The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.
Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.
Microdevices that combine microfluidics technology with electrical and/or mechanical functions for analyzing very small fluid volumes. They consist of microchannels etched into substrates made of silicon, glass, or polymer using processes similar to photolithography. The test fluids in the channels can then interact with different elements such as electrodes, photodetectors, chemical sensors, pumps, and valves.
Silicone polymers which consist of silicon atoms substituted with methyl groups and linked by oxygen atoms. They comprise a series of biocompatible materials used as liquids, gels or solids; as film for artificial membranes, gels for implants, and liquids for drug vehicles; and as antifoaming agents.
Manufacturing technology for making microscopic devices in the micrometer range (typically 1-100 micrometers), such as integrated circuits or MEMS. The process usually involves replication and parallel fabrication of hundreds or millions of identical structures using various thin film deposition techniques and carried out in environmentally-controlled clean rooms.
The design or construction of objects greatly reduced in scale.
Assaying the products of or monitoring various biochemical processes and reactions in an individual cell.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Methods used to measure the relative activity of a specific enzyme or its concentration in solution. Typically an enzyme substrate is added to a buffer solution containing enzyme and the rate of conversion of substrate to product is measured under controlled conditions. Many classical enzymatic assay methods involve the use of synthetic colorimetric substrates and measuring the reaction rates using a spectrophotometer.
The preparation and analysis of samples on miniaturized devices.
Alicyclic hydrocarbons in which three or more of the carbon atoms in each molecule are united in a ring structure and each of the ring carbon atoms is joined to two hydrogen atoms or alkyl groups. The simplest members are cyclopropane (C3H6), cyclobutane (C4H8), cyclohexane (C6H12), and derivatives of these such as methylcyclohexane (C6H11CH3). (From Sax, et al., Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.
Controlled operations of analytic or diagnostic processes, or systems by mechanical or electronic devices.
Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.
A highly miniaturized version of ELECTROPHORESIS performed in a microfluidic device.
Antibodies that are chemically bound to a substrate material which renders their location fixed.
The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
The chemical processes, enzymatic activities, and pathways of living things and related temporal, dimensional, qualitative, and quantitative concepts.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.
Exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.
Cell separation is the process of isolating and distinguishing specific cell types or individual cells from a heterogeneous mixture, often through the use of physical or biological techniques.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.

The pressure-dependence of the size of extruded vesicles. (1/884)

Variations in the size of vesicles formed by extrusion through small pores are discussed in terms of a simple model. Our model predicts that the radius should decrease as the square root of the applied pressure, consistent with data for vesicles extruded under various conditions. The model also predicts dependencies on the pore size used and on the lysis tension of the vesicles being extruded that are consistent with our data. The pore size was varied by using track-etched polycarbonate membranes with average pore diameters ranging from 50 to 200 nm. To vary the lysis tension, vesicles made from POPC (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine), mixtures of POPC and cholesterol, and mixtures of POPC and C(16)-ceramide were studied. The lysis tension, as measured by an extrusion-based technique, of POPC:cholesterol vesicles is higher than that of pure POPC vesicles whereas POPC:ceramide vesicles have lower lysis tensions than POPC vesicles.  (+info)

The shape parameter of liposomes and DNA-lipid complexes determined by viscometry utilizing small sample volumes. (2/884)

A minicapillary viscometer utilizing <0.5 ml of sample at a volume fraction of <0.1% is described. The calculated a/b of DPPC/DPPG multilamellar liposome was 1.14 as prolate ellipsoids and a/b of dioleoylpropyltrimethyl ammonium methylsulfate-DNA complex at a charge ratio of 4:1 (+/-) was 3.7 as prolate ellipsoids or 4.9 as oblate ellipsoids. The deviation of shape from perfect sphere is thus expressed quantitatively in more than two significant figures. In these measurement, the necessary amount of DNA is <0.5 mg.  (+info)

Recovery, visualization, and analysis of actin and tubulin polymer flow in live cells: a fluorescent speckle microscopy study. (3/884)

