The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.
A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.
Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).
Neuropeptides of about 40 amino acids which are structurally similar to CORTICOTROPIN-RELEASING FACTOR. Unlike CRF acting primarily through type 1 CRF RECEPTORS, urocortins signal preferentially through type 2 CRF receptors. Urocortins have wide tissue distribution from fish to mammals, and diverse functions. In mammals, urocortins can suppress food intake, delays gastric emptying, and decreases heat-induced edema.
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)
An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.
A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.
Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Central gray matter surrounding the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT in the MESENCEPHALON. Physiologically it is probably involved in RAGE reactions, the LORDOSIS REFLEX; FEEDING responses, bladder tonus, and pain.
A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Portion of midbrain situated under the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI. The two ventrolateral cylindrical masses or peduncles are large nerve fiber bundles providing a tract of passage between the FOREBRAIN with the HINDBRAIN. Ventral MIDBRAIN also contains three colorful structures: the GRAY MATTER (PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY), the black substance (SUBSTANTIA NIGRA), and the RED NUCLEUS.
A broad-spectrum excitatory amino acid antagonist used as a research tool.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Transforming proteins coded by fos oncogenes. These proteins have been found in the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses which induce osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The FBJ-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p55-kDa protein and the FBR-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p75-kDa fusion protein.
The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.
Drugs that bind to and activate cholinergic receptors.
Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
A neurotoxic isoxazole (similar to KAINIC ACID and MUSCIMOL) found in AMANITA mushrooms. It causes motor depression, ataxia, and changes in mood, perceptions and feelings, and is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist.
The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.
Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.
A GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID derivative that is a specific agonist of GABA-B RECEPTORS. It is used in the treatment of MUSCLE SPASTICITY, especially that due to SPINAL CORD INJURIES. Its therapeutic effects result from actions at spinal and supraspinal sites, generally the reduction of excitatory transmission.
Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.
A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA-A RECEPTORS thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous GABA-A RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
A serotonin 1A-receptor agonist that is used experimentally to test the effects of serotonin.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Nuclei of the trigeminal nerve situated in the brain stem. They include the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), the principal sensory nucleus, the mesencephalic nucleus, and the motor nucleus.
The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
An enkephalin analog that selectively binds to the MU OPIOID RECEPTOR. It is used as a model for drug permeability experiments.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate SEROTONIN RECEPTORS. Many serotonin receptor agonists are used as ANTIDEPRESSANTS; ANXIOLYTICS; and in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.
Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.
Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.
Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate serotonin receptors, thereby blocking the actions of serotonin or SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
Aniline compounds, also known as aromatic amines, are organic chemicals derived from aniline (aminobenzene), characterized by the substitution of hydrogen atoms in the benzene ring with amino groups (-NH2).
Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.
Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.
Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.
A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.

Inducible long-term gene expression in brain with adeno-associated virus gene transfer. (1/4631)

Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors hold promise for treating a number of neurological disorders due to the ability to deliver long-term gene expression without toxicity or immune response. Critical to these endeavors will be controlled expression of the therapeutic gene in target cells. We have constructed and tested a dual cassette rAAV vector carrying a reporter gene under the control of the tetracycline-responsive system and the tetracycline transactivator. Transduction in vitro resulted in stable expression from the vector that can be suppressed 20-fold by tetracycline treatment. In vivo experiments, carried out to 6 weeks, demonstrated that vector-transduced expression is sustained until doxycycline administration upon which reporter gene expression is reduced. Moreover, the suppression of vector-driven expression can be reversed by removal of the drug. These studies demonstrate long-term regulated gene expression from rAAV vectors. This system will provide a valuable approach for controlling vector gene expression both in vitro and in vivo.  (+info)

Astrocyte-specific expression of tyrosine hydroxylase after intracerebral gene transfer induces behavioral recovery in experimental parkinsonism. (2/4631)

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the depletion of dopamine in the caudate putamen. Dopamine replacement with levodopa, a precursor of the neurotransmitter, is presently the most common treatment for this disease. However, in an effort to obtain better therapeutic results, tissue or cells that synthesize catecholamines have been grafted into experimental animals and human patients. In this paper, we present a novel technique to express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the host's own astrocytes. This procedure uses a transgene in which the expression of a TH cDNA is under the control of a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter, which confers astrocyte-specific expression and also increases its activity in response to brain injury. The method was tested in a rat model of Parkinson's disease produced by lesioning the striatum with 6-hydroxydopamine. Following microinjection of the transgene into the denervated striatum as a DNA-liposome complex, expression of the transgene was detected by RT-PCR and TH protein was observed specifically in astrocytes by using double-labeling immunofluorescence for GFAP and TH coupled with laser confocal microscopy. Efficacy was demonstrated by significant behavioral recovery, as assessed by a decrease in the pharmacologically induced turning behavior generated by the unilateral denervation of the rat striatum. These results suggest this is a valuable technique to express molecules of therapeutic interest in the brain.  (+info)

An intact sperm nuclear matrix may be necessary for the mouse paternal genome to participate in embryonic development. (3/4631)

We have been interested in determining the minimally required elements in the sperm head that are necessary in order for the paternal genome to participate in embryogenesis. We used an ionic detergent, mixed alkyltrimethylammonium bromide (ATAB), plus dithiothreitol (DTT) to remove the acrosome and almost all of the perinuclear theca, leaving only the sperm nucleus morphologically intact. We also tested the stability of the sperm nuclear matrix by the ability to form nuclear halos. Sperm nuclei washed in freshly prepared 0.5% ATAB + 2 mM DTT completely decondensed when extracted with salt, but nuclei washed in the same buffer that was 1 wk old, and then extracted with salt, produced nuclear halos, indicating stable nuclear matrices. When we treated sperm heads with freshly prepared ATAB+DTT and injected them into oocytes, none of the oocytes developed into live offspring. In contrast, sperm heads treated in the same way but with 1-wk-old ATAB+DTT solution could support development of about 30% of the oocytes to live offspring. Electron microscopy demonstrated that most of the perinuclear theca had been removed in both cases. These data suggest that at least in the mouse, the only component of the spermatozoa that is crucial for participation in embryologic development is the sperm nucleus with a stable nuclear matrix.  (+info)

A novel trans-complementation assay suggests full mammalian oocyte activation is coordinately initiated by multiple, submembrane sperm components. (4/4631)

To initiate normal embryonic development, an egg must receive a signal to become activated at fertilization. We here report that the ability of demembranated sperm heads to activate is abolished after incubation over the range 20-44 degreesC and is sensitive to reducing agents. On the basis of this observation, we have developed a microinjection-based, trans-complementation assay in order to dissect the heat-inactivated sperm-borne oocyte-activating factor(s) (SOAF). We demonstrate that the failure of heat-inactivated sperm heads to activate an egg is rescued by coinjection with dithiothreitol-solubilized SOAF from demembranated sperm heads. The solubilized SOAF (SOAFs) is trypsin sensitive and is liberated from demembranated heads in a temperature-dependent manner that inversely correlates with the ability of sperm heads to activate. This argues that SOAFs is a proteinaceous molecular species required to initiate activation. Injection of oocytes with mouse or hamster sperm cytosolic factors, but not SOAFs alone, induced resumption of meiosis, further suggesting that these cytosolic factors and SOAF are distinct. Collectively, these data strongly suggest that full mammalian oocyte activation is initiated by the coordinated action of one or more heat-sensitive protein constituents of the perinuclear matrix and at least one heat-stable submembrane component.  (+info)

PrKX is a novel catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulated by the regulatory subunit type I. (5/4631)

The human X chromosome-encoded protein kinase X (PrKX) belongs to the family of cAMP-dependent protein kinases. The catalytically active recombinant enzyme expressed in COS cells phosphorylates the heptapeptide Kemptide (LRRASLG) with a specific activity of 1.5 micromol/(min.mg). Using surface plasmon resonance, high affinity interactions were demonstrated with the regulatory subunit type I (RIalpha) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (KD = 10 nM) and the heat-stable protein kinase inhibitor (KD = 15 nM), but not with the type II regulatory subunit (RIIalpha, KD = 2.3 microM) under physiological conditions. Kemptide and autophosphorylation activities of PrKX are strongly inhibited by the RIalpha subunit and by protein kinase inhibitor in vitro, but only weakly by the RIIalpha subunit. The inhibition by the RIalpha subunit is reversed by addition of nanomolar concentrations of cAMP (Ka = 40 nM), thus demonstrating that PrKX is a novel, type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase that is activated at lower cAMP concentrations than the holoenzyme with the Calpha subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Microinjection data clearly indicate that the type I R subunit but not type II binds to PrKX in vivo, preventing the translocation of PrKX to the nucleus in the absence of cAMP. The RIIalpha subunit is an excellent substrate for PrKX and is phosphorylated in vitro in a cAMP-independent manner. We discuss how PrKX can modulate the cAMP-mediated signal transduction pathway by preferential binding to the RIalpha subunit and by phosphorylating the RIIalpha subunit in the absence of cAMP.  (+info)

Cannabinoid suppression of noxious heat-evoked activity in wide dynamic range neurons in the lumbar dorsal horn of the rat. (6/4631)

The effects of cannabinoid agonists on noxious heat-evoked firing of 62 spinal wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons were examined in urethan-anesthetized rats (1 cell/animal). Noxious thermal stimulation was applied with a Peltier device to the receptive fields in the ipsilateral hindpaw of isolated WDR neurons. To assess the site of action, cannabinoids were administered systemically in intact and spinally transected rats and intraventricularly. Both the aminoalkylindole cannabinoid WIN55,212-2 (125 microg/kg iv) and the bicyclic cannabinoid CP55,940 (125 microg/kg iv) suppressed noxious heat-evoked activity. Responses evoked by mild pressure in nonnociceptive neurons were not altered by CP55,940 (125 microg/kg iv), consistent with previous observations with another cannabinoid agonist, WIN55,212-2. The cannabinoid induced-suppression of noxious heat-evoked activity was blocked by pretreatment with SR141716A (1 mg/kg iv), a competitive antagonist for central cannabinoid CB1 receptors. By contrast, intravenous administration of either vehicle or the receptor-inactive enantiomer WIN55,212-3 (125 microg/kg) failed to alter noxious heat-evoked activity. The suppression of noxious heat-evoked activity induced by WIN55,212-2 in the lumbar dorsal horn of intact animals was markedly attenuated in spinal rats. Moreover, intraventricular administration of WIN55,212-2 suppressed noxious heat-evoked activity in spinal WDR neurons. By contrast, both vehicle and enantiomer were inactive. These findings suggest that cannabinoids selectively modulate the activity of nociceptive neurons in the spinal dorsal horn by actions at CB1 receptors. This modulation represents a suppression of pain neurotransmission because the inhibitory effects are selective for pain-sensitive neurons and are observed with different modalities of noxious stimulation. The data also provide converging lines of evidence for a role for descending antinociceptive mechanisms in cannabinoid modulation of spinal nociceptive processing.  (+info)

Incompetence of preovulatory mouse oocytes to undergo cortical granule exocytosis following induced calcium oscillations. (7/4631)

Immature oocytes of many species are incompetent to undergo cortical granule (CG) exocytosis upon fertilization. In mouse eggs, CG exocytosis is dependent primarily on an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-mediated elevation of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i). While deficiencies upstream of [Ca2+]i release are known, this study examined whether downstream deficiencies also contribute to the incompetence of preovulatory mouse oocytes to release CGs. The experimental strategy was to bypass upstream deficiencies by inducing normal, fertilization-like [Ca2+]i oscillations in fully grown, germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes and determine if the extent of CG exocytosis was restored to levels observed in mature, metaphase II (MII)-stage eggs. Because IP3 does not stimulate a normal Ca2+ response in GV-stage oocytes, three alternate methods were used to induce oscillations: thimerosal treatment, electroporation, and sperm factor injection. Long-lasting oscillations from thimerosal treatment resulted in 64 and 10% mean CG release at the MII and GV stages, respectively (P < 0.001). Three electrical pulses induced mean [Ca2+]i elevations of approximately 730 and 650 nM in MII- and GV-stage oocytes, respectively, and 31% CG release in MII-stage eggs and 9% in GV-stage oocytes (P < 0.001). Sperm factor microinjection resulted in 86% CG release in MII-stage eggs, while similarly treated GV-stage oocytes exhibited < 1% CG release (P < 0.001). Taken together, these results demonstrate a deficiency downstream of [Ca2+]i release which is developmentally regulated in the 12 h prior to ovulation.  (+info)

Neuronal differentiation and patterning in Xenopus: the role of cdk5 and a novel activator xp35.2. (8/4631)

Cdk5, a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family, has been shown to play an important role in development of the central nervous system in mammals when partnered by its activator p35. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of a novel activator of cdk5 in Xenopus, Xp35.2. Xp35.2 is expressed during development initially in the earliest differentiating primary neurons in the neural plate and then later in differentiating neural tissue of the brain. This is in contrast to the previously described Xenopus cdk5 activator Xp35.1 which is expressed over the entire expanse of the neural plate in both proliferating and differentiating cells. Expression of both Xp35.1 and Xp35.2 and activation of cdk5 kinase occur when terminal neural differentiation is induced by neurogenin and neuro D overexpression but not when only early stages of neural differentiation are induced by noggin. Moreover, blocking cdk5 kinase activity specifically results in disruption and reduction of the embryonic eye where cdk5 and its Xp35 activators are expressed. Thus, cdk5/p35 complexes function in aspects of neural differentiation and patterning in the early embryo and particularly in formation of the eye.  (+info)

Microinjection is a medical technique that involves the use of a fine, precise needle to inject small amounts of liquid or chemicals into microscopic structures, cells, or tissues. This procedure is often used in research settings to introduce specific substances into individual cells for study purposes, such as introducing DNA or RNA into cell nuclei to manipulate gene expression.

In clinical settings, microinjections may be used in various medical and cosmetic procedures, including:

1. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI): A type of assisted reproductive technology where a single sperm is injected directly into an egg to increase the chances of fertilization during in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments.
2. Botulinum Toxin Injections: Microinjections of botulinum toxin (Botox, Dysport, or Xeomin) are used for cosmetic purposes to reduce wrinkles and fine lines by temporarily paralyzing the muscles responsible for their formation. They can also be used medically to treat various neuromuscular disorders, such as migraines, muscle spasticity, and excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis).
3. Drug Delivery: Microinjections may be used to deliver drugs directly into specific tissues or organs, bypassing the systemic circulation and potentially reducing side effects. This technique can be particularly useful in treating localized pain, delivering growth factors for tissue regeneration, or administering chemotherapy agents directly into tumors.
4. Gene Therapy: Microinjections of genetic material (DNA or RNA) can be used to introduce therapeutic genes into cells to treat various genetic disorders or diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, hemophilia, or cancer.

Overall, microinjection is a highly specialized and precise technique that allows for the targeted delivery of substances into small structures, cells, or tissues, with potential applications in research, medical diagnostics, and therapeutic interventions.

The medulla oblongata is a part of the brainstem that is located in the posterior portion of the brainstem and continues with the spinal cord. It plays a vital role in controlling several critical bodily functions, such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. The medulla oblongata also contains nerve pathways that transmit sensory information from the body to the brain and motor commands from the brain to the muscles. Additionally, it is responsible for reflexes such as vomiting, swallowing, coughing, and sneezing.

The pons is a part of the brainstem that lies between the medulla oblongata and the midbrain. Its name comes from the Latin word "ponte" which means "bridge," as it serves to connect these two regions of the brainstem. The pons contains several important structures, including nerve fibers that carry signals between the cerebellum (the part of the brain responsible for coordinating muscle movements) and the rest of the nervous system. It also contains nuclei (clusters of neurons) that help regulate various functions such as respiration, sleep, and facial movements.

The solitary nucleus, also known as the nucleus solitarius, is a collection of neurons located in the medulla oblongata region of the brainstem. It plays a crucial role in the processing and integration of sensory information, particularly taste and visceral afferent fibers from internal organs. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from various cranial nerves, including the glossopharyngeal (cranial nerve IX) and vagus nerves (cranial nerve X), and is involved in reflex responses related to swallowing, vomiting, and cardiovascular regulation.

