The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.
A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.
Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).
Neuropeptides of about 40 amino acids which are structurally similar to CORTICOTROPIN-RELEASING FACTOR. Unlike CRF acting primarily through type 1 CRF RECEPTORS, urocortins signal preferentially through type 2 CRF receptors. Urocortins have wide tissue distribution from fish to mammals, and diverse functions. In mammals, urocortins can suppress food intake, delays gastric emptying, and decreases heat-induced edema.
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)
An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.
A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.
Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Central gray matter surrounding the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT in the MESENCEPHALON. Physiologically it is probably involved in RAGE reactions, the LORDOSIS REFLEX; FEEDING responses, bladder tonus, and pain.
A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Portion of midbrain situated under the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI. The two ventrolateral cylindrical masses or peduncles are large nerve fiber bundles providing a tract of passage between the FOREBRAIN with the HINDBRAIN. Ventral MIDBRAIN also contains three colorful structures: the GRAY MATTER (PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY), the black substance (SUBSTANTIA NIGRA), and the RED NUCLEUS.
A broad-spectrum excitatory amino acid antagonist used as a research tool.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Transforming proteins coded by fos oncogenes. These proteins have been found in the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses which induce osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The FBJ-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p55-kDa protein and the FBR-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p75-kDa fusion protein.
The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.
Drugs that bind to and activate cholinergic receptors.
Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS.
A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
A neurotoxic isoxazole (similar to KAINIC ACID and MUSCIMOL) found in AMANITA mushrooms. It causes motor depression, ataxia, and changes in mood, perceptions and feelings, and is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist.
The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.
Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.
A GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID derivative that is a specific agonist of GABA-B RECEPTORS. It is used in the treatment of MUSCLE SPASTICITY, especially that due to SPINAL CORD INJURIES. Its therapeutic effects result from actions at spinal and supraspinal sites, generally the reduction of excitatory transmission.
Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.
A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA-A RECEPTORS thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous GABA-A RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
A serotonin 1A-receptor agonist that is used experimentally to test the effects of serotonin.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Nuclei of the trigeminal nerve situated in the brain stem. They include the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), the principal sensory nucleus, the mesencephalic nucleus, and the motor nucleus.
The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
An enkephalin analog that selectively binds to the MU OPIOID RECEPTOR. It is used as a model for drug permeability experiments.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate SEROTONIN RECEPTORS. Many serotonin receptor agonists are used as ANTIDEPRESSANTS; ANXIOLYTICS; and in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.
Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.
Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.
Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate serotonin receptors, thereby blocking the actions of serotonin or SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.
Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.
Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.
A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.

Inducible long-term gene expression in brain with adeno-associated virus gene transfer. (1/4631)

Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors hold promise for treating a number of neurological disorders due to the ability to deliver long-term gene expression without toxicity or immune response. Critical to these endeavors will be controlled expression of the therapeutic gene in target cells. We have constructed and tested a dual cassette rAAV vector carrying a reporter gene under the control of the tetracycline-responsive system and the tetracycline transactivator. Transduction in vitro resulted in stable expression from the vector that can be suppressed 20-fold by tetracycline treatment. In vivo experiments, carried out to 6 weeks, demonstrated that vector-transduced expression is sustained until doxycycline administration upon which reporter gene expression is reduced. Moreover, the suppression of vector-driven expression can be reversed by removal of the drug. These studies demonstrate long-term regulated gene expression from rAAV vectors. This system will provide a valuable approach for controlling vector gene expression both in vitro and in vivo.  (+info)

Astrocyte-specific expression of tyrosine hydroxylase after intracerebral gene transfer induces behavioral recovery in experimental parkinsonism. (2/4631)

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the depletion of dopamine in the caudate putamen. Dopamine replacement with levodopa, a precursor of the neurotransmitter, is presently the most common treatment for this disease. However, in an effort to obtain better therapeutic results, tissue or cells that synthesize catecholamines have been grafted into experimental animals and human patients. In this paper, we present a novel technique to express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the host's own astrocytes. This procedure uses a transgene in which the expression of a TH cDNA is under the control of a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter, which confers astrocyte-specific expression and also increases its activity in response to brain injury. The method was tested in a rat model of Parkinson's disease produced by lesioning the striatum with 6-hydroxydopamine. Following microinjection of the transgene into the denervated striatum as a DNA-liposome complex, expression of the transgene was detected by RT-PCR and TH protein was observed specifically in astrocytes by using double-labeling immunofluorescence for GFAP and TH coupled with laser confocal microscopy. Efficacy was demonstrated by significant behavioral recovery, as assessed by a decrease in the pharmacologically induced turning behavior generated by the unilateral denervation of the rat striatum. These results suggest this is a valuable technique to express molecules of therapeutic interest in the brain.  (+info)

An intact sperm nuclear matrix may be necessary for the mouse paternal genome to participate in embryonic development. (3/4631)

We have been interested in determining the minimally required elements in the sperm head that are necessary in order for the paternal genome to participate in embryogenesis. We used an ionic detergent, mixed alkyltrimethylammonium bromide (ATAB), plus dithiothreitol (DTT) to remove the acrosome and almost all of the perinuclear theca, leaving only the sperm nucleus morphologically intact. We also tested the stability of the sperm nuclear matrix by the ability to form nuclear halos. Sperm nuclei washed in freshly prepared 0.5% ATAB + 2 mM DTT completely decondensed when extracted with salt, but nuclei washed in the same buffer that was 1 wk old, and then extracted with salt, produced nuclear halos, indicating stable nuclear matrices. When we treated sperm heads with freshly prepared ATAB+DTT and injected them into oocytes, none of the oocytes developed into live offspring. In contrast, sperm heads treated in the same way but with 1-wk-old ATAB+DTT solution could support development of about 30% of the oocytes to live offspring. Electron microscopy demonstrated that most of the perinuclear theca had been removed in both cases. These data suggest that at least in the mouse, the only component of the spermatozoa that is crucial for participation in embryologic development is the sperm nucleus with a stable nuclear matrix.  (+info)

A novel trans-complementation assay suggests full mammalian oocyte activation is coordinately initiated by multiple, submembrane sperm components. (4/4631)

To initiate normal embryonic development, an egg must receive a signal to become activated at fertilization. We here report that the ability of demembranated sperm heads to activate is abolished after incubation over the range 20-44 degreesC and is sensitive to reducing agents. On the basis of this observation, we have developed a microinjection-based, trans-complementation assay in order to dissect the heat-inactivated sperm-borne oocyte-activating factor(s) (SOAF). We demonstrate that the failure of heat-inactivated sperm heads to activate an egg is rescued by coinjection with dithiothreitol-solubilized SOAF from demembranated sperm heads. The solubilized SOAF (SOAFs) is trypsin sensitive and is liberated from demembranated heads in a temperature-dependent manner that inversely correlates with the ability of sperm heads to activate. This argues that SOAFs is a proteinaceous molecular species required to initiate activation. Injection of oocytes with mouse or hamster sperm cytosolic factors, but not SOAFs alone, induced resumption of meiosis, further suggesting that these cytosolic factors and SOAF are distinct. Collectively, these data strongly suggest that full mammalian oocyte activation is initiated by the coordinated action of one or more heat-sensitive protein constituents of the perinuclear matrix and at least one heat-stable submembrane component.  (+info)

PrKX is a novel catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulated by the regulatory subunit type I. (5/4631)

The human X chromosome-encoded protein kinase X (PrKX) belongs to the family of cAMP-dependent protein kinases. The catalytically active recombinant enzyme expressed in COS cells phosphorylates the heptapeptide Kemptide (LRRASLG) with a specific activity of 1.5 micromol/( Using surface plasmon resonance, high affinity interactions were demonstrated with the regulatory subunit type I (RIalpha) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (KD = 10 nM) and the heat-stable protein kinase inhibitor (KD = 15 nM), but not with the type II regulatory subunit (RIIalpha, KD = 2.3 microM) under physiological conditions. Kemptide and autophosphorylation activities of PrKX are strongly inhibited by the RIalpha subunit and by protein kinase inhibitor in vitro, but only weakly by the RIIalpha subunit. The inhibition by the RIalpha subunit is reversed by addition of nanomolar concentrations of cAMP (Ka = 40 nM), thus demonstrating that PrKX is a novel, type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase that is activated at lower cAMP concentrations than the holoenzyme with the Calpha subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Microinjection data clearly indicate that the type I R subunit but not type II binds to PrKX in vivo, preventing the translocation of PrKX to the nucleus in the absence of cAMP. The RIIalpha subunit is an excellent substrate for PrKX and is phosphorylated in vitro in a cAMP-independent manner. We discuss how PrKX can modulate the cAMP-mediated signal transduction pathway by preferential binding to the RIalpha subunit and by phosphorylating the RIIalpha subunit in the absence of cAMP.  (+info)

Cannabinoid suppression of noxious heat-evoked activity in wide dynamic range neurons in the lumbar dorsal horn of the rat. (6/4631)

