1-40% unstable loci) in three (3.8%). High-level MI was detected in two EBV-associated cases (11%) and the incidence was similar for the EBV-negative cases (13%). The high-level MIs were significantly associated with intestinal-type tumours (P = 0.03) and a more prominent lymphoid infiltrate (P = 0.04). Similar associations were noted in the EBV-positive carcinomas. The high-level MIs were more commonly located in the antrum, whereas the EBV-associated carcinomas were mostly located in body. Thirteen cardia cases were negative for both high-level MI and EBV. All patients aged below 55 were MI negative (P = 0.049). Of the high-level MIs, 80% had mutation in TbetaR-II, 40% in BAX and 0% in IGF-IIR. Of low-level MIs, 33% also had TbetaR-II mutation. These mutations were absent in the MI-negative cases. Of three lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas, two cases were EBV positive and MI negative, one case was EBV negative but with high-level MI. In conclusion, high-level MIs were present regardless of the EBV status, and were found in a particular clinicopathological subset of gastric carcinoma patient. Inactivation of important growth regulatory genes observed in these carcinomas confirms the importance of MI in carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Characterization of a CACAG pentanucleotide repeat in Pasteurella haemolytica and its possible role in modulation of a novel type III restriction-modification system. (8/8354)

In a previous study, a recombinant plasmid that contains a CACAG pentanucleotide repeat was isolated from a Pasteurella haemolytica A1 library. Southern hybridization analysis using a (CACAG)5probe indicated the presence of two loci that contain the pentanucleotide repeats on the genome of P.haemolytica A1. Additional hybridization analyses against genomic DNA from related microorganisms indicated that the repeats are only present in P.haemolytica and Pasteurella trehalosi T3. The various serotypes of P.haemolytica werefound to have either one or two of the CACAG repeat-containing loci. Examination of the locus designated Rpt2 by PCR and sequence analysis indicated that the number of CACAG repeats could change upon serial subculture which most likely occurs as a result of DNA slipped-strand mispairing. A plasmid carrying the Rpt2 locus was isolated and characterized. Sequenceanalysis indicated that the CACAG repeats are contained within the 5'-end of a gene that showed homology to mod genes of type III restriction-modification systems. A second open reading frame downstream was identified which showed homology to res genes of type III restriction-modification systems. Both the modification and restriction proteins could be expressed and polypeptides of the expected sizes were detected by SDS-PAGE. Restriction activity could also be detected in crude cytoplasmic extracts of Escherichia coli strains carrying the mod and res genes on recombinant plasmids.  (+info)

Microsatellite repeats, also known as short tandem repeats (STRs), are repetitive DNA sequences made up of units of 1-6 base pairs that are repeated in a head-to-tail manner. These repeats are spread throughout the human genome and are highly polymorphic, meaning they can have different numbers of repeat units in different individuals.

Microsatellites are useful as genetic markers because of their high degree of variability. They are commonly used in forensic science to identify individuals, in genealogy to trace ancestry, and in medical research to study genetic diseases and disorders. Mutations in microsatellite repeats have been associated with various neurological conditions, including Huntington's disease and fragile X syndrome.

Dinucleotide repeats are a type of simple sequence repeat (SSR) in DNA, which consists of two adjacent nucleotides that are repeated in tandem. In the case of dinucleotide repeats, the repetitive unit is specifically a pair of nucleotides, such as "AT" or "CG." These repeats can vary in length from person to person and can be found throughout the human genome, although they are particularly prevalent in non-coding regions.

Expansions of dinucleotide repeats have been associated with several neurological disorders, including Huntington's disease, myotonic dystrophy, and fragile X syndrome. In these cases, the number of repeat units is unstable and can expand over generations, leading to the onset of disease. The length of the repeat expansion can also correlate with the severity of symptoms.

Satellite DNA is a type of DNA sequence that is repeated in a tandem arrangement in the genome. These repeats are usually relatively short, ranging from 2 to 10 base pairs, and are often present in thousands to millions of copies arranged in head-to-tail fashion. Satellite DNA can be found in centromeric and pericentromeric regions of chromosomes, as well as at telomeres and other heterochromatic regions of the genome.

Due to their repetitive nature, satellite DNAs are often excluded from the main part of the genome during DNA sequencing projects, and therefore have been referred to as "satellite" DNA. However, recent studies suggest that satellite DNA may play important roles in chromosome structure, function, and evolution.

It's worth noting that not all repetitive DNA sequences are considered satellite DNA. For example, microsatellites and minisatellites are also repetitive DNA sequences, but they have different repeat lengths and arrangements than satellite DNA.

Trinucleotide repeats refer to a specific type of DNA sequence expansion where a particular trinucleotide (a sequence made up of three nucleotides) is repeated multiple times. In normal genomic DNA, these repeats are usually present in a relatively stable and consistent range. However, when the number of repeats exceeds a certain threshold, it can result in an unstable genetic variant known as a trinucleotide repeat expansion.

These expansions can occur in various genes and are associated with several neurogenetic disorders, such as Huntington's disease, myotonic dystrophy, fragile X syndrome, and Friedreich's ataxia. The length of the trinucleotide repeat tends to expand further in subsequent generations, which can lead to anticipation – an earlier age of onset and increased severity of symptoms in successive generations.

The most common trinucleotide repeats involve CAG (cytosine-adenine-guanine) or CTG (cytosine-thymine-guanine) repeats, although other combinations like CGG, GAA, and GCT can also be involved. These repeat expansions can result in altered gene function, protein misfolding, aggregation, and toxicity, ultimately leading to the development of neurodegenerative diseases and other clinical manifestations.

An allele is a variant form of a gene that is located at a specific position on a specific chromosome. Alleles are alternative forms of the same gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same locus or position on homologous chromosomes.

Each person typically inherits two copies of each gene, one from each parent. If the two alleles are identical, a person is said to be homozygous for that trait. If the alleles are different, the person is heterozygous.

For example, the ABO blood group system has three alleles, A, B, and O, which determine a person's blood type. If a person inherits two A alleles, they will have type A blood; if they inherit one A and one B allele, they will have type AB blood; if they inherit two B alleles, they will have type B blood; and if they inherit two O alleles, they will have type O blood.

Alleles can also influence traits such as eye color, hair color, height, and other physical characteristics. Some alleles are dominant, meaning that only one copy of the allele is needed to express the trait, while others are recessive, meaning that two copies of the allele are needed to express the trait.

Repetitive sequences in nucleic acid refer to repeated stretches of DNA or RNA nucleotide bases that are present in a genome. These sequences can vary in length and can be arranged in different patterns such as direct repeats, inverted repeats, or tandem repeats. In some cases, these repetitive sequences do not code for proteins and are often found in non-coding regions of the genome. They can play a role in genetic instability, regulation of gene expression, and evolutionary processes. However, certain types of repeat expansions have been associated with various neurodegenerative disorders and other human diseases.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Genetic markers are specific segments of DNA that are used in genetic mapping and genotyping to identify specific genetic locations, diseases, or traits. They can be composed of short tandem repeats (STRs), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), or variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs). These markers are useful in various fields such as genetic research, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and breeding programs. They can help to track inheritance patterns, identify genetic predispositions to diseases, and solve crimes by linking biological evidence to suspects or victims.

Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a genetic phenomenon characterized by alterations in the number of repeat units in microsatellites, which are short repetitive DNA sequences distributed throughout the genome. MSI arises due to defects in the DNA mismatch repair system, leading to accumulation of errors during DNA replication and cell division.

This condition is often associated with certain types of cancer, such as colorectal, endometrial, and gastric cancers. The presence of MSI in tumors may indicate a better prognosis and potential response to immunotherapy, particularly those targeting PD-1 or PD-L1 pathways.

MSI is typically determined through molecular testing, which compares the length of microsatellites in normal and tumor DNA samples. A high level of instability, known as MSI-High (MSI-H), is indicative of a dysfunctional mismatch repair system and increased likelihood of cancer development.

