Stanford-Binet Test: An individual intelligence test designed primarily for school children to predict school performance and the ability to adjust to everyday demands.Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Lead PoisoningCholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Lead: A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Heptanoic Acids: 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Hematinics: Agents which improve the quality of the blood, increasing the hemoglobin level and the number of erythrocytes. They are used in the treatment of anemias.Hypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Pyrroles: Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.Erythrocyte Transfusion: The transfer of erythrocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Critical Illness: A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.TriglyceridesHydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.CreatinineIntelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Clonidine: An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Cefotaxime: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Cefoperazone: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin with a tetrazolyl moiety that is resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed especially against Pseudomonas infections.Fleroxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial fluoroquinolone. The drug strongly inhibits the DNA-supercoiling activity of DNA GYRASE.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Medetomidine: An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Norfloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone (FLUOROQUINOLONES) with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against most gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Norfloxacin inhibits bacterial DNA GYRASE.Quinolones: A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Pregnenediones: Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Sufentanil: An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.4-Quinolones: QUINOLONES containing a 4-oxo (a carbonyl in the para position to the nitrogen). They inhibit the A subunit of DNA GYRASE and are used as antimicrobials. Second generation 4-quinolones are also substituted with a 1-piperazinyl group at the 7-position and a fluorine at the 6-position.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Enoxacin: A broad-spectrum 6-fluoronaphthyridinone antibacterial agent that is structurally related to NALIDIXIC ACID.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Pituitary Hormone-Releasing Hormones: Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Aztreonam: A monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic originally isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum. It is resistant to beta-lactamases and is used in gram-negative infections, especially of the meninges, bladder, and kidneys. It may cause a superinfection with gram-positive organisms.NaphthyridinesPreanesthetic Medication: Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Bacteria, AnaerobicBeclomethasone: An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Alfentanil: A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Ceftizoxime: A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic which can be administered intravenously or by suppository. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It has few side effects and is reported to be safe and effective in aged patients and in patients with hematologic disorders.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Clavulanic Acids: Acids, salts, and derivatives of clavulanic acid (C8H9O5N). They consist of those beta-lactam compounds that differ from penicillin in having the sulfur of the thiazolidine ring replaced by an oxygen. They have limited antibacterial action, but block bacterial beta-lactamase irreversibly, so that similar antibiotics are not broken down by the bacterial enzymes and therefore can exert their antibacterial effects.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Sulbactam: A beta-lactamase inhibitor with very weak antibacterial action. The compound prevents antibiotic destruction of beta-lactam antibiotics by inhibiting beta-lactamases, thus extending their spectrum activity. Combinations of sulbactam with beta-lactam antibiotics have been used successfully for the therapy of infections caused by organisms resistant to the antibiotic alone.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Cefotetan: A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic that is administered intravenously or intramuscularly. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Prostaglandins E, Synthetic: Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins E that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGE.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Moxalactam: Broad- spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic similar in structure to the CEPHALOSPORINS except for the substitution of an oxaazabicyclo moiety for the thiaazabicyclo moiety of certain CEPHALOSPORINS. It has been proposed especially for the meningitides because it passes the blood-brain barrier and for anaerobic infections.Thienamycins: Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Cephamycins: Naturally occurring family of beta-lactam cephalosporin-type antibiotics having a 7-methoxy group and possessing marked resistance to the action of beta-lactamases from gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.Imipenem: Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Atropine Derivatives: Analogs and derivatives of atropine.Naloxone: A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Ofloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.Cefmetazole: A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic with a broad spectrum of activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. It has a high rate of efficacy in many types of infection and to date no severe side effects have been noted.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Cefamandole: Semisynthetic wide-spectrum cephalosporin with prolonged action, probably due to beta-lactamase resistance. It is used also as the nafate.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Cefonicid: A second-generation cephalosporin administered intravenously or intramuscularly. Its bactericidal action results from inhibition of cell wall synthesis. It is used for urinary tract infections, lower respiratory tract infections, and soft tissue and bone infections.Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Lactams: Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Drug Evaluation: Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.Castration: Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Pefloxacin: A synthetic broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent active against most gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.Ceftazidime: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Trimethoprim: A pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to PYRIMETHAMINE. It is potentiated by SULFONAMIDES and the TRIMETHOPRIM, SULFAMETHOXAZOLE DRUG COMBINATION is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. TRIMETHOPRIM RESISTANCE has been reported.Ipratropium: A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Nicardipine: A potent calcium channel blockader with marked vasodilator action. It has antihypertensive properties and is effective in the treatment of angina and coronary spasms without showing cardiodepressant effects. It has also been used in the treatment of asthma and enhances the action of specific antineoplastic agents.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Pancuronium: A bis-quaternary steroid that is a competitive nicotinic antagonist. As a neuromuscular blocking agent it is more potent than CURARE but has less effect on the circulatory system and on histamine release.Granisetron: A serotonin receptor (5HT-3 selective) antagonist that has been used as an antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy patients.Piperacillin: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, AMPICILLIN derived ureidopenicillin antibiotic proposed for PSEUDOMONAS infections. It is also used in combination with other antibiotics.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Budesonide: A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Aluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Bradykinin: A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Selenium: An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.Spectrophotometry, Atomic: Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.Alprostadil: A potent vasodilator agent that increases peripheral blood flow.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Premedication: Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.Nitroglycerin: A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.Anesthesia, Intravenous: Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Platelet Activating Factor: A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Neuromuscular Blocking Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.