The effects of cannabinoid agonists on noxious heat-evoked firing of 62 spinal wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons were examined in urethan-anesthetized rats (1 cell/animal). Noxious thermal stimulation was applied with a Peltier device to the receptive fields in the ipsilateral hindpaw of isolated WDR neurons. To assess the site of action, cannabinoids were administered systemically in intact and spinally transected rats and intraventricularly. Both the aminoalkylindole cannabinoid WIN55,212-2 (125 microg/kg iv) and the bicyclic cannabinoid CP55,940 (125 microg/kg iv) suppressed noxious heat-evoked activity. Responses evoked by mild pressure in nonnociceptive neurons were not altered by CP55,940 (125 microg/kg iv), consistent with previous observations with another cannabinoid agonist, WIN55,212-2. The cannabinoid induced-suppression of noxious heat-evoked activity was blocked by pretreatment with SR141716A (1 mg/kg iv), a competitive antagonist for central cannabinoid CB1 receptors. By contrast, intravenous administration of either vehicle or the receptor-inactive enantiomer WIN55,212-3 (125 microg/kg) failed to alter noxious heat-evoked activity. The suppression of noxious heat-evoked activity induced by WIN55,212-2 in the lumbar dorsal horn of intact animals was markedly attenuated in spinal rats. Moreover, intraventricular administration of WIN55,212-2 suppressed noxious heat-evoked activity in spinal WDR neurons. By contrast, both vehicle and enantiomer were inactive. These findings suggest that cannabinoids selectively modulate the activity of nociceptive neurons in the spinal dorsal horn by actions at CB1 receptors. This modulation represents a suppression of pain neurotransmission because the inhibitory effects are selective for pain-sensitive neurons and are observed with different modalities of noxious stimulation. The data also provide converging lines of evidence for a role for descending antinociceptive mechanisms in cannabinoid modulation of spinal nociceptive processing.  (+info)

Incompetence of preovulatory mouse oocytes to undergo cortical granule exocytosis following induced calcium oscillations. (7/4631)

Immature oocytes of many species are incompetent to undergo cortical granule (CG) exocytosis upon fertilization. In mouse eggs, CG exocytosis is dependent primarily on an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-mediated elevation of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i). While deficiencies upstream of [Ca2+]i release are known, this study examined whether downstream deficiencies also contribute to the incompetence of preovulatory mouse oocytes to release CGs. The experimental strategy was to bypass upstream deficiencies by inducing normal, fertilization-like [Ca2+]i oscillations in fully grown, germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes and determine if the extent of CG exocytosis was restored to levels observed in mature, metaphase II (MII)-stage eggs. Because IP3 does not stimulate a normal Ca2+ response in GV-stage oocytes, three alternate methods were used to induce oscillations: thimerosal treatment, electroporation, and sperm factor injection. Long-lasting oscillations from thimerosal treatment resulted in 64 and 10% mean CG release at the MII and GV stages, respectively (P < 0.001). Three electrical pulses induced mean [Ca2+]i elevations of approximately 730 and 650 nM in MII- and GV-stage oocytes, respectively, and 31% CG release in MII-stage eggs and 9% in GV-stage oocytes (P < 0.001). Sperm factor microinjection resulted in 86% CG release in MII-stage eggs, while similarly treated GV-stage oocytes exhibited < 1% CG release (P < 0.001). Taken together, these results demonstrate a deficiency downstream of [Ca2+]i release which is developmentally regulated in the 12 h prior to ovulation.  (+info)

Neuronal differentiation and patterning in Xenopus: the role of cdk5 and a novel activator xp35.2. (8/4631)