Genetic polymorphism refers to the occurrence of multiple forms (called alleles) of a particular gene within a population. These variations in the DNA sequence do not generally affect the function or survival of the organism, but they can contribute to differences in traits among individuals. Genetic polymorphisms can be caused by single nucleotide changes (SNPs), insertions or deletions of DNA segments, or other types of genetic rearrangements. They are important for understanding genetic diversity and evolution, as well as for identifying genetic factors that may contribute to disease susceptibility in humans.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Chromosome mapping, also known as physical mapping, is the process of determining the location and order of specific genes or genetic markers on a chromosome. This is typically done by using various laboratory techniques to identify landmarks along the chromosome, such as restriction enzyme cutting sites or patterns of DNA sequence repeats. The resulting map provides important information about the organization and structure of the genome, and can be used for a variety of purposes, including identifying the location of genes associated with genetic diseases, studying evolutionary relationships between organisms, and developing genetic markers for use in breeding or forensic applications.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

DNA primers are short single-stranded DNA molecules that serve as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are typically used in laboratory techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The primer binds to a complementary sequence on the DNA template through base pairing, providing a free 3'-hydroxyl group for the DNA polymerase enzyme to add nucleotides and synthesize a new strand of DNA. This allows for specific and targeted amplification or analysis of a particular region of interest within a larger DNA molecule.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

A genome is the complete set of genetic material (DNA, or in some viruses, RNA) present in a single cell of an organism. It includes all of the genes, both coding and noncoding, as well as other regulatory elements that together determine the unique characteristics of that organism. The human genome, for example, contains approximately 3 billion base pairs and about 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes.

The term "genome" was first coined by Hans Winkler in 1920, derived from the word "gene" and the suffix "-ome," which refers to a complete set of something. The study of genomes is known as genomics.

Understanding the genome can provide valuable insights into the genetic basis of diseases, evolution, and other biological processes. With advancements in sequencing technologies, it has become possible to determine the entire genomic sequence of many organisms, including humans, and use this information for various applications such as personalized medicine, gene therapy, and biotechnology.

I must clarify that the term "pedigree" is not typically used in medical definitions. Instead, it is often employed in genetics and breeding, where it refers to the recorded ancestry of an individual or a family, tracing the inheritance of specific traits or diseases. In human genetics, a pedigree can help illustrate the pattern of genetic inheritance in families over multiple generations. However, it is not a medical term with a specific clinical definition.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

Genetic variation refers to the differences in DNA sequences among individuals and populations. These variations can result from mutations, genetic recombination, or gene flow between populations. Genetic variation is essential for evolution by providing the raw material upon which natural selection acts. It can occur within a single gene, between different genes, or at larger scales, such as differences in the number of chromosomes or entire sets of chromosomes. The study of genetic variation is crucial in understanding the genetic basis of diseases and traits, as well as the evolutionary history and relationships among species.

Tandem Repeat Sequences (TRS) in genetics refer to repeating DNA sequences that are arranged directly after each other, hence the term "tandem." These sequences consist of a core repeat unit that is typically 2-6 base pairs long and is repeated multiple times in a head-to-tail fashion. The number of repetitions can vary between individuals and even between different cells within an individual, leading to genetic heterogeneity.

TRS can be classified into several types based on the number of repeat units and their stability. Short Tandem Repeats (STRs), also known as microsatellites, have fewer than 10 repeats, while Minisatellites have 10-60 repeats. Variations in the number of these repeats can lead to genetic instability and are associated with various genetic disorders and diseases, including neurological disorders, cancer, and forensic identification.

It's worth noting that TRS can also occur in protein-coding regions of genes, leading to the production of repetitive amino acid sequences. These can affect protein structure and function, contributing to disease phenotypes.

A genetic locus (plural: loci) is a specific location on a chromosome where a particular gene or DNA sequence is found. It is the precise position where a specific genetic element, such as a gene or marker, is located on a chromsomere. This location is defined in terms of its relationship to other genetic markers and features on the same chromosome. Genetic loci can be used in linkage and association studies to identify the inheritance patterns and potential relationships between genes and various traits or diseases.

Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH) is a term used in genetics to describe the loss of one copy of a gene or a segment of a chromosome, where there was previously a pair of different genes or chromosomal segments (heterozygous). This can occur due to various genetic events such as mutation, deletion, or mitotic recombination.

LOH is often associated with the development of cancer, as it can lead to the loss of tumor suppressor genes, which normally help to regulate cell growth and division. When both copies of a tumor suppressor gene are lost or inactivated, it can result in uncontrolled cell growth and the formation of a tumor.

In medical terms, LOH is used as a biomarker for cancer susceptibility, progression, and prognosis. It can also be used to identify individuals who may be at increased risk for certain types of cancer, or to monitor patients for signs of cancer recurrence.

Population Genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with the genetic composition of populations and how this composition changes over time. It involves the study of the frequency and distribution of genes and genetic variations in populations, as well as the evolutionary forces that contribute to these patterns, such as mutation, gene flow, genetic drift, and natural selection.

Population genetics can provide insights into a wide range of topics, including the history and relationships between populations, the genetic basis of diseases and other traits, and the potential impacts of environmental changes on genetic diversity. This field is important for understanding evolutionary processes at the population level and has applications in areas such as conservation biology, medical genetics, and forensic science.

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the genetic material present in the cells of all living organisms, including plants. In plants, DNA is located in the nucleus of a cell, as well as in chloroplasts and mitochondria. Plant DNA contains the instructions for the development, growth, and function of the plant, and is passed down from one generation to the next through the process of reproduction.

The structure of DNA is a double helix, formed by two strands of nucleotides that are linked together by hydrogen bonds. Each nucleotide contains a sugar molecule (deoxyribose), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. There are four types of nitrogenous bases in DNA: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Adenine pairs with thymine, and guanine pairs with cytosine, forming the rungs of the ladder that make up the double helix.

The genetic information in DNA is encoded in the sequence of these nitrogenous bases. Large sequences of bases form genes, which provide the instructions for the production of proteins. The process of gene expression involves transcribing the DNA sequence into a complementary RNA molecule, which is then translated into a protein.

Plant DNA is similar to animal DNA in many ways, but there are also some differences. For example, plant DNA contains a higher proportion of repetitive sequences and transposable elements, which are mobile genetic elements that can move around the genome and cause mutations. Additionally, plant cells have cell walls and chloroplasts, which are not present in animal cells, and these structures contain their own DNA.

Minisatellites, also known as VNTRs (Variable Number Tandem Repeats), are repetitive DNA sequences that consist of a core repeat unit of 10-60 base pairs, arranged in a head-to-tail fashion. They are often found in non-coding regions of the genome and can vary in the number of times the repeat unit is present in an individual's DNA. This variation in repeat number can occur both within and between individuals, making minisatellites useful as genetic markers for identification and forensic applications. They are also associated with certain genetic disorders and play a role in genome instability.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

Trinucleotide Repeat Expansion is a genetic mutation where a sequence of three DNA nucleotides is repeated more frequently than what is typically found in the general population. In this type of mutation, the number of repeats can expand or increase from one generation to the next, leading to an increased risk of developing certain genetic disorders.

These disorders are often neurological and include conditions such as Huntington's disease, myotonic dystrophy, fragile X syndrome, and Friedreich's ataxia. The severity of these diseases can be related to the number of repeats present in the affected gene, with a higher number of repeats leading to more severe symptoms or an earlier age of onset.

It is important to note that not all trinucleotide repeat expansions will result in disease, and some people may carry these mutations without ever developing any symptoms. However, if the number of repeats crosses a certain threshold, it can lead to genetic instability and an increased risk of disease development.

A heterozygote is an individual who has inherited two different alleles (versions) of a particular gene, one from each parent. This means that the individual's genotype for that gene contains both a dominant and a recessive allele. The dominant allele will be expressed phenotypically (outwardly visible), while the recessive allele may or may not have any effect on the individual's observable traits, depending on the specific gene and its function. Heterozygotes are often represented as 'Aa', where 'A' is the dominant allele and 'a' is the recessive allele.

MutS Homolog 2 (MSH2) Protein is a type of protein involved in the DNA repair process in cells. It is a member of the MutS family of proteins, which are responsible for identifying and correcting mistakes that occur during DNA replication. MSH2 forms a complex with another MutS homolog, MSH6, and this complex plays a crucial role in recognizing and binding to mismatched base pairs in the DNA. Once bound, the complex recruits other proteins to repair the damage and restore the integrity of the DNA. Defects in the MSH2 gene have been linked to an increased risk of certain types of cancer, including hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and uterine cancer.

Genetic linkage is the phenomenon where two or more genetic loci (locations on a chromosome) tend to be inherited together because they are close to each other on the same chromosome. This occurs during the process of sexual reproduction, where homologous chromosomes pair up and exchange genetic material through a process called crossing over.

The closer two loci are to each other on a chromosome, the lower the probability that they will be separated by a crossover event. As a result, they are more likely to be inherited together and are said to be linked. The degree of linkage between two loci can be measured by their recombination frequency, which is the percentage of meiotic events in which a crossover occurs between them.