Muscimol is defined as a cyclic psychoactive ingredient found in certain mushrooms, including Amanita muscaria and Amanita pantherina. It acts as a potent agonist at GABA-A receptors, which are involved in inhibitory neurotransmission in the central nervous system. Muscimol can cause symptoms such as altered consciousness, delirium, hallucinations, and seizures. It is used in research but has no medical applications.

Bradycardia is a medical term that refers to an abnormally slow heart rate, typically defined as a resting heart rate of less than 60 beats per minute in adults. While some people, particularly well-trained athletes, may have a naturally low resting heart rate, bradycardia can also be a sign of an underlying health problem.

There are several potential causes of bradycardia, including:

* Damage to the heart's electrical conduction system, such as from heart disease or aging
* Certain medications, including beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, and digoxin
* Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid gland)
* Sleep apnea
* Infection of the heart (endocarditis or myocarditis)
* Infiltrative diseases such as amyloidosis or sarcoidosis

Symptoms of bradycardia can vary depending on the severity and underlying cause. Some people with bradycardia may not experience any symptoms, while others may feel weak, fatigued, dizzy, or short of breath. In severe cases, bradycardia can lead to fainting, confusion, or even cardiac arrest.

Treatment for bradycardia depends on the underlying cause. If a medication is causing the slow heart rate, adjusting the dosage or switching to a different medication may help. In other cases, a pacemaker may be necessary to regulate the heart's rhythm. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of bradycardia, as it can be a sign of a serious underlying condition.

GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) agonists are substances that bind to and activate GABA receptors in the brain, mimicking the actions of GABA, which is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. These agents can produce various effects such as sedation, anxiolysis, muscle relaxation, and anticonvulsant activity by enhancing the inhibitory tone in the brain. They are used clinically to treat conditions such as anxiety disorders, seizures, and muscle spasticity. Examples of GABA agonists include benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and certain non-benzodiazepine hypnotics.

Urocortins are a group of peptides that belong to the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) family. They include urocortin 1, urocortin 2, and urocortin 3, which are encoded by different genes in humans.

Urocortins play important roles in various physiological processes, including the regulation of stress responses, feeding behavior, energy homeostasis, and cardiovascular function. They exert their effects by binding to CRH receptors (CRHR1 and CRHR2) that are widely distributed throughout the body.

Urocortin 1 is a potent stimulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which is responsible for the release of stress hormones such as cortisol. It also has cardiovascular effects, including vasodilation and negative inotropic effects on the heart.

Urocortin 2 and urocortin 3 are primarily expressed in the brain and have been implicated in the regulation of feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. They may act as satiety signals to reduce food intake, and they have also been shown to have anxiolytic effects.

Overall, urocortins play important roles in the regulation of various physiological processes, and dysregulation of their function has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including mood disorders, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic disorders.

The splanchnic nerves are a set of nerve fibers that originate from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord and innervate various internal organs. They are responsible for carrying both sensory information, such as pain and temperature, from the organs to the brain, and motor signals, which control the function of the organs, from the brain to the organs.

There are several splanchnic nerves, including the greater, lesser, and least splanchnic nerves, as well as the lumbar splanchnic nerves. These nerves primarily innervate the autonomic nervous system, which controls the involuntary functions of the body, such as heart rate, digestion, and respiration.

The greater splanchnic nerve arises from the fifth to the ninth thoracic ganglia and passes through the diaphragm to reach the abdomen. It innervates the stomach, esophagus, liver, pancreas, and adrenal glands.

The lesser splanchnic nerve arises from the tenth and eleventh thoracic ganglia and innervates the upper part of the small intestine, the pancreas, and the adrenal glands.

The least splanchnic nerve arises from the twelfth thoracic ganglion and innervates the lower part of the small intestine and the colon.

The lumbar splanchnic nerves arise from the first three or four lumbar ganglia and innervate the lower parts of the colon, the rectum, and the reproductive organs.

A decerebrate state is a medical condition that results from severe damage to the brainstem, specifically to the midbrain and above. This type of injury can cause motor responses characterized by rigid extension of the arms and legs, with the arms rotated outward and the wrists and fingers extended. The legs are also extended and the toes pointed downward. These postures are often referred to as "decerebrate rigidity" or "posturing."

The decerebrate state is typically seen in patients who have experienced severe trauma, such as a car accident or gunshot wound, or who have suffered from a large stroke or other type of brain hemorrhage. It can also occur in some cases of severe hypoxia (lack of oxygen) to the brain, such as during cardiac arrest or drowning.

The decerebrate state is a serious medical emergency that requires immediate treatment. If left untreated, it can lead to further brain damage and even death. Treatment typically involves providing supportive care, such as mechanical ventilation to help with breathing, medications to control blood pressure and prevent seizures, and surgery to repair any underlying injuries or bleeding. In some cases, patients may require long-term rehabilitation to regain lost function and improve their quality of life.

Bicuculline is a pharmacological agent that acts as a competitive antagonist at GABA-A receptors, which are inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the central nervous system. By blocking the action of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) at these receptors, bicuculline can increase neuronal excitability and cause convulsions. It is used in research to study the role of GABAergic neurotransmission in various physiological processes and neurological disorders.

The reticular formation is not a single structure but rather a complex network of interconnected neurons located in the brainstem, extending from the medulla oblongata through the pons and mesencephalon (midbrain) up to the diencephalon (thalamus and hypothalamus). It forms part of the reticular activating system, which is involved in regulating arousal, awareness, and sleep-wake cycles.

The reticular formation plays a crucial role in various functions such as:

1. Modulation of sensory input: The neurons in the reticular formation receive inputs from all senses (visual, auditory, tactile, etc.) and help filter and prioritize this information before it reaches higher cognitive areas.

2. Control of motor function: The reticular formation contributes to the regulation of muscle tone, posture, and locomotion by modulating the activity of motor neurons in the spinal cord.

3. Regulation of autonomic functions: The reticular formation is involved in controlling heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, and other visceral functions through its connections with the autonomic nervous system.

4. Consciousness and arousal: The ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) originates from the reticular formation and projects to the thalamus and cerebral cortex, where it helps maintain wakefulness and arousal. Damage to the ARAS can lead to coma or other states of altered consciousness.

5. Sleep-wake cycle regulation: The reticular formation contains cells that release neurotransmitters like histamine, serotonin, and orexin/hypocretin, which are essential for sleep-wake regulation. Dysfunction in these circuits has been implicated in various sleep disorders, such as narcolepsy and insomnia.

A vagotomy is a surgical procedure that involves cutting or blocking the vagus nerve, which is a parasympathetic nerve that runs from the brainstem to the abdomen and helps regulate many bodily functions such as heart rate, gastrointestinal motility, and digestion. In particular, vagotomy is often performed as a treatment for peptic ulcers, as it can help reduce gastric acid secretion.

There are several types of vagotomy procedures, including:

1. Truncal vagotomy: This involves cutting the main trunks of the vagus nerve as they enter the abdomen. It is a more extensive procedure that reduces gastric acid secretion significantly but can also lead to side effects such as delayed gastric emptying and diarrhea.
2. Selective vagotomy: This involves cutting only the branches of the vagus nerve that supply the stomach, leaving the rest of the nerve intact. It is a less extensive procedure that reduces gastric acid secretion while minimizing side effects.
3. Highly selective vagotomy (HSV): Also known as parietal cell vagotomy, this involves cutting only the branches of the vagus nerve that supply the acid-secreting cells in the stomach. It is a highly targeted procedure that reduces gastric acid secretion while minimizing side effects such as delayed gastric emptying and diarrhea.

Vagotomy is typically performed using laparoscopic or open surgical techniques, depending on the patient's individual needs and the surgeon's preference. While vagotomy can be effective in treating peptic ulcers, it is not commonly performed today due to the development of less invasive treatments such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) that reduce gastric acid secretion without surgery.

The Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus (PVN) is a nucleus in the hypothalamus, which is a part of the brain that regulates various autonomic functions and homeostatic processes. The PVN plays a crucial role in the regulation of neuroendocrine and autonomic responses to stress, as well as the control of fluid and electrolyte balance, cardiovascular function, and energy balance.

The PVN is composed of several subdivisions, including the magnocellular and parvocellular divisions. The magnocellular neurons produce and release two neuropeptides, oxytocin and vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone), into the circulation via the posterior pituitary gland. These neuropeptides play important roles in social behavior, reproduction, and fluid balance.

The parvocellular neurons, on the other hand, project to various brain regions and the pituitary gland, where they release neurotransmitters and neuropeptides that regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is responsible for the stress response. The PVN also contains neurons that produce corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), a key neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of the HPA axis and the stress response.

Overall, the Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus is an essential component of the brain's regulatory systems that help maintain homeostasis and respond to stressors. Dysfunction of the PVN has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including hypertension, obesity, and mood disorders.

The Raphe Nuclei are clusters of neurons located in the brainstem, specifically in the midline of the pons, medulla oblongata, and mesencephalon (midbrain). These neurons are characterized by their ability to synthesize and release serotonin, a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in regulating various functions such as mood, appetite, sleep, and pain perception.

The Raphe Nuclei project axons widely throughout the central nervous system, allowing serotonin to modulate the activity of other neurons. There are several subdivisions within the Raphe Nuclei, each with distinct connections and functions. Dysfunction in the Raphe Nuclei has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and chronic pain.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is a region in the midbrain, surrounding the cerebral aqueduct (a narrow channel connecting the third and fourth ventricles within the brain). It is a column of neurons that plays a crucial role in the modulation of pain perception, cardiorespiratory regulation, and defensive behaviors. The PAG is involved in the descending pain modulatory system, where it receives input from various emotional and cognitive areas and sends output to the rostral ventromedial medulla, which in turn regulates nociceptive processing at the spinal cord level. Additionally, the PAG is implicated in the regulation of fear, anxiety, and stress responses, as well as sexual behavior and reward processing.

REM sleep, or Rapid Eye Movement sleep, is a stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements, low muscle tone, and active brain activity. It is one of the two main types of sleep along with non-REM sleep and is marked by vivid dreaming, increased brain metabolism, and altered brain wave patterns. REM sleep is often referred to as "paradoxical sleep" because of the seemingly contradictory nature of its characteristics - an active brain in a state of relaxation. It is thought to play a role in memory consolidation, learning, and mood regulation. A typical night's sleep cycle includes several episodes of REM sleep, with each episode becoming longer as the night progresses.

The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is a part of the autonomic nervous system that operates largely below the level of consciousness, and it functions to produce appropriate physiological responses to perceived danger. It's often associated with the "fight or flight" response. The SNS uses nerve impulses to stimulate target organs, causing them to speed up (e.g., increased heart rate), prepare for action, or otherwise respond to stressful situations.

The sympathetic nervous system is activated due to stressful emotional or physical situations and it prepares the body for immediate actions. It dilates the pupils, increases heart rate and blood pressure, accelerates breathing, and slows down digestion. The primary neurotransmitter involved in this system is norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline).

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

The nucleus accumbens is a part of the brain that is located in the ventral striatum, which is a key region of the reward circuitry. It is made up of two subregions: the shell and the core. The nucleus accumbens receives inputs from various sources, including the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus, and sends outputs to the ventral pallidum and other areas.

The nucleus accumbens is involved in reward processing, motivation, reinforcement learning, and addiction. It plays a crucial role in the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which is associated with pleasure and reinforcement. Dysfunction in the nucleus accumbens has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric conditions, including substance use disorders, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Glutamic acid is an alpha-amino acid, which is one of the 20 standard amino acids in the genetic code. The systematic name for this amino acid is (2S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid. Its chemical formula is HO2CCH(NH2)CH2CH2CO2H.

Glutamic acid is a crucial excitatory neurotransmitter in the human brain, and it plays an essential role in learning and memory. It's also involved in the metabolism of sugars and amino acids, the synthesis of proteins, and the removal of waste nitrogen from the body.

Glutamic acid can be found in various foods such as meat, fish, beans, eggs, dairy products, and vegetables. In the human body, glutamic acid can be converted into gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), another important neurotransmitter that has a calming effect on the nervous system.

The phrenic nerve is a motor nerve that originates from the cervical spine (C3-C5) and descends through the neck to reach the diaphragm, which is the primary muscle used for breathing. The main function of the phrenic nerve is to innervate the diaphragm and control its contraction and relaxation, thereby enabling respiration.

Damage or injury to the phrenic nerve can result in paralysis of the diaphragm, leading to difficulty breathing and potentially causing respiratory failure. Certain medical conditions, such as neuromuscular disorders, spinal cord injuries, and tumors, can affect the phrenic nerve and impair its function.

Heart rate is the number of heartbeats per unit of time, often expressed as beats per minute (bpm). It can vary significantly depending on factors such as age, physical fitness, emotions, and overall health status. A resting heart rate between 60-100 bpm is generally considered normal for adults, but athletes and individuals with high levels of physical fitness may have a resting heart rate below 60 bpm due to their enhanced cardiovascular efficiency. Monitoring heart rate can provide valuable insights into an individual's health status, exercise intensity, and response to various treatments or interventions.

The tegmentum mesencephali, also known as the mesencephalic tegmentum, is a region in the midbrain (mesencephalon) of the brainstem. It contains several important structures including the periaqueductal gray matter, the nucleus raphe, the reticular formation, and various cranial nerve nuclei. The tegmentum mesencephali plays a crucial role in various functions such as pain modulation, sleep-wake regulation, eye movement control, and cardiovascular regulation.

Kynurenic acid is a metabolite of the amino acid tryptophan, which is formed through the kynurenine pathway. It functions as an antagonist at glutamate receptors and acts as a neuroprotective agent by blocking excessive stimulation of NMDA receptors in the brain. Additionally, kynurenic acid also has anti-inflammatory properties and is involved in the regulation of the immune response. Abnormal levels of kynurenic acid have been implicated in several neurological disorders such as schizophrenia, epilepsy, and Huntington's disease.

GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) antagonists are substances that block the action of GABA, which is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. GABA plays a crucial role in regulating neuronal excitability and reducing the transmission of nerve impulses.

GABA antagonists work by binding to the GABA receptors without activating them, thereby preventing the normal function of GABA and increasing neuronal activity. These agents can cause excitation of the nervous system, leading to various effects depending on the specific type of GABA receptor they target.

GABA antagonists are used in medical treatments for certain conditions, such as sleep disorders, depression, and cognitive enhancement. However, they can also have adverse effects, including anxiety, agitation, seizures, and even neurotoxicity at high doses. Examples of GABA antagonists include picrotoxin, bicuculline, and flumazenil.

An oncogene protein, specifically the v-fos protein, is a product of the v-fos gene found in the FBJ murine osteosarcoma virus. This viral oncogene can transform cells and cause cancer in animals. The normal cellular counterpart of v-fos is the c-fos gene, which encodes a nuclear protein that forms a heterodimer with other proteins to function as a transcription factor, regulating the expression of target genes involved in various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and transformation.

However, when the v-fos gene is integrated into the viral genome and expressed at high levels, it can lead to unregulated and constitutive activation of these cellular processes, resulting in oncogenic transformation and tumor formation. The v-fos protein can interact with other cellular proteins and modify their functions, leading to aberrant signaling pathways that contribute to the development of cancer.