Cdk5, a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family, has been shown to play an important role in development of the central nervous system in mammals when partnered by its activator p35. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of a novel activator of cdk5 in Xenopus, Xp35.2. Xp35.2 is expressed during development initially in the earliest differentiating primary neurons in the neural plate and then later in differentiating neural tissue of the brain. This is in contrast to the previously described Xenopus cdk5 activator Xp35.1 which is expressed over the entire expanse of the neural plate in both proliferating and differentiating cells. Expression of both Xp35.1 and Xp35.2 and activation of cdk5 kinase occur when terminal neural differentiation is induced by neurogenin and neuro D overexpression but not when only early stages of neural differentiation are induced by noggin. Moreover, blocking cdk5 kinase activity specifically results in disruption and reduction of the embryonic eye where cdk5 and its Xp35 activators are expressed. Thus, cdk5/p35 complexes function in aspects of neural differentiation and patterning in the early embryo and particularly in formation of the eye.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of PC2, a mammalian Kex2 homologue, following expression of the cDNA in microinjected Xenopus oocytes. AU - Shennan, K I. AU - Smeekens, S P. AU - Steiner, D F. AU - Docherty, K. PY - 1991/6/24. Y1 - 1991/6/24. N2 - A human insulinoma cDNA (PC2) that encodes a protein homologous to the Kex2/subtilisin-like proteinases has recently been described [1990, J. Biol. Chem. 265, 2997-3000]. In order to characterise the associated proteinase activity, mRNA encoding PC2 was synthesised in vitro and microinjected into Xenopus oocytes. The proteinase activity released into the media from oocytes microinjected with PC2 mRNA was assayed using small peptide fluorogenic substrates. Boc.Gln.Arg.Arg aminomethyl coumarin was hydrolysed in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, but substrate analogues bearing a single basic aminoacid were not. The substrate specificity, inhibitor profile, and pH optimum of 5.5 were compatible with an involvement of PC2 in prohormone processing in mammalian ...
Ferritin solutions were microinjected into the ground cytoplasm of intact amebae. At several time-intervals after injection the cells were fixed and the distrib
The generation of transgenic mice by DNA microinjection is a powerful tool to investigate the molecular regulation of gene expression, development, and disease
TY - JOUR. T1 - α-Adrenergic receptor agonists, but not antagonists, alter the tail-flick latency when microinjected into the rostral ventromedial medulla of the lightly anesthetized rat. AU - Haws, C. M.. AU - Heinricher, Mary. AU - Fields, H. L.. PY - 1990/11/19. Y1 - 1990/11/19. N2 - The present experiments, part of an ongoing study designed to characterise the role norepinephrine (NE) in regulating the activity of putative nociceptive modulatory neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), assessed the effects of α-adrenergic receptor-selective agents on the nociceptive threshold (as measured by the tail-flick withdrawal response on noxious heat). These microinjection studies were carried out in the barbiturate-anesthetized rat, a preparation which is favourable for acute neurophysiological studies. The data obtained demonstrate that, as observed by others in the awake animal, activation of α2-adrenergic receptors in the RVM produces hypoalgesia. However, unlike in the awake animal, ...
( -Along with red, green is the color of this holiday season. And bright green is showing up in more than just decorations. In Guangdong Province in Southern China, ten transgenic piglets have been born this ...
The research of the group aims at investigating the molecular network that underlies the initial steps of nervous system development in vertebrate embryos. In recent years, significant progress has been made in elucidating the signals that are involved. An important realization was that the inductive events are regulated by a small set of cell-cell signaling pathways that are integrated in the embryo and trigger distinct cell fate changes and morphogenetic responses. With its large egg size, high number of embryos, and rapid external development, the frog Xenopus laevis provides a favorable model system for the study of signaling events. We developed a novel method designated secretion cloning that allowed the isolation of secreted proteins as full-length cDNA clones, which could be directly used for functional characterization in mRNA microinjection experiments (Pera and De Robertis, Mech. Dev., 2000; Pera et al., Int. J. Dev. Biol., 2005). We introduced an active role for Insulin-like growth ...
Inactivation of Rac and Rho in NA13 cells inhibits EGF-induced actin rearrangements. Confocal micrographs of cells microinjected with an expression construct
Yoon, Sung-Hwan and Lee, Jun S. and Im, Ji-Sun and Xiong, Xugang and Cha, Nam-Goo and Mead, Joey L. and Barry, Carol M. F.. (2008) Effect of Tooling Surface Roughness in Micro-Injection Molding. In: MSEC. ...
Mold-Masters CO-INJECTION CONNECT solution includes everything you need to easily and economically convert your existing single shot injection molding equipment
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Vacuum venting is a method proposed to improve feature replication in microparts that are fabricated using micro-injection molding (MIM). A qualitative and quantitative study has been carried out to investigate the effect of vacuum venting on the nano/microfeature replication in MIM. Anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) containing nanofeatures and a bulk metallic glass (BMG) tool mold containing microfeatures were used as mold inserts. The effect of vacuum pressure at constant vacuum time, and of vacuum time at constant vacuum pressure on the replication of these features is investigated. It is found that vacuum venting qualitatively enhances the nanoscale feature definition as well as increases the area of feature replication. In the quantitative study, higher aspect ratio (AR) features can be replicated more effectively using vacuum venting. Increasing both vacuum pressure and vacuum time are found to improve the depth of replication, with the vacuum pressure having more influence. Feature ...
Circumscribed lesions were made within either the corticospinal tract or the ascending dorsal column tracts at the upper cervical level in adult rats. The responses of the tract axons were studied by orthograde transport from injections of horseradish peroxidase or biocytin. At 2 d, the ends of the cut axons were swollen, and the lesions induced en passant varicosities in the adjacent uncut axons. Although there have been reports of retraction, we found that even after several weeks, large numbers of cut axons still persisted in the central lesion area (where there was complete tissue destruction and intense macrophage infiltration), and also in the adjacent regions of the tract. The cut ends were expanded into a variety of shapes--large, complex, bulbous, and recurved--and many had profuse local branches with or without small, terminal-type varicosities. A suspension of Schwann cells cultured from neonatal sciatic nerve was injected by a minimally traumatic air pressure microinjection technique ...
In order to elucidate gene function and regulation, transgenic mouse models have become indispensable to genetic research. In particular, Gene Targeting, utilizing Homologous Recombination (HR) in cultured pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells, has become an integral tool to study specific gene function and regulation. However, highly sophisticated microinjection techniques are also still crucial methods for generating transgenic animal models. To overcome the current technical and biological limitations in gene targeting, two innovative approaches were developed in this work. One approach deals with targeted clone identification in gene targeting experiments by visualizing targeting events utilizing the presence of fluorescence genes. Therefore, we derived a double fluorescent ES cell line from the Cre reporter Gt(ROSA)26Sortm4(ACTB-tdTomato,-EGFP)Luo/J strain which expresses membrane-targeted tdTomato (mT) and upon Cre recombination, membrane-targeted EGFP (mG) on the Rosa26 locus. Animals ...
Transgenic rats have been used as model animals for human diseases and organ transplantation and as animal bioreactors for protein production. In general, transgenic rats are produced by pronuclear microinjection of exogenous DNA. Improvement of post-injection survival has been achieved by micro-vibration of the injection pipette. The promoter region, structural gene, chain length and strand ends of the exogenous DNA are not involved in the production efficiency of transgenic rats. Exogenous DNA prepared at 5 μg/ml seemed to be better integrated than lower and higher concentrations. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been successfully achieved in rats using a piezo-driven injection pipette. The ICSI technique has not only been applied to rescue infertile male strains but also to produce transgenic rats. The optimal DNA concentration for the ICSI-tg method (0.1 to 0.5 μg/ml) is lower than that for the conventional pronuclear microinjection. Production efficiency was improved when the ...
Our state-of-the-art microinjection systems produce the most accurate injection volumes and are used for a variety of clinical laboratory applications.
The bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) is a limbic forebrain structure involved in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation and stress adaptation. Inappropriate adaptation to stress is thought to compromise the organisms coping mechanisms, which have been implicated in the neurobiology of depression. However, the studies aimed at investigating BNST involvement in depression pathophysiology have yielded contradictory results. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of temporary acute inactivation of synaptic transmission in the BNST by local microinjection of cobalt chloride (CoCl2) in rats subjected to the forced swimming test (FST). Rats implanted with cannulae aimed at the BNST were submitted to 15 min of forced swimming (pretest). Twenty-four hours later immobility time was registered in a new 5 min forced swimming session (test). Independent groups of rats received bilateral microinjections of CoCl2 (1 mM/100 nL) before or immediately after pretest or
Microinjection of DNA. Injection of linear DNA molecules into fertilized eggs (pronuclear stage) using an inverted microscope, micromanipulation equipment and injection / holding devices.. The first successful production of transgenic mice using pronuclear microinjection was reported in 1980 [1]. The pronuclear microinjection method of producing a transgenic animal results in the introduction of linear DNA sequences into the chromosomes of the fertilized eggs. If this transferred genetic material is integrated into one of the embryonic chromosomes, the animal will be born with a copy of this new information in every cell. The foreign DNA must be integrated into the genome prior to the doubling of the genetic material that precedes the first cleavage.. If this does not occur, only a few cells will integrate the gene. For this reason, the DNA is introduced into the fertilized egg at the earliest stage, which is the pronuclear period immediately following fertilization. For several hours following ...
The respiratory responses to bilateral microinjections (30-50nl) of 5mM somatostatin (SOM) or 10mM cyclosomatostatin (c-SOM, a SOM antagonist) into the Bötzinger complex (BötC), the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC) and the rostral inspiratory port
Zebrafish paraxial protocadherin (papc) encodes a transmembrane cell adhesion molecule (PAPC) expressed in trunk mesoderm undergoing morphogenesis. Microinjection studies with a dominant-negative secreted construct suggest that papc is required for proper dorsal convergence movement s during gastrulation. Genetic studies show that papc is a close downstream target of spadetail, gene encoding a transcription factor required for mesodermal morphogenetic movements. Further, we show that the floating head homeobox gene is required in axial mesoderm to repress the expression of both spadetail and papc, promoting notochord and blocking differentiation of paraxial mesoderm. The PAPC structural cell-surface transcription factors and the actual cell biological behaviors that execute morphogenesis during gastrulation ...