... above 10 micrograms per deciliter. Mineral industry corporations use territory occupied by indigenous populations to carry out ... Peru produced more than 313,300 t of lead in concentrates compared with about 319,400 t in 2005. Exports of zinc, lead, and ... Metal production growth was mainly led by an increase in copper, iron, silver, and lead, which offset the decreased output of ... Other leading gold producers were Minera Barrick Misquichilca S.A. (51.9 t), Madre de Dios S.A (15.8 t), Compañía de Minas ...
The amount of lead found in the blood sample may be measured in micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood (μg/dL) especially in ... Health portal Medicine portal Acceptable daily intake Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance Lead Lead abatement Lead ... Blood lead level (BLL), is a measure of the amount of lead in the blood. Lead is a toxic heavy metal and can cause neurological ... Lead enters the bloodstream through exposure and elevates blood lead level that may result in lead poisoning or an elevated ...
Currently that is 5 micrograms per deciliter of lead in blood. The U.S. government defines "lead-based paint" as any "paint, ... Airborne lead enters the body by breathing or swallowing lead particles or dust once it has settled. Old lead-based paint is ... There are specialized paint strippers for use with lead paint such as "Lead-Out" paint stripper, "Strip-Tox", "Lead-X", and ... EPA - Lead Information HUD - Lead Cleanup Information Lead-Based Paint: Health Risk and Testing Information - Cincinnati ...
The Port Pirie smelter has a project underway to reduce lead levels in children to under 10 micrograms per decilitre by the end ... of our children aged 0 to 4 to have a blood lead level below ten micrograms per decilitre of blood (the first ten in tenby10) ... A lead smelter has been operating in Port Pirie since the 1880s, and high blood lead levels in the local population are an ... Lead smelters contribute to several environmental problems, especially raised blood lead levels in some of the town population ...
Lead Poisoning had been expected to lower the action level for lead in drinking water below 10 micrograms per deciliter in the ... Lead is not normally present in drinking water; it is released from the inside surface of lead service lines (pipes that run ... "Blood Lead Levels in Residents of Homes with Elevated Lead in Tap Water-District of Columbia, 2004". MMWR Weekly. Centers for ... The testing had been done as part of an effort to avoid the expense of replacing lead lines in areas where it found low lead ...
... definition for an Elevated Blood Lead Level to a blood lead concentration equal or greater than 10 micrograms per deciliter (10 ... Lead exposure occurs mainly in the battery manufacturing, lead and zinc ore mining, and painting and paper hanging industries. ... such as decreased renal function associated with BLLs at 5 micrograms per deciliter (μg/dL) and lower, and increased risk of ... and that continued efforts to reduce lead exposures are needed. Because BLLs are often not available for many lead-exposed ...
number tested high is defined as a blood lead level greater than or equal to 10 micrograms per deciliter whole blood (ug/dl) ... Lead contamination in Washington, D.C. drinking water 2009 Chinese lead poisoning scandal Flint water crisis Exide lead ... Lead poisoning epidemics refer to instances of mass lead poisoning, and usually occur unintentionally in low income countries. ... US Centers for Disease Control (203). "Blood Lead Levels and Risk Factors for Lead Poisoning Among Children in Torreón, ...
Lead High lead levels (blood levels ≥10 micrograms per deciliter) are associated with a number of poor health outcomes, ... Lead and chemical hazards: Lead has remained a constant contaminant in the older housing stock in the United States. Lead was ... These common uses contributed to the lead that is found in and around houses, and that contribute to lead poisoning. Lead has ... Intellectual impairment in children with blood lead concentration below 10 micrograms per deciliter, New England Journal of ...