Drug administration routes refer to the different paths through which medications or drugs are introduced into the body to exert their therapeutic effects. Understanding these routes is crucial in ensuring appropriate drug delivery, optimizing drug effectiveness, and minimizing potential adverse effects. Here are some common drug administration routes with their definitions:

1. Oral (PO): Medications are given through the mouth, allowing for easy self-administration. The drug is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and then undergoes first-pass metabolism in the liver before reaching systemic circulation.
2. Parenteral: This route bypasses the gastrointestinal tract and involves direct administration into the body's tissues or bloodstream. Examples include intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), subcutaneous (SC), and intradermal (ID) injections.
3. Intravenous (IV): Medications are administered directly into a vein, ensuring rapid absorption and onset of action. This route is often used for emergency situations or when immediate therapeutic effects are required.
4. Intramuscular (IM): Medications are injected deep into a muscle, allowing for slow absorption and prolonged release. Common sites include the deltoid, vastus lateralis, or ventrogluteal muscles.
5. Subcutaneous (SC): Medications are administered just under the skin, providing slower absorption compared to IM injections. Common sites include the abdomen, upper arm, or thigh.
6. Intradermal (ID): Medications are introduced into the superficial layer of the skin, often used for diagnostic tests like tuberculin skin tests or vaccine administration.
7. Topical: Medications are applied directly to the skin surface, mucous membranes, or other body surfaces. This route is commonly used for local treatment of infections, inflammation, or pain. Examples include creams, ointments, gels, patches, and sprays.
8. Inhalational: Medications are administered through inhalation, allowing for rapid absorption into the lungs and quick onset of action. Commonly used for respiratory conditions like asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Examples include metered-dose inhalers, dry powder inhalers, and nebulizers.
9. Rectal: Medications are administered through the rectum, often used when oral administration is not possible or desirable. Commonly used for systemic treatment of pain, fever, or seizures. Examples include suppositories, enemas, or foams.
10. Oral: Medications are taken by mouth, allowing for absorption in the gastrointestinal tract and systemic distribution. This is the most common route of medication administration. Examples include tablets, capsules, liquids, or chewable forms.

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

"Cat" is a common name that refers to various species of small carnivorous mammals that belong to the family Felidae. The domestic cat, also known as Felis catus or Felis silvestris catus, is a popular pet and companion animal. It is a subspecies of the wildcat, which is found in Europe, Africa, and Asia.

Domestic cats are often kept as pets because of their companionship, playful behavior, and ability to hunt vermin. They are also valued for their ability to provide emotional support and therapy to people. Cats are obligate carnivores, which means that they require a diet that consists mainly of meat to meet their nutritional needs.

Cats are known for their agility, sharp senses, and predatory instincts. They have retractable claws, which they use for hunting and self-defense. Cats also have a keen sense of smell, hearing, and vision, which allow them to detect prey and navigate their environment.

In medical terms, cats can be hosts to various parasites and diseases that can affect humans and other animals. Some common feline diseases include rabies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and toxoplasmosis. It is important for cat owners to keep their pets healthy and up-to-date on vaccinations and preventative treatments to protect both the cats and their human companions.

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor found on the surface of cells in various tissues throughout the body. They play a critical role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is responsible for the body's stress response.

There are two main types of CRH receptors: CRH-R1 and CRH-R2. When CRH binds to these receptors, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland. ACTH then stimulates the production and release of cortisol, a steroid hormone that helps regulate metabolism, immune function, and stress response.

In addition to their role in the HPA axis, CRH receptors have been implicated in a variety of other physiological processes, including anxiety, depression, addiction, and pain perception. Dysregulation of the CRH system has been associated with several psychiatric and neurological disorders, making CRH receptors an important target for drug development in these areas.

Cholinergic agonists are substances that bind to and activate cholinergic receptors, which are neuroreceptors that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. These agents can mimic the effects of acetylcholine in the body and are used in medical treatment to produce effects such as pupil constriction, increased gastrointestinal motility, bronchodilation, and improved cognition. Examples of cholinergic agonists include pilocarpine, bethanechol, and donepezil.

I'm not aware of a specific medical definition for "amphibian proteins." However, I can provide some context that might help you understand what you might be looking for.

Proteins are complex molecules that perform a wide variety of functions within organisms, including catalyzing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Amphibians are a class of animals that include frogs, toads, salamanders, and newts.

If you're looking for information about proteins that are found in amphibians or are unique to amphibians, then you might be interested in researching the specific proteins that are involved in various biological processes in these animals. For example, some amphibian proteins have been studied for their potential roles in wound healing, immune response, and developmental biology.

One well-known example of an amphibian protein is antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are produced by the skin of many amphibians as a defense against pathogens. These peptides have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications in human medicine, particularly in the context of antibiotic resistance.

If you could provide more context or clarify what you're looking for, I might be able to give you a more specific answer!

Blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is given as two figures:

1. Systolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart pushes blood out into the arteries.
2. Diastolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart rests between beats, allowing it to fill with blood.

Normal blood pressure for adults is typically around 120/80 mmHg, although this can vary slightly depending on age, sex, and other factors. High blood pressure (hypertension) is generally considered to be a reading of 130/80 mmHg or higher, while low blood pressure (hypotension) is usually defined as a reading below 90/60 mmHg. It's important to note that blood pressure can fluctuate throughout the day and may be affected by factors such as stress, physical activity, and medication use.

The baroreflex is a physiological mechanism that helps regulate blood pressure and heart rate in response to changes in stretch of the arterial walls. It is mediated by baroreceptors, which are specialized sensory nerve endings located in the carotid sinus and aortic arch. These receptors detect changes in blood pressure and send signals to the brainstem via the glossopharyngeal (cranial nerve IX) and vagus nerves (cranial nerve X), respectively.

In response to an increase in arterial pressure, the baroreceptors are stimulated, leading to increased firing of afferent neurons that signal the brainstem. This results in a reflexive decrease in heart rate and cardiac output, as well as vasodilation of peripheral blood vessels, which collectively work to reduce blood pressure back towards its normal level. Conversely, if arterial pressure decreases, the baroreceptors are less stimulated, leading to an increase in heart rate and cardiac output, as well as vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels, which helps restore blood pressure.

Overall, the baroreflex is a crucial homeostatic mechanism that helps maintain stable blood pressure and ensure adequate perfusion of vital organs.

The vagus nerve, also known as the 10th cranial nerve (CN X), is the longest of the cranial nerves and extends from the brainstem to the abdomen. It has both sensory and motor functions and plays a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions such as heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, speech, and sweating, among others.

The vagus nerve is responsible for carrying sensory information from the internal organs to the brain, and it also sends motor signals from the brain to the muscles of the throat and voice box, as well as to the heart, lungs, and digestive tract. The vagus nerve helps regulate the body's involuntary responses, such as controlling heart rate and blood pressure, promoting relaxation, and reducing inflammation.

Dysfunction in the vagus nerve can lead to various medical conditions, including gastroparesis, chronic pain, and autonomic nervous system disorders. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a therapeutic intervention that involves delivering electrical impulses to the vagus nerve to treat conditions such as epilepsy, depression, and migraine headaches.

Ibotenic acid is a naturally occurring neurotoxin that can be found in certain species of mushrooms, including the Amanita muscaria and Amanita pantherina. It is a type of glutamate receptor agonist, which means it binds to and activates certain receptors in the brain called N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors.

Ibotenic acid has been used in scientific research as a tool for studying the brain and nervous system. It can cause excitotoxicity, which is a process of excessive stimulation of nerve cells leading to their damage or death. This property has been exploited in studies involving neurodegenerative disorders, where ibotenic acid is used to selectively destroy specific populations of neurons to understand the functional consequences and potential therapeutic interventions for these conditions.

However, it's important to note that ibotenic acid is not used as a treatment or therapy in humans due to its neurotoxic effects. It should only be handled and used by trained professionals in controlled laboratory settings for research purposes.

Respiratory rate is the number of breaths a person takes per minute. It is typically measured by counting the number of times the chest rises and falls in one minute. Normal respiratory rate at rest for an adult ranges from 12 to 20 breaths per minute. An increased respiratory rate (tachypnea) or decreased respiratory rate (bradypnea) can be a sign of various medical conditions, such as lung disease, heart failure, or neurological disorders. It is an important vital sign that should be regularly monitored in clinical settings.

The brainstem is the lower part of the brain that connects to the spinal cord. It consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. The brainstem controls many vital functions such as heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory and motor information between the cerebral cortex and the rest of the body. Additionally, several cranial nerves originate from the brainstem, including those that control eye movements, facial movements, and hearing.

Muscle tonus, also known as muscle tone, refers to the continuous and passive partial contraction of the muscles, which helps to maintain posture and stability. It is the steady state of slight tension that is present in resting muscles, allowing them to quickly respond to stimuli and move. This natural state of mild contraction is maintained by the involuntary activity of the nervous system and can be affected by factors such as injury, disease, or exercise.

It's important to note that muscle tone should not be confused with muscle "tone" in the context of physical appearance or body sculpting, which refers to the amount of muscle definition and leanness seen in an individual's physique.

Stereotaxic techniques are minimally invasive surgical procedures used in neuroscience and neurology that allow for precise targeting and manipulation of structures within the brain. These methods use a stereotactic frame, which is attached to the skull and provides a three-dimensional coordinate system to guide the placement of instruments such as electrodes, cannulas, or radiation sources. The main goal is to reach specific brain areas with high precision and accuracy, minimizing damage to surrounding tissues. Stereotaxic techniques are widely used in research, diagnosis, and treatment of various neurological disorders, including movement disorders, pain management, epilepsy, and psychiatric conditions.

Cholinergic fibers are nerve cell extensions (neurons) that release the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at their synapses, which are the junctions where they transmit signals to other neurons or effector cells such as muscles and glands. These fibers are a part of the cholinergic system, which plays crucial roles in various physiological processes including learning and memory, attention, arousal, sleep, and muscle contraction.

Cholinergic fibers can be found in both the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In the CNS, cholinergic neurons are primarily located in the basal forebrain and brainstem, and their projections innervate various regions of the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and other brain areas. In the PNS, cholinergic fibers are responsible for activating skeletal muscles through neuromuscular junctions, as well as regulating functions in smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands via the autonomic nervous system.

Dysfunction of the cholinergic system has been implicated in several neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and myasthenia gravis.

Baclofen is a muscle relaxant and antispastic medication. It is primarily used to treat spasticity, a common symptom in individuals with spinal cord injuries, multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, and other neurological disorders that can cause stiff and rigid muscles.

Baclofen works by reducing the activity of overactive nerves in the spinal cord that are responsible for muscle contractions. It binds to GABA-B receptors in the brain and spinal cord, increasing the inhibitory effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a neurotransmitter that helps regulate communication between nerve cells. This results in decreased muscle spasticity and improved range of motion.

The medication is available as an oral tablet or an injectable solution for intrathecal administration, which involves direct delivery to the spinal cord via a surgically implanted pump. The oral formulation is generally preferred as a first-line treatment due to its non-invasive nature and lower risk of side effects compared to intrathecal administration.

Common side effects of baclofen include drowsiness, weakness, dizziness, headache, and nausea. Intrathecal baclofen may cause more severe side effects, such as seizures, respiratory depression, and allergic reactions. Abrupt discontinuation of the medication can lead to withdrawal symptoms, including hallucinations, confusion, and increased muscle spasticity.

It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for personalized medical advice regarding the use and potential side effects of baclofen.

Excitatory amino acid agonists are substances that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors, leading to an increase in the excitation or activation of neurons. The most common excitatory amino acids in the central nervous system are glutamate and aspartate.

Agonists of excitatory amino acid receptors can be divided into two main categories: ionotropic and metabotropic. Ionotropic receptors, such as N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), and kainite receptors, are ligand-gated ion channels that directly mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission. Metabotropic receptors, on the other hand, are G protein-coupled receptors that modulate synaptic activity through second messenger systems.

Excitatory amino acid agonists have been implicated in various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including learning and memory, neurodevelopment, and neurodegenerative disorders such as stroke, epilepsy, and Alzheimer's disease. They are also used in research to study the functions of excitatory amino acid receptors and their roles in neuronal signaling. However, due to their potential neurotoxic effects, the therapeutic use of excitatory amino acid agonists is limited.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

The hypoglossal nerve, also known as the 12th cranial nerve (CN XII), is primarily responsible for innervating the muscles of the tongue, allowing for its movement and function. These muscles include the intrinsic muscles that alter the shape of the tongue and the extrinsic muscles that position it in the oral cavity. The hypoglossal nerve also has some minor contributions to the innervation of two muscles in the neck: the sternocleidomastoid and the trapezius. These functions are related to head turning and maintaining head position. Any damage to this nerve can lead to weakness or paralysis of the tongue, causing difficulty with speech, swallowing, and tongue movements.

Excitatory amino acid antagonists are a class of drugs that block the action of excitatory neurotransmitters, particularly glutamate and aspartate, in the brain. These drugs work by binding to and blocking the receptors for these neurotransmitters, thereby reducing their ability to stimulate neurons and produce an excitatory response.

Excitatory amino acid antagonists have been studied for their potential therapeutic benefits in a variety of neurological conditions, including stroke, epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. However, their use is limited by the fact that blocking excitatory neurotransmission can also have negative effects on cognitive function and memory.

There are several types of excitatory amino acid receptors, including N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), and kainite receptors. Different excitatory amino acid antagonists may target one or more of these receptor subtypes, depending on their specific mechanism of action.

Examples of excitatory amino acid antagonists include ketamine, memantine, and dextromethorphan. These drugs have been used in clinical practice for various indications, such as anesthesia, sedation, and treatment of neurological disorders. However, their use must be carefully monitored due to potential side effects and risks associated with blocking excitatory neurotransmission.

The cardiovascular system, also known as the circulatory system, is a biological system responsible for pumping and transporting blood throughout the body in animals and humans. It consists of the heart, blood vessels (comprising arteries, veins, and capillaries), and blood. The main function of this system is to transport oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and cellular waste products throughout the body to maintain homeostasis and support organ function.

The heart acts as a muscular pump that contracts and relaxes to circulate blood. It has four chambers: two atria on the top and two ventricles on the bottom. The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the body, pumps it through the lungs for oxygenation, and then sends it back to the left side of the heart. The left side of the heart then pumps the oxygenated blood through the aorta and into the systemic circulation, reaching all parts of the body via a network of arteries and capillaries. Deoxygenated blood is collected by veins and returned to the right atrium, completing the cycle.

The cardiovascular system plays a crucial role in regulating temperature, pH balance, and fluid balance throughout the body. It also contributes to the immune response and wound healing processes. Dysfunctions or diseases of the cardiovascular system can lead to severe health complications, such as hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, and peripheral artery disease.

The Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) is a collection of neurons located in the midbrain that is part of the dopamine system. It is specifically known as the A10 group and is the largest source of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. These neurons project to various regions, including the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens, and are involved in reward, motivation, addiction, and various cognitive functions. The VTA also contains GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons that modulate dopamine release and have various other functions.

Wakefulness is a state of consciousness in which an individual is alert and aware of their surroundings. It is characterized by the ability to perceive, process, and respond to stimuli in a purposeful manner. In a medical context, wakefulness is often assessed using measures such as the electroencephalogram (EEG) to evaluate brain activity patterns associated with consciousness.

Wakefulness is regulated by several interconnected neural networks that promote arousal and attention. These networks include the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), which consists of a group of neurons located in the brainstem that project to the thalamus and cerebral cortex, as well as other regions involved in regulating arousal and attention, such as the basal forebrain and hypothalamus.

Disorders of wakefulness can result from various underlying conditions, including neurological disorders, sleep disorders, medication side effects, or other medical conditions that affect brain function. Examples of such disorders include narcolepsy, insomnia, hypersomnia, and various forms of encephalopathy or brain injury.

Lidocaine is a type of local anesthetic that numbs painful areas and is used to prevent pain during certain medical procedures. It works by blocking the nerves that transmit pain signals to the brain. In addition to its use as an anesthetic, lidocaine can also be used to treat irregular heart rates and relieve itching caused by allergic reactions or skin conditions such as eczema.

Lidocaine is available in various forms, including creams, gels, ointments, sprays, solutions, and injectable preparations. It can be applied directly to the skin or mucous membranes, or it can be administered by injection into a muscle or vein. The specific dosage and method of administration will depend on the reason for its use and the individual patient's medical history and current health status.

Like all medications, lidocaine can have side effects, including allergic reactions, numbness that lasts too long, and in rare cases, heart problems or seizures. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider carefully when using lidocaine to minimize the risk of adverse effects.