Results were expressed as amplitude of peak cur rents evoked by ,meATP or as current density, defined as the ratio of peak amplitude over membrane capacitance. For measuring recovery, the amplitude of the third P2X3 response was compared to the first and expressed as a percentage. they The results obtained after 2 h drug incubation Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries were always compared to those obtained after 2 h incubation in culturing media containing DMSO. Membrane capacitance and series resistance were measured through the peak amplitude and decay constant of transients induced by repetitive depolarizing pulses of 10 mV. Voltage clamp and macropatch recordings in Xenopus oocytes Oocytes were surgically removed from Tricaine anesthe tized female Xenopus laevis frogs and were incubated in OR2 solution containing 1 2 mgml type IA collagenase at room temperature for 2 h under agitation.. Stage V and VI oocytes were then manually defolliculated before nuclear or cytoplasmic microinjection of ...
The PLI-100A Pico-Injector reliably delivers injections from femtoliters to nanoliters through micropipettes by applying a regulated pressure for a digitally set period of time.|br||br|  • Femtoliter to microliter injections|br|   • Digital readouts for injection pressure, time, and count|br|   • Reliable optically encoded circuit for injection time set|br|   • 5 pressures: inject, balance, clear, fill and hold.|br|
The first tentatives to make mammalian transgenic animals; the main reasons and the knowledge of early embryonic phasesThe main techniques used to introduce the exogenous DNA transcripts. identification of integration and functional expressionOrgan and cellular targeting.The principal methodologies used for the production of transgenic animals: pronuclear microinjection, chimeric animals, sperm mediated transfer, nuclear transplantation, intracytoplasmic transfer, germ cell transplantation,The principal techniques used for gene editing: problems and applicationsCosts and risks of the production of transgenic animals. ...
[95 Pages Report] Check for Discount on United States Polymer Microinjection Molding Market Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the United States Polymer Microinjection Molding market...
Inhibition of cytokinesis by microinjection of anti-ECT2 antibodies. (A) Affinity-purified anti-ECT2 antibodies specific to the NH2-terminal domain (αECT2-N),
A recent report compared the efficiency of microinjection of DNA versus RNA in mouse embryos [1]. While it was shown that DNA is effective, in vitro transcribed RNA was observed to be more efficient.. Typically, microinjections for CRISPR applications are performed using in vitro transcribed Cas9 and sgRNA rather than native dsDNA. gBlocks® Gene Fragments are ideal for use as template for in vitro transcription and will work well in these applications [2,3]. However, long RNAs are known to trigger the innate immune response in many cells, which increases the expression of dozens of genes and can affect cell viability and general health [4-7].. References. ...
Karin Schuster-Gossler, Jochen Zachgo, Raija Soininen, Michael Schoor, Reinhard Korn and Achim Gossler. Comparison of Cytoplasmic and Nuclear Injection of Constitutive and Nontranscribed Plasmids into Bovine Oocytes: Expression and Degradation After Activation and Fertilization ...
The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of prostaglandin EP1 receptor within the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey (VL PAG). The role of VL PAG EP1 receptor in controlling thermonociception and rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) activity in healthy and neuropathic rats was also examined. EP1 receptor was indeed found to be expressed within the VL PAG and co-localized with vesicular GABA transporter. Intra-VL PAG microinjection of ONO-DI-004, a selective EP1 receptor agonist, dose-dependently reduced tail flick latency as well as respectively increasing and decreasing the spontaneous activity of ON and OFF cells. Furthermore, it increased the ON cell burst and OFF cell pause. Intra-VL PAG prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) behaved similarly to ONO-DI-004. The effects of ONO-DI-004 and PGE2 were antagonized by intra-VL PAG L335677, a selective EP1 receptor antagonist. L335677 dose-dependently increased the tail flick latency and ongoing activity of the OFF cells, while reducing the ongoing ON cell
The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of prostaglandin EP1 receptor within the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey (VL PAG). The role of VL PAG EP1 receptor in controlling thermonociception and rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) activity in healthy and neuropathic rats was also examined. EP1 receptor was indeed found to be expressed within the VL PAG and co-localized with vesicular GABA transporter. Intra-VL PAG microinjection of ONO-DI-004, a selective EP1 receptor agonist, dose-dependently reduced tail flick latency as well as respectively increasing and decreasing the spontaneous activity of ON and OFF cells. Furthermore, it increased the ON cell burst and OFF cell pause. Intra-VL PAG prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) behaved similarly to ONO-DI-004. The effects of ONO-DI-004 and PGE2 were antagonized by intra-VL PAG L335677, a selective EP1 receptor antagonist. L335677 dose-dependently increased the tail flick latency and ongoing activity of the OFF cells, while reducing the ongoing ON cell
The pig has emerged as an important large animal model in biomedical and pharmaceutical research. We describe a protocol for high-efficiency germline transgenesis and sustained transgene expression in pigs by using the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system. The protocol is based on co-injection of a plasmid encoding the SB100X hyperactive transposase, together with a second plasmid carrying a transgene flanked by binding sites for the transposase, into the cytoplasm of porcine zygotes. The transposase mediates excision of the transgene cassette from the plasmid vector and its permanent insertion into the genome to produce stable transgenic animals. This method compares favorably in terms of both efficiency and reliable transgene expression to classic pronuclear microinjection or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and it offers comparable efficacies to lentiviral approaches, without limitations on vector design, issues of transgene silencing and the toxicity and biosafety concerns of working ...
Dysfunction of the apelinergic system, comprised of the neuropeptide apelin mediating its effects via the G protein-coupled apelin receptor (APJ), may underlie the onset of cardiovascular disease such as hypertension. Apelin expression is increased in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) compared to Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) normotensive rats, however, evidence that the apelinergic system chronically influences mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) under pathophysiological conditions remains to be established. In this study we investigated, in conscious unrestrained rats, whether APJ contributes to MABP and sympathetic vasomotor tone in the progression of two models of hypertension - SHR and L-NAME-treated rats - and whether APJ contributes to the development of hypertension in pre-hypertensive SHR. In SHR we showed that APJ gene (aplnr) expression was elevated in the RVLM, and there was a greater MABP increase following microinjection of [Pyr1]apelin-13 to the RVLM
Bilateral microinjection into the RVLM of an adenovirus, which expresses a constitutively active version of the AT1A receptor in glial cells, increases MAP in conscious, freely moving rats of a normotensive strain. Expression of similar levels of the wild-type AT1A receptor, or the control adenovirus with no receptor transgene, did not affect blood pressure. Although not directly measured in this study, we suggest that the increase in blood pressure following microinjection of AdNHA[N111G]AT1A into the RVLM would be caused by increased sympathetic vasomotor tone.. Virally-derived proteins, including specifically the ectopic expression of the AT1A receptors, were only detectable in glia of the RVLM, indicating that a change in activity of a G protein-coupled receptor in glia has the capacity to alter blood pressure. Glia were initially considered to play only a supporting role within the CNS, but recent work has demonstrated that considerable interactions occur between glia and neurons, resulting ...
Acute hypertension produced by methamphetamine (MA) is well known, mainly by the enhancement of catecholamine release from sympathetic terminals. However, the central pressor mechanism of the blood-brain-barrier-penetrating molecule remains unclear. We used radio-telemetry and femoral artery cannulation to monitor the mean arterial pressure (MAP) in conscious free-moving and urethane-anesthetized rats, respectively. Expression of Fos protein (Fos) and phosphorylation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit GluN1 in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) were detected using Western blot analysis. ELISA was carried out for detection of protein kinase C (PKC) activity in the RVLM. MA-induced glutamate release in the RVLM was assayed using in vivo microdialysis and HPLC. Systemic or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of MA augments the MAP and increases Fos expression, PKC activity, and phosphorylated GluN1-ser 896 (pGluN1-ser 896) in the RVLM. However, direct microinjection of MA into the
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) involves the direct injection of sperm into eggs obtained from in vitro fertilization (IVF). Learn more about ICSI.
Transgenic techniques have rapidly evolved in recent years. However, the efficiency of these techniques to produce viable offspring is still disappointingly low. The purpose of this study was to assess in vitro development, transgene expression, and integration following pronuclear or cytoplasmic microinjection of condensed or linear green fluorescent protein DNA into murine embryos using electroporation. In experiment 1, the effect of embryo orientation (group or linear) within the electroporation chamber on development was evaluated using zygotes which received one pulse duration (10 msec), and one of two voltages (250 or 400 V). Zygotes that received 400 V had the lowest development score (Group, 2.06 ? 0.12; Linear, 1.97 ? 0.13), irrespective of orientation. Embryos that received 250 V had the highest development of the voltage treated groups (Group 3.42 ? 0.12; Linear 3.32 ? 0.12), irrespective of orientation, and development was lower than the control embryos (Control 4.28 ? 0.12; Mannitol ...
In the mouse, the nucleotides three bases downstream of the two response elements are guanine and cytosine, suggesting that dioxin cannot activate Bax. Indeed, mouse oocytes are normally insensitive to dioxin, and oocyte microinjection experiments with a construct containing the wildtype Bax promoter confirm that dioxin is ineffective at induction. Furthermore, mutation of these critical downstream nucleotides to adenine renders the promoter responsive to dioxin. Thus, two nucleotides in the Bax promoter would seem to be the sole protection against damage mediated by dioxin.Matikainen et al.6 further show the effects of the PAH 9,10-dimethylbenz(a)antracene (DMBA) on oocytes and on Bax levels (see figure). Intraperitoneal delivery of DMBA causes a 72% increase in Bax mRNA levels after 24 hours, and a concomitant increase in Bax protein in oocytes. Treatment with DMBA or a DMBA metabolite also leads to a decrease in the number of non-apoptotic oocytes in cultured wildtype mouse ovaries. ...