... the amount of lead in the blood), measured in micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood (μg/dL). Urine lead levels may be used ... Deteriorating lead paint and lead-containing household dust are the main causes of chronic lead poisoning.[26] The lead breaks ... is thought to be the result of lead, or leaded eating and drinking vessels. Sugar of lead (lead(II) acetate) was used to ... "Lead". Working safely with lead. HSE.. *. Karalus, Daniel E (2010). "Review: The Great Lead Water Pipe Disaster". Electronic ...
In Europe, the centilitre is often used for packaged products (such as wine) and the decilitre less frequently. (The latter two ... In use, the kilogram, gram, milligram, microgram, and smaller are fairly common. However, megagram (and gigagram, teragram, etc ... "use of centimetres leads to extensive usage of decimal points and confusion". Prefixes may not be used in combination. This ...
10 micrograms or higher per deciliter) - rate per 1,000 tested children aged <72 months ... Suffolk Incidence of confirmed high blood lead level ( ... 10 micrograms or higher per deciliter) - rate per 1,000 tested ... Suffolk County Incidence of confirmed high blood lead level (10 micrograms or higher per deciliter) - rate per 1,000 tested ... Suffolk County Incidence of confirmed high blood lead level (10 micrograms or higher per deciliter) - rate per 1,000 tested ...
CDC continues to assist state and local childhood lead poisoning prevention programs, to provide a scientific basis for policy ... The Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program is committed to the Healthy People goal of eliminating elevated blood lead ... μg/dL: micrograms per deciliter. *Confirmed BLL: elevated capillary screening results should be confirmed with blood drawn by ... Schedule for Follow-Up Blood Lead Testinga. Schedule for Follow-Up Blood Lead Testing. Venous Blood lead Levels (µg/dL). Early ...
An Elevated Blood Lead Level (EBLL) is where the amount of lead is ten micrograms of lead or more per deciliter of blood (≥10µg ... Blood Lead Level (BLL) - the concentration of lead in a sample of blood usually expressed in micrograms per deciliter (µg/dL). ... µg/dL- micrograms per deciliter; the measurement used to express how much lead is in a persons blood. A lead poisoned child ... Lead hazards could include deteriorated lead-based paint, lead-contaminated dust, and lead-contaminated soil. The term is ...
When toxic lead levels in the blood of children began to escalate in Flint, Michigan, two years ago, it sparked moral outrage ... Lead levels in local children: Ages 5 and under with elevated blood lead, 2016. *Micrograms per deciliter ... Last year, 65 children under age 6 in the 76707 ZIP code were found to have lead levels above 5 micrograms per deciliter of ... Last year, 17 percent of children in the 76707 ZIP code were found to have lead levels above 5 micrograms per deciliter of ...
Currently that is 5 micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood.[6] ... "Lead; Requirements for Disclosure of Known Lead-Based Paint and/or Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Housing" (PDF). ... There are specialized paint strippers for use with lead paint such as "Lead-Out" paint stripper, "Strip-Tox", "Lead-X", and ... "Learn about Lead". EPA. 2013-04-01.. *^ a b "Lead-Based Paint - Remodeling Your Home?". US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA ...
CDCP defines as concentrations of 10 micrograms of lead per ,, deciliter of blood (10 ug/dL) or higher.[2] A microgram is a ,, ... Yes, Lead is an issue here in Downtown Eastside, Vancouver, Canada. Lead is a very serious issue and it wont go away and ... History: There used to be a battery recycling place in town nearby but it got closed because of high lead emmisions. Lead ... See REHW #529, #551.) ,, ,, The source of the lead poisoning children today is chiefly paint ,, containing lead. In the U.S., ...
Lead. 444 babies born 2001-2004 in Krakow, Poland (Jedrychowski 2009). ,1.81 μg/dL [micrograms per deciliter (wet weight) in ... Subsequently, the number of children exposed to lead above the governments action level (10 micrograms per deciliter of blood ... For most Americans, lead exposure comes from contaminated drinking water (lead leaches from lead pipes, solder and brass ... Lead [pollutant from lead-based paint in older homes, household dust, vinyl products; harms brain development and function]. ...