GABA-A receptor antagonists are pharmacological agents that block the action of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at GABA-A receptors. GABA is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and it exerts its effects by binding to GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. When GABA binds to these receptors, it opens the chloride channel, leading to an influx of chloride ions into the neuron and hyperpolarization of the membrane, making it less likely to fire.

GABA-A receptor antagonists work by binding to the GABA-A receptor and preventing GABA from binding, thereby blocking the inhibitory effects of GABA. This can lead to increased neuronal excitability and can result in a variety of effects depending on the specific antagonist and the location of the receptors involved.

GABA-A receptor antagonists have been used in research to study the role of GABA in various physiological processes, and some have been investigated as potential therapeutic agents for conditions such as anxiety, depression, and insomnia. However, their use is limited by their potential to cause seizures and other adverse effects due to excessive neuronal excitation. Examples of GABA-A receptor antagonists include picrotoxin, bicuculline, and flumazenil.

A reflex is an automatic, involuntary and rapid response to a stimulus that occurs without conscious intention. In the context of physiology and neurology, it's a basic mechanism that involves the transmission of nerve impulses between neurons, resulting in a muscle contraction or glandular secretion.

Reflexes are important for maintaining homeostasis, protecting the body from harm, and coordinating movements. They can be tested clinically to assess the integrity of the nervous system, such as the knee-j jerk reflex, which tests the function of the L3-L4 spinal nerve roots and the sensitivity of the stretch reflex arc.

Neurons, also known as nerve cells or neurocytes, are specialized cells that constitute the basic unit of the nervous system. They are responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information and signals within the body. Neurons have three main parts: the dendrites, the cell body (soma), and the axon. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors, while the axon transmits these signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands. The junction between two neurons is called a synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to transmit the signal across the gap (synaptic cleft) to the next neuron. Neurons vary in size, shape, and structure depending on their function and location within the nervous system.

The trigeminal nuclei are a collection of sensory nerve cell bodies (nuclei) located in the brainstem that receive and process sensory information from the face and head, including pain, temperature, touch, and proprioception. There are four main trigeminal nuclei: the ophthalmic, maxillary, mandibular, and mesencephalic nuclei. Each nucleus is responsible for processing sensory information from specific areas of the face and head. The trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V) carries these sensory signals to the brainstem, where they synapse with neurons in the trigeminal nuclei before being relayed to higher brain centers for further processing.

Arterial pressure is the pressure exerted by the blood on the walls of the arteries during its flow through them. It is usually measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is expressed as two numbers: systolic and diastolic pressures. Systolic pressure is the higher value, representing the pressure when the heart contracts and pushes blood into the arteries. Diastolic pressure is the lower value, representing the pressure when the heart relaxes and fills with blood. A normal resting blood pressure for adults is typically around 120/80 mmHg.

Neural pathways, also known as nerve tracts or fasciculi, refer to the highly organized and specialized routes through which nerve impulses travel within the nervous system. These pathways are formed by groups of neurons (nerve cells) that are connected in a series, creating a continuous communication network for electrical signals to transmit information between different regions of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.

Neural pathways can be classified into two main types: sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent). Sensory neural pathways carry sensory information from various receptors in the body (such as those for touch, temperature, pain, and vision) to the brain for processing. Motor neural pathways, on the other hand, transmit signals from the brain to the muscles and glands, controlling movements and other effector functions.

The formation of these neural pathways is crucial for normal nervous system function, as it enables efficient communication between different parts of the body and allows for complex behaviors, cognitive processes, and adaptive responses to internal and external stimuli.

Intraventricular injections are a type of medical procedure where medication is administered directly into the cerebral ventricles of the brain. The cerebral ventricles are fluid-filled spaces within the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This procedure is typically used to deliver drugs that target conditions affecting the central nervous system, such as infections or tumors.

Intraventricular injections are usually performed using a thin, hollow needle that is inserted through a small hole drilled into the skull. The medication is then injected directly into the ventricles, allowing it to circulate throughout the CSF and reach the brain tissue more efficiently than other routes of administration.

This type of injection is typically reserved for situations where other methods of drug delivery are not effective or feasible. It carries a higher risk of complications, such as bleeding, infection, or damage to surrounding tissues, compared to other routes of administration. Therefore, it is usually performed by trained medical professionals in a controlled clinical setting.

Carbachol is a cholinergic agonist, which means it stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system by mimicking the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that is involved in transmitting signals between nerves and muscles. Carbachol binds to both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, but its effects are more pronounced on muscarinic receptors.

Carbachol is used in medical treatments to produce miosis (pupil constriction), lower intraocular pressure, and stimulate gastrointestinal motility. It can also be used as a diagnostic tool to test for certain conditions such as Hirschsprung's disease.

Like any medication, carbachol can have side effects, including sweating, salivation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, bradycardia (slow heart rate), and bronchoconstriction (narrowing of the airways in the lungs). It should be used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) is a hormone that is produced and released by the hypothalamus, a small gland located in the brain. CRH plays a critical role in the body's stress response system.

When the body experiences stress, the hypothalamus releases CRH, which then travels to the pituitary gland, another small gland located at the base of the brain. Once there, CRH stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland.

ACTH then travels through the bloodstream to the adrenal glands, which are located on top of the kidneys. ACTH stimulates the adrenal glands to produce and release cortisol, a hormone that helps the body respond to stress by regulating metabolism, immune function, and blood pressure, among other things.

Overall, CRH is an important part of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which regulates many bodily functions related to stress response, mood, and cognition. Dysregulation of the HPA axis and abnormal levels of CRH have been implicated in various psychiatric and medical conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and Cushing's syndrome.

The hypothalamus is a small, vital region of the brain that lies just below the thalamus and forms part of the limbic system. It plays a crucial role in many important functions including:

1. Regulation of body temperature, hunger, thirst, fatigue, sleep, and circadian rhythms.
2. Production and regulation of hormones through its connection with the pituitary gland (the hypophysis). It controls the release of various hormones by producing releasing and inhibiting factors that regulate the anterior pituitary's function.
3. Emotional responses, behavior, and memory formation through its connections with the limbic system structures like the amygdala and hippocampus.
4. Autonomic nervous system regulation, which controls involuntary physiological functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion.
5. Regulation of the immune system by interacting with the autonomic nervous system.

Damage to the hypothalamus can lead to various disorders like diabetes insipidus, growth hormone deficiency, altered temperature regulation, sleep disturbances, and emotional or behavioral changes.

Adrenergic fibers are a type of nerve fiber that releases neurotransmitters known as catecholamines, such as norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline). These neurotransmitters bind to adrenergic receptors in various target organs, including the heart, blood vessels, lungs, glands, and other tissues, and mediate the "fight or flight" response to stress.

Adrenergic fibers can be classified into two types based on their neurotransmitter content:

1. Noradrenergic fibers: These fibers release norepinephrine as their primary neurotransmitter and are widely distributed throughout the autonomic nervous system, including the sympathetic and some parasympathetic ganglia. They play a crucial role in regulating cardiovascular function, respiration, metabolism, and other physiological processes.
2. Adrenergic fibers with dual innervation: These fibers contain both norepinephrine and epinephrine as neurotransmitters and are primarily located in the adrenal medulla. They release epinephrine into the bloodstream, which acts on distant target organs to produce a more widespread and intense "fight or flight" response than norepinephrine alone.

Overall, adrenergic fibers play a critical role in maintaining homeostasis and responding to stress by modulating various physiological functions through the release of catecholamines.

The amygdala is an almond-shaped group of nuclei located deep within the temporal lobe of the brain, specifically in the anterior portion of the temporal lobes and near the hippocampus. It forms a key component of the limbic system and plays a crucial role in processing emotions, particularly fear and anxiety. The amygdala is involved in the integration of sensory information with emotional responses, memory formation, and decision-making processes.

In response to emotionally charged stimuli, the amygdala can modulate various physiological functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, and stress hormone release, via its connections to the hypothalamus and brainstem. Additionally, it contributes to social behaviors, including recognizing emotional facial expressions and responding appropriately to social cues. Dysfunctions in amygdala function have been implicated in several psychiatric and neurological conditions, such as anxiety disorders, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Serotonin receptor agonists are a class of medications that bind to and activate serotonin receptors in the body, mimicking the effects of the neurotransmitter serotonin. These drugs can have various effects depending on which specific serotonin receptors they act upon. Some serotonin receptor agonists are used to treat conditions such as migraines, cluster headaches, and Parkinson's disease, while others may be used to stimulate appetite or reduce anxiety. It is important to note that some serotonin receptor agonists can have serious side effects, particularly when taken in combination with other medications that affect serotonin levels, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). This can lead to a condition called serotonin syndrome, which is characterized by symptoms such as agitation, confusion, rapid heart rate, high blood pressure, and muscle stiffness.

Dopamine antagonists are a class of drugs that block the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain associated with various functions including movement, motivation, and emotion. These drugs work by binding to dopamine receptors and preventing dopamine from attaching to them, which can help to reduce the symptoms of certain medical conditions such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

There are several types of dopamine antagonists, including:

1. Typical antipsychotics: These drugs are primarily used to treat psychosis, including schizophrenia and delusional disorders. Examples include haloperidol, chlorpromazine, and fluphenazine.
2. Atypical antipsychotics: These drugs are also used to treat psychosis but have fewer side effects than typical antipsychotics. They may also be used to treat bipolar disorder and depression. Examples include risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine.
3. Antiemetics: These drugs are used to treat nausea and vomiting. Examples include metoclopramide and prochlorperazine.
4. Dopamine agonists: While not technically dopamine antagonists, these drugs work by stimulating dopamine receptors and can be used to treat conditions such as Parkinson's disease. However, they can also have the opposite effect and block dopamine receptors in high doses, making them functionally similar to dopamine antagonists.

Common side effects of dopamine antagonists include sedation, weight gain, and movement disorders such as tardive dyskinesia. It's important to use these drugs under the close supervision of a healthcare provider to monitor for side effects and adjust the dosage as needed.

Sympathomimetic drugs are substances that mimic or stimulate the actions of the sympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system, which regulates various automatic physiological functions in the body. The sympathetic nervous system's primary function is to prepare the body for the "fight-or-flight" response, which includes increasing heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and metabolism while decreasing digestive activity.

Sympathomimetic drugs can exert their effects through various mechanisms, including directly stimulating adrenergic receptors (alpha and beta receptors) or indirectly causing the release of norepinephrine and epinephrine from nerve endings. These drugs are used in various clinical settings to treat conditions such as asthma, nasal congestion, low blood pressure, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Examples of sympathomimetic drugs include epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, dobutamine, albuterol, pseudoephedrine, and methylphenidate.

It is important to note that sympathomimetic drugs can also have adverse effects, particularly when used in high doses or in individuals with certain medical conditions. These adverse effects may include anxiety, tremors, palpitations, hypertension, arrhythmias, and seizures. Therefore, these medications should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

The preoptic area (POA) is a region within the anterior hypothalamus of the brain. It is named for its location near the optic chiasm, where the optic nerves cross. The preoptic area is involved in various functions, including body temperature regulation, sexual behavior, and sleep-wake regulation.

The preoptic area contains several groups of neurons that are sensitive to changes in temperature and are responsible for generating heat through shivering or non-shivering thermogenesis. It also contains neurons that release inhibitory neurotransmitters such as GABA and galanin, which help regulate arousal and sleep.

Additionally, the preoptic area has been implicated in the regulation of sexual behavior, particularly in males. Certain populations of neurons within the preoptic area are involved in the expression of male sexual behavior, such as mounting and intromission.

Overall, the preoptic area is a critical region for the regulation of various physiological and behavioral functions, making it an important area of study in neuroscience research.

Glutamate receptors are a type of neuroreceptor in the central nervous system that bind to the neurotransmitter glutamate. They play a crucial role in excitatory synaptic transmission, plasticity, and neuronal development. There are several types of glutamate receptors, including ionotropic and metabotropic receptors, which can be further divided into subclasses based on their pharmacological properties and molecular structure.

Ionotropic glutamate receptors, also known as iGluRs, are ligand-gated ion channels that directly mediate fast synaptic transmission. They include N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, and kainite receptors.

Metabotropic glutamate receptors, also known as mGluRs, are G protein-coupled receptors that modulate synaptic transmission through second messenger systems. They include eight subtypes (mGluR1-8) that are classified into three groups based on their sequence homology, pharmacological properties, and signal transduction mechanisms.

Glutamate receptors have been implicated in various physiological processes, including learning and memory, motor control, sensory perception, and emotional regulation. Dysfunction of glutamate receptors has also been associated with several neurological disorders, such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and psychiatric conditions like schizophrenia and depression.

The mesencephalon, also known as the midbrain, is the middle portion of the brainstem that connects the hindbrain (rhombencephalon) and the forebrain (prosencephalon). It plays a crucial role in several important functions including motor control, vision, hearing, and the regulation of consciousness and sleep-wake cycles. The mesencephalon contains several important structures such as the cerebral aqueduct, tectum, tegmentum, cerebral peduncles, and several cranial nerve nuclei (III and IV).

Cocaine is a highly addictive stimulant drug derived from the leaves of the coca plant (Erythroxylon coca). It is a powerful central nervous system stimulant that affects the brain and body in many ways. When used recreationally, cocaine can produce feelings of euphoria, increased energy, and mental alertness; however, it can also cause serious negative consequences, including addiction, cardiovascular problems, seizures, and death.

Cocaine works by increasing the levels of dopamine in the brain, a neurotransmitter associated with pleasure and reward. This leads to the pleasurable effects that users seek when they take the drug. However, cocaine also interferes with the normal functioning of the brain's reward system, making it difficult for users to experience pleasure from natural rewards like food or social interactions.

Cocaine can be taken in several forms, including powdered form (which is usually snorted), freebase (a purer form that is often smoked), and crack cocaine (a solid form that is typically heated and smoked). Each form of cocaine has different risks and potential harms associated with its use.

Long-term use of cocaine can lead to a number of negative health consequences, including addiction, heart problems, malnutrition, respiratory issues, and mental health disorders like depression or anxiety. It is important to seek help if you or someone you know is struggling with cocaine use or addiction.

Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. It plays a crucial role in regulating neuronal excitability and preventing excessive neuronal firing, which helps to maintain neural homeostasis and reduce the risk of seizures. GABA functions by binding to specific receptors (GABA-A, GABA-B, and GABA-C) on the postsynaptic membrane, leading to hyperpolarization of the neuronal membrane and reduced neurotransmitter release from presynaptic terminals.

In addition to its role in the central nervous system, GABA has also been identified as a neurotransmitter in the peripheral nervous system, where it is involved in regulating various physiological processes such as muscle relaxation, hormone secretion, and immune function.

GABA can be synthesized in neurons from glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter, through the action of the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). Once synthesized, GABA is stored in synaptic vesicles and released into the synapse upon neuronal activation. After release, GABA can be taken up by surrounding glial cells or degraded by the enzyme GABA transaminase (GABA-T) into succinic semialdehyde, which is further metabolized to form succinate and enter the Krebs cycle for energy production.

Dysregulation of GABAergic neurotransmission has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, including epilepsy, anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbances. Therefore, modulating GABAergic signaling through pharmacological interventions or other therapeutic approaches may offer potential benefits for the treatment of these conditions.

Serotonin antagonists are a class of drugs that block the action of serotonin, a neurotransmitter, at specific receptor sites in the brain and elsewhere in the body. They work by binding to the serotonin receptors without activating them, thereby preventing the natural serotonin from binding and transmitting signals.

Serotonin antagonists are used in the treatment of various conditions such as psychiatric disorders, migraines, and nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy. They can have varying degrees of affinity for different types of serotonin receptors (e.g., 5-HT2A, 5-HT3, etc.), which contributes to their specific therapeutic effects and side effect profiles.

Examples of serotonin antagonists include ondansetron (used to treat nausea and vomiting), risperidone and olanzapine (used to treat psychiatric disorders), and methysergide (used to prevent migraines). It's important to note that these medications should be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as they can have potential risks and interactions with other drugs.

Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which behavior is modified by its consequences, either reinforcing or punishing the behavior. It was first described by B.F. Skinner and involves an association between a response (behavior) and a consequence (either reward or punishment). There are two types of operant conditioning: positive reinforcement, in which a desirable consequence follows a desired behavior, increasing the likelihood that the behavior will occur again; and negative reinforcement, in which a undesirable consequence is removed following a desired behavior, also increasing the likelihood that the behavior will occur again.

For example, if a child cleans their room (response) and their parent gives them praise or a treat (positive reinforcement), the child is more likely to clean their room again in the future. If a child is buckling their seatbelt in the car (response) and the annoying buzzer stops (negative reinforcement), the child is more likely to buckle their seatbelt in the future.

It's important to note that operant conditioning is a form of learning, not motivation. The behavior is modified by its consequences, regardless of the individual's internal state or intentions.

Electromyography (EMG) is a medical diagnostic procedure that measures the electrical activity of skeletal muscles during contraction and at rest. It involves inserting a thin needle electrode into the muscle to record the electrical signals generated by the muscle fibers. These signals are then displayed on an oscilloscope and may be heard through a speaker.

EMG can help diagnose various neuromuscular disorders, such as muscle weakness, numbness, or pain, and can distinguish between muscle and nerve disorders. It is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests, such as nerve conduction studies, to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the nervous system.

EMG is typically performed by a neurologist or a physiatrist, and the procedure may cause some discomfort or pain, although this is usually minimal. The results of an EMG can help guide treatment decisions and monitor the progression of neuromuscular conditions over time.

Classical conditioning is a type of learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired together, leading to an association between them. This concept was first introduced by Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist, in his studies on classical conditioning in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

In classical conditioning, there are typically two types of stimuli involved: the unconditioned stimulus (US) and the neutral stimulus (NS). The US is a stimulus that naturally triggers a response, known as the unconditioned response (UR), in an organism. For example, food is an US that triggers salivation, which is the UR, in dogs.

The NS, on the other hand, is a stimulus that does not initially trigger any response in the organism. However, when the NS is repeatedly paired with the US, it becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) and begins to elicit a conditioned response (CR). The CR is similar to the UR but is triggered by the CS instead of the US.

For example, if Pavlov repeatedly rang a bell (NS) just before presenting food (US) to a dog, the dog would eventually start salivating (CR) in response to the bell (CS) even when food was not presented. This is an example of classical conditioning.

Classical conditioning has been widely studied and is believed to play a role in various physiological processes, such as learning, memory, and emotion regulation. It has also been used in various applications, including behavioral therapy and advertising.

The arcuate nucleus is a part of the hypothalamus in the brain. It is involved in the regulation of various physiological functions, including appetite, satiety, and reproductive hormones. The arcuate nucleus contains two main types of neurons: those that produce neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein, which stimulate feeding and reduce energy expenditure; and those that produce pro-opiomelanocortin and cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated transcript, which suppress appetite and increase energy expenditure. These neurons communicate with other parts of the brain to help maintain energy balance and reproductive function.

"Motor activity" is a general term used in the field of medicine and neuroscience to refer to any kind of physical movement or action that is generated by the body's motor system. The motor system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles that work together to produce movements such as walking, talking, reaching for an object, or even subtle actions like moving your eyes.

Motor activity can be voluntary, meaning it is initiated intentionally by the individual, or involuntary, meaning it is triggered automatically by the nervous system without conscious control. Examples of voluntary motor activity include deliberately lifting your arm or kicking a ball, while examples of involuntary motor activity include heartbeat, digestion, and reflex actions like jerking your hand away from a hot stove.

Abnormalities in motor activity can be a sign of neurological or muscular disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis. Assessment of motor activity is often used in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

Morphine is a potent opioid analgesic (pain reliever) derived from the opium poppy. It works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain signals and reducing the perception of pain. Morphine is used to treat moderate to severe pain, including pain associated with cancer, myocardial infarction, and other conditions. It can also be used as a sedative and cough suppressant.

Morphine has a high potential for abuse and dependence, and its use should be closely monitored by healthcare professionals. Common side effects of morphine include drowsiness, respiratory depression, constipation, nausea, and vomiting. Overdose can result in respiratory failure, coma, and death.

The Globus Pallidus is a structure in the brain that is part of the basal ganglia, a group of nuclei associated with movement control and other functions. It has two main subdivisions: the external (GPe) and internal (GPi) segments. The GPe receives input from the striatum and sends inhibitory projections to the subthalamic nucleus, while the GPi sends inhibitory projections to the thalamus, which in turn projects to the cerebral cortex. These connections allow for the regulation of motor activity, with abnormal functioning of the Globus Pallidus being implicated in various movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease.

Self-administration, in the context of medicine and healthcare, refers to the act of an individual administering medication or treatment to themselves. This can include various forms of delivery such as oral medications, injections, or topical treatments. It is important that individuals who self-administer are properly trained and understand the correct dosage, timing, and technique to ensure safety and effectiveness. Self-administration promotes independence, allows for timely treatment, and can improve overall health outcomes.

Aniline compounds, also known as aromatic amines, are organic compounds that contain a benzene ring substituted with an amino group (-NH2). Aniline itself is the simplest and most common aniline compound, with the formula C6H5NH2.

Aniline compounds are important in the chemical industry and are used in the synthesis of a wide range of products, including dyes, pharmaceuticals, and rubber chemicals. They can be produced by reducing nitrobenzene or by directly substituting ammonia onto benzene in a process called amination.

It is important to note that aniline compounds are toxic and can cause serious health effects, including damage to the liver, kidneys, and central nervous system. They can also be absorbed through the skin and are known to have carcinogenic properties. Therefore, appropriate safety measures must be taken when handling aniline compounds.

Opioid receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) found in the cell membranes of certain neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system. They bind to opioids, which are chemicals that can block pain signals and produce a sense of well-being. There are four main types of opioid receptors: mu, delta, kappa, and nociceptin. These receptors play a role in the regulation of pain, reward, addiction, and other physiological functions. Activation of opioid receptors can lead to both therapeutic effects (such as pain relief) and adverse effects (such as respiratory depression and constipation).

Serotonin receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that bind to the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). They are widely distributed throughout the body, including the central and peripheral nervous systems, where they play important roles in regulating various physiological processes such as mood, appetite, sleep, memory, learning, and cognition.

There are seven different classes of serotonin receptors (5-HT1 to 5-HT7), each with multiple subtypes, that exhibit distinct pharmacological properties and signaling mechanisms. These receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) or ligand-gated ion channels, which activate intracellular signaling pathways upon serotonin binding.

Serotonin receptors have been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and migraine. Therefore, selective serotonin receptor agonists or antagonists are used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of these conditions.

Medical Definition of Respiration:

Respiration, in physiology, is the process by which an organism takes in oxygen and gives out carbon dioxide. It's also known as breathing. This process is essential for most forms of life because it provides the necessary oxygen for cellular respiration, where the cells convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and releases waste products, primarily carbon dioxide.

In humans and other mammals, respiration is a two-stage process:

1. Breathing (or external respiration): This involves the exchange of gases with the environment. Air enters the lungs through the mouth or nose, then passes through the pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi, finally reaching the alveoli where the actual gas exchange occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses into the blood, while carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism, diffuses from the blood into the alveoli to be exhaled.

2. Cellular respiration (or internal respiration): This is the process by which cells convert glucose and other nutrients into ATP, water, and carbon dioxide in the presence of oxygen. The carbon dioxide produced during this process then diffuses out of the cells and into the bloodstream to be exhaled during breathing.

In summary, respiration is a vital physiological function that enables organisms to obtain the necessary oxygen for cellular metabolism while eliminating waste products like carbon dioxide.

Electric stimulation, also known as electrical nerve stimulation or neuromuscular electrical stimulation, is a therapeutic treatment that uses low-voltage electrical currents to stimulate nerves and muscles. It is often used to help manage pain, promote healing, and improve muscle strength and mobility. The electrical impulses can be delivered through electrodes placed on the skin or directly implanted into the body.

In a medical context, electric stimulation may be used for various purposes such as:

1. Pain management: Electric stimulation can help to block pain signals from reaching the brain and promote the release of endorphins, which are natural painkillers produced by the body.
2. Muscle rehabilitation: Electric stimulation can help to strengthen muscles that have become weak due to injury, illness, or surgery. It can also help to prevent muscle atrophy and improve range of motion.
3. Wound healing: Electric stimulation can promote tissue growth and help to speed up the healing process in wounds, ulcers, and other types of injuries.
4. Urinary incontinence: Electric stimulation can be used to strengthen the muscles that control urination and reduce symptoms of urinary incontinence.
5. Migraine prevention: Electric stimulation can be used as a preventive treatment for migraines by applying electrical impulses to specific nerves in the head and neck.

It is important to note that electric stimulation should only be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as improper use can cause harm or discomfort.

Drug-induced dyskinesia is a movement disorder that is characterized by involuntary muscle movements or abnormal posturing of the body. It is a side effect that can occur from the long-term use or high doses of certain medications, particularly those used to treat Parkinson's disease and psychosis.

The symptoms of drug-induced dyskinesia can vary in severity and may include rapid, involuntary movements of the limbs, face, or tongue; twisting or writhing movements; and abnormal posturing of the arms, legs, or trunk. These symptoms can be distressing and negatively impact a person's quality of life.

The exact mechanism by which certain medications cause dyskinesia is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve changes in the levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that plays a key role in regulating movement. In some cases, adjusting the dose or switching to a different medication may help alleviate the symptoms of drug-induced dyskinesia. However, in severe cases, additional treatments such as deep brain stimulation or botulinum toxin injections may be necessary.

N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) is not a medication but a type of receptor, specifically a glutamate receptor, found in the post-synaptic membrane in the central nervous system. Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. NMDA receptors are involved in various functions such as synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. They also play a role in certain neurological disorders like epilepsy, neurodegenerative diseases, and chronic pain.

NMDA receptors are named after N-Methyl-D-Aspartate, a synthetic analog of the amino acid aspartic acid, which is a selective agonist for this type of receptor. An agonist is a substance that binds to a receptor and causes a response similar to that of the natural ligand (in this case, glutamate).

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules that are used by neurons to communicate with each other and with other cells in the body. They are produced in the cell body of a neuron, processed from larger precursor proteins, and then transported to the nerve terminal where they are stored in secretory vesicles. When the neuron is stimulated, the vesicles fuse with the cell membrane and release their contents into the extracellular space.

Neuropeptides can act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators, depending on their target receptors and the duration of their effects. They play important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including pain perception, appetite regulation, stress response, and social behavior. Some neuropeptides also have hormonal functions, such as oxytocin and vasopressin, which are produced in the hypothalamus and released into the bloodstream to regulate reproductive and cardiovascular function, respectively.

There are hundreds of different neuropeptides that have been identified in the nervous system, and many of them have multiple functions and interact with other signaling molecules to modulate neural activity. Dysregulation of neuropeptide systems has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as chronic pain, addiction, depression, and anxiety.

Chemoreceptor cells are specialized sensory neurons that detect and respond to chemical changes in the internal or external environment. They play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis within the body by converting chemical signals into electrical impulses, which are then transmitted to the central nervous system for further processing and response.

There are two main types of chemoreceptor cells:

1. Oxygen Chemoreceptors: These cells are located in the carotid bodies near the bifurcation of the common carotid artery and in the aortic bodies close to the aortic arch. They monitor the levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH in the blood and respond to decreases in oxygen concentration or increases in carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions (indicating acidity) by increasing their firing rate. This signals the brain to increase respiratory rate and depth, thereby restoring normal oxygen levels.

2. Taste Cells: These chemoreceptor cells are found within the taste buds of the tongue and other areas of the oral cavity. They detect specific tastes (salty, sour, sweet, bitter, and umami) by interacting with molecules from food. When a tastant binds to receptors on the surface of a taste cell, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to the generation of an action potential. This information is then relayed to the brain, where it is interpreted as taste sensation.

In summary, chemoreceptor cells are essential for maintaining physiological balance by detecting and responding to chemical stimuli in the body. They play a critical role in regulating vital functions such as respiration and digestion.

An injection is a medical procedure in which a medication, vaccine, or other substance is introduced into the body using a needle and syringe. The substance can be delivered into various parts of the body, including into a vein (intravenous), muscle (intramuscular), under the skin (subcutaneous), or into the spinal canal (intrathecal or spinal).

Injections are commonly used to administer medications that cannot be taken orally, have poor oral bioavailability, need to reach the site of action quickly, or require direct delivery to a specific organ or tissue. They can also be used for diagnostic purposes, such as drawing blood samples (venipuncture) or injecting contrast agents for imaging studies.

Proper technique and sterile conditions are essential when administering injections to prevent infection, pain, and other complications. The choice of injection site depends on the type and volume of the substance being administered, as well as the patient's age, health status, and personal preferences.

Fear is a basic human emotion that is typically characterized by a strong feeling of anxiety, apprehension, or distress in response to a perceived threat or danger. It is a natural and adaptive response that helps individuals identify and respond to potential dangers in their environment, and it can manifest as physical, emotional, and cognitive symptoms.

Physical symptoms of fear may include increased heart rate, rapid breathing, sweating, trembling, and muscle tension. Emotional symptoms may include feelings of anxiety, worry, or panic, while cognitive symptoms may include difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, and intrusive thoughts about the perceived threat.

Fear can be a normal and adaptive response to real dangers, but it can also become excessive or irrational in some cases, leading to phobias, anxiety disorders, and other mental health conditions. In these cases, professional help may be necessary to manage and overcome the fear.

Electroshock, also known as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), is a medical procedure in which electric currents are passed through the brain to treat certain mental health conditions. It is primarily used to treat severe forms of depression that have not responded to other treatments, and it may also be used to treat bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

During an ECT procedure, electrodes are placed on the patient's head, and a carefully controlled electric current is passed through the brain, intentionally triggering a seizure. The patient is under general anesthesia and given muscle relaxants to prevent physical injury from the seizure.

ECT is typically administered in a series of treatments, usually two or three times a week for several weeks. While the exact mechanism of action is not fully understood, ECT is thought to affect brain chemistry and help regulate mood and other symptoms. It is generally considered a safe and effective treatment option for certain mental health conditions when other treatments have failed. However, it can have side effects, including short-term memory loss and confusion, and it may not be appropriate for everyone.

Peptide hormones are a type of hormone consisting of short chains of amino acids known as peptides. They are produced and released by various endocrine glands and play crucial roles in regulating many physiological processes in the body, including growth and development, metabolism, stress response, and reproductive functions.

Peptide hormones exert their effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, which triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to changes in cell behavior or function. Some examples of peptide hormones include insulin, glucagon, growth hormone, prolactin, oxytocin, and vasopressin.

Peptide hormones are synthesized as larger precursor proteins called prohormones, which are cleaved by enzymes to release the active peptide hormone. They are water-soluble and cannot pass through the cell membrane, so they exert their effects through autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine mechanisms. Autocrine signaling occurs when a cell releases a hormone that binds to receptors on the same cell, while paracrine signaling involves the release of a hormone that acts on nearby cells. Endocrine signaling, on the other hand, involves the release of a hormone into the bloodstream, which then travels to distant target cells to exert its effects.

Kainic acid is not a medical term per se, but it is a compound that has been widely used in scientific research, particularly in neuroscience. It is a type of excitatory amino acid that acts as an agonist at certain types of receptors in the brain, specifically the AMPA and kainate receptors.

Kainic acid is often used in research to study the effects of excitotoxicity, which is a process that occurs when nerve cells are exposed to excessive amounts of glutamate or other excitatory neurotransmitters, leading to cell damage or death. Kainic acid can induce seizures and other neurological symptoms in animals, making it a valuable tool for studying epilepsy and related disorders.

While kainic acid itself is not a medical treatment or diagnosis, understanding its effects on the brain has contributed to our knowledge of neurological diseases and potential targets for therapy.