Linkage analysis is an important tool in genetic research, as it allows researchers to identify and map genes that are associated with specific traits or diseases. By analyzing patterns of linkage between markers (identifiable DNA sequences) and phenotypes (observable traits), researchers can infer the location of genes that contribute to those traits or diseases on chromosomes.

An endangered species is a species of animal, plant, or other organism that is at risk of becoming extinct because its population is declining or threatened by changing environmental or demographic factors. This term is defined and used in the context of conservation biology and wildlife management to identify species that need protection and preservation efforts.

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) maintains a "Red List" of species, categorizing them based on their extinction risk. The categories include "Critically Endangered," "Endangered," "Vulnerable," and "Near Threatened." A species is considered endangered if it meets certain criteria indicating that it faces a very high risk of extinction in the wild.

The primary causes for species to become endangered include habitat loss, fragmentation, degradation, pollution, climate change, overexploitation, and introduction of invasive species. Conservation efforts often focus on protecting habitats, managing threats, and implementing recovery programs to help endangered species recover their populations and reduce the risk of extinction.

The term "DNA, neoplasm" is not a standard medical term or concept. DNA refers to deoxyribonucleic acid, which is the genetic material present in the cells of living organisms. A neoplasm, on the other hand, is a tumor or growth of abnormal tissue that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

In some contexts, "DNA, neoplasm" may refer to genetic alterations found in cancer cells. These genetic changes can include mutations, amplifications, deletions, or rearrangements of DNA sequences that contribute to the development and progression of cancer. Identifying these genetic abnormalities can help doctors diagnose and treat certain types of cancer more effectively.

However, it's important to note that "DNA, neoplasm" is not a term that would typically be used in medical reports or research papers without further clarification. If you have any specific questions about DNA changes in cancer cells or neoplasms, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional or conducting further research on the topic.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

A base pair mismatch is a type of mutation that occurs during the replication or repair of DNA, where two incompatible nucleotides pair up instead of the usual complementary bases (adenine-thymine or cytosine-guanine). This can result in the substitution of one base pair for another and may lead to changes in the genetic code, potentially causing errors in protein synthesis and possibly contributing to genetic disorders or diseases, including cancer.

An ankyrin repeat is a protein structural motif, which is characterized by the repetition of a 33-amino acid long sequence. This motif is responsible for mediating protein-protein interactions and is found in a wide variety of proteins with diverse functions. Ankyrin repeats are known to play a role in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, and ion transport. In particular, ankyrin repeat-containing proteins have been implicated in various human diseases, including cardiovascular disease, neurological disorders, and cancer.

Colorectal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the colon or rectum, which can be benign or malignant. These growths can arise from the inner lining (mucosa) of the colon or rectum and can take various forms such as polyps, adenomas, or carcinomas.

Benign neoplasms, such as hyperplastic polyps and inflammatory polyps, are not cancerous but may need to be removed to prevent the development of malignant tumors. Adenomas, on the other hand, are precancerous lesions that can develop into colorectal cancer if left untreated.

Colorectal cancer is a malignant neoplasm that arises from the uncontrolled growth and division of cells in the colon or rectum. It is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system.

Regular screening for colorectal neoplasms is recommended for individuals over the age of 50, as early detection and removal of precancerous lesions can significantly reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

Gene frequency, also known as allele frequency, is a measure in population genetics that reflects the proportion of a particular gene or allele (variant of a gene) in a given population. It is calculated as the number of copies of a specific allele divided by the total number of all alleles at that genetic locus in the population.

For example, if we consider a gene with two possible alleles, A and a, the gene frequency of allele A (denoted as p) can be calculated as follows:

p = (number of copies of allele A) / (total number of all alleles at that locus)

Similarly, the gene frequency of allele a (denoted as q) would be:

q = (number of copies of allele a) / (total number of all alleles at that locus)

Since there are only two possible alleles for this gene in this example, p + q = 1. These frequencies can help researchers understand genetic diversity and evolutionary processes within populations.

A haplotype is a group of genes or DNA sequences that are inherited together from a single parent. It refers to a combination of alleles (variant forms of a gene) that are located on the same chromosome and are usually transmitted as a unit. Haplotypes can be useful in tracing genetic ancestry, understanding the genetic basis of diseases, and developing personalized medical treatments.

In population genetics, haplotypes are often used to study patterns of genetic variation within and between populations. By comparing haplotype frequencies across populations, researchers can infer historical events such as migrations, population expansions, and bottlenecks. Additionally, haplotypes can provide information about the evolutionary history of genes and genomic regions.

In clinical genetics, haplotypes can be used to identify genetic risk factors for diseases or to predict an individual's response to certain medications. For example, specific haplotypes in the HLA gene region have been associated with increased susceptibility to certain autoimmune diseases, while other haplotypes in the CYP450 gene family can affect how individuals metabolize drugs.

Overall, haplotypes provide a powerful tool for understanding the genetic basis of complex traits and diseases, as well as for developing personalized medical treatments based on an individual's genetic makeup.

DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is a cellular process that helps to correct errors that occur during DNA replication and recombination. This mechanism plays a critical role in maintaining the stability of the genome by reducing the rate of mutations.

The MMR system recognizes and repairs base-base mismatches and small insertions or deletions (indels) that can arise due to slippage of DNA polymerase during replication. The process involves several proteins, including MutSα or MutSβ, which recognize the mismatch, and MutLα, which acts as a endonuclease to cleave the DNA near the mismatch. Excision of the mismatched region is then carried out by exonucleases, followed by resynthesis of the repaired strand using the correct template.

Defects in MMR genes have been linked to various human diseases, including hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and other types of cancer. In HNPCC, mutations in MMR genes lead to an accumulation of mutations in critical genes, which can ultimately result in the development of cancer.

Amino acid repetitive sequences refer to patterns of amino acids that are repeated in a polypeptide chain. These repetitions can vary in length and can be composed of a single type of amino acid or a combination of different types. In some cases, expansions of these repetitive sequences can lead to the production of abnormal proteins that are associated with certain genetic disorders. The expansion of trinucleotide repeats that code for particular amino acids is one example of this phenomenon. These expansions can result in protein misfolding and aggregation, leading to neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease and spinocerebellar ataxias.

Gene flow, also known as genetic migration or gene admixture, refers to the transfer of genetic variation from one population to another. It occurs when individuals reproduce and exchange genes with members of other populations through processes such as migration and interbreeding. This can result in an alteration of the genetic composition of both populations, increasing genetic diversity and reducing the differences between them. Gene flow is an important mechanism in evolutionary biology and population genetics, contributing to the distribution and frequency of alleles (versions of a gene) within and across populations.

Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Neoplasms (HNPCC), also known as Lynch Syndrome, is a genetic disorder that significantly increases the risk of developing colorectal cancer and other types of cancer. It is characterized by the mutation in genes responsible for repairing mistakes in the DNA replication process, specifically the mismatch repair genes (MMR).

HNPCC is typically inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, meaning that a person has a 50% chance of inheriting the mutated gene from an affected parent. The syndrome is associated with the development of colorectal cancer at a younger age, usually before 50 years old, and often in the proximal colon. Individuals with HNPCC also have an increased risk for other cancers, including endometrial, stomach, small intestine, ovary, kidney, brain, and skin (sebaceous gland tumors).

Regular surveillance and screening are crucial for early detection and management of colorectal neoplasms in individuals with HNPCC. This typically includes colonoscopies starting at a younger age and performed more frequently than in the general population. Genetic counseling and testing may also be recommended for family members who may have inherited the mutated gene.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

A frameshift mutation is a type of genetic mutation that occurs when the addition or deletion of nucleotides in a DNA sequence is not divisible by three. Since DNA is read in groups of three nucleotides (codons), which each specify an amino acid, this can shift the "reading frame," leading to the insertion or deletion of one or more amino acids in the resulting protein. This can cause a protein to be significantly different from the normal protein, often resulting in a nonfunctional protein and potentially causing disease. Frameshift mutations are typically caused by insertions or deletions of nucleotides, but they can also result from more complex genetic rearrangements.

An unstable DNA sequence, also known as a "dynamic mutation" or "expansion mutation," refers to a type of genetic variation in which a specific DNA sequence is repeated many more times than usual. These repetitive sequences are prone to expand and contract, meaning that the number of repeats can change from one generation to the next or even within an individual's cells over time.

Unstable DNA sequences are often associated with certain genetic disorders, such as Huntington's disease, myotonic dystrophy, fragile X syndrome, and Friedreich's ataxia. The length of the repeat expansion can influence the severity and age of onset of these conditions. Expansions in some unstable DNA sequences can also increase the risk of developing certain cancers, such as colon cancer and breast cancer.