At the time, the CDC limit was 10 micrograms per deciliter. This provided the authors with two groups of kids: those who tested ... Violent crime arrests go up along with blood lead levels, which should be no surprise at this point. But the final two bars in ... Several readers have sent me a link to a Brookings report summarizing three recent studies on lead and crime. Thanks! Two of ... Back in 90s, North Carolina tested children for blood lead levels, and if they were above the CDC guidelines they were tested ...
The correct unit is micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood.. Vol. 32, Issue 07, Page 5 ... A story on lead exposure in the Sept. 26, 2012, issue of Education Week gave an incorrect unit of measurement to describe blood ...
of Ecology studies confirmed arsenic and lead contamination in King County soils. Much of the arsenic and some of the lead is ... This number is the amount of lead in your childs blood. It is measured in micrograms per deciliter of blood. ... of Health has lead brochures that may help.. If your child has been tested for lead, you got the results as a blood lead level ... Parents guide to getting children tested for lead exposure. Lead can be very harmful to young children. Lead poisoning can ...
Children in Kellogg, for example, averaged 50 micrograms per deciliter of blood; the CDC considers 5 micrograms high enough to ... "They call us lead heads," Jimmy says. Or sometimes "the leaded.". Congress established the Superfund program in 1980 to ... and that lead concentrations in house dust should be less than 500 micrograms.9 ... 25 percent of the valleys children had levels greater than 25 micrograms. In 2015, only six kids had levels above 5 micrograms ...
Tiny amounts of lead are common in the blood of U.S. teenagers and may be damaging their kidneys, U.S. researchers reported on ... The teens in the study had a mean lead level of 1.5 micrograms per deciliter, considered safe by the U.S. Centers for Disease ... The CDCs level of concern for lead is 10 micrograms per deciliter of blood. ... Lead exposure has decreased substantially in the United States, primarily due to measures including the 1996 ban on lead in ...
... the average blood lead level was 3.4 micrograms per deciliter. Blood lead levels below 5 micrograms per deciliter were ... if their blood had 10 or more micrograms of lead per deciliter. ... OctLead Exposure Linked to Thyroid Dysfunction During Pregnancy ... Control and Prevention now uses a reference level of 5 micrograms per deciliter to classify children as having blood lead ... "This really triggers the question of whether there is really a safe level of lead in the blood," said Huang. "In a lot of ...
Its well-known that high levels of lead kill birds. But now its becoming clear that amounts commonly encountered by waterfowl ... A blood test showed lead levels exceeding 20 micrograms per deciliter. The eagle went through chelation therapy to clear the ... Effects may start to appear at lead levels between 20 and 60 micrograms per deciliter. With treatment, prognosis for survival ... had blood lead levels above 10 micrograms per deciliter, according to executive director Diane Winn. Out of those 44 eagles, 28 ...
are at least ten micrograms per deciliter and of children whose blood lead levels are at least 20 micrograms per deciliter or ... a blood lead level at or above 20 micrograms per deciliter; or (3) a blood lead level that persists in the range of 15 to 19 ... at least 25 micrograms of lead per deciliter of. whole blood. a blood lead level that exceeds the federal Centers for Disease ... a pregnant woman in the residence is identified as having a blood lead level of at least ten micrograms of lead per deciliter ...
Ironically, lead-paint removal can be a cause of poisoning ... Disinterested research casts doubt on claims that lead ... Blood-lead levels, measured in micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood, dropped accordingly. In July of last year the results ... lead sheathing for electrical wire, lead shields for x-ray machines, lead plates for batteries, and lead and more lead in paint ... Lead acquired new uses in the industrial age with the mass manufacture of lead solder, lead pipe, and lead-tinted pigments for ...
... the number of children at risk for lead poisoning jumped five-fold yesterday as the Centers for Disease Control announced that ... The new diagnosis will occur at five micrograms per deciliter of blood. The former threshold was 10. ... But lead can also be found in - of all things tempting to children - candy. Candy with high levels of lead may not taste ... As part of its Lead in Candy program, the DPH collects a wide range of candies from store shelves and tests them for lead. To ...
Blood lead concentration is typically reported in micrograms per deciliter. Because blood concentrations are strongly ... Lead (ICSC) Lead (WHO Food Additives Series 4) Lead (WHO Food Additives Series 13) Lead (WHO Food Additives Series 21) LEAD ( ... lead chlorate, lead nitrate, lead oleate, lead oxide, and lead sulfate range from 300 to 4000 mg/kg bw, the doses having been ... In particular, soil in or adjacent to lead smelters, lead mines, houses painted with lead paint, orchards treated with lead ...