Fluorescent speckle microscopy (FSM) is becoming the technique of choice for analyzing in vivo the dynamics of polymer assemblies, such as the cytoskeleton. The massive amount of data produced by this method calls for computational approaches to recover the quantities of interest; namely, the polymerization and depolymerization activities and the motions undergone by the cytoskeleton over time. Attempts toward this goal have been hampered by the limited signal-to-noise ratio of typical FSM data, by the constant appearance and disappearance of speckles due to polymer turnover, and by the presence of flow singularities characteristic of many cytoskeletal polymer assemblies. To deal with these problems, we present a particle-based method for tracking fluorescent speckles in time-lapse FSM image series, based on ideas from operational research and graph theory. Our software delivers the displacements of thousands of speckles between consecutive frames, taking into account that speckles may appear and disappear. In this article we exploit this information to recover the speckle flow field. First, the software is tested on synthetic data to validate our methods. We then apply it to mapping filamentous actin retrograde flow at the front edge of migrating newt lung epithelial cells. Our results confirm findings from previously published kymograph analyses and manual tracking of such FSM data and illustrate the power of automated tracking for generating complete and quantitative flow measurements. Third, we analyze microtubule poleward flux in mitotic metaphase spindles assembled in Xenopus egg extracts, bringing new insight into the dynamics of microtubule assemblies in this system.  (+info)

Electrokinetic stretching of tethered DNA. (4/884)

During electrophoretic separations of DNA in a sieving medium, DNA molecules stretch from a compact coil into elongated conformations when encountering an obstacle and relax back to a coil upon release from the obstacle. These stretching dynamics are thought to play an important role in the separation mechanism. In this article we describe a silicon microfabricated device to measure the stretching of tethered DNA in electric fields. Upon application of an electric field, electro-osmosis generates bulk fluid flow in the device, and a protocol for eliminating this flow by attaching a polymer brush to all silicon oxide surfaces is shown to be effective. Data on the steady stretching of DNA in constant electric fields is presented. The data corroborate the approximate theory of hydrodynamic equivalence, indicating that DNA is not free-draining in the presence of both electric and nonelectric forces. Finally, these data provide the first quantitative test of a Stigter and Bustamante's detailed theory of electrophoretic stretching of DNA without adjustable parameters. The agreement between theory and experiment is good.  (+info)

Hydrostatic pressurization and depletion of trapped lubricant pool during creep contact of a rippled indenter against a biphasic articular cartilage layer. (5/884)

This study presents an analysis of the contact of a rippled rigid impermeable indenter against a cartilage layer, which represents a first simulation of the contact of rough cartilage surfaces with lubricant entrapment. Cartilage was modeled with the biphasic theory for hydrated soft tissues, to account for fluid flow into or out of the lubricant pool. The findings of this study demonstrate that under contact creep, the trapped lubricant pool gets depleted within a time period on the order of seconds or minutes as a result of lubricant flow into the articular cartilage. Prior to depletion, hydrostatic fluid load support across the contact interface may be enhanced by the presence of the trapped lubricant pool, depending on the initial geometry of the lubricant pool. According to friction models based on the biphasic nature of the tissue, this enhancement in fluid load support produces a smaller minimum friction coefficient than would otherwise be predicted without a lubricant pool. The results of this study support the hypothesis that trapped lubricant decreases the initial friction coefficient following load application, independently of squeeze-film lubrication effects.  (+info)

Millisecond kinetics on a microfluidic chip using nanoliters of reagents. (6/884)

This paper describes a microfluidic chip for performing kinetic measurements with better than millisecond resolution. Rapid kinetic measurements in microfluidic systems are complicated by two problems: mixing is slow and dispersion is large. These problems also complicate biochemical assays performed in microfluidic chips. We have recently shown (Song, H.; Tice, J. D.; Ismagilov, R. F. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2003, 42, 768-772) how multiphase fluid flow in microchannels can be used to address both problems by transporting the reagents inside aqueous droplets (plugs) surrounded by an immiscible fluid. Here, this droplet-based microfluidic system was used to extract kinetic parameters of an enzymatic reaction. Rapid single-turnover kinetics of ribonuclease A (RNase A) was measured with better than millisecond resolution using sub-microliter volumes of solutions. To obtain the single-turnover rate constant (k = 1100 +/- 250 s(-1)), four new features for this microfluidics platform were demonstrated: (i) rapid on-chip dilution, (ii) multiple time range access, (iii) biocompatibility with RNase A, and (iv) explicit treatment of mixing for improving time resolution of the system. These features are discussed using kinetics of RNase A. From fluorescent images integrated for 2-4 s, each kinetic profile can be obtained using less than 150 nL of solutions of reagents because this system relies on chaotic advection inside moving droplets rather than on turbulence to achieve rapid mixing. Fabrication of these devices in PDMS is straightforward and no specialized equipment, except for a standard microscope with a CCD camera, is needed to run the experiments. This microfluidic platform could serve as an inexpensive and economical complement to stopped-flow methods for a broad range of time-resolved experiments and assays in chemistry and biochemistry.  (+info)