The instability of these DNA sequences is thought to be due to errors that occur during DNA replication or repair, particularly in regions where the repetitive sequence makes the DNA more difficult to process. Over time, these errors can lead to an accumulation of additional repeats, resulting in an unstable DNA sequence.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geography" is not a term that has a medical definition. Geography is a field of study that deals with the location and distribution of physical and cultural features on Earth's surface, as well as how humans interact with and affect those features. It is not a concept that is typically used in a medical context. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

A LOD (Logarithm of Odds) score is not a medical term per se, but rather a statistical concept that is used in genetic research and linkage analysis to determine the likelihood of a gene or genetic marker being linked to a particular disease or trait. The LOD score compares the odds of observing the pattern of inheritance of a genetic marker in a family if the marker is linked to the disease, versus the odds if the marker is not linked. A LOD score of 3 or higher is generally considered evidence for linkage, while a score of -2 or lower is considered evidence against linkage.

Inverted repeat sequences in a genetic context refer to a pattern of nucleotides (the building blocks of DNA or RNA) where a specific sequence appears in the reverse complementary orientation in the same molecule. This means that if you read the sequence from one end, it will be identical to the sequence read from the other end, but in the opposite direction.

For example, if a DNA segment is 5'-ATGCAT-3', an inverted repeat sequence would be 5'-GTACTC-3' on the same strand or its complementary sequence 3'-CAGTA-5' on the other strand.

These sequences can play significant roles in genetic regulation and expression, as they are often involved in forming hairpin or cruciform structures in single-stranded DNA or RNA molecules. They also have implications in genome rearrangements and stability, including deletions, duplications, and translocations.

Genetic models are theoretical frameworks used in genetics to describe and explain the inheritance patterns and genetic architecture of traits, diseases, or phenomena. These models are based on mathematical equations and statistical methods that incorporate information about gene frequencies, modes of inheritance, and the effects of environmental factors. They can be used to predict the probability of certain genetic outcomes, to understand the genetic basis of complex traits, and to inform medical management and treatment decisions.

There are several types of genetic models, including:

1. Mendelian models: These models describe the inheritance patterns of simple genetic traits that follow Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment. Examples include autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked inheritance.
2. Complex trait models: These models describe the inheritance patterns of complex traits that are influenced by multiple genes and environmental factors. Examples include heart disease, diabetes, and cancer.
3. Population genetics models: These models describe the distribution and frequency of genetic variants within populations over time. They can be used to study evolutionary processes, such as natural selection and genetic drift.
4. Quantitative genetics models: These models describe the relationship between genetic variation and phenotypic variation in continuous traits, such as height or IQ. They can be used to estimate heritability and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that contribute to trait variation.
5. Statistical genetics models: These models use statistical methods to analyze genetic data and infer the presence of genetic associations or linkage. They can be used to identify genetic risk factors for diseases or traits.

Overall, genetic models are essential tools in genetics research and medical genetics, as they allow researchers to make predictions about genetic outcomes, test hypotheses about the genetic basis of traits and diseases, and develop strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

DNA repeat expansion is a genetic alteration in which a particular sequence of DNA base pairs is repeated multiple times. In normal genes, these repeats are relatively short and stable, but in certain diseases, the number of repeats can expand beyond a threshold, leading to changes in the structure or function of the gene. This type of mutation is often associated with neurological and neuromuscular disorders, such as Huntington's disease, myotonic dystrophy, and fragile X syndrome. The expanded repeats can also be unstable and may increase in size over generations, leading to more severe symptoms or earlier age of onset.

Genomic instability is a term used in genetics and molecular biology to describe a state of increased susceptibility to genetic changes or mutations in the genome. It can be defined as a condition where the integrity and stability of the genome are compromised, leading to an increased rate of DNA alterations such as point mutations, insertions, deletions, and chromosomal rearrangements.

Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer cells and can also be observed in various other diseases, including genetic disorders and aging. It can arise due to defects in the DNA repair mechanisms, telomere maintenance, epigenetic regulation, or chromosome segregation during cell division. These defects can result from inherited genetic mutations, acquired somatic mutations, exposure to environmental mutagens, or age-related degenerative changes.

Genomic instability is a significant factor in the development and progression of cancer as it promotes the accumulation of oncogenic mutations that contribute to tumor initiation, growth, and metastasis. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying genomic instability is crucial for developing effective strategies for cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

Adaptor proteins are a type of protein that play a crucial role in intracellular signaling pathways by serving as a link between different components of the signaling complex. Specifically, "signal transducing adaptor proteins" refer to those adaptor proteins that are involved in signal transduction processes, where they help to transmit signals from the cell surface receptors to various intracellular effectors. These proteins typically contain modular domains that allow them to interact with multiple partners, thereby facilitating the formation of large signaling complexes and enabling the integration of signals from different pathways.

Signal transducing adaptor proteins can be classified into several families based on their structural features, including the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain, the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain, and the phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain. These domains enable the adaptor proteins to recognize and bind to specific motifs on other signaling molecules, such as receptor tyrosine kinases, G protein-coupled receptors, and cytokine receptors.

One well-known example of a signal transducing adaptor protein is the growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2), which contains an SH2 domain that binds to phosphotyrosine residues on activated receptor tyrosine kinases. Grb2 also contains an SH3 domain that interacts with proline-rich motifs on other signaling proteins, such as the guanine nucleotide exchange factor SOS. This interaction facilitates the activation of the Ras small GTPase and downstream signaling pathways involved in cell growth, differentiation, and survival.

Overall, signal transducing adaptor proteins play a critical role in regulating various cellular processes by modulating intracellular signaling pathways in response to extracellular stimuli. Dysregulation of these proteins has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and inflammatory disorders.

DNA Mutational Analysis is a laboratory test used to identify genetic variations or changes (mutations) in the DNA sequence of a gene. This type of analysis can be used to diagnose genetic disorders, predict the risk of developing certain diseases, determine the most effective treatment for cancer, or assess the likelihood of passing on an inherited condition to offspring.

The test involves extracting DNA from a patient's sample (such as blood, saliva, or tissue), amplifying specific regions of interest using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and then sequencing those regions to determine the precise order of nucleotide bases in the DNA molecule. The resulting sequence is then compared to reference sequences to identify any variations or mutations that may be present.

DNA Mutational Analysis can detect a wide range of genetic changes, including single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions, deletions, duplications, and rearrangements. The test is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluations to provide a comprehensive assessment of a patient's genetic profile.

It is important to note that not all mutations are pathogenic or associated with disease, and the interpretation of DNA Mutational Analysis results requires careful consideration of the patient's medical history, family history, and other relevant factors.

Nuclear proteins are a category of proteins that are primarily found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. They play crucial roles in various nuclear functions, such as DNA replication, transcription, repair, and RNA processing. This group includes structural proteins like lamins, which form the nuclear lamina, and regulatory proteins, such as histones and transcription factors, that are involved in gene expression. Nuclear localization signals (NLS) often help target these proteins to the nucleus by interacting with importin proteins during active transport across the nuclear membrane.

Human chromosome pair 3 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell in the human body. Each member of the pair is a single chromosome, and together they contain the genetic material that is inherited from both parents. Chromosomes are made up of DNA, which contains the instructions for the development and function of all living organisms.

Human chromosomes are numbered from 1 to 22, with an additional two sex chromosomes (X and Y) that determine biological sex. Chromosome pair 3 is one of the autosomal pairs, meaning it contains genes that are not related to sex determination. Each member of chromosome pair 3 is identical in size and shape and contains a single long DNA molecule that is coiled tightly around histone proteins to form a compact structure.

Chromosome pair 3 is associated with several genetic disorders, including Waardenburg syndrome, which affects pigmentation and hearing; Marfan syndrome, which affects the connective tissue; and some forms of retinoblastoma, a rare eye cancer that typically affects young children.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Paternity is the legal or biological relationship between a father and his child. Medical definitions of paternity often refer to the biological relationship, which is established through genetic testing to identify if a man has transmitted his genetic material to a child. This is typically determined by comparing the DNA of the alleged father and the child. In contrast, legal paternity refers to the establishment of a father-child relationship through court order or other legal means, whether or not the individual is the biological father.

Linkage disequilibrium (LD) is a term used in genetics that refers to the non-random association of alleles at different loci (genetic locations) on a chromosome. This means that certain combinations of genetic variants, or alleles, at different loci occur more frequently together in a population than would be expected by chance.

Linkage disequilibrium can arise due to various factors such as genetic drift, selection, mutation, and population structure. It is often used in the context of genetic mapping studies to identify regions of the genome that are associated with particular traits or diseases. High levels of LD in a region of the genome suggest that the loci within that region are in linkage, meaning they tend to be inherited together.