You may be exposed to lead on your job or through lead-based paint used in your home. ... This test measures the levels of lead in your blood. ... Results are given in micrograms per deciliter (mcg/dL). The CDC ... you can also come in contact with lead if your home is older and has lead-based paint or you use lead-glazed dishes or cookware ... Women with high lead levels are more likely to have stillbirths or give birth to infants with lead poisoning. Men may have low ...
Lead 1.5 micrograms per deciliter. geometric mean. United States. 18.. Richter PA, et al. (2013). Tobacco Smoke Pollution Study ... Lead 1.2 micrograms per deciliter. geometric mean. United States. 20.. Richter PA, et al. (2013). Tobacco Smoke Pollution Study ... Lead 1 micrograms per deciliter. geometric mean. United States. 24.. Richter PA, et al. (2013). Tobacco Smoke Pollution Study ... Lead 1.4 micrograms per deciliter. geometric mean. United States. 25.. Richter PA, et al. (2013). Tobacco Smoke Pollution Study ...
... according to a pediatrician who directs the Environmental Health and Lead Clinic at Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical ... The disposal and recycling of electronic devices has increased exposure to lead and other toxicants and created an emerging ... The children had blood lead levels of 18 micrograms per deciliter and 14 micrograms per deciliter. Although no safe blood lead ... Although deteriorating lead paint in pre-1979 housing is the most common source of lead exposure in children, data indicate ...
  • Obviously, loading the soil with calcuim and organic matter will help: but the real problem is lead and it is persistent. (
  • Take off shoes to prevent lead-contaminated soil from being brought indoors. (
  • Lead is a common element but is found in old paints (including those once used on children's toys), soil, old piping, water, and the atmosphere from lead-containing vehicular fuels, even drinking vessels. (
  • It was because testing found that the soil here was contaminated with lead - that the air was contaminated with lead - that the kids were contaminated with lead. (
  • Once lead is mined out of the earth and put into commercial use, it becomes a permanent part of the environment, until slow, natural forces of soil erosion bury it again. (
  • At sites where lead materials have historically been used, exposure scenarios would have to be evaluated individually to determine the indoor and outdoor activities that may result in greater exposure to soil and the corresponding soil ingestion rate. (
  • What is a reasonable screening value for soil lead at commercial/industrial sites? (
  • An updated screening level for soil lead at commercial/industrial (i.e., non-residential) sites of 800 part per million (ppm) is based on a recent analysis of the combined phases of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) that choose a cleanup goal protective for all subpopulations. (
  • The soil near busy roads -- assuming those roads were also busy before 2002, the date that leaded petrol was phased out , is a good place to find it, and so are homes, yards and parks built near them. (
  • In the US, states also disagree on how much lead in the soil is a problem: The EPA's standard is 300 parts per million, but Minnesota uses 100 as their cutoff, and California goes even lower, to 80. (
  • Plants grown in lead don't tend to pick up lead from their soil . (
  • But lead-containing soil can end up on root vegetables in a garden, for example, and kids that crawl around outside might end up putting dirt or dirty things in their mouths. (
  • Consumer test kits aren't very good at detecting lead in soil , and expensive lab-based tests have their pitfalls too. (
  • If you're worried about lead in garden veggies, try to site your garden away from old houses and busy roads, if that's possible, and consider keeping the soil alkaline and well fertilised . (
  • It's well-known that high levels of lead kill birds. (
  • Candy with high levels of lead may not taste unusual. (
  • But products containing tamarind or mined sources of salt from certain regions of the world may have a higher likelihood of having elevated levels of lead. (
  • This test measures the levels of lead in your blood. (
  • High levels of lead can be toxic. (
  • Your healthcare provider may also order other tests to find out whether you have dangerous levels of lead in your body. (
  • However, Ford said, if the city's testing results show high levels of lead near the firing range, parents should talk to their pediatrician about additional blood testing. (
  • However, the study confirms that those who drink tap water are more likely to have elevated levels of lead in their blood. (
  • These findings suggest the threshold for 'high' blood levels of lead may not fully take into account lead's heart risks, according to the study. (
  • Extremely high levels of lead in New Zealand cities in the 1970s and 1980s lowered the IQ and life prospects of today's adults, Dunedin Study research has found. (
  • Even low levels of lead in blood have been shown to affect IQ, ability to pay attention, and academic achievement. (
  • High-levels-of-lead-in-water, in Flint or anywhere, reflect the value of agencies like the EPA and CDC, that need continued (and more) funding. (
  • Both had high levels of lead. (
  • High levels of lead in adults also can cause neurological problems. (