The present study investigated the neuronal and cardiovascular responses elicited by adenosine microinjected into the pressor (rostral) and depressor (caudal) areas of the NTS of SHR and WKY. In addition to confirming reported cardiovascular7 8 9 10 11 15 and neuronal11 responses observed in normotensive rats, results of the current study demonstrate for the first time the neuronal and cardiovascular responses elicited by adenosine microinjected into the two subareas of the NTS in SHR.. Microinjection of adenosine into the NTS elicited site-dependent cardiovascular responses. Increases and decreases in BP and HR followed microinjection of adenosine into the rostral and caudal NTS, respectively. Nonetheless, adenosine inhibited the firing rate of both neuronal pools. These findings in WKY confirm and extend our previous findings in another strain of normotensive rats, the Sprague-Dawley rat.11 Results from the present study and our previous study11 showed that the neuronal responses preceded the ...
One aspect of research in our laboratory is directed toward a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which vertebrate organisms develop from single-celled embryos into complex organisms. This research utilizes zebrafish as a model organism. Advantages of the zebrafish include fecundity, an optically clear, rapidly developing embryo, and the opportunity to experimentally manipulate fertilization and development so as to produce parthenogenetic or haploid offspring. In addition, a full genomic sequence is available. A technique of central importance is the production of transgenic zebrafish via the direct microinjection of cloned genes into fish embryos. Transgenic zebrafish possessing recombinant gfp and rfp marker genes are being generated for a variety of purposes, including 1) basic research into recombination mechanisms and transgenesis strategies, 2) the study of transgene inheritance patterns, and 3) the analysis of altered gene expression and its phenotypic ...
macrophage microinjection - posted in Cell Biology: Hi everybody,I want to start a new research project involving the microinjection of human macrophages to get stabletransformants. I have been microinjecting C. elegans for 4 years now but I was wondering what the best equipment(micromanipulator, micropump...) would be for macrophages. Also, is there a good classic protocol or at leasta good reference for it outhere ?ThanksArnaud
inproceedings{9f8e47cf-68c4-43ce-80ba-6709aef30f18, title = {Micro-injection Moulding using an Exchangeable Microstructured Si Mould Insert}, author = {Singh, Akanksha and Michel, G\{e}rard and Queste, Samuel and Robert, Laurent and Gauthier-Manuel, Bernard and Khan-Malek, Chantal}, year = {2010}, address = {Bourg en Bresse and Oyonnax, France}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Multi-Material Micro Manufacture (4M 2010)}, editor = {Bertrand Fillon, Chantal Khan-Malek, Stefan Dimov}, month = {nov}, pages = {doi:10.3850/978-981-08-6555-9_171}, doi = {10.3850/978-981-08-6555-9_171}, organization = {4M Association}, publisher = {Research Publishing ...
ICSI is the most successful form of treatment for men who are infertile & is used in nearly half of all IVF treatments. ICSI only requires one sperm.
Prior to the development of molecular genetics, the only way of studying the regulation and function of mammalian genes was through the observation of inherited characteristics or spontaneous mutations. Long before Mendel and any molecular genetic knowledge, selective breeding was a common practice among farmers for the enhancement of chosen traits, e.g., increased milk production.. During the 1970s, the first chimeric mice were produced (Brinster, 1974). The cells of two different embryos of different strains were combined together at an early stage of development (eight cells) to form a single embryo that subsequently developed into a chimeric adult, exhibiting characteristics of each strain.. The mutual contributions of developmental biology and genetic engineering permitted rapid development of the techniques for the creation of transgenic animals. DNA microinjection, the first technique to prove successful in mammals, was first applied to mice (Gordon and Ruddle, 1981) and then to various ...
As some of you know, weve just had our second failed ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection) cycle. Were not sure whether to go for a third at all, but one of the things Im considering is whether we should change clinics if we do. I like our current clinic. Its very personal (only 2 consultants and near enough always see the same one), everyone is very friendly, and its local and easy to get to. They havent done anything wrong per se, but our last cycle was a bit of a mess with poor response, 100% immature eggs and only one fertilising. We have follow up soon, and Ive no doubt they will change things, but is that enough? I wonder whether a completely fresh approach may be better. My criticisms of our clinic are that they seem to treat everyone in a very similar fashion (almost everyone is on SP, for example) and the monitoring in terms of scans and blood tests seems no where near as tight as Ive read about at other clinics. Has anyone here changed clinics? If so, why? What did you look
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Covalent linkage of ribonuclease S-peptide to microinjected proteins causes their intracellular degradation to be enhanced during serum withdrawal. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7-10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306). ...
Nonrotating plunger eliminates tip wobble, allows more precise deposition Inject volumes of 30 nanoliters or more with reproducible accuracy, drives oil...
The ubiquitous, freshwater microcrustacean Daphnia pulex provides a model system for both human health research and monitoring ecosystem integrity. It is the first crustacean to have a well annotated, reference genome assembly that revealed an unusually high gene count highlighted by a large gene orphanage,-i.e., previously uncharacterized genes. Daphnia are capable of either clonal or sexual reproduction, making them ideally suited for genetic manipulation, but the establishment of gene manipulation techniques is needed to accurately define gene functions. Although previous investigations developed an RNA interference (RNAi) system for one congener D. magna, these methods are not appropriate for D. pulex because of the smaller size of their early embryos. In these studies, we develop RNAi techniques for D. pulex by first determining the optimum culture conditions of their isolated embryos and then applying these conditions to the development of microinjection techniques and proof-of-principle RNAi
Recently, the Kim Lab has shown that the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (cftr) gene is responsible for mediating resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a zebrafish infection model. Using the Gene Expression Omnibus, an NCBI functional genomics data repository, it was determined that Smad3, a transcription factor in the TGF-β signaling pathway, is upregulated in the presence of P. aeruginosa. It was found that in our zebrafish model, the Smad3 paralogs Smad3a and Smad3b are upregulated following microinjection of a cftr antisense morpholino oligomer. It was also found that microinjection of Smad3a and Smad3b morpholinos, along with a Smad2 morpholino, and subsequent infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa resulted in an increase in death, indicating that Smad3 has a protective effect against infection.
This approach effectively reduces the size of the cDNA library to be screened and increases the probability of successful isolation of the target cDNA. The vocal apparatus of the clawed frog is designed for underwater sound production (Deuchar, 1975). The first step of this physiological process seems to involve a target site at the oocyte membrane, as shown by a variety of experimental data (4). Here we demonstrate cytoplasmic microinjection of Xenopus laevis oocytes with a nuclear import substrate, as well as preparation of the injected oocytes for visualization by … Their large nuclei and mitochondrial masses are clearly visible in the intact oocyte. The incision is sutured with surgical silk and the frog is placed in shallow water in a small tank to allow it to recover from anesthesia before placing it in a special tank for postoperative frogs. XENOPUS OOCYTES The oocyte from the South African clawed frog Xenopus laevis is an often used functional expression system. Two species of Xenopus ...
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) can be used as part of an in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment to help you and your spouse to conceive a child. ICSI
Mitotic PtK1 cell microinjected with X-rhodamine-labeled tubulin and Alexa 488-labeled CENP-F antibodies to fluorescently label kinetochore fibers (re...
Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are polyamide oligomers that can strand invade duplex DNA, causing displacement of one DNA strand and formation of a D-loop. Binding of either a T10 PNA or a mixed sequence 15-mer PNA to the transcribed strand of a G-free transcription cassette caused 90 to 100 percent site-specific termination of pol II transcription elongation. When a T10 PNA was bound on the nontranscribed strand, site-specific inhibition never exceeded 50 percent. Binding of PNAs to RNA resulted in site-specific termination of both reverse transcription and in vitro translation, precisely at the position of the PNA.RNA heteroduplex. Nuclear microinjection of cells constitutively expressing SV40 large T antigen (T Ag) with either a 15-mer or 20-mer PNA targeted to the T Ag messenger RNA suppressed T Ag expression. This effect was specific in that there was no reduction in beta-galactosidase expression from a coinjected expression vector and no inhibition of T Ag expression after microinjection of ...
A catechol signal recorded with in vivo voltammetry within the rat rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) was taken as an index of the activity of RVLM adrenergic neurons and related to the level of arterial PCO2, under halothane anesthesia. Reversible
ICSI is an additional IVF technique where a single sperm is injected into an egg. Today, its the worlds favoured fertilisation method for all types of IVF.
Trusted Gynecology serving Englewood Cliffs , NJ. Contact us at 201-871-1999 or visit us at 385 Sylvan Avenue , Englewood Cliffs , NJ 07632: North Hudson IVF
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly. ...
The fertility specialists at Southern California Reproductive Center in Los Angeles offer ICSE, Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection, as an option during the IVF
Pipettes for holding oocytes or embryos steadily during intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), biopsy, and other micromanipulation processes.
Hyaluronic Microinjection DUO FORTE day and night cream for filling expression lines, 40+ - see how it works. Discover also other Soraya products.
Disrupting the activity of the medial lateral face patch (ML) using fMRI-targeted microinjections of muscimol leads to anatomically and categorically specific impairments in a naturalistic face detection task.
Stepicheva, Nadezda A.; Song, Jia L. (2014-01-21). "High Throughput Microinjections of Sea Urchin Zygotes". Journal of ...
Sang, Helen (1994). "Transgenic Birds by DNA Microinjection". EMBO Reports. 12 (1): 60-63. doi:10.1038/nbt0194-60. PMID 7764327 ...
Microinjection is the predecessor to nanoinjection. Still used in biological research, microinjection is useful in the ... It is claimed to be more effective than microinjection because the lance used is ten times smaller than a micropipette and the ... Just as with the other methods, a lance ten times smaller than that of microinjection is used. Preparing the lance for ... As opposed to nanoinjection, microinjection uses DNA-filled liquid driven into the cell under pressure. Depending on factors ...
"Lidocaine and muscimol microinjections in subthalamic nucleus reverse parkinsonian symptoms". Brain. 124 (10): 2105-2118. doi: ...
"Knockout rats generated by embryo microinjection of TALENs". Nature Biotechnology. 29 (8): 695-696. doi:10.1038/nbt.1940. PMID ...