Dopamine agonists are a class of medications that mimic the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that regulates movement, emotion, motivation, and reinforcement of rewarding behaviors. These medications bind to dopamine receptors in the brain and activate them, leading to an increase in dopaminergic activity.

Dopamine agonists are used primarily to treat Parkinson's disease, a neurological disorder characterized by motor symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and postural instability. By increasing dopaminergic activity in the brain, dopamine agonists can help alleviate some of these symptoms.

Examples of dopamine agonists include:

1. Pramipexole (Mirapex)
2. Ropinirole (Requip)
3. Rotigotine (Neupro)
4. Apomorphine (Apokyn)

Dopamine agonists may also be used off-label to treat other conditions, such as restless legs syndrome or certain types of dopamine-responsive dystonia. However, these medications can have significant side effects, including nausea, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, compulsive behaviors (such as gambling, shopping, or sexual addiction), and hallucinations. Therefore, they should be used with caution and under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Dopamine is a type of neurotransmitter, which is a chemical messenger that transmits signals in the brain and nervous system. It plays several important roles in the body, including:

* Regulation of movement and coordination
* Modulation of mood and motivation
* Control of the reward and pleasure centers of the brain
* Regulation of muscle tone
* Involvement in memory and attention

Dopamine is produced in several areas of the brain, including the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area. It is released by neurons (nerve cells) and binds to specific receptors on other neurons, where it can either excite or inhibit their activity.

Abnormalities in dopamine signaling have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric conditions, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and addiction.

"Extinction, Psychological" refers to the process by which a conditioned response or behavior becomes weakened and eventually disappears when the behavior is no longer reinforced or rewarded. It is a fundamental concept in learning theory and conditioning.

In classical conditioning, extinction occurs when the conditioned stimulus (CS) is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus (US), leading to the gradual weakening and eventual disappearance of the conditioned response (CR). For example, if a person learns to associate a tone (CS) with a puff of air to the eye (US), causing blinking (CR), but then the tone is presented several times without the puff of air, the blinking response will become weaker and eventually disappear.

In operant conditioning, extinction occurs when a reinforcer is no longer provided following a behavior, leading to the gradual weakening and eventual disappearance of that behavior. For example, if a child receives candy every time they clean their room (reinforcement), but then the candy is withheld, the child may eventually stop cleaning their room (extinction).

It's important to note that extinction can be a slow process and may require multiple trials or repetitions. Additionally, behaviors that have been extinguished can sometimes reappear in certain circumstances, a phenomenon known as spontaneous recovery.

Local anesthetics are a type of medication that is used to block the sensation of pain in a specific area of the body. They work by temporarily numbing the nerves in that area, preventing them from transmitting pain signals to the brain. Local anesthetics can be administered through various routes, including topical application (such as creams or gels), injection (such as into the skin or tissues), or regional nerve blocks (such as epidural or spinal anesthesia).

Some common examples of local anesthetics include lidocaine, prilocaine, bupivacaine, and ropivacaine. These medications can be used for a variety of medical procedures, ranging from minor surgeries (such as dental work or skin biopsies) to more major surgeries (such as joint replacements or hernia repairs).

Local anesthetics are generally considered safe when used appropriately, but they can have side effects and potential complications. These may include allergic reactions, toxicity (if too much is administered), and nerve damage (if the medication is injected into a nerve). It's important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using local anesthetics, and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Naloxone is a medication used to reverse the effects of opioids, both illicit and prescription. It works by blocking the action of opioids on the brain and restoring breathing in cases where opioids have caused depressed respirations. Common brand names for naloxone include Narcan and Evzio.

Naloxone is an opioid antagonist, meaning that it binds to opioid receptors in the body without activating them, effectively blocking the effects of opioids already present at these sites. It has no effect in people who have not taken opioids and does not reverse the effects of other sedatives or substances.

Naloxone can be administered via intranasal, intramuscular, intravenous, or subcutaneous routes. The onset of action varies depending on the route of administration but generally ranges from 1 to 5 minutes when given intravenously and up to 10-15 minutes with other methods.

The duration of naloxone's effects is usually shorter than that of most opioids, so multiple doses or a continuous infusion may be necessary in severe cases to maintain reversal of opioid toxicity. Naloxone has been used successfully in emergency situations to treat opioid overdoses and has saved many lives.

It is important to note that naloxone does not reverse the effects of other substances or address the underlying causes of addiction, so it should be used as part of a comprehensive treatment plan for individuals struggling with opioid use disorders.

Narcotic antagonists are a class of medications that block the effects of opioids, a type of narcotic pain reliever, by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and blocking the activation of these receptors by opioids. This results in the prevention or reversal of opioid-induced effects such as respiratory depression, sedation, and euphoria. Narcotic antagonists are used for a variety of medical purposes, including the treatment of opioid overdose, the management of opioid dependence, and the prevention of opioid-induced side effects in certain clinical situations. Examples of narcotic antagonists include naloxone, naltrexone, and methylnaltrexone.

Atenolol is a beta-blocker medication that is primarily used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure), angina (chest pain), and certain types of heart rhythm disorders. It works by blocking the action of certain hormones in the body, such as adrenaline, on the heart and blood vessels. This helps to reduce the heart's workload, lower its rate and force of contractions, and improve blood flow.

Beta-blockers like atenolol are also sometimes used to prevent migraines or to treat symptoms of anxiety, such as rapid heartbeat or tremors. Atenolol is available in immediate-release and extended-release forms, and it is typically taken orally once or twice a day. As with any medication, atenolol can have side effects, including dizziness, fatigue, and gastrointestinal symptoms, and it may interact with other medications or medical conditions. It is important to use atenolol only under the supervision of a healthcare provider.

Feeding behavior refers to the various actions and mechanisms involved in the intake of food and nutrition for the purpose of sustaining life, growth, and health. This complex process encompasses a coordinated series of activities, including:

1. Food selection: The identification, pursuit, and acquisition of appropriate food sources based on sensory cues (smell, taste, appearance) and individual preferences.
2. Preparation: The manipulation and processing of food to make it suitable for consumption, such as chewing, grinding, or chopping.
3. Ingestion: The act of transferring food from the oral cavity into the digestive system through swallowing.
4. Digestion: The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food within the gastrointestinal tract to facilitate nutrient absorption and eliminate waste products.
5. Assimilation: The uptake and utilization of absorbed nutrients by cells and tissues for energy production, growth, repair, and maintenance.
6. Elimination: The removal of undigested material and waste products from the body through defecation.

Feeding behavior is regulated by a complex interplay between neural, hormonal, and psychological factors that help maintain energy balance and ensure adequate nutrient intake. Disruptions in feeding behavior can lead to various medical conditions, such as malnutrition, obesity, eating disorders, and gastrointestinal motility disorders.

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a medical procedure that records electrical activity in the brain. It uses small, metal discs called electrodes, which are attached to the scalp with paste or a specialized cap. These electrodes detect tiny electrical charges that result from the activity of brain cells, and the EEG machine then amplifies and records these signals.

EEG is used to diagnose various conditions related to the brain, such as seizures, sleep disorders, head injuries, infections, and degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's or Parkinson's. It can also be used during surgery to monitor brain activity and ensure that surgical procedures do not interfere with vital functions.

EEG is a safe and non-invasive procedure that typically takes about 30 minutes to an hour to complete, although longer recordings may be necessary in some cases. Patients are usually asked to relax and remain still during the test, as movement can affect the quality of the recording.

Sleep is a complex physiological process characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, reduced voluntary muscle activity, and decreased interaction with the environment. It's typically associated with specific stages that can be identified through electroencephalography (EEG) patterns. These stages include rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, associated with dreaming, and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, which is further divided into three stages.

Sleep serves a variety of functions, including restoration and strengthening of the immune system, support for growth and development in children and adolescents, consolidation of memory, learning, and emotional regulation. The lack of sufficient sleep or poor quality sleep can lead to significant health problems, such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and even cognitive decline.

The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) defines sleep as "a period of daily recurring natural rest during which consciousness is suspended and metabolic processes are reduced." However, it's important to note that the exact mechanisms and purposes of sleep are still being researched and debated among scientists.

Pressoreceptors are specialized sensory nerve endings found in the walls of blood vessels, particularly in the carotid sinus and aortic arch. They respond to changes in blood pressure by converting the mechanical stimulus into electrical signals that are transmitted to the brain. This information helps regulate cardiovascular function and maintain blood pressure homeostasis.

Denervation is a medical term that refers to the loss or removal of nerve supply to an organ or body part. This can occur as a result of surgical intervention, injury, or disease processes that damage the nerves leading to the affected area. The consequences of denervation depend on the specific organ or tissue involved, but generally, it can lead to changes in function, sensation, and muscle tone. For example, denervation of a skeletal muscle can cause weakness, atrophy, and altered reflexes. Similarly, denervation of an organ such as the heart can lead to abnormalities in heart rate and rhythm. In some cases, denervation may be intentional, such as during surgical procedures aimed at treating chronic pain or spasticity.

Hormone antagonists are substances or drugs that block the action of hormones by binding to their receptors without activating them, thereby preventing the hormones from exerting their effects. They can be classified into two types: receptor antagonists and enzyme inhibitors. Receptor antagonists bind directly to hormone receptors and prevent the hormone from binding, while enzyme inhibitors block the production or breakdown of hormones by inhibiting specific enzymes involved in their metabolism. Hormone antagonists are used in the treatment of various medical conditions, such as cancer, hormonal disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.

In the context of medicine, particularly in behavioral neuroscience and psychology, "reward" is not typically used as a definitive medical term. However, it generally refers to a positive outcome or incentive that reinforces certain behaviors, making them more likely to be repeated in the future. This can involve various stimuli such as food, water, sexual activity, social interaction, or drug use, among others.

In the brain, rewards are associated with the activation of the reward system, primarily the mesolimbic dopamine pathway, which includes the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). The release of dopamine in these areas is thought to reinforce and motivate behavior linked to rewards.

It's important to note that while "reward" has a specific meaning in this context, it is not a formal medical diagnosis or condition. Instead, it is a concept used to understand the neural and psychological mechanisms underlying motivation, learning, and addiction.

Dopamine uptake inhibitors are a class of medications that work by blocking the reuptake of dopamine, a neurotransmitter, into the presynaptic neuron. This results in an increased concentration of dopamine in the synapse, leading to enhanced dopaminergic transmission and activity.

These drugs are used in various medical conditions where dopamine is implicated, such as depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and neurological disorders like Parkinson's disease. They can also be used to treat substance abuse disorders, such as cocaine addiction, by blocking the reuptake of dopamine and reducing the rewarding effects of the drug.

Examples of dopamine uptake inhibitors include:

* Bupropion (Wellbutrin), which is used to treat depression and ADHD
* Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta), which is used to treat ADHD
* Amantadine (Symmetrel), which is used to treat Parkinson's disease and also has antiviral properties.

It's important to note that dopamine uptake inhibitors can have side effects, including increased heart rate, blood pressure, and anxiety. They may also have the potential for abuse and dependence, particularly in individuals with a history of substance abuse. Therefore, these medications should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

A chemical stimulation in a medical context refers to the process of activating or enhancing physiological or psychological responses in the body using chemical substances. These chemicals can interact with receptors on cells to trigger specific reactions, such as neurotransmitters and hormones that transmit signals within the nervous system and endocrine system.

Examples of chemical stimulation include the use of medications, drugs, or supplements that affect mood, alertness, pain perception, or other bodily functions. For instance, caffeine can chemically stimulate the central nervous system to increase alertness and decrease feelings of fatigue. Similarly, certain painkillers can chemically stimulate opioid receptors in the brain to reduce the perception of pain.

It's important to note that while chemical stimulation can have therapeutic benefits, it can also have adverse effects if used improperly or in excessive amounts. Therefore, it's essential to follow proper dosing instructions and consult with a healthcare provider before using any chemical substances for stimulation purposes.

Body temperature is the measure of heat produced by the body. In humans, the normal body temperature range is typically between 97.8°F (36.5°C) and 99°F (37.2°C), with an average oral temperature of 98.6°F (37°C). Body temperature can be measured in various ways, including orally, rectally, axillary (under the arm), and temporally (on the forehead).

Maintaining a stable body temperature is crucial for proper bodily functions, as enzymes and other biological processes depend on specific temperature ranges. The hypothalamus region of the brain regulates body temperature through feedback mechanisms that involve shivering to produce heat and sweating to release heat. Fever is a common medical sign characterized by an elevated body temperature above the normal range, often as a response to infection or inflammation.

The spinal cord is a major part of the nervous system, extending from the brainstem and continuing down to the lower back. It is a slender, tubular bundle of nerve fibers (axons) and support cells (glial cells) that carries signals between the brain and the rest of the body. The spinal cord primarily serves as a conduit for motor information, which travels from the brain to the muscles, and sensory information, which travels from the body to the brain. It also contains neurons that can independently process and respond to information within the spinal cord without direct input from the brain.

The spinal cord is protected by the bony vertebral column (spine) and is divided into 31 segments: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. Each segment corresponds to a specific region of the body and gives rise to pairs of spinal nerves that exit through the intervertebral foramina at each level.

The spinal cord is responsible for several vital functions, including:

1. Reflexes: Simple reflex actions, such as the withdrawal reflex when touching a hot surface, are mediated by the spinal cord without involving the brain.
2. Muscle control: The spinal cord carries motor signals from the brain to the muscles, enabling voluntary movement and muscle tone regulation.
3. Sensory perception: The spinal cord transmits sensory information, such as touch, temperature, pain, and vibration, from the body to the brain for processing and awareness.
4. Autonomic functions: The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system originate in the thoracolumbar and sacral regions of the spinal cord, respectively, controlling involuntary physiological responses like heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and respiration.

Damage to the spinal cord can result in various degrees of paralysis or loss of sensation below the level of injury, depending on the severity and location of the damage.

Locomotion, in a medical context, refers to the ability to move independently and change location. It involves the coordinated movement of the muscles, bones, and nervous system that enables an individual to move from one place to another. This can include walking, running, jumping, or using assistive devices such as wheelchairs or crutches. Locomotion is a fundamental aspect of human mobility and is often assessed in medical evaluations to determine overall health and functioning.

Analgesics, opioid are a class of drugs used for the treatment of pain. They work by binding to specific receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain signals to the brain. Opioids can be synthetic or natural, and include drugs such as morphine, codeine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, fentanyl, and methadone. They are often used for moderate to severe pain, such as that resulting from injury, surgery, or chronic conditions like cancer. However, opioids can also produce euphoria, physical dependence, and addiction, so they are tightly regulated and carry a risk of misuse.

Anesthesia is a medical term that refers to the loss of sensation or awareness, usually induced by the administration of various drugs. It is commonly used during surgical procedures to prevent pain and discomfort. There are several types of anesthesia, including:

1. General anesthesia: This type of anesthesia causes a complete loss of consciousness and is typically used for major surgeries.
2. Regional anesthesia: This type of anesthesia numbs a specific area of the body, such as an arm or leg, while the patient remains conscious.
3. Local anesthesia: This type of anesthesia numbs a small area of the body, such as a cut or wound, and is typically used for minor procedures.

Anesthesia can be administered through various routes, including injection, inhalation, or topical application. The choice of anesthesia depends on several factors, including the type and duration of the procedure, the patient's medical history, and their overall health. Anesthesiologists are medical professionals who specialize in administering anesthesia and monitoring patients during surgical procedures to ensure their safety and comfort.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

General anesthesia is a state of controlled unconsciousness, induced by administering various medications, that eliminates awareness, movement, and pain sensation during medical procedures. It involves the use of a combination of intravenous and inhaled drugs to produce a reversible loss of consciousness, allowing patients to undergo surgical or diagnostic interventions safely and comfortably. The depth and duration of anesthesia are carefully monitored and adjusted throughout the procedure by an anesthesiologist or certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA) to ensure patient safety and optimize recovery. General anesthesia is typically used for more extensive surgical procedures, such as open-heart surgery, major orthopedic surgeries, and neurosurgery.