  • Our study is showing that even low levels of lead is associated with behavior differences," Jianghong Liu , an associate professor of nursing at the University of Pennsylvania and lead author of the study, told Shots. (
  • The study, conducted among more than 800 boys attending public schools in Pittsburgh, showed that those with relatively high levels of lead in their bones were more likely to engage in aggressive acts and delinquent behavior than boys with less lead in their bones. (
  • Most previous studies of the effects of lead on child development have focused on intelligence scores and growth, and most have relied on levels of lead in the blood as an indicator of lead exposure. (
  • that level has dropped significantly since the 1960s as evidence mounted that even very low levels of lead are harmful to children's health. (
  • Examination of the remains of ancient Romans reveals damaging levels of lead in their bones. (
  • The lead level of 5 µg/dL or higher is concerning, but recent studies show that even low levels of lead are harmful and are associated with lower IQ, impaired growth and development, and impaired hearing. (
  • Regular low levels should not be interpreted as a sign that testing is no longer necessary - it only indicates that current levels of lead in the body are low! (
  • The levels of lead in the water in Flint in the last year or so will probably not lead to many seizures , hospitalizations or medical events. (
  • Just how many workers have been exposed to unsafe levels of lead in electronics manufacturing is unclear because the sampling was so much more limited. (
  • Of that total, only 459 showed significant levels of lead in their blood, including 26 in Brockton and 15 in South Shore communities. (
  • The New York City Department of Environmental Protection found elevated levels of lead in tap water samples at some homes with lead service lines (homes built before 1961 may have lead service lines), or internal fixtures and plumbing that contain lead, or that have internal plumbing joined by lead solder (plumbing installed before 1987 may contain lead solder). (
  • Over time, even low levels of lead exposure can harm a child's mental development. (
  • Chelation therapy is a procedure that can remove high levels of lead that have built up in a person's body over time. (
  • Scientists know exposure to low levels of lead can result in learning disabilities, hearing loss, language impairments and vision loss, but a newly discovered side effect may be adult-onset obesity in men, according to a University of Houston professor. (
  • To reach his conclusions, Fox and collaborator Leigh Leasure, an assistant professor of psychology with UH, undertook an 18-month case study exposing pregnant mice to varying levels of lead in their drinking water to observe the effects on the offspring. (
  • For our experiment, we exposed the pregnant mice and, by extension, their babies to varying levels of lead through their drinking water," Fox said. (
  • Sure, there are a few toys with dangerous levels of lead out there. (
  • Instead they went on to demonstrate conclusively that intellectual power (as measured by IQ) was consistently reduced by exposure to low levels of lead. (
  • Being born to a mother who has high levels of lead stored in her bones. (
  • An analysis of tap-water data from 19 cities by the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), for instance, revealed elevated levels of lead, arsenic, and other hazardous chemicals. (
  • The local blood test data, obtained through a records request from the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, shows two neighboring San Marino census tracts are among the hotspots for childhood lead exposure in the L.A. area. (
  • The results suggest that cognitive impairment associated with childhood lead exposure can persist and may worsen somewhat across decades,'' the study said. (
  • Childhood lead exposure has been associated with diminished IQ, inability to focus, poor academic performance and increased risk of criminal behavior. (
  • The Cincinnati Lead Study followed prenatal and early childhood lead exposure of 376 infants from high-risk areas of Cincinnati between 1979 and 1987. (
  • Future research will need to confirm this finding and examine the effect of joint exposure to both prenatal mercury and childhood lead," added Braun, who was not involved in the study. (
  • Dr. Dietrich has been following almost 300 young men and women there for the past two decades in an attempt to unravel the effects of childhood lead exposure. (
  • For more than two decades, the Cincinnati research team has been trying to unravel the scientific secrets relating to childhood lead exposure, and this step-by-step process is far from finished. (
  • But over a decade later, Lake Coeur d'Alen e is still filled with lead, wildlife goes to the basin to die, and locals suffer a litany of mental and physical disabilities that make it difficult to get through each day. (
  • The bottom line is when you have a young child exposed to lead, they're going to suffer with the consequences of that for the rest of their lives. (
  • A child is tested for lead at Eisenhower Elementary School in Flint, Mich., in January. (
  • The water contamination crisis in Flint, Mich., has driven increased attention to the need to test for lead exposure. (