This approach has also been used to generate knockin rats by TALEN mRNA microinjection in one-cell embryos. TALEN has also been ... "Site specific mutation of the Zic2 locus by microinjection of TALEN mRNA in mouse CD1, C3H and C57BL/6J oocytes". PLOS ONE. 8 ( ... "Knockout rats generated by embryo microinjection of TALENs". Nature Biotechnology. 29 (8): 695-6. doi:10.1038/nbt.1940. PMID ...
A microinjection apparatus is usually used for delivery into an embryo, with injections most commonly performed at the single- ... Rosen JN, Sweeney MF, Mably JD (March 2009). "Microinjection of zebrafish embryos to analyze gene function". Journal of ... as demonstrated by the nuclear splice-modifying activity of Morpholinos observed after microinjection into the cytosol of cells ...
Rosen JN, Sweeney MF, Mably JD (March 2009). "Microinjection of zebrafish embryos to analyze gene function". Journal of ...
Standard microinjection techniques allow this technology to make knockout rats in 4-6 months. A major advantage of ZFN- and ... al, Knockout Rats via Embryo Microinjection of Zinc-Finger Nucleases. Science. Vol 325: 433 (24 July 2009) Geurts, A. M.; Cost ... Tesson et al., Knockout rats generated by embryo microinjection of TALENs. Nature Biotechnology Vol 29:695-96 (5 August 2011) ... "Knockout rats generated by embryo microinjection of TALENs". Nature Biotechnology. 29 (8): 695-696. doi:10.1038/nbt.1940. PMID ...
It has also been shown that this nucleus stimulates gastrointestinal motor function; microinjections of 5-HT into the nucleus ...
July 2009). "Knockout rats via embryo microinjection of zinc-finger nucleases". Science. 325 (5939): 433. Bibcode:2009Sci...325 ...
July 2009). "Knockout rats via embryo microinjection of zinc-finger nucleases". Science. 325 (5939): 433. Bibcode:2009Sci...325 ...
"Knockout Rats via Embryo Microinjection of Zinc-Finger Nucleases". Science. 325 (5939): 433. Bibcode:2009Sci...325..433G. doi: ...
Edgar, Allison; Byrne, Maria; Wray, Gregory A. (17 September 2019). "Embryo microinjection of the lecithotrophic sea urchin ...
Feramisco, JR (1979). "Microinjection of fluorescently labeled alpha-actinin into living fibroblasts". Proceedings of the ... Burridge K, Feramisco JR; Feramisco (March 1980). "Microinjection and localization of a 130K protein in living fibroblasts: a ...
... micro-injection and particle bombardment with a gene gun (invented in 1987). In the 1980s techniques were developed to ... Agrobacterium-mediated recombination and microinjection. The first genetically modified animal was a mouse created in 1974 by ... sheep and pigs by microinjection". Nature. 315 (6021): 680-83. Bibcode:1985Natur.315..680H. doi:10.1038/315680a0. PMID 3892305 ...
DNA is generally inserted into animal cells using microinjection, where it can be injected through the cell's nuclear envelope ... "Knockout rats via embryo microinjection of zinc-finger nucleases". Science. 325 (5939): 433. Bibcode:2009Sci...325..433G. doi: ... material followed by the incorporation of that material either indirectly through a vector system or directly through micro- ...
... and was at the forefront of the field in applying these microinjection methods to generate transgenic mice. Brinster and ... sheep and pigs by microinjection". Nature. 315 (6021): 680-683. Bibcode:1985Natur.315..680H. doi:10.1038/315680a0. PMID 3892305 ...
Consistently, microinjections of orexin-A into the rostral ventrolateral medulla (Huang et al., 2010) or rostral ventromedial ...
... micro-injection and particle bombardment with a gene gun (invented in 1987). In the 1980s techniques were developed to ... Microinjection is used to directly inject foreign DNA into cells. Plant scientists, backed by results of modern comprehensive ... microinjection and agrobacterium. More recently, CRISPR and TALEN offered much more precise and convenient editing techniques. ...
"Genetic transformation of mouse embryos by microinjection of purified DNA". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 77 (12): 7380-7384. ...
Common techniques include microinjection, virus-mediated, Agrobacterium-mediated or biolistics. Further tests are carried out ... This is usually accomplished using microinjection, where DNA is injected through the cell's nuclear envelope directly into the ...
Microinjections of opioids, endocannabinoids, and orexin are capable of enhancing liking in these hotspots. The hedonic ... Neurosci., abstract). In specific subregions of each area, either opioid-stimulating or orexin-stimulating microinjections ...
Fertilized eggs are sufficiently large to perform microinjections and blastomere isolations with relative ease. Developing P. ...
Paterson HF, Self AJ, Garrett MD, Just I, Aktories K, Hall A (1990). "Microinjection of recombinant p21 rho induces rapid ...
"A galinstan expansion femtosyringe for microinjection of eukaryotic organelles and prokaryotes". Nature Biotechnology. 17 (9): ...
... microinjection. In microinjection, DNA is injected into the pronuclei of fertilized oocytes. However, only a small proportion ... The team choose to combine two approaches - microinjection and embryonic stem cells. In order to achieve this they decided to ...
Intracellular neutralization of SV40 tumor antigens following microinjection of specific antibody. Cell. 19:627-635, 1980. ...
Hellman, Kevin et al., Opioid microinjection into raphe magnus modulates cardiorespiratory function in mice and rats. American ...
... observed calcium ion transients during mitosis and showed that the microinjection of calcium ions into the mitotic spindle does ... "Changes in dye coupling of stomatal cells of Allium and Commelina demonstrated by microinjection of Lucifer yellow". Planta. ... "Probing the Plant Actin Cytoskeleton during Cytokinesis and Interphase by Profilin Microinjection". The Plant Cell. 9 (10): ...
In Microinjection: Methods and Applications, expert researchers contribute methods utilizing microinjection techniques ranging ... Microinjection of Follicle-Enclosed Mouse Oocytes Laurinda A. Jaffe, Rachael P. Norris, Marina Freudzon, William J. Ratzan, ... Protein Inhibition by Microinjection and RNA-Mediated Interference in Tissue Culture Cells: Complementary Approaches to Study ... Combining Microinjection and Immunoblotting to Analyze MAP Kinase Phosphorylation in Single Starfish Oocytes and Eggs ...
Microinjection can also be used in the cloning of organisms, in the study of cell biology and viruses, and for treating male ... Play media Microinjection is the use of a glass micropipette to inject a liquid substance at a microscopic or borderline ... Microinjection is a simple mechanical process usually involving an inverted microscope with a magnification power of around ... There are two basic types of microinjection systems. The first is called a constant flow system and the second is called a ...
The most common polymers used in micro injection molding are reported in below table- In the 1980s, micro injection molding ... Micro injection molding is a molding process for the manufacture of plastics components for shot weights of 1 to 0.1 g with ... The basic concept of the micro injection molding process is quite similar to regular injection moulding process. In this micro ... When it comes to the production of micro components the machine and process technology mainly depends on below points- Micro ...
... Stephen J. Moorman zebrafish at Thu Oct 18 17:57:44 EST 2001 *Previous message: Bad Luck with Zebra ...
... and technical expertise necessary to carry out microinjection, an essential step in the process to create a genetically ... Microinjection Services. The Microinjection (MIJ) Service is comprised of the facilities, instrumentation, and technical ... The Microinjection Service currently has 5 complete microinjection stations and 3 complete surgical stations. Key equipment ... Service offerings include microinjection of CRISPR reagents or a DNA construct, including BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome ...
... David Lampe d-lampe at Fri Feb 3 11:04:28 EST 1995 *Previous message: Microinjection set ups ...
... Peter Mulderry pterm at Tue Apr 29 14:46:31 EST 1997 *Previous message ... microinjection has been done with NRK cells, retinal pigment cell types, , etc., but these seem to survive seeding at low cell ... Previous message: microinjection feasibility questions *Next message: The ICDD Clinics on X-ray Powder Diffraction and X-ray ... that would require the microinjection of plasmids, mAbs, and purified GST , fusion proteins. Anyone know how feasible it would ...
Microinjection of 5-15 genetically modified ES cells into the blastocyst cavity ...
ES Cell Microinjection Process. Once clones arrive, we will karyotype them to verify chromosome number as part of our full ... ES Cell Microinjection Service. To create large, complex, targeted mutations, more traditional techniques are still needed. For ... Following microinjection, embryos are transferred to host females to produce chimeric founder mice which are expected to carry ... In order to meet the need for blastocyst injections of modified ES cells, we offer microinjection services of your ES cell ...
Transparent orthodontic brackets by microinjection. The Tekniker Foundation, together with the company EuroOrtodoncia S.L., is ... both for the mould itself as well as for the subsequent microinjection moulding of the plastic bracket. It is at this second ... of orthodontic brackets which have minimum visual or aesthetic impact and which are manufactured by means of microinjection ... Permalink: ...
Micro Injection Molding. Accumold® is a high-tech manufacturer of precision micro, small and lead frame injection molded ...
Cocaine relapse is reversed with BDNF microinjections in the brain. Medical University of South Carolina ...
Microinjection Ascidian Phallusia mammillata Live imaging Fluorescent protein Electronic supplementary material. The online ... Here, we describe in as much detail as possible two microinjection methods that we use daily in the laboratory: one based on an ... Microinjection is probably the most versatile technique for introducing exogenous molecules such as plasmids, mRNAs, and ... Gregory C, Veeman M (2013) 3D-printed microwell arrays for Ciona microinjection and timelapse imaging. PLoS One 8:e82307 ...
ES Cell, DNA & CRISPR Microinjection. Bridge the gap between your in vitro and in vivo models by accessing the microinjection ... Microinjection Techniques in Animals. We offer various injection techniques to help you create the right animal model for your ...
Transformation of Tetrahymena thermophila by microinjection of ribosomal RNA genes Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Transformation of Tetrahymena thermophila by microinjection of ribosomal RNA genes. M M Tondravi and M C Yao ...
... Characteristics. Micro injection moulding companies can manufacture low or high volume orders for ... Micro injection moulding is used for manufacturing miniature parts. Some companies make products that are so tiny; they are ... Micro injection moulding is used in many fields, including medical, electronic, telecommunications, and automotive. Equipment ...
... Qualities. Micro injection molding is commonly used in medical, telecommunication, computer, connector ... Micro injection molding is a process used for manufacturing miniature parts. Products can be created that weigh less than a ... Micro injection molding has many advantages over traditional injection molding. The tooling is less expensive, for instance. ...
Ortofon provides services and solutions for high precision Micro Injection Molding (μIM) components. High quality production ...
Nanofiber DNA Micro-Injection Technique Developed Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of Tennessee ... That proven technique, micro-injection, involves introducing genetic material, DNA, directly into a cells nucleus. This allows ... "While we have focused predominantly on mammalian cells, the parallel micro-injection-based technique should be quite ... researchers from several other laboratory divisions and the University of Tennessee are working to advance the science of micro ...
Microinjection to single cells has been widely used in the studies of transduction-challenged cells, transgenic animal ... Microinjections / instrumentation*, methods*, trends. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of ... The advantages of microinjection include the precision of delivery dosage and timing, high efficiency of transduction as well ... However, manual microinjection is labor intensive and time consuming, which limits the application of this technique to large ...