The degree of LD between two loci can be measured using various statistical methods, such as D' and r-squared. These measures provide information about the strength and direction of the association between alleles at different loci, which can help researchers identify causal genetic variants underlying complex traits or diseases.

Molecular evolution is the process of change in the DNA sequence or protein structure over time, driven by mechanisms such as mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and natural selection. It refers to the evolutionary study of changes in DNA, RNA, and proteins, and how these changes accumulate and lead to new species and diversity of life. Molecular evolution can be used to understand the history and relationships among different organisms, as well as the functional consequences of genetic changes.

Trinucleotide repeats are a subset of a larger class of unstable microsatellite repeats that occur throughout all genomes. The ... Trinucleotide repeat disorders and the related microsatellite repeat disorders affect about 1 in 3,000 people worldwide. ... Three categories of trinucleotide repeat disorders and related microsatellite (4, 5, or 6 repeats) disorders are described by ... This may lead to repeated copying of the repeated sequence, expanding the number of repeats. Additional mechanisms involving ...
Microsatellites are also known as simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Microsatellite instability structure consists of repeated ... each individual has microsatellites of a set length. The most common microsatellite in humans is a dinucleotide repeat of the ... Microsatellites are repeated sequences of DNA. These sequences can be made of units of 1 to 6 base pairs in length that are ... The majority of repeats occur in untranslated regions, specifically introns. However, microsatellites that occur in coding ...
Like the shorter microsatellites, they are classified as variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) and are a type of satellite DNA ... microsatellite A type of satellite DNA consisting of a relatively short sequence of tandem repeats, in which certain motifs ( ... short tandem repeat (STR) See microsatellite. short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) shotgun sequencing silencer A sequence ... simple sequence repeat (SSR) See microsatellite. single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Any substitution of a single nucleotide ...
"Impeding Transcription of Expanded Microsatellite Repeats by Deactivated Cas9". Molecular Cell. 68 (3): 479-490.e5. doi:10.1016 ... CRISPR loci are composed of short, palindromic repeats that occur at regular intervals composed of alternate CRISPR repeats and ... Essentially, when multiple repeat codons are produced, it elicits a response, or recruits an abundance of dCas9 to combat the ... When the dCas9 attaches to a form of RNA called guide-RNA, it prevents the proliferation of repeating codons and DNA sequences ...
Microsatellites in nuclear repeats require longer reads. The following sequencing platforms have been used in genome skimming: ... These repeats can be clustered de novo and their abundance is estimated. The distribution and occurrence of these repeat types ... and nuclear repeats such as microsatellites and transposable elements. It employs high-throughput, next generation sequencing ... Nuclear repeats in the genome are an underused source of phylogenetic data. When the nuclear genome is sequenced at 5% of the ...
Zak, Anatoly (28 November 2017). "Baumanets student micro-satellite repeats the sad fate of its predecessor". RussianSpaceWeb. ...
Between the strand-biased microsatellite repeats and C:G mononucleotide repeats, all sequence variations retained one or two ... The most prevalent repeated sequences in the embedded microsatellite regions were CT:AG, CCT:AGG, CCCT:AGGG, and CGCAC:GTGCG ... Some contained mononucleotide repeats of C:G base pairs approximately 20 bp in length. These strand-biased microsatellite ... The most complex compositionally-biased microsatellite domain of RU included the sequence TTAA:TTAA as well as a mirror repeat ...
SNPSTR is a database of Snpstrs (a microsatellite with one or more tightly linked SNPs). Snpstr Short tandem repeat ... a database of compound microsatellite-SNP markers". Nucleic Acids Res. England. 35 (Database issue): D71-5. doi:10.1093/nar/ ... Microsatellite Single-nucleotide polymorphism Agrafioti, I; Stumpf M P H (Jan 2007). "SNPSTR: ...
A third-related finding is that frequent selection for different responses also enriches for microsatellite repeat tracts, ... His lab's work also elucidated how a mutational mechanism (microsatellite repeat slippage) plays a significant evolutionary ... Brittain, A; Stroebele, E; Erives, A (2015). "Microsatellite repeat instability fuels evolution of embryonic enhancers in ... As indels are largely produced by unstable microsatellite repeats, which are fast-evolving and difficult to genotype accurately ...
Microsatellite regions are usually characterized by short, repeated sequences of nucleotides. Primers that are specific to a ... A microsatellite null allele is an allele at a microsatellite locus that does not amplify to detectable levels in a polymerase ... Paetkau, D.; Strobeck, C. (1995-08-01). "The molecular basis and evolutionary history of a microsatellite null allele in bears ... Dakin, E E; Avise, J C (2004-08-04). "Microsatellite null alleles in parentage analysis". Heredity. 93 (5): 504-509. doi: ...
"Microsatellite tandem repeats are abundant in human promoters and are associated with regulatory elements". PLOS One. 8 (2): ... erratum) Emmanuel Buschiazzo; Neil J Gemmell (1 October 2006). "The rise, fall and renaissance of microsatellites in eukaryotic ... Sterling M Sawaya; Andrew T Bagshaw; Emmanuel Buschiazzo; Neil J Gemmell (1 January 2012). "Promoter microsatellites as ... cost-effective development of species-specific microsatellite markers by genomic sequencing". BioTechniques. 46 (3): 185-192. ...
Microsatellites are repeats of 1-6 base pairs of DNA sequence. Microsatellites are commonly used as a molecular markers ... "Difference Between Minisatellite and Microsatellite". Hou, S.-M. (2002-04-01). "The XPD variant alleles are associated with ...
... microsatellite repeats. They have attempted and succeeded in using this technique to isolate an amount of six microsatellite ... "Vectorette PCR isolation of microsatellite repeat sequences using anchored dinucleotide repeat primers". Nucleic Acids Research ... Further research has experimented with the creation of a method that progresses the isolation of microsatellite repeats. By ... Vectorette PCR was used to uncover SSRs which flank the trinucleotide repeat that was targeted for testing. This is also known ...
Arcot, Santosh S.; Wang, Zhenyuan; Weber, James L.; Deininger, Prescott L.; Batzer, Mark A. (September 1995). "Alu Repeats: A ... Source for the Genesis of Primate Microsatellites". Genomics. 29 (1): 136-144. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.1224. ISSN 0888-7543. PMID ... Jurka, J; Smith, T (1988). "A fundamental division in the Alu family of repeated sequences". Proceedings of the National ... Deininger, Prescott L; Batzer, Mark A (1999). "Alu Repeats and Human Disease". Molecular Genetics and Metabolism. 67 (3): 183- ...
Microsatellite Minisatellite ProRepeat Satellite DNA Tandem Repeats Database Tandem repeat locus Variable number tandem repeats ... Tandem Repeats over the Edit Distance TandemSWAN Microsatellite repeats finder JSTRING - Java Search for Tandem Repeats in ... The Tandem Repeats Database The Microorganisms Tandem Repeats Database Short Tandem Repeats Database Tandem Repeats in major ... Those with fewer are known as microsatellites or short tandem repeats. When exactly two nucleotides are repeated, it is called ...
However, there is no evidence of preferential transmission of AVPR1A microsatellite repeats to hypersexual or uninhibited ... The AVPR1A repeat polymorphism RS3 is a complex (CT)4-TT-(CT)8-(GT)24 repeat that is 3625 bp upstream of the transcription ... The AVPR1A repeat polymorphism RS1 is a (GATA)14 tetranucleotide repeat that is 553 bp upstream from the transcription start ... Chimpanzee populations have individuals with single (only (GT)25 microsatellite) and duplicated (the (GT)25 microsatellite as ...
JSTRING-Java Search for Tandem Repeats In Genomes Microsatellite repeats finder MISA-MIcroSAtellite identification tool MREPATT ... Microsatellite mutation rates vary with base position relative to the microsatellite, repeat type, and base identity. Mutation ... The mutation rate at microsatellite loci depends on the repeat motif sequence, the number of repeated motif units and the ... microsatellite mutations lead to the gain or loss of an entire repeat unit, and sometimes two or more repeats simultaneously. ...
Microsatellite markers (simple sequence repeats (SSRs)) have been used by plant geneticists to determine relationships within ... "Genetic diversity analysis of wild and cultivated Rosa species of India using microsatellite markers and their comparison with ...
These diseases are all caused by the expansion of microsatellite tandem repeats consisting of a stretch of three nucleotides. ... Prominent trinucleotide repeat disorders include Fragile X syndrome and Huntington's disease. In the case of Fragile X syndrome ... Individuals with a number of repeats that falls in the premutation range have a good chance of having affected children. Those ... With each successive generation, there is a chance that the number of repeats will expand. As this occurs, progeny can progress ...
2001.Characterization of duck microsatellite repeat sequences. JARQ 35(4): 217-219. (in Indonesian) Sari L, Purwadaria T. 2004 ...