  • New research conducted by Michigan Medicine and Rutgers New Jersey Medical School suggests blood lead levels in Flint have been on a decline since 2006, the only spike being in 2011 and 2015 during the peak of the water crisis, and the all-time low being in 2016. (
  • Flint's water was tainted with lead after the city switched the water supply from the Detroit River to the Flint River and didn't require corrosion-control chemicals to treat the water in April 2014. (
  • While the water crisis in Flint, Mich., lingers on, it is becoming clear that the problem of toxic lead in people's drinking water is widespread across the United States, as are stories about it for journalists to pursue. (
  • In Flint Michigan, there's lead in the drinking water . (
  • Many eyes are now focused on Flint, Mich., where government failures have resulted in elevated lead levels in the city's drinking water. (
  • The 2014 drinking water crisis in Flint, Mich., brought renewed national attention to the dangers of lead. (
  • We've got communities in Massachusetts where the rate of lead contamination is double or triple that of Flint," Kennedy said. (
  • What Hillary Clinton said is true: Flint, Michigan is not the only place with a lead problem, and water is just the beginning. (
  • In Flint, lead levels are so high - 4000 ppb in some homes - that even the filtered water is still dangerous . (
  • Flint Kids Have So Much Lead in Their Blood That the Mayor Declared a State of Emergency. (
  • USA TODAY found lead problems in the water at hundreds of schools , also in 2016. (
  • Because DMSA can remove minerals the body needs, such as zinc and iron, as well as the toxic lead and mercury, participants take a daily multivitamin supplement starting 1 month before beginning chelation therapy and continuing for the duration of treatment. (
  • It is estimated that more than 3 million workers in the United States are at risk for toxic lead exposure. (
  • Godwin noted several "new sources" of lead exposure reported in recent years, including contaminated candies (many imported from Mexico), contaminated toys (principally from China) and drinking water in Los Angeles Unified School District schools. (
  • In the 1700s, an English physician showed that severe abdominal cramps commonly experienced by cider drinkers were caused by lead leaching from the presses used to crush the apples. (
  • For more severe cases, your doctor may recommend treatment called chelation therapy in addition to removal from lead exposure. (
  • The therapy may not reverse damage that already has occurred in cases of severe lead intoxication. (
  • The review of the health effects of lead at the forty-first meeting was based on a recent assessment of inorganic lead performed by an International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) Task Group and published as an Environmental Health Criteria monograph (WHO, 1995). (
  • The half-life of lead in blood and other soft tissues is 28-36 days (WHO, 1995). (
  • Lead that is deposited in physiologically inactive cortical bone may persist for decades without substantially influencing the concentrations of lead in blood and other tissues (Rabinowitz et al. (
  • The research was set apart from other studies because participants exposed to lead in the study were from across the socio-economic spectrum and because it showed the effect of lead persisted for decades. (
  • The cognitive deficits associated with lead persisted for decades, and showed in the kinds of occupations people got. (
  • lead is stored in bone for decades and is released into the blood during pregnancy. (
  • Lead contaminated the city's drinking water. (
  • The press conference had been called to protest a cut in state funding for Baltimore City's lead-enforcement program. (
  • Lead primarily enters drinking water because of corrosion of lead-containing plumbing, including pipes that connect household plumbing to the city's water mains, solder on copper pipes, and faucets. (
  • A clearance examination can be conducted by a licensed risk assessor, lead inspector or clearance examiner. (
  • Urban soils and waterways across the country are littered with lead, deposited there by centuries of human activity, that pose a health risk to people as well. (
  • Lead is a major environmental health risk. (
  • Public health officials say low-income families, who may not have the financial means to repaint lead-covered surfaces or install new, lead-free windows, are at greatest risk of lead exposure. (
  • Public health goals to be achieved by 2020 are eliminating blood lead levels ≥ 10 g/dL and differences in average risk based on race and social class. (
  • MDH's finding that five micrograms per deciliter of blood is elevated is a policy decision related to prevention rather than an assessment of risk. (
  • Similarly, MDH has not determined a level of lead in water that poses a negligible risk to health. (
  • They are the ones who don't get diagnosed as quickly, and where lead is most prevalent, but every child who lives in an older house is at risk. (
  • Experts cannot yet say that there is a blood lead level at which there is no risk. (
  • Talk to your pediatrician about lead and whether your child might be at risk, especially if your child is between six months to three years of age. (
  • President Donald Trump's proposed federal budget cuts, which would eliminate the Environmental Protection Agency's Lead Risk Reduction Program, has also pushed the issue of lead into the spotlight. (