Synaptic transmission is the process by which a neuron communicates with another cell, such as another neuron or a muscle cell, across a junction called a synapse. It involves the release of neurotransmitters from the presynaptic terminal of the neuron, which then cross the synaptic cleft and bind to receptors on the postsynaptic cell, leading to changes in the electrical or chemical properties of the target cell. This process is critical for the transmission of signals within the nervous system and for controlling various physiological functions in the body.

Neural inhibition is a process in the nervous system that decreases or prevents the activity of neurons (nerve cells) in order to regulate and control communication within the nervous system. It is a fundamental mechanism that allows for the balance of excitation and inhibition necessary for normal neural function. Inhibitory neurotransmitters, such as GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) and glycine, are released from the presynaptic neuron and bind to receptors on the postsynaptic neuron, reducing its likelihood of firing an action potential. This results in a decrease in neural activity and can have various effects depending on the specific neurons and brain regions involved. Neural inhibition is crucial for many functions including motor control, sensory processing, attention, memory, and emotional regulation.

An action potential is a brief electrical signal that travels along the membrane of a nerve cell (neuron) or muscle cell. It is initiated by a rapid, localized change in the permeability of the cell membrane to specific ions, such as sodium and potassium, resulting in a rapid influx of sodium ions and a subsequent efflux of potassium ions. This ion movement causes a brief reversal of the electrical potential across the membrane, which is known as depolarization. The action potential then propagates along the cell membrane as a wave, allowing the electrical signal to be transmitted over long distances within the body. Action potentials play a crucial role in the communication and functioning of the nervous system and muscle tissue.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is a monoamine neurotransmitter that is found primarily in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, blood platelets, and the central nervous system (CNS) of humans and other animals. It is produced by the conversion of the amino acid tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), and then to serotonin.

In the CNS, serotonin plays a role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, memory, learning, and behavior, among other functions. It also acts as a vasoconstrictor, helping to regulate blood flow and blood pressure. In the GI tract, it is involved in peristalsis, the contraction and relaxation of muscles that moves food through the digestive system.

Serotonin is synthesized and stored in serotonergic neurons, which are nerve cells that use serotonin as their primary neurotransmitter. These neurons are found throughout the brain and spinal cord, and they communicate with other neurons by releasing serotonin into the synapse, the small gap between two neurons.

Abnormal levels of serotonin have been linked to a variety of disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and migraines. Medications that affect serotonin levels, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are commonly used to treat these conditions.

Motor neurons are specialized nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord that play a crucial role in controlling voluntary muscle movements. They transmit electrical signals from the brain to the muscles, enabling us to perform actions such as walking, talking, and swallowing. There are two types of motor neurons: upper motor neurons, which originate in the brain's motor cortex and travel down to the brainstem and spinal cord; and lower motor neurons, which extend from the brainstem and spinal cord to the muscles. Damage or degeneration of these motor neurons can lead to various neurological disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).

In the context of medicine, "cues" generally refer to specific pieces of information or signals that can help healthcare professionals recognize and respond to a particular situation or condition. These cues can come in various forms, such as:

1. Physical examination findings: For example, a patient's abnormal heart rate or blood pressure reading during a physical exam may serve as a cue for the healthcare professional to investigate further.
2. Patient symptoms: A patient reporting chest pain, shortness of breath, or other concerning symptoms can act as a cue for a healthcare provider to consider potential diagnoses and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
3. Laboratory test results: Abnormal findings on laboratory tests, such as elevated blood glucose levels or abnormal liver function tests, may serve as cues for further evaluation and diagnosis.
4. Medical history information: A patient's medical history can provide valuable cues for healthcare professionals when assessing their current health status. For example, a history of smoking may increase the suspicion for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a patient presenting with respiratory symptoms.
5. Behavioral or environmental cues: In some cases, behavioral or environmental factors can serve as cues for healthcare professionals to consider potential health risks. For instance, exposure to secondhand smoke or living in an area with high air pollution levels may increase the risk of developing respiratory conditions.

Overall, "cues" in a medical context are essential pieces of information that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care and treatment.

"Long-Evans" is a strain of laboratory rats commonly used in scientific research. They are named after their developers, the scientists Long and Evans. This strain is albino, with a brownish-black hood over their eyes and ears, and they have an agouti (salt-and-pepper) color on their backs. They are often used as a model organism due to their size, ease of handling, and genetic similarity to humans. However, I couldn't find any specific medical definition related to "Long-Evans rats" as they are not a medical condition or disease.

GABA-A receptors are ligand-gated ion channels in the membrane of neuronal cells. They are the primary mediators of fast inhibitory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. When the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) binds to these receptors, it opens an ion channel that allows chloride ions to flow into the neuron, resulting in hyperpolarization of the membrane and decreased excitability of the neuron. This inhibitory effect helps to regulate neural activity and maintain a balance between excitation and inhibition in the nervous system. GABA-A receptors are composed of multiple subunits, and the specific combination of subunits can determine the receptor's properties, such as its sensitivity to different drugs or neurotransmitters.

Microdialysis is a minimally invasive technique used in clinical and research settings to continuously monitor the concentration of various chemicals, such as neurotransmitters, drugs, or metabolites, in biological fluids (e.g., extracellular fluid of tissues, blood, or cerebrospinal fluid). This method involves inserting a small, flexible catheter with a semipermeable membrane into the region of interest. A physiological solution is continuously perfused through the catheter, allowing molecules to diffuse across the membrane based on their concentration gradient. The dialysate that exits the catheter is then collected and analyzed for target compounds using various analytical techniques (e.g., high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry).

In summary, microdialysis is a valuable tool for monitoring real-time changes in chemical concentrations within biological systems, enabling better understanding of physiological processes or pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.

A drug interaction is the effect of combining two or more drugs, or a drug and another substance (such as food or alcohol), which can alter the effectiveness or side effects of one or both of the substances. These interactions can be categorized as follows:

1. Pharmacodynamic interactions: These occur when two or more drugs act on the same target organ or receptor, leading to an additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effect. For example, taking a sedative and an antihistamine together can result in increased drowsiness due to their combined depressant effects on the central nervous system.
2. Pharmacokinetic interactions: These occur when one drug affects the absorption, distribution, metabolism, or excretion of another drug. For example, taking certain antibiotics with grapefruit juice can increase the concentration of the antibiotic in the bloodstream, leading to potential toxicity.
3. Food-drug interactions: Some drugs may interact with specific foods, affecting their absorption, metabolism, or excretion. An example is the interaction between warfarin (a blood thinner) and green leafy vegetables, which can increase the risk of bleeding due to enhanced vitamin K absorption from the vegetables.
4. Drug-herb interactions: Some herbal supplements may interact with medications, leading to altered drug levels or increased side effects. For instance, St. John's Wort can decrease the effectiveness of certain antidepressants and oral contraceptives by inducing their metabolism.
5. Drug-alcohol interactions: Alcohol can interact with various medications, causing additive sedative effects, impaired judgment, or increased risk of liver damage. For example, combining alcohol with benzodiazepines or opioids can lead to dangerous levels of sedation and respiratory depression.

It is essential for healthcare providers and patients to be aware of potential drug interactions to minimize adverse effects and optimize treatment outcomes.

In the context of healthcare and medical psychology, motivation refers to the driving force behind an individual's goal-oriented behavior. It is the internal or external stimuli that initiate, direct, and sustain a person's actions towards achieving their desired outcomes. Motivation can be influenced by various factors such as biological needs, personal values, emotional states, and social contexts.

In clinical settings, healthcare professionals often assess patients' motivation to engage in treatment plans, adhere to medical recommendations, or make lifestyle changes necessary for improving their health status. Enhancing a patient's motivation can significantly impact their ability to manage chronic conditions, recover from illnesses, and maintain overall well-being. Various motivational interviewing techniques and interventions are employed by healthcare providers to foster intrinsic motivation and support patients in achieving their health goals.

Glycine is a simple amino acid that plays a crucial role in the body. According to the medical definition, glycine is an essential component for the synthesis of proteins, peptides, and other biologically important compounds. It is also involved in various metabolic processes, such as the production of creatine, which supports muscle function, and the regulation of neurotransmitters, affecting nerve impulse transmission and brain function. Glycine can be found as a free form in the body and is also present in many dietary proteins.

Proto-oncogene proteins, such as c-Fos, are normal cellular proteins that play crucial roles in various biological processes including cell growth, differentiation, and survival. They can be activated or overexpressed due to genetic alterations, leading to the formation of cancerous cells. The c-Fos protein is a nuclear phosphoprotein involved in signal transduction pathways and forms a heterodimer with c-Jun to create the activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor complex. This complex binds to specific DNA sequences, thereby regulating the expression of target genes that contribute to various cellular responses, including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Dysregulation of c-Fos can result in uncontrolled cell growth and malignant transformation, contributing to tumor development and progression.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Reaction time, in the context of medicine and physiology, refers to the time period between the presentation of a stimulus and the subsequent initiation of a response. This complex process involves the central nervous system, particularly the brain, which perceives the stimulus, processes it, and then sends signals to the appropriate muscles or glands to react.

There are different types of reaction times, including simple reaction time (responding to a single, expected stimulus) and choice reaction time (choosing an appropriate response from multiple possibilities). These measures can be used in clinical settings to assess various aspects of neurological function, such as cognitive processing speed, motor control, and alertness.

However, it is important to note that reaction times can be influenced by several factors, including age, fatigue, attention, and the use of certain medications or substances.

Angiotensin II is a potent vasoactive peptide hormone that plays a critical role in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which is a crucial regulator of blood pressure and fluid balance in the body. It is formed from angiotensin I through the action of an enzyme called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE).

Angiotensin II has several physiological effects on various organs, including:

1. Vasoconstriction: Angiotensin II causes contraction of vascular smooth muscle, leading to an increase in peripheral vascular resistance and blood pressure.
2. Aldosterone release: Angiotensin II stimulates the adrenal glands to release aldosterone, a hormone that promotes sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys, thereby increasing water retention and blood volume.
3. Sympathetic nervous system activation: Angiotensin II activates the sympathetic nervous system, leading to increased heart rate and contractility, further contributing to an increase in blood pressure.
4. Thirst regulation: Angiotensin II stimulates the hypothalamus to increase thirst, promoting water intake and helping to maintain intravascular volume.
5. Cell growth and fibrosis: Angiotensin II has been implicated in various pathological processes, such as cell growth, proliferation, and fibrosis, which can contribute to the development of cardiovascular and renal diseases.

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are two classes of medications commonly used in clinical practice to target the RAAS by blocking the formation or action of angiotensin II, respectively. These drugs have been shown to be effective in managing hypertension, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease.

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

Ethanol is the medical term for pure alcohol, which is a colorless, clear, volatile, flammable liquid with a characteristic odor and burning taste. It is the type of alcohol that is found in alcoholic beverages and is produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts.

In the medical field, ethanol is used as an antiseptic and disinfectant, and it is also used as a solvent for various medicinal preparations. It has central nervous system depressant properties and is sometimes used as a sedative or to induce sleep. However, excessive consumption of ethanol can lead to alcohol intoxication, which can cause a range of negative health effects, including impaired judgment, coordination, and memory, as well as an increased risk of accidents, injuries, and chronic diseases such as liver disease and addiction.