Zenklusen JC, Bièche I, Lidereau R, Conti CJ (December 1994). "(C-A)n microsatellite repeat D7S522 is the most commonly deleted ...
... genes with somatic frameshift mutations within coding mononucleotide repeats in colorectal tumors with high microsatellite ...
Some families of Helitrons also carry tandem repeats, like microsatellites and minisatellites which are generally highly ... De novo repeat identification approaches which can be used to build consensus libraries of all repeated sequences, but De novo ... A repeat-based search requires extensive manual curation to identify Helitron families, an overwhelming task in large genomes ... These approaches are limited by the quality of the genome assembly and the homogeneity of the repeats. Another approach is ...
Short repeats of nucleotides. Microsatellite: Very short repeats of nucleotides. Some trinucleotide repeats are found in coding ... Repeated sequences are of two basic types: unique sequences that are repeated in one area; and repeated sequences that are ... This region is a microsatellite, but its function is more specific than a simple tandem repeat. Throughout the eukaryotic ... They can be classified based on the length of the repeat as: SINE: Short interspersed sequences. The repeats are normally a few ...
... and microsatellites are often referred to as short tandem repeats (STRs) or simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Minisatellites ... Microsatellite Tandem repeat Telomere Minisatellite at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Repeat turnover therefore appears to be controlled by recombinational activity in DNA that flanks the repeat array and results ... with many repeated copies lying next to each other. Minisatellites and their shorter cousins, the microsatellites, together are ...
... the repeat is referred to as a short tandem repeat (STR) or microsatellite. When the repeating sequence is 10-60 nucleotides ... Tandem repeats are repeated sequences which are directly adjacent to each other in the genome. Tandem repeats may vary in the ... Inverted repeats occur when a nucleotide sequence is repeated in the inverse direction. For example, a direct repeat of "CATCAT ... Repeated sequences (also known as repetitive elements, repeating units or repeats) are short or long patterns of nucleic acids ...
Elevated microsatellite alterations at selected tetranucleotide repeats (EMAST) are a type of MSI where loci containing AAAG or ... Nakajima E, Orimo H, Ikejima M, Shimada T (1996). "Nine-bp repeat polymorphism in exon 1 of the hMSH3 gene". Jpn. J. Hum. Genet ... This leads to a heightened rate of microsatellite instabilities and increased rates of somatic mutations. This effect is ... 2000). "Association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the hMSH3 gene and sporadic colon cancer with microsatellite ...
The mapped microsatellites, or small repeats of DNA, can indicate uniqueness and ability to splice mRNA and other genetic ... Several microsatellites have been mapped onto their alleles, and demonstrates that there are many different alleles present in ... Recently, eight microsatellites were identified that can be considered important in understanding bimodal reproduction in ... "Development of eight microsatellite markers in the parsley frog ( Pelodytes punctatus )". Molecular Ecology Resources. 9 (1): ...
Patel MS, Mankoo BS, Brickell PM (Apr 1992). "A polymorphic microsatellite repeat is located close to the promoter region of ...
The other significant fraction resides in short tandem repeats (STRs; also called microsatellites) consisting of short ... Variations in the number of STR repeats can cause genetic diseases when they lie within a gene but most of these regions appear ... Telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) are transcripts derived from telomeres. TERRA has been shown to maintain telomerase ... Highly repetitive DNA consists of short stretches of DNA that are repeated many times in tandem (one after the other). The ...
David C. Rubinsztein on Microsatellite and trinucleotide repeat expansion diseases, part of a collection of multimedia lectures ... Microsatellite and trinucleotide repeat expansion diseases. *Prof. David C. Rubinsztein - University of Cambridge, UK ... Rubinsztein, D.C. (2020, June 30). Microsatellite and trinucleotide repeat expansion diseases [Video file]. In The Biomedical ... Today Im going to tell you about microsatellites, and trinucleotide repeat expansions diseases. The focus of my talk is going ...
Fragile X syndrome: genetic localisation by linkage mapping of two microsatellite repeats FRAXAC1 and FRAXAC2 which immediately ... Fragile X syndrome: genetic localisation by linkage mapping of two microsatellite repeats FRAXAC1 and FRAXAC2 which immediately ...
Repeat expansions confer WRN dependence in microsatellite-unstable cancers. Authors list. Niek van Wietmarschen Sriram ... Expanded TA repeats form non-B DNA secondary structures that stall replication forks, activate the ATR checkpoint kinase, and ... The RecQ DNA helicase WRN is a synthetic lethal target for cancer cells with microsatellite instability (MSI), a form of ... Here we show that TA-dinucleotide repeats are highly unstable in MSI cells and undergo large-scale expansions, distinct from ...
Interferon-γ (IFNG) microsatellite repeat and single nucleotide pol... - PubMed - NCBI. Infect Genet Evol. 2015 Jan;29:6-14. ... Interferon-γ (IFNG) microsatellite repeat and single nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes of IFN-α receptor (IFNAR1) associated ... A total of 21 SNPs, 2 ins/del polymorphisms and a microsatellite repeat, selected on the basis of their reported association ... In addition, large (CA)n repeats of IFNG intron 1 associated with protection from severe malaria in the endemic region (severe ...
Microsatellite Repeats * Middle East / ethnology * Pedigree * Polydactyly / genetics Substances * Genetic Markers ...
Microsatellite Repeats * Molecular Sequence Data * Open Reading Frames * Parathyroid Neoplasms / chemistry * Parathyroid ...
Trinucleotide repeats are a subset of a larger class of unstable microsatellite repeats that occur throughout all genomes. The ... Trinucleotide repeat disorders and the related microsatellite repeat disorders affect about 1 in 3,000 people worldwide. ... Three categories of trinucleotide repeat disorders and related microsatellite (4, 5, or 6 repeats) disorders are described by ... This may lead to repeated copying of the repeated sequence, expanding the number of repeats. Additional mechanisms involving ...
... telomeric repeats, microsatellite repeat motifs, and Rex retroelements. The 18S - 28S rRNA genes were observed to the ... Eight of 19 microsatellite repeat motifs were dispersedly mapped on different chromosomes suggesting the independent ... amplification of microsatellite repeat motifs in M. albus. Monopterus albus Rex1 (MALRex1) was observed at interstitial sites ... Karyotype and chromosomal localization of rRNA gene clusters, telomeric sequences, and microsatellite repeat motifs in ...
Repeated sequences in CASPASE-5 and FANCD2 but not NF1 are targets for mutation in microsatellite-unstable acute leukemia/ ... Analysis of candidate target genes for mononucleotide repeat mutation in microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) endometrial ... High level microsatellite instability (MSI-H) occurs in about 15% of colorectal cancer (CRCs), either as sporadic cancers or in ... Microsatellite instability (MSI) is an indicator of DNA instability and is caused by abnormalities in DNA mismatch repair (MMR ...
DOC-1 expression correlated with microsatellite status, with significantly decreased expression in microsatellite-unstable cell ... 8 repeat sequence within the 3-UTR of the CDK2-AP1 gene. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the del T mutation results ... in microsatellite-unstable (MSI+) versus microsatellite-stable colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. MSI+ CRC cell lines ... We used direct sequencing to screen for mutations of the poly (T)8 microsatellite-like region in the 3 end of the CDK2-AP1 ...
SSRs, also referred to as brief combination repeats otherwise microsatellites, are made up out of nucleotide repeat units step ... C/Grams mononucleotide repeats taken into account 1.forty and you will step three.30%, respectively. Most of the other SSRs was ... However, how many Good/T mononucleotide repeats of L. villosa are , that was greater than those of your own most other thirteen ... Although not, hexa-nucleotide repeats have been imagined in only the fresh new cp genomes from L. siamica, L. intermedia, T. ...
Simple repeats contained both microsatellites and low complexity (e.g., AT-rich). Abbreviations of repeats: short interspersed ... The lower graph represents the portion of repeats distributed in the variants. Repeat classes were defined by the repeat ... A) The number CNVs in the Korean population and the portion of the repeats in a specific length range. The conserved CNVs were ... Repeat composition analyses of CNV regions revealed that deletions smaller than 5K and duplications smaller than 10K contained ...
These areas are termed microsatellite regions. Certain patients have marked instability in the microsatellite repeats ... This class of therapeutics has shown promising activity for CRC with microsatellite instability, but not for microsatellite ... The resulting changes in sequence length, known as microsatellite instability, are a hallmark of LS. Microsatellite instability ... A rare form of hypermutated microsatellite-stable tumor results from mutation in the POLE gene, which plays a critical role in ...