  • Massachusetts relies on a combination of state and federal funding sources for its lead risk reduction programs, while 36 other states rely entirely on the EPA funds that have been targeted for elimination. (
  • The local health department conducted a lead risk assessment of Michelle and Ted's house that turned up some interesting findings. (
  • Application of this value should consider the proportion of each population (present on site or anticipated in the future) as defined by the NHANES III study and as described in the TRW's recommendations for use of NHANES III data for adult lead risk assessment. (
  • Public Health's Tacoma Smelter Plume Project homepage has links to reports on the studies, fact sheets on arsenic, lead and pica behavior. (
  • The brain damage resulting from lead is permanent and can be extensive: the loss of IQ, serotonin production, and other neural motor functions, causing impulsivity and anti-social behavior-in short, some key factors that might tip someone toward a life of violence. (
  • The new findings extend in a scientific way earlier observations of a link between lead exposure and delinquent, violent or criminal behavior. (
  • It can slow growth and development and lead to learning and behavior problems including reduced IQ, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and hearing and speech problems. (
  • Dr. Cecil believes that these findings lend support to previous reports from the Cincinnati Lead Study showing that the lasting neurological effect of lead exposure, rather than a poor social environment, is a key contributor to the subsequent cognitive and behavior problems in this group. (
  • The toxic metal, lead, is associated with aggressive behavior, delinquency, and attention disorders in boys between the ages of 7 and 11, according to a study by Herbert Needleman published in 1996 in the JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION (JAMA). (
  • Boys with more lead in their bones consistently had more reports of aggressive and delinquent behavior, and problems paying attention. (
  • on the other hand, behavior did not change among boys with less lead in their bones. (
  • Aggressive behavior, delinquency, and attention disorders in boys and young men are also associated with poverty, minority status, and disorganized homes, so lead is not the only factor at work in many cases. (
  • However, the 1996 Needleman study examined 9 variables in addition to lead (such as parent's socioeconomic status, mother's age, presence or absence of a father in the home, and so forth), to see if they might explain the boys' behavior. (
  • The relationship between lead and behavior disorders held up. (
  • These data argue that environmental lead exposure, a preventable occurrence, should be included when considering the many factors contributing to delinquent behavior," the authors of the study said. (
  • After the 1943 report, for the most part lead researchers ignored the newly-revealed connection between lead, aggressive behavior and impaired attention. (
  • The Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) Guidelines #C40: Measurement Procedures for the Determination of Lead Concentrations in Blood and Urine, 2nd Edition (October 2013). (
  • Additional regulations regarding lead abatement, testing and related issues have been issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (
  • That is a direct result of lead abatement efforts and citizens following warnings to use filters, bottled water and have their water tested and the like. (
  • It's not good enough, and that's why in recent weeks cabinet and the Health Department have been talking about how we can make the best possible effort in lead abatement,' he said. (
  • I'm delivering the lead abatement program, I'm not managing the EPA, that's a matter for the Environment Minister. (
  • Analysis of elements in urine provides diagnostic information on potentially toxic elements such as lead, mercury, cadmium, nickel, beryllium, arsenic and aluminum, and assessment of the efficiency of renal resorption of essential elements such as magnesium, calcium, sodium and potassium. (
  • There seem to be a whole host of different toxicants that are associated with ADHD," added Lanphear, who studies childhood effects of lead, mercury and other contaminants but didn't participate in the Inuit study. (
  • One of the most intriguing findings was that mercury was linked to attention deficits while lead was associated with hyperactivity. (
  • No wait, it's not mercury, it's - lead! (
  • Many people with chronic disorders have mercury, lead and other heavy metals accumulating in their body. (
  • Public Health recommends that people who think they have been exposed to arsenic and lead consult their doctor about appropriate testing options. (
  • Millions of tons of sediment polluted with lead, arsenic, cadmium and zinc remain-in the Coeur d'Alene River, groundwater, lakes, floodplains and hillsides. (
  • Personal breathing zone air samples were collected and analyzed for lead (7439921), arsenic (7440382), and 29 other metals. (
  • 2 The purpose of the survey was to establish each DOT's level of sophistication on lead-related issues regarding worker and environmental protection and, more specifically, to determine particular state ch aracteristics, such as the annual budget for bridge maintenance, repair, and demolition and the anticipated percentage of such structures estimated to contain lead (see annex A). (