Rethinking gamete/embryo isolation and culture with microfluidics. (7/884)

IVF remains one of the most exciting modern scientific developments and continues to have a tremendous impact on people's lives. Since its beginnings, scientists have studied and critically analysed the techniques in order to find ways to improve outcomes; however, little has changed with the actual technology and equipment of IVF. Semen is still processed in test tubes and fertilization and culture still occurs in culture dishes. New technological possibilities exist with the burgeoning advancement of microfluidic technology. Microfluidics is based on the behaviour of liquids in a microenvironment. Although a young field, many developments have occurred which demonstrate the potential of this technology for IVF. In this review, we briefly discuss the physical principles of microfluidics and highlight some previous utilizations of this technology, ranging from chemical analysis to cell sorting. We then present the designs and outcomes for microfluidic devices utilized thus far for each step in IVF: gamete isolation and processing, fertilization, and embryo culture. Finally, we discuss and speculate on the ultimate goal of this technology--development of a single, integrated unit for in-vitro assisted reproduction techniques.  (+info)

A new tool for routine testing of cellular protein expression: integration of cell staining and analysis of protein expression on a microfluidic chip-based system. (8/884)

The key benefits of Lab-on-a-Chip technology are substantial time savings via an automation of lab processes, and a reduction in sample and reagent volumes required to perform analysis. In this article we present a new implementation of cell assays on disposable microfluidic chips. The applications are based on the controlled movement of cells by pressure-driven flow in microfluidic channels and two-color fluorescence detection of single cells. This new technology allows for simple flow cytometric studies of cells in a microfluidic chip-based system. In addition, we developed staining procedures that work "on-chip," thus eliminating time-consuming washing steps. Cells and staining-reagents are loaded directly onto the microfluidic chip and analysis can start after a short incubation time. These procedures require only a fraction of the staining reagents generally needed for flow cytometry and only 30,000 cells per sample, demonstrating the advantages of microfluidic technology. The specific advantage of an on-chip staining reaction is the amount of time, cells, and reagents saved, which is of great importance when working with limited numbers of cells, e.g., primary cells or when needing to perform routine tests of cell cultures as a quality control step. Applications of this technology are antibody staining of proteins and determination of cell transfection efficiency by GFP expression. Results obtained with microfluidic chips, using standard cell lines and primary cells, show good correlation with data obtained using a conventional flow cytometer.  (+info)

Microfluidics is a multidisciplinary field that involves the study, manipulation, and control of fluids that are geometrically constrained to a small, typically sub-millimeter scale. It combines elements from physics, chemistry, biology, materials science, and engineering to design and fabricate microscale devices that can handle and analyze small volumes of fluids, often in the range of picoliters to microliters.

In medical contexts, microfluidics has numerous applications, including diagnostic testing, drug discovery, and personalized medicine. For example, microfluidic devices can be used to perform rapid and sensitive molecular assays for detecting pathogens or biomarkers in patient samples, as well as to screen drugs and evaluate their efficacy and toxicity in vitro.

Microfluidics also enables the development of organ-on-a-chip platforms that mimic the structure and function of human tissues and organs, allowing researchers to study disease mechanisms and test new therapies in a more physiologically relevant context than traditional cell culture models. Overall, microfluidics offers significant potential for improving healthcare outcomes by enabling faster, more accurate, and more cost-effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

Microfluidic analytical techniques refer to the use of microfluidics, which is the manipulation of fluids in channels with dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers, for analytical measurements and applications. These techniques involve the integration of various functional components such as pumps, valves, mixers, and detectors onto a single chip or platform to perform chemical, biochemical, or biological analyses.