C. elegans Microinjection. One way to make transgenic animals in C. elegans is to use a microinjection technique. Briefly, a ...
Micro Injection Molding: Global Markets. Target Date - September 2020, Publisher - BCC Publishing, Code - AVM204A ... Comprehensive overview of the global markets for micro injection molding - a key technology for the micro manufacturing of high ... Porters five forces analysis of the micro injection molding market providing a systematic study of key intermediaries involved ... Key merger and acquisition deals, joint ventures and other strategic alliances in the global micro injection molding ...
I want to start a new research project involving the microinjection of human macrophages to get stabletransformants. I have ... macrophage microinjection - posted in Cell Biology: Hi everybody, ... to start a new research project involving the microinjection of ...
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We describe here a protocol for microinjection in the rodent brain that uses quartz needles. These needles do not produce ... Insert the piston in the microinjection syringe.. *Connect the microinjection syringe to the pump and set the flow rate at 0.3 ... Personalized Needles for Microinjections in the Rodent Brain. Giovanna Paolone*1, Chiara Falcicchia*1, Gianluca Verlengia*1, ... Manual microinjection pump kit. WPI. Item#: MMP-KIT. Kit allowing for micropipettes to be securely mounted to the stereotactic ...
The vehicle for adding either mRNA or morpholino to an embryo is microinjection. Microinjection is efficient and rapid, ... Microinjection of Zebrafish Embryos to Analyze Gene Function. Jonathan N. Rosen1,2, Michael F. Sweeney1, John D. Mably1,2 ... I am trying micro injection of EGFP-N3 vector to standardize the injection protocol. But in all my attempts, embryos are dying ... Rosen, J. N., Sweeney, M. F., Mably, J. D. Microinjection of Zebrafish Embryos to Analyze Gene Function. J. Vis. Exp. (25), ...
Volite can deliver huge improvements in skin quality, skin hydration and skin elasticity as well as improve skin smoothness and complexion.
Wide range of options: screws with a diameter of 15 or 12 mm and a special micro injection unit and micro injection module with ... Our micro injection unit combines an 8-mm injection screw with a second screw for melting the material. With this pioneering ... Brochure: Micro injection molding (PDF - 1,5 MB) Brochure: Application expertise (PDF - 3,8 MB). Customer magazine today 57, p ... Greater flexibility is offered by our micro injection module, which operates according to the same principle. The modular ...
Microinjection of apomorphine into the ventrolateral PAG produced a dose-dependent decrease in open field activity in both male ... Microinjection of the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine into the PAG produced a dose-dependent increase in hot plate ... Location of apomorphine microinjection sites. Apomorphine was injected into or adjacent to the ventrolateral PAG in male (left ... Repeated microinjection of apomorphine into the PAG enhanced subsequent apomorphine antinociception in male (left; n = 7-9/ ...
The micro injection business is a promising market growing globally. The micro injection is a basically necessary technology to ... Based on the accumulated experience in reading market trends, it has a plan to proceed micro injection business actively. ... Siliconers, Holds a Seminar in the Second Half of Micro Injection Emerging a Promising Market. Conclusion of technical ... Siliconers is planning to hold a seminar for micro injection in the 3rd and 4th quarters of 2018. ...
  • Following microinjection, embryos are transferred to host females to produce chimeric founder mice which are expected to carry the new genetic modification. (
  • Microinjection is probably the most versatile technique for introducing exogenous molecules such as plasmids, mRNAs, and proteins into ascidian eggs/embryos. (
  • Microinjection is efficient and rapid, allowing for the injection of hundreds of embryos per hour. (
  • Microinjection of Cas9 mRNA with synthetic crRNA and tracrRNA for successful gene editing in Zebrafish embryos. (
  • A recent report compared the efficiency of microinjection of DNA versus RNA in mouse embryos [1]. (
  • Our results demonstrated that mutations caused by these CRISPR/Cas9 plasmids occurred before and at the 2-cell stage of pig embryos, indicating that besides the cytoplasmic microinjection of in vitro transcribed RNA, the pronuclear microinjection of CRISPR/Cas9 DNA vectors provided an efficient solution to generate gene-knockout pig. (
  • The efficiency of producing viable bovine embryos positive for the injected gene may be increased by performing microinjection early in pronuclear formation, and entering the resulting embryos into a nuclear transfer program. (
  • Microinjection is a technique of delivering foreign DNA into a living cell (a cell, egg, oocyte, embryos of animals) through a glass micropipette. (
  • Heterologous expression of the human potassium channel Kv2.1 in clonal mammalian cells by direct cytoplasmic microinjection of cRNA. (
  • The cloned human delayed rectifying K+ channel Kv2.1 (drk1) was expressed in clonal mouse fibroblasts (L-cells) and rat basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-1) by direct cytoplasmic microinjection of complementary RNA (cRNA). (
  • These results are the first to demonstrate that functional ion channel proteins can be expressed in mammalian clonal cell lines by direct cytoplasmic microinjection of cRNA. (
  • Brendan Doe talks about his work in using Cytoplasmic Microinjection to generate CRISPR mediated mutations. (
  • Microinjection and cytoplasmic transfer in starfish oocytes. (
  • This method compares favorably in terms of both efficiency and reliable transgene expression to classic pronuclear microinjection or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and it offers comparable efficacies to lentiviral approaches, without limitations on vector design, issues of transgene silencing and the toxicity and biosafety concerns of working with viral vectors. (
  • This versatile volume updates established techniques such as cRNA expression in Xenopus oocytes, and examines new, cutting-edge technologies, including antisense morpholino oligonucleotides, RNAi for knockdown experiments, and the use of integrase to produce transgenic animals, all through microinjection techniques that can be easily adopted by any lab. (
  • Microinjection of anti-Xtr antibody into immature oocytes followed by reinitiation of oocyte maturation did not affect germinal vesicle break down and the oscillation of Cdc2/cyclin B activity during meiotic progression but caused abnormal spindle formation and chromosomal alignment at meiotic metaphase I and II. (
  • Xenopus oocytes have been widely used for the study of transcription by microinjection because oocytes contain between 6,000 and 100,000 or more RNA polymerase molecules than somatic cells. (
  • Microinjection is technically easy because of large size of oocytes. (
  • This manual describes a method for microinjection of oocytes using quantitative techniques initially used by Pierre de Fonbrune in the 1930's to inject amoeba (see De Fonbrune, 1949). (
  • Successful microinjection/expression depends upon selecting the correct oocytes at this stage. (
  • The behavior of this system is well-predicted by an equivalent circuit model, and could be used to provide electrical feedback during single-cell microinjection, nanosampling, or electrochemical studies. (
  • Single-cell microinjection assay indicates that 7-hydroxycoumarin induces rapid activation of caspase-3 in A549 cancer cells. (
  • A range of analytical techniques, including colorimetric and fluorometric assays, western blotting, single-cell microinjection, fluorescence microscopy and image analysis were conducted to elucidate the effects of 7-HC. (
  • By performing the single-cell microinjection of a specific fluorescent substrate of C-3 into previously 7-HC-exposed cells, a typical enzymatic kinetic profile of C-3 activation was identified a number of hours prior to the morphological and biochemical changes associated with apoptosis being observed. (
  • Microinjection can also be used in the cloning of organisms, in the study of cell biology and viruses, and for treating male subfertility through intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, /ˈɪksi/ IK-see). (
  • Along the stepwise description of system setup and injection procedure, we provide practical tips in the hope that this chapter might be a useful guide for introducing or improving a microinjection setup. (
  • Because of the unique combination of ultra-fine product and high water-attracting capability, the investigators hypothesize that microinjections of Restylane® Silk can be used in a grid-like injection pattern for rejuvenation of the aging cheek. (
  • The injections will be delivered intradermally 1mm in depth via multiple 0.02 cc microinjections distributed in a grid array pattern with 0.5 cm to 1 cm between each injection point over total treatment area. (
  • As a target biological application of microinjection, we are using injection of fluorescently labeled tRNA to monitor subcellular tRNA dynamics in real time. (
  • In order to facilitate microinjection studies such as these, we have developed an adaptable Matlab-based semi-automated injection system. (
  • The microinjections were delivered with a Picospritzer III, and the duration of the injection and the stimulation precise instant were controlled. (
  • The middle panel shows the beginning of a RT stimulation protocol that consists of GABA injection when more than two spikes are detected (the vertical arrows indicate the instant in which the microinjection takes place). (
  • Reverse Engineering, Injection Mold Making, Transfer Mold Making, Switches, Other A Spanish SME has a strong know-how to design and produce by injectionmicro-injection specific plastic products more malleable and more eco-friendly SERIPLAST injection and decoration of airless plastic bottles, atmospheric plastic bottles, plastic ampoules, rollon, pill box, powder Lun des problmes majeurs du procd de moulage par microinjection est. (
  • Wild-type and mutant (G41R, G93A, or N139K) human SOD-1 were expressed in motor neurons of dissociated cultures of murine spinal cord by intranuclear microinjection of plasmid expression vector. (
  • Expression of individual mutant enzymes is induced by intranuclear microinjection of plasmid expression vector and resulted in cell death over a period of 2 weeks. (
  • Please let us know on our microinjection request form if you want us to add helper plasmid to your sample. (
  • In marked contrast, microinjection of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist losartan or the melanocortin 3/4 antagonist SHU9119 had no effect on lumbar SNA or ABP. (
  • Angiotensin type 1A (AT 1A ) receptors are expressed within the rostral ventrolateral medulla, and microinjections of angiotensin II into this region increase sympathetic vasomotor tone. (
  • Microinjection of Ang II into the RVLM induces a sympathetically mediated increase in blood pressure through activation of angiotensin type 1A (AT 1A ) receptors. (
  • In order to meet the need for blastocyst injections of modified ES cells, we offer microinjection services of your ES cell clone into one of three different host blastocysts. (
  • 36%). Use of B6J host blastocysts for microinjection of ES cells may offer improvements over blastocysts from B6NTac and possibly other sub-strains of C57BL/6 mice. (
  • Typically, microinjections for CRISPR applications are performed using in vitro transcribed Cas9 and sgRNA rather than native dsDNA. (
  • Movie 3.1 Unfertilized Phallusia egg during microinjection with mRNA. (
  • The vehicle for adding either mRNA or morpholino to an embryo is microinjection. (
  • One way to make transgenic animals in C. elegans is to use a microinjection technique. (
  • Microinjection of leptin into the ventromedial hypothalamus increases glucose uptake in peripheral tissues in rats. (