Molecular mechanisms that govern microsatellite repeat pathology. Disease areas of high interest include but are not limited to ... Molecular mechanisms that modulate pathological repeat length, repeat transcription or translation, or toxic gain-of-function ... Repeat Expansion Over fifty diseases, most of which primarily affect the nervous system, are caused by expansion of short DNA ... Modifiers of expanded repeat disorders. *Pharmacologic chaperones and other modifiers of protein trafficking, misfolding, or ...
Mol Ecol Notes 4: 55 704-706. 56 57 Faircloth BC (2008) msatcommander: detection of microsatellite 58 repeat arrays and ... microsatellite motifs between 2 and 6 bp (with a minimum repeat length of 8) in MSATCOMMANDER v. 0.8.2 28 ... Faircloth 2008). We identified 1495 contigs containing microsatellite repeats, for which we designed primers 29 ... MSATCOMMANDER: Detection of microsatellite repeat arrays and automated, locus-specific primer design ...
... four were trinucleotide repeats, and five were tetranucleotide repeats. Sequences of the microsatellite loci as they appear in ... accepting dinucleotide repeats of ≥10, trinucleotide repeats of ≥8, and tetranucleotide repeats of ≥8. One hundred out of ... MSATCOMMANDER: Detection of microsatellite repeat arrays and automated, locus-specific primer design. Molecular Ecology ... Primers could be designed for 91 contigs containing repeats, including 54 di-, 19 tri-, and 18 tetranucleotide repeats. Primers ...
Fragments of Interrupted Repeats Joined by RepeatMasker ID. Microsatellite. hide. dense. squish. pack. full. Microsatellites - ... Simple Repeats. hide. dense. squish. pack. full. Simple Tandem Repeats by TRF. ... Di-nucleotide and Tri-nucleotide Repeats. RepeatMasker Viz.. hide. dense. full. Detailed Visualization of RepeatMasker ...
Fragments of Interrupted Repeats Joined by RepeatMasker ID. Microsatellite. hide. dense. squish. pack. full. Microsatellites - ... Simple Repeats. hide. dense. squish. pack. full. Simple Tandem Repeats by TRF. ... Di-nucleotide and Tri-nucleotide Repeats. RepeatMasker Viz.. hide. dense. full. Detailed Visualization of RepeatMasker ...
Construction of dense genetic linkage maps of apple cultivars Kaşel-41and Williams Pride by simple sequence repeat markers ... Pride by simple sequence repeat markers," Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry: Vol. 39: No. 6, Article 13. https://doi. ...
SSR Genetic Markers . Microsatellites (Simple Sequence Repeats: SSRs). Used for mapping the human genome--the main marker ... Recombinant DNA Technology - SSR Genetic Markers . Microsatellites (Simple Sequence Repeats: SSRs). Used for mapping the human ...
heredity: Repetitive DNA: Microsatellite DNA is composed of tandem repeats of two nucleotide pairs that are dispersed ... Minisatellite DNA, sometimes called variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs), is composed of blocks of longer repeats also ...
Fragments of Interrupted Repeats Joined by RepeatMasker ID. Microsatellite. hide. dense. squish. pack. full. Microsatellites - ... Simple Repeats. hide. dense. squish. pack. full. Simple Tandem Repeats by TRF. ... Di-nucleotide and Tri-nucleotide Repeats. RepeatMasker Viz.. hide. dense. full. Detailed Visualization of RepeatMasker ...
Fragments of Interrupted Repeats Joined by RepeatMasker ID. Microsatellite. hide. dense. squish. pack. full. Microsatellites - ... Simple Repeats. hide. dense. squish. pack. full. Simple Tandem Repeats by TRF. ... Di-nucleotide and Tri-nucleotide Repeats. RepeatMasker Viz.. hide. dense. full. Detailed Visualization of RepeatMasker ...
Microsatellites are short tandemly repeated DNA sequences, which are frequently favored as genetic markers due to their high ... Microsatellites are tandemly repeated short DNA sequences that are favored as molecular-genetic markers due to their high ... The cucumber genome is rich in microsatellites; AT and AAG are the most abundant repeat motifs in genomic and EST sequences of ... Microsatellites are tandemly repeated simple sequence DNA motifs widely prevalent in eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes. In ...
The gene mutations in MMR produce an environment of genetic instability in small repeated gene sequences called microsatellites ...
A high-resolution map of genes, microsatellite markers, and new dinucleotide repeats from UBE1 to the GATA locus in the region ...
One of the most common types of insertion/deletion variants are tandem repeats (also known as microsatellites). Tandem repeats ... Tandem repeats that contain more than 50 nucleotides are considered structural variants; in fact, such large tandem repeats ... Historically, tandem repeats have been used for building maps of the human genome and DNA profiling in forensics applications. ... Different chromosomes can vary in the number of times such short nucleotide stretches are repeated, ranging from a few times to ...
Fragments of Interrupted Repeats Joined by RepeatMasker ID. Microsatellite. hide. dense. squish. pack. full. Microsatellites - ... Simple Repeats. hide. dense. squish. pack. full. Simple Tandem Repeats by TRF. ... Di-nucleotide and Tri-nucleotide Repeats. RepeatMasker Viz.. hide. dense. full. Detailed Visualization of RepeatMasker ...
Fragments of Interrupted Repeats Joined by RepeatMasker ID. Microsatellite. hide. dense. squish. pack. full. Microsatellites - ... Simple Repeats. hide. dense. squish. pack. full. Simple Tandem Repeats by TRF. ... Di-nucleotide and Tri-nucleotide Repeats. RepeatMasker Viz.. hide. dense. full. Detailed Visualization of RepeatMasker ...
  • microsatellite markers are available for the species (Bro wn et al. (researchgate.net)
  • To date, highly variable markers such as microsatellites have only been developed for the photobionts of two lichen species, namely Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. (bioone.org)
  • Pseudomolecules as well as unmapped scaffolds were used for the bulk mining of SSR markers and for the construction of the first globe artichoke microsatellite marker database. (researchgate.net)
  • scolymus) has been used to catalog the genome's content of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. (researchgate.net)
  • A high-resolution map of genes, microsatellite markers, and new dinucleotide repeats from UBE1 to the GATA locus in the region Xp11.23. (medscape.com)
  • Microsatellite markers are used for individual identification and, for paternity analysis in humans and animals. (genomia.cz)
  • We performed a genome-wide linkage scan using highly polymorphic microsatellite markers. (duke.edu)
  • In genetic diversity studies, the most frequently used markers are microsatellites. (intechopen.com)
  • Microsatellite instability analysis was carried out using two mononucleotide repeat markers BAT25 and BAT26. (helsinki.fi)
  • This field of genetics emerged from the availability of several studies with classical molecular markers, such as isozymes, RAPD, AFLP, and microsatellites. (intechopen.com)
  • Many regions of the genome (exons, introns, intergenic regions) normally contain trinucleotide sequences, or repeated sequences of one particular nucleotide, or sequences of 2, 4, 5 or 6 nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The modules are used to 1) identify the subset of paired-end sequences that pass Illumina quality standards, 2) align paired-end reads into a single composite DNA sequence, and 3) identify sequences that possess microsatellites (both simple and compound) conforming to user-specified parameters. (usgs.gov)
  • Sequences repeated in tandems (microsatellites) are used for parentage testing. (genomia.cz)
  • These microsatellites contain sequences repeated in tandems from two to seven base pairs. (genomia.cz)
  • Microsatellites (Short sequence repeats, SSRs, Short tandem repeats): are short (1-6bp) repeating sequences in genetic code. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Microsatellite instability (or MSI) is defined by the National Cancer Institute as a change that occurs in the DNA of certain cells, such as tumor cells, in which the number of repeats of microsatellites (short, repeated sequences of DNA) is different from the number of repeats that was in the DNA when it was inherited. (merck.com)
  • The DNA in our cells also contains segments of short repetitive DNA sequences called microsatellites. (ccalliance.org)
  • Low Levels of Microsatellite Instability at Simple Repeated Sequences Commonly Occur in Human. (iiarjournals.org)
  • Identification of two polymorphic microsatellite repeats on a bovine TNFA-containing BAC clone. (fbn-dummerstorf.de)
  • Results using polymorphic microsatellite repeats confirmed that the additional material in the trip(15) was maternal in origin and included several PWASCR loci. (bmj.com)
  • For instance, if you've got a mutation caused by triplet repeat expansion, for instance in the Huntington's gene, where the trinucleotide repeats a CAG, you might have 17 CAGs in a normal chromosome. (hstalks.com)
  • Trinucleotide repeat disorders, also known as microsatellite expansion diseases, are a set of over 50 genetic disorders caused by trinucleotide repeat expansion, a kind of mutation in which repeats of three nucleotides (trinucleotide repeats) increase in copy numbers until they cross a threshold above which they cause developmental, neurological or neuromuscular disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • The microsatellite search algorithm is extremely efficient, and we have used it to identify repeats with motifs from 2 to 25bp in length. (usgs.gov)