... can also be used in the cloning of organisms, in the study of cell biology and viruses, and for treating male ... Microinjection is the use of a glass micropipette to inject a liquid substance at a microscopic or borderline macroscopic level ... Microinjection is a simple mechanical process usually involving an inverted microscope with a magnification power of around ... There are two basic types of microinjection systems. The first is called a constant flow system and the second is called a ...
"Micro Injection Moulding Market: A phenomenal growth in the coming years". Micro Systems. Retrieved May 22, 2023. "Micro ... The most common polymers used in micro injection molding are reported in the table below: In the 1980s, micro injection molding ... Micro injection molding is a molding process for the manufacture of plastics components for shot weights of 1 to 0.1 grams with ... The micro injection molding plastic market was valued at $1,145.85 million in 2022 and is anticipated to reach $2,640 million ...
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Microinjection is the predecessor to nanoinjection. Still used in biological research, microinjection is useful in the ... It is claimed to be more effective than microinjection because the lance used is ten times smaller than a micropipette and the ... Just as with the other methods, a lance ten times smaller than that of microinjection is used. Preparing the lance for ... As opposed to nanoinjection, microinjection uses DNA-filled liquid driven into the cell under pressure. Depending on factors ...
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... methods that utilize direct penetration include: Classic microinjection Newer forms of microinjection (e ... For a century microinjection has been the dominant method for introducing microscale cargo into cells. A classic example was ... Hiramoto, Y. (1962). "Microinjection of Live Spermatozoa into Sea Urchin Eggs". Exp. Cell Res. 27 (3): 416−426. doi:10.1016/ ... Plasmid DNA began to be transfected into animal cells for the purpose of gene expression in the late 1970s via microinjection ...
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This approach has also been used to generate knockin rats by TALEN mRNA microinjection in one-cell embryos. TALEN has also been ... "Site specific mutation of the Zic2 locus by microinjection of TALEN mRNA in mouse CD1, C3H and C57BL/6J oocytes". PLOS ONE. 8 ( ... "Knockout rats generated by embryo microinjection of TALENs". Nature Biotechnology. 29 (8): 695-6. doi:10.1038/nbt.1940. PMID ...
A microinjection apparatus is usually used for delivery into an embryo, with injections most commonly performed at the single- ... Rosen JN, Sweeney MF, Mably JD (March 2009). "Microinjection of zebrafish embryos to analyze gene function". Journal of ... as demonstrated by the nuclear splice-modifying activity of Morpholinos observed after microinjection into the cytosol of cells ...
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Standard microinjection techniques allow this technology to make knockout rats in 4-6 months. A major advantage of ZFN- and ... al, Knockout Rats via Embryo Microinjection of Zinc-Finger Nucleases. Science. Vol 325: 433 (24 July 2009) Geurts, A. M.; Cost ... Tesson et al., Knockout rats generated by embryo microinjection of TALENs. Nature Biotechnology Vol 29:695-96 (5 August 2011) ... "Knockout rats generated by embryo microinjection of TALENs". Nature Biotechnology. 29 (8): 695-696. doi:10.1038/nbt.1940. PMID ...
It has also been shown that this nucleus stimulates gastrointestinal motor function; microinjections of 5-HT into the nucleus ...
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He proposed the technique of microinjection to clone bacteria. He developed micropipette methods in 1904 for microscopic renal ... Korzh, Vladimir; Strähle, Uwe (2002-08-01). "Marshall Barber and the century of microinjection: from cloning of bacteria to ...
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... micro-injection and particle bombardment with a gene gun (invented in 1987). In the 1980s techniques were developed to ... Agrobacterium-mediated recombination and microinjection. The first genetically modified animal was a mouse created in 1974 by ... sheep and pigs by microinjection". Nature. 315 (6021): 680-83. Bibcode:1985Natur.315..680H. doi:10.1038/315680a0. PMID 3892305 ...
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DNA is generally inserted into animal cells using microinjection, where it can be injected through the cell's nuclear envelope ... "Knockout rats via embryo microinjection of zinc-finger nucleases". Science. 325 (5939): 433. Bibcode:2009Sci...325..433G. doi: ... material followed by the incorporation of that material either indirectly through a vector system or directly through micro- ...
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Consistently, microinjections of orexin-A into the rostral ventrolateral medulla (Huang et al., 2010) or rostral ventromedial ...
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... micro-injection and particle bombardment with a gene gun (invented in 1987). In the 1980s techniques were developed to ... Microinjection is used to directly inject foreign DNA into cells. Plant scientists, backed by results of modern comprehensive ... microinjection and agrobacterium. More recently, CRISPR and TALEN offered much more precise and convenient editing techniques. ...
"Genetic transformation of mouse embryos by microinjection of purified DNA". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 77 ...
"Genetic transformation of mouse embryos by microinjection of purified DNA". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 77 (12): 7380-7384. ...
Microinjection can also be used in the cloning of organisms, in the study of cell biology and viruses, and for treating male ... Microinjection is the use of a glass micropipette to inject a liquid substance at a microscopic or borderline macroscopic level ... Microinjection is a simple mechanical process usually involving an inverted microscope with a magnification power of around ... There are two basic types of microinjection systems. The first is called a constant flow system and the second is called a ...
Micro injection module. The micro injection unit combines an 8 mm injection screw for tiny shot weights of less than one gram ... Micro injection unit. Special micro injection unit, also for processing tiny parts made of liquid silicone (LSR), optionally ... our micro injection unit 5 and the micro injection module. ... Micro-injection moulding. Want to know more? You can find more ... Combine your micro injection moulding machine with a compact, horizontally engaging Multilift H 3 + 1 robotic system for cavity ...
The MD 125 Micro Injection Unit system can make direct inject, highly repeatable molded silicone parts as small as 0.003 grams ... has unveiled a patented micro injection unit system that can be used to make small liquid injection molded parts. ...
In previous studies we investigated the role of beta- and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors through local microinjections of various ... In previous studies we investigated the role of beta- and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors through local microinjections of various ... Modulation of desynchronized sleep through microinjection of alpha 1-adrenergic agonists and antagonists in the dorsal pontine ...
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Scientific Video Article | I denne artikel, viser vi en fremgangsmåde til manipulation af genekspression i ventrikulære celler i den voksne zebrafisk...
title = "Improving the accuracy of micro injection moulding process simulations",. abstract = "Process simulations in micro ... Marhöfer, D. M., Tosello, G., Islam, A., & Hansen, H. N. (2013). Improving the accuracy of micro injection moulding process ... Process simulations in micro injection moulding aim at the optimization and support of the design of the mould, mould inserts, ... Marhöfer, DM, Tosello, G, Islam, A & Hansen, HN 2013, Improving the accuracy of micro injection moulding process simulations ...
Micro-Injection Moulding Simulation and Manufacturing of Polymer Chips for Acoustic Separation. ... Home,Micro-Injection Moulding Simulation and Manufacturing of Polymer Chips for Acoustic Separation ...
Treatment with dutasteride microinjections in Alicante for men and women ✅ Combine it with other treatments for greater ... One of the advantages of the dutasteride microinjection procedure is that it can be used as monotherapy (only treatment), to ... Since the drug dutasteride has a half-life of several weeks, the dutasteride microinjection procedure can be performed every 3- ... The technique of microinjections with dutasteride (also called antiandrogen infiltration or mesotherapy with dutasteride) ...
Morpholino and mRNA microinjections. Capped mRNAs for fry-GFP, mem-mScarlet, H2B-eGFP, HA.FD + LZ, hNDR1-PIF, hNDR1-wt and ... Following microinjection, early gastrula embryos (St. 10.5) were transferred to 1 X Modified Barth´s Saline (MBS) solution. BCR ... Following microinjection, early gastrula embryos (St. 10.5) were transferred to 1 X Modified Barth´s Saline (MBS) solution. ... Following microinjection, late blastula embryos (St. 9) were placed in pre-warmed (22 °C) 0.2% agarose (Biodynamics) prepared ...
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... Attia, Usama M.; Alcock, Jeffrey R. ... This paper presents a statistical technique to optimise process conditions for multiple quality criteria in micro-injection ... Optimising process conditions for multiple quality criteria in micro-injection moulding. Login ... Optimising process conditions for multiple quality criteria in micro-injection moulding. International Journal of Advanced ...
Are micro-injections of Silicone oil legal?. Yes. The FDA has approved the use of Silicone oil as a medical device. Its primary ... How do micro-injections of Silicone oil work?. Silicone oil is injected by our physician in micro-droplets, through a tiny ... Silicone Micro-Injections. Nothing is quite as beautiful as soft, smooth, wrinkle-free skin. Unfortunately, skin changes are ... After DoctorName performs Silicone oil micro-injections for fine lines, acne scars, forehead lines, the nasal labial fold area ...
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Microinjection - ICSI. Microinjection is used to treat male infertility. Even when semen analysis shows unsatisfactory results ... Semen preparation is somewhat different, but the microinjection procedure is the same. ...
... imaging of mice anatomy allows performing aspiration procedures under ultrasound guidance as well as the microinjection of ... 6. In Utero Microinjections. In utero ultrasound-guided microinjection of mouse embryos has proven a valuable tool for ... Commonly, microinjection is performed at embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5) or greater, but recently, with advances in technology, it has ... Microinjection procedure contemplate a laparoscopy along the linea alba after skin disinfection with 70% ethanol. The mouse is ...
... This question is part of the following Ask The Expert session: ...
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Microinjection panels, Microinjection on fabric and synthetic materials, Microinjection on tapes, Injection on panel with mixed ... Microinjection and injection on fabric, leather, synthetic and plastic materials allow you to create refined effect ... Injection labels, Microinjection labels, Relief patches, Zipper pulls, Injection panels, Injection on fabrics, Injection on ...
Micro-injections: Whats the goal?. By the time we reach our 40s, most of us have signs of aging on our face: larger skin pores ... This repeated micro-injection approach gives a gentle, natural result so that the skin gradually looks fresher and 5-10 years ... So, in this article, Id like to introduce the concept of "micro-injections" - the process that uses tiny injections of natural ...
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To carry out a highly precise DNA or zebrafish microinjection experiment, one must employ a set of highly calibrated ... Components of Microinjection System. One must have a set of highly calibrated RWD Microinjection system to carry out a highly ... With a microinjection system, the super small and thin microinjection glass capillary needle (also known as glass electrode) is ... 2. Zebrafish Microinjection. In microinjection experiments, zebrafish is a model organism which has been widely used, since it ...
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Microinjection. Microinjection systems deliver small volumes of highly concentrated solutions into a tree. One of the best ... Other microinjection systems that use pressurized capsules with a similar array of chemicals include Tree Tech Microinjection ... Figure 4. Tree microinjection using the Mauget system. Credit: David Cappaert, bugwood.org. ... Some tree injection techniques, like many microinjection systems, use products that are premixed and applied through a closed ...
... Posted by Kania Safitri at 10:40 AM ... ZAP DNA Salmon Micro Injection tidak sakit dan hanya 60 menit proses pengerjaannya. Berisi seluruh kebaikan yang diperlukan ... Seminggu yang lalu aku melakukan DNA Salmon Micro Injection di Zap Lippo Mall Kemang. Hmmm.... pasti dipikirnya kalau minyak ... Kelebihan Zap DNA Salmon Micro Injection yaitu merupakan hasil riset internal Tim Medical ZAP dan bahkan telah dicoba oleh ...
Knockdown of RPRM by Morpholino (MO) Microinjections. Embryos were microinjected at 1-2 cell-stage with 3 nL of morpholino ...
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  • In the development of microinjection techniques, Xenopus eggs, and animal embryos have been used largely because of their large size. (mybiologydictionary.com)
  • High concentration liquid format can be used for microinjection, electroporation and lipofection. (neb.com)
  • Here, we demonstrate that the microinjection of immature oocytes within the ovaries of Anolis sagrei females enables the production of CRISPR-Cas9-induced mutations. (nih.gov)
  • Microinjection is a powerful technique employed by Drosophila biologists to generate transgenic flies and perform gene editing and si-lencing. (umn.edu)
  • If you would like to learn more about Nikon solutions for micromanipulation/microinjection in the field of assisted reproduction technology (ART), please visit our page here . (nikon.com)
  • Microinjection and micromanipulation: a historical perspective. (mybiologydictionary.com)
  • Our technologies include design support and targeting vector cloning, creation of gene-targeted ESCs, and tetraploid blastocyst microinjection of the ESCs to create fully ESC-derived mice. (nyu.edu)
  • We can also provide tetraploid blastocyst microinjection of ESCs obtained from collaborators or repositories, including the European Conditional Mouse Mutagenesis Program, the Knockout Mouse Project, and other consortia. (nyu.edu)
  • Microinjection can also be used in the cloning of organisms, in the study of cell biology and viruses, and for treating male subfertility through intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, /ˈɪksi/ IK-see). (wikipedia.org)
  • Microinjection has numerous research and clinical applications, including transfection of cells via DNA injection, fertilization by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), introduction of genetically engineered embryonic stem cells into a blastocyst, and more. (nikon.com)
  • Microinjection requires the direct mechanical introduction of DNA into the nucleus or cytoplasm using a glass microcapillary injection pipette. (mybiologydictionary.com)
  • It is able to deliver a higher injection rate and success rate than manual microinjection. (economiciorologi.com)
  • Microinjection is the use of a glass micropipette to inject a liquid substance at a microscopic or borderline macroscopic level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following our microinjection protocol, a hatching rate of injected embryos of 12.85%-14.22% was achieved, which is a high rate when compared with other non-model organisms. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we present a computer-guided robot that automates microinjection into single Drosophila embryos. (umn.edu)
  • Our findings show that, after the microinjections of 4-oxo-all-trans-retinoic acid or 4-oxo-13-cis-retinoic acid (at these selected concentrations), 4-oxo-all-trans-retinoic acid was predominant in the embryos proper at concentrations of about 200 nM. (nih.gov)
  • Since its introduction in 1992, microinjection has made waves in the world of reproductive science. (draksoyivf.com)
  • Back in 1992, the world of reproductive medicine witnessed a significant breakthrough with the advent of microinjection. (draksoyivf.com)
  • To demonstrate tissue specific delivery and localization of these NPs we performed in vivo microinjections into zebrafish. (frontiersin.org)
  • 13. Direct gene transfer in the Gottingen minipig CNS using stereotaxic lentiviral microinjections. (nih.gov)
  • Microinjection is a precision task where sub-micrometer level differences in position can make the difference between success and failure. (nikon.com)
  • Microinjection of precision gears in any thermoplastic material. (clr.es)
  • Lastly, insert the needle into the microinjection apparatus (World Precision Instruments Inc PV820 pneumatic picopump). (economiciorologi.com)
  • Microinjection is a method for mechanically injecting cells, genetic material, peptides, drugs, or other exogenous agents directly into cells or tissues using a very small pipette. (nikon.com)
  • Microinjection is a very useful technique for transferring genetic materials into a living cell using a very thin needle. (mybiologydictionary.com)
  • With microinjection and genetic research developing side by side, this question is more relevant than ever. (draksoyivf.com)
  • Before opting for microinjection, several preliminary checks and analyses are performed to gauge the couple's genetic health. (draksoyivf.com)
  • Here, for the first time, we systematically show how the microinjection effectiveness and cell viability are influenced by needle diameter and chosen microinjection mode. (authorea.com)
  • The use of microinjection as a biological procedure began in the early twentieth century, although even through the 1970s it was not commonly used. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the early 20th century, the use of microinjection as a biological procedure introduce. (mybiologydictionary.com)
  • In conclusion, while the world of microinjection is complex and ever-evolving, the dedication of researchers and medical professionals ensures that the procedure remains as safe and effective as possible for hopeful parents. (draksoyivf.com)
  • The journey of understanding Microinjection Babies and Anomalies isn't just about understanding the procedure or immediate results. (draksoyivf.com)
  • However, microinjection is an extremely tedious manual procedure, which makes it a critical bottleneck in the field and thus ripe for automation. (umn.edu)
  • All animal handlings (mouse selection,set-up of matings, hormone injections) necessary for these procedures are performed by the Microinjection Team. (ics-mci.fr)
  • Researchers closely monitored 201 microinjection babies for two years, comparing their development to that of the broader population. (draksoyivf.com)
  • The researchers tested the microinjection system in mouse models of human lymphomas and lung cancers, as well as in canines. (nih.gov)
  • Microinjection is a method commonly used to deliver various substances into cells. (authorea.com)
  • Model 5000 Microinjection Unit provides a simple and reliable method of standardizing the use of µL syringes for accurate, repeatable delivery of minute amounts of fluid. (kopfinstruments.com)
  • The majority of research supports the notion that microinjection, when performed under the right conditions and with the necessary precautions, is a safe and effective method to combat infertility. (draksoyivf.com)
  • Gap junction intercellular communication was assessed by the dye coupling method using fluorescent dye microinjection. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, the biological functions of H5 were investigated and compared with those of Hl (Hla + Hlb) by microinjection of the purified proteins into proliferating L6 rat myoblasts. (biologists.com)
  • There are two basic types of microinjection systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nikon's ECLIPSE Ti2 and ECLIPSE Ts2R series of inverted microscopes, and SMZ18/25 stereo microscopes, are stable and vibration-resistant systems that can be used for microinjection work. (nikon.com)
  • Microinjection is a simple mechanical process usually involving an inverted microscope with a magnification power of around 200x (though sometimes it is performed using a dissecting stereo microscope at 40-50x or a traditional compound upright microscope at similar power to an inverted model). (wikipedia.org)
  • Microinjection is a quite mechanical process usually involving an inverted microscope. (mybiologydictionary.com)
  • For example, transfection by microinjection of cells with DNA coding for a given construct (such as a fluorescent protein fusion chimera) can have a different success rate depending on if the DNA was injected into the nucleus rather than the cytoplasm, where it is vulnerable to DNase enzyme activity. (nikon.com)
  • For commercially available equipment currently reported microinjection success rate and cell viability are relatively low (around 50% for both indicators). (authorea.com)
  • Mice derived from requested cell lines via Microinjection services will be pathogen tested prior to delivery of mice and health reports will be provided. (mmrrc.org)
  • Inhibiting telomerase by systemic administration (100 mg · kg −1 · d −1 , i.p., for 14 d), intrahippocampal microinjection (0.7 μmol, 2 μl), or infusion (using an osmotic minipump, 0.134 μg/μl, 0.25 μl/h) of 3′-azido-deoxythymidine (AZT) resulted in depression-like behaviors and impaired hippocampal neurogenesis in mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • Transport of particles of colloidal gold within and from rat lung after local deposition by alveolar microinjection. (nih.gov)
  • Specifically, the NTDF supports basic biomedical research by providing investigators with the following customized services: o Analyzing constructs for microinjection. (nih.gov)
  • The heartening news is that, according to a plethora of studies, pregnancies resulting from microinjection do not show a significant difference in anomaly rates compared to naturally conceived pregnancies. (draksoyivf.com)
  • The process of fertilization in microinjection isn't what we'd call "natural. (draksoyivf.com)
  • Microinjection can be carried out using a manual or semi-automatic mode. (authorea.com)
  • Microinjection is an effective technique that plays an important part in the generation of genetically modified mouse and rat copies. (mybiologydictionary.com)
  • When we talk about Microinjection Babies and Anomalies , there's a world of history, research, and concerns that come into play. (draksoyivf.com)
  • The realm of microinjection has always been illuminated by the beacon of research. (draksoyivf.com)
  • Let's dive deeper into what the comprehensive research says about Microinjection Babies and Anomalies . (draksoyivf.com)
  • Microinjection device is available upon request. (helsinki.fi)
  • The SMZ25 and SMZ18 stereo microscopes can also be equipped for microinjection work. (nikon.com)
  • Choosing the appropriate value of each of these coefficients guarantees that the passive microinjection will work as intended. (economiciorologi.com)
  • To submit a service request, complete the DNA microinjection requisition form and datasheet and email it to Dr. Kim at [email protected] . (nyu.edu)
  • Here, we described a detailed protocol for sand fly embryo microinjection taking into consideration the sand fly life cycle, manipulation and oviposition requirements of this non-model organism. (nih.gov)
  • The tests also showed that the device's microinjection did not damage the animals' stomach tissue or the muscles surrounding the stomach. (nih.gov)
  • Marshall A. Barber suggested a new technique - the microinjection technique. (mybiologydictionary.com)
  • In this microinjection technique, a traditional compound microscope (around 200X magnification) or an inverted microscope (around 200x magnification), or a dissecting stereomicroscope (around 40-50x) is used. (mybiologydictionary.com)
  • The pulsating flow of the passive microinjection is governed by four key coefficients. (economiciorologi.com)
  • Initial observations of children born through microinjection have been largely positive. (draksoyivf.com)