  • We studied the effects of microinjection of leptin into the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and lateral hypothalamus (LH) on glucose uptake in peripheral tissues in unanesthetized rats. (
  • Service offerings include microinjection of CRISPR reagents or a DNA construct, including BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome), into the zygote of many inbred and specialty strains of mice. (
  • The generation of transgenic mice by DNA microinjection is a powerful tool to investigate the molecular regulation of gene expression, development, and disease. (
  • To identify ways to improve the efficiency of generating chimeric mice via microinjection of blastocysts with ES cells, we compared production and performance of ES-cell derived chimeric mice using blastocysts from two closely related and commonly used sub-strains of C57BL/6. (
  • 2014) Validation of microinjection methods for generating knockout mice by CRISPR/Cas-mediated genome engineering . (
  • The availability of real-time imaging of mice anatomy allows performing aspiration procedures under ultrasound guidance as well as the microinjection of cells, viruses, or other agents into precise locations. (
  • describe a microinjection independent genome engineering method for mice that is an interesting innovation that seeks to address technical challenges associated with the creation of transgenic and genetically modified mice that have good analogs in insect biology and the problem of creating transgenic and genetically modified insects. (
  • 2015 GONAD: Genome-editing via Oviductal Nucleic Acids Delivery system: a novel microinjection independent genome engineering method in mice. (
  • For the introduction of exogenous genes into cells, we used microinjection and lipofection methods We transiently expressed GLUT4 glucose transporter in cultured cells, and its immunolocalization and translocation to the plasma membrane was monitored with conventional and confocal fluorescence microscopes. (
  • The characteristics of apomorphine-induced antinociception differ from previous reports of morphine antinociception following PAG microinjections in that morphine antinociception peaks at 15 min, is blocked by naloxone, and is susceptible to tolerance with repeated administration. (
  • Microinjections of saline, morphine sulfate, morphiceptin (specific mu agonist), D-pen-2D-pen-5-enkephalin (delta agonist), and U-50488H (kappa agonist) were given to the freely moving animals (doses 0.8-2.4 times 10-9 M, in a volume of 0.05 mu-l of saline). (
  • Results: Morphine microinjections in NST provoked a dose-dependent enhancement of all the polygraphic and behavioral manifestations of slow wave sleep. (
  • Microinjection is the process of transferring genetic materials into a living cell using glass micropipettes or metal microinjection needles. (
  • The UltraMicroPump3 is a versatile microinjection syringe pump designed to support the needs of a busy lab. (
  • You also need a microinjection syringe and micropipette holder, attached to each other with a piece of teflon tubing. (
  • The microinjection syringe apparatus can be attached to the same plate by way of the magnetic base. (
  • The respiratory responses to bilateral microinjections (30-50nl) of 5mM somatostatin (SOM) or 10mM cyclosomatostatin (c-SOM, a SOM antagonist) into the Bötzinger complex (BötC), the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC) and the rostral inspiratory portion of the ventral respiratory group (iVRG) were investigated in urethane-chloralose anesthetized, vagotomized, paralysed and artificially ventilated rabbits. (
  • To determine the effect of sustained increases in AT 1A receptor density or activity in rostral ventrolateral medulla, we used radiotelemetry to monitor blood pressure in conscious rats before and after bilateral microinjection into the rostral ventrolateral medulla of adenoviruses encoding the wild-type AT 1A receptor or a constitutively active version of the receptor (Asn 111 Gly, [N111G]AT 1A ). (
  • To solve these problems, we propose a method of precise microinjection by summation of fluorescence intensity. (
  • In Microinjection: Methods and Applications , expert researchers contribute methods utilizing microinjection techniques ranging from expression of RNA to the integration of DNA into the genome with the ultimate goal of learning about gene expression, signal transduction, and protein function within these living cells. (
  • Comprehensive and easily accessible, Microinjection: Methods and Applications is an ideal source for new ideas and techniques certain to aid in the advance of biological research. (
  • Here we show how RT software technology can also be used to build protocols of activity-dependent real-time drug microinjection to stimulate neural systems. (
  • I have published several research papers using intracellular microinjection into neurons and a couple of review articles on the technique. (
  • However, manual microinjection is labor intensive and time consuming, which limits the application of this technique to large number of cells in a sample. (
  • A technique was developed for microinjection and transformation of Aedes triseriatus mosquitoes. (
  • We have developed an impedimetric AC technique for detecting cellular and nuclear penetration during microinjection and cellular probing with CNPs. (
  • This data confirms that cells have mechanisms for the regulation of tRNA transport, and suggests that we can use our microinjection technique to perform quantitative studies of tRNA trafficking. (
  • Microinjection of the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine into the PAG produced a dose-dependent increase in hot plate latency and a decrease in open field activity that was greater in male than in female rats. (
  • In urethan-anesthetized rats, unilateral 30-nl microinjections of the group I-selective mGluR agonist 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) into the NTS decreased mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity. (
  • The response to microinjection of equal concentrations of DHPG or the general mGluR agonist 1-aminocyclopentane-1 S ,3 R -dicarboxylic acid (ACPD) produced similar cardiovascular effects. (
  • Furthermore, microinjection of the general mGluR agonist 1-aminocyclopentane-1 S ,3 R -dicarboxylic acid (ACPD) into the NTS produces cardiovascular responses similar to glutamate ( 12 , 31 ). (
  • We have illustrated a simple protocol of real-time event-driven drug microinjection to achieve a desired state in the spiking-bursting activity of CPG neurons. (
  • Two types of abnormal neuronal firing patterns were detected in GPe neurons close to the bicuculline microinjection site: continuous high-frequency activity and bistable activity, in which neurons transitioned between high-frequency and complete cessation of firing. (
  • Enhanced antinociception with repeated microinjections of apomorphine into the periaqueductal gray of male and female rats. (
  • Microinjection of apomorphine into the ventrolateral PAG produced a dose-dependent decrease in open field activity in both male (n = 16) and female (n = 20) rats. (
  • Microinjection is a simple mechanical process usually involving an inverted microscope with a magnification power of around 200x (though sometimes it is performed using a dissecting stereo microscope at 40-50x or a traditional compound upright microscope at similar power to an inverted model). (
  • Conversely, CeA inhibition by muscimol/baclofen microinjections prevented acquisition of cocaine self-administration and laser preference, whereas CeA inhibition by optogenetic halorhodopsin suppressed cocaine intake, indicating that CeA circuitry is needed for ordinary cocaine motivation. (
  • Microinjection to single cells has been widely used in the studies of transduction-challenged cells, transgenic animal production, and in vitro fertilization to mechanically transfer DNAs, RNA interferences, sperms, proteins, peptides, and drugs. (
  • Microinjection of the SH2 domain fusion protein also inhibited insulin signaling in these cells, suggesting that association of p85 with insulin receptor substrate 1 is a key element in insulin-mediated cell cycle progression. (
  • Can gBlocks ® Gene Fragments be used for microinjection as sgRNAs for CRISPR applications? (
  • In this report, the United States Polymer Microinjection Molding market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022. (
  • The Midwest with sales (volume), revenue (value), market share and growth rate of Polymer Microinjection Molding in these regions, from 2012 to 2022 (forecast). (
  • Play media Microinjection is the use of a glass micropipette to inject a liquid substance at a microscopic or borderline macroscopic level. (
  • The heart central pattern generator (CPG) from the cardiac ganglion of the crab Carcinus maenas was subjected to microinjections of GABA. (
  • Simultaneously, the membrane potential of one neuron was measured and an activity-dependent stimuli protocol of GABA microinjection was implemented with RT software technology. (
  • Figure 1 shows the effect of activity-dependent GABA microinjection stimuli evoked by the real-time detection of three action potentials in a CPG neuron from the cardiac ganglion of Carcinus maenas . (
  • Chorea and related hyperbehavioral disorders may be induced in behaving primates by local microinjections of the GABA A antagonist bicuculline to the globus pallidus externus (GPe). (
  • Real-time software technology allows to implement activity-dependent drug microinjection that can be applied to the study of many aspects of neuromodulation and neurotransmitter stimulation, and to achieve control of pathological states through temporal precise release of drugs. (
  • Microinjection of the ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid into the RVLM significantly reduced lumbar SNA and ABP. (
  • Western blot analysis showed that insulin receptor expression is significantly lower in the RVLM than the hypothalamus, and direct microinjection of insulin into the RVLM did not significantly increase lumbar SNA. (
  • The DNA transgene preparation for microinjection must be "clean" of all contaminants. (
  • Microinjection of apomorphine into the anterior or posterior ventrolateral PAG produced a dose-dependent antinociception. (
  • Otherwise, one runs the chance of destroying zygotes at microinjection. (
  • PURPOSE The aim of this study was to investigate the depth-dependent intradermal immunogenicity of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) delivered by depth-controlled microinjections via hollow microneedles (HMN) and to investigate antibody response enhancing effects of IPV immunization adjuvanted with CpG oligodeoxynucleotide 1826 (CpG) or cholera toxin (CT). (
  • The microinjection results were confirmed through the use of an affinity-purified antibody directed against p85, which gave the same phenotype. (
  • Microinjection of the SH2 domain of the 85-kilodalton subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibits insulin-induced DNA synthesis and c-fos expression. (
  • Microinjection of a bacterial fusion protein containing the N-terminal SH2 domain of p85 inhibited insulin- and other growth factor-induced DNA synthesis by 90% and c-fos protein expression by 80% in insulin-responsive rat fibroblasts. (
  • The advantages of microinjection include the precision of delivery dosage and timing, high efficiency of transduction as well as low cytotoxicity. (
  • Microinjection of the live spermatozoa into sea urchin eggs. (
  • Microinjection of echinoderm eggs: apparatus and procedures. (
  • but this issue does not occur with microinjection, in which a water solution is discharged under pressure through a capillary and into a cell. (
  • We confirm data from microinjection of labeled tubulins in other cell types (Soltys, B. J., and G. G. Borisy. (
  • Bridge the gap between your in vitro and in vivo models by accessing the microinjection services offered at Charles River. (
  • O estudo usou o cérebro de um peixe adulto da zebra e introduziu oligonucleotides antisentido do morpholino pelo microinjection cerebroventricular (CVMI) para bater para baixo in vivo a expressão genética. (