  • Trinucleotide repeats are a subset of a larger class of unstable microsatellite repeats that occur throughout all genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery that trinucleotide repeats could expand during intergenerational transmission and could cause disease was the first evidence that not all disease-causing mutations are stably transmitted from parent to offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of this, mononucleotide repeats can get play a very essential role during the genetic type compared to the almost every other SSRs. (awakeinsurancenc.com)
  • The SSRs were categorized for the numbers of repeats present, their overall length and were allocated to their linkage group. (researchgate.net)
  • However, the frequency of occurrence of any one particular repeat sequence disorder varies greatly by ethnic group and geographic location. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes, a person may have more than the usual number of copies of a repeat sequence associated with a gene, but not enough to alter the function of that gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • SSR_pipeline is a flexible set of programs designed to efficiently identify simple sequence repeats (e.g., microsatellites) from paired-end high-throughput Illumina DNA sequencing data. (usgs.gov)
  • CIENCIASMEDICASNEWS: Interferon-γ (IFNG) microsatellite repeat and single nucleotide pol. (blogspot.com)
  • Interferon-γ (IFNG) microsatellite repeat and single nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes of IFN-α receptor (IFNAR1) associated with enhanced malaria susceptibility in Indian populations. (blogspot.com)
  • Although not, hexa-nucleotide repeats have been imagined in only the fresh new cp genomes from L. siamica, L. intermedia, T. natans and you can L. salicaria. (awakeinsurancenc.com)
  • It actually was previously found that mono-nucleotide repeats was in fact wealthiest during the Fritillaria, Lilium and you can Epimedium [twenty-two, 40]. (awakeinsurancenc.com)
  • Today I'm going to tell you about microsatellites, and trinucleotide repeat expansions diseases. (hstalks.com)
  • Here we show that TA-dinucleotide repeats are highly unstable in MSI cells and undergo large-scale expansions, distinct from previously described insertion or deletion mutations of a few nucleotides5. (crick.ac.uk)
  • The first main category these authors discuss is repeat expansions located within the promoter region of a gene or located close to, but upstream of, a promoter region of a gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this second type of disorder, large repeat expansions in DNA are transcribed into pathogenic RNAs that form nuclear RNA foci. (wikipedia.org)
  • Translation of these repeat expansions occurs mostly through two mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients carry from 230 to 4000 CGG repeats in the gene that causes fragile X syndrome, while unaffected individuals have up to 50 repeats and carriers of the disease have 60 to 230 repeats. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is often increased methylation at CpG islands near the repeat region, resulting in a closed chromatin state, causing gene downregulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tandem repeats are short stretches of nucleotides that are repeated multiple times and are highly variable among people. (genome.gov)
  • These diseases are all caused by microsatellite mutations, where a microsatellite either has three bases, four bases, five bases, or six bases, and these mutations result in excess numbers of copy of these particular units. (hstalks.com)
  • The third main category of trinucleotide repeat disorders and related microsatellite disorders is due to the translation of repeat sequenced into pathogenic proteins containing a stretch of repeated amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the twenty two Lythraceae types, A/T mononucleotide repeats taken into account and you will %, respectively. (awakeinsurancenc.com)
  • C/Grams mononucleotide repeats taken into account 1.forty and you will step three.30%, respectively. (awakeinsurancenc.com)
  • Additionally, the number of An excellent/T mononucleotide repeats for the D. grandiflora, T. natans, L. salicaria, L. intermis, P. granatum, W. fruticosa, R. rotundifolia and you will H. myrtifolia had been more thirteen Lagerstroemia types, ranging from 71 so you're able to -103. (awakeinsurancenc.com)
  • Among the many fourteen Lagerstroemia types, the number of Good mononucleotide repeats ranged regarding 54 to help you 58, that have T mononucleotide repeats ranging from 65 so you're able to 71, except into the L. villosa. (awakeinsurancenc.com)
  • Such performance demonstrate that the brand new An excellent/T mononucleotide repeats amounts in identical genus was similar. (awakeinsurancenc.com)
  • However, how many Good/T mononucleotide repeats of L. villosa are , that was greater than those of your own most other thirteen Lagerstroemia kinds. (awakeinsurancenc.com)
  • A total of 21 SNPs, 2 ins/del polymorphisms and a microsatellite repeat, selected on the basis of their reported association with infectious diseases including malaria in world populations, were analysed for association with Plasmodium falciparum malaria susceptibility in a case-control study with adult patients and ethnically-matched controls drawn from a disease meso- to hyperendemic and a nonendemic region of India. (blogspot.com)
  • Microsatellites are causative agents in a variety of diseases. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Fragile X syndrome: genetic localisation by linkage mapping of two microsatellite repeats FRAXAC1 and FRAXAC2 which immediately flank the fragile site. (cnrs.fr)
  • Microsatellites are inherited in Mendelian manner. (genomia.cz)
  • The tumor cells in these patients may end up with too many microsatellite DNA repeats compared with their healthy cells. (ccalliance.org)
  • The RecQ DNA helicase WRN is a synthetic lethal target for cancer cells with microsatellite instability (MSI), a form of genetic hypermutability that arises from impaired mismatch repair1-4. (crick.ac.uk)
  • The inconsistent number of repeats is a biomarker for high microsatellite instability (MSI-H) and most likely dMMR. (ccalliance.org)
  • One of the most common types of insertion/deletion variants are tandem repeats (also known as microsatellites). (genome.gov)
  • Each offspring has to correspond with a parent in 50% of each microsatellite marker. (genomia.cz)
  • Size of a marker (number of base pair in a microsatellite) is detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequent fragment analysis. (genomia.cz)
  • These repeats are able to promote localized DNA epigenetic changes such as methylation of cytosines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first trinucleotide repeat disease to be identified was fragile X syndrome, which has since been mapped to the long arm of the X chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second DNA-triplet repeat disease, fragile X-E syndrome, was also identified on the X chromosome, but was found to be the result of an expanded CCG repeat. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, this inference assumed that all copies of the 9-repeat allele were identical by descent and that the geographic distribution of this allele had not been influenced by natural selection. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Stage II patients with high microsatellite instability (MSI-H) have a better prognosis and do not benefit from 5-FU adjuvant treatment. (medscape.com)
  • The epigenetic alterations and their effects are described more fully by Barbé and Finkbeiner These authors cite evidence that the age at which an individual begins to experience symptoms, as well as the severity of disease, is determined both by the size of the repeat and the epigenetic state within the repeat and around the repeat. (wikipedia.org)
  • We further show that the Illumina platform is capable of identifying large numbers of microsatellites, even when using unenriched sample libraries and a very small percentage of the sequencing capacity from a single DNA sequencing run. (usgs.gov)
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridisation and PCR amplification of microsatellite repeats were used to show that she had a de novo unbalanced translocation resulting in partial trisomy for 16q and partial monosomy for 15q (46,XX, -15, tder(15)t(15;16)(q26.1;q22). (bmj.com)
  • A population conazole resistance alone is of concern, but widespread genetic analysis of microsatellites showed the existence of azole cross-resistance would be devastating. (cdc.gov)
  • Haplotypic Background of a Private Allele at High Frequency in the Americas: Recently, the observation of a high-frequency private allele, the 9-repeat allele at microsatellite D9S1120, in all sampled Native American and Western Beringian populations has been interpreted as evidence that all modern Native Americans descend primarily from a single founding population. (scienceblogs.com)
  • DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is a quality control and "spell checking" process that makes sure the DNA is copied without errors and that the number of microsatellite repeats remains the same in all the cells. (ccalliance.org)
  • Trinucleotide repeat disorders and the related microsatellite repeat disorders affect about 1 in 3,000 people worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some carriers, during the formation of eggs or sperm, may give rise to higher levels of repetition of the repeat they carry. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA is considered stable when the number of microsatellite repeats is the same in all the cells of the body, also referred to as microsatellite stable or MSS. (ccalliance.org)