Microfluidic analytical techniques offer several advantages over traditional analytical methods, including reduced sample and reagent consumption, faster analysis times, increased sensitivity and throughput, and improved automation and portability. Examples of microfluidic analytical techniques include lab-on-a-chip devices, digital microfluidics, bead-based assays, and micro total analysis systems (μTAS). These techniques have found applications in various fields such as diagnostics, drug discovery, environmental monitoring, and food safety.

A Lab-on-a-Chip (LoC) device is a microfluidic system that integrates one or several laboratory functions on a single chip of only millimeters to a few square centimeters in size. These devices are designed to handle extremely small volumes of fluids, typically in the picoliter to microliter range, and perform various analytical operations such as sample preparation, separation, detection, and analysis.

LoC devices often incorporate different components like microchannels, reservoirs, pumps, valves, sensors, and biosensors to create a miniaturized laboratory environment. They offer numerous advantages over traditional laboratory methods, including faster analysis times, lower reagent consumption, reduced cost, higher throughput, enhanced portability, and improved automation.

LoC devices have found applications in various fields, such as clinical diagnostics, point-of-care testing, drug discovery and development, environmental monitoring, and basic research in areas like cell biology, proteomics, and genomics.

Dimethylpolysiloxanes are a type of silicone-based compound that are often used as lubricants, coatings, and fluid ingredients in various industrial and consumer products. In medical terms, they can be found in some pharmaceutical and medical device formulations as inactive ingredients. They are typically included as anti-foaming agents or to improve the texture and consistency of a product.

Dimethylpolysiloxanes are made up of long chains of silicon and oxygen atoms, with methyl groups (CH3) attached to the silicon atoms. This gives them unique properties such as low toxicity, thermal stability, and resistance to oxidation and water absorption. However, some people may have allergic reactions or sensitivities to dimethylpolysiloxanes, so they should be used with caution in medical applications.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Microtechnology" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Microtechnology generally refers to the development and application of technologies on a microscopic or tiny scale. It is used in various fields including engineering, physics, electronics, and materials science.

In the context of medicine, microtechnologies can be used in the development of medical devices, diagnostic tools, drug delivery systems, and other healthcare applications. For example, microfabrication techniques are used to create microfluidic devices for lab-on-a-chip applications, which can perform complex biochemical analyses for disease diagnosis or drug screening.

However, it's important to note that the application of microtechnologies in medicine is constantly evolving, and new developments and techniques are being explored all the time.

"Miniaturization" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in a broader context, it refers to the process of creating smaller versions of something, usually with the aim of improving functionality, efficiency, or ease of use. In medicine, this concept can be applied to various fields such as medical devices, surgical techniques, and diagnostic tools.

For instance, in interventional radiology, miniaturization refers to the development of smaller and less invasive catheters, wires, and other devices used during minimally invasive procedures. This allows for improved patient outcomes, reduced recovery time, and lower risks of complications compared to traditional open surgical procedures.

Similarly, in pathology, miniaturization can refer to the use of smaller tissue samples or biopsies for diagnostic testing, which can reduce the need for more invasive procedures while still providing accurate results.

Overall, while "miniaturization" is not a medical term per se, it reflects an ongoing trend in medicine towards developing more efficient and less invasive technologies and techniques to improve patient care.

Single-cell analysis is a branch of molecular biology that involves the examination and study of individual cells to reveal their genetic, protein, and functional heterogeneity. This approach allows researchers to understand the unique behaviors and characteristics of single cells within a population, which can be crucial in understanding complex biological systems and diseases such as cancer, where cell-to-cell variability plays an important role.

Single-cell analysis techniques include next-generation sequencing, microfluidics, mass spectrometry, and imaging, among others. These methods enable the measurement of various molecular markers, including DNA, RNA, proteins, and metabolites, at the single-cell level. The resulting data can provide insights into cellular processes such as gene expression, signaling pathways, and cell cycle status, which can help to reveal new biological mechanisms and therapeutic targets.

Overall, single-cell analysis has emerged as a powerful tool for studying complex biological systems and diseases, providing a more detailed and nuanced view of cell behavior than traditional bulk analysis methods.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

An enzyme assay is a laboratory test used to measure the activity of an enzyme. Enzymes are proteins that speed up chemical reactions in the body, and they play a crucial role in many biological processes.

In an enzyme assay, researchers typically mix a known amount of the enzyme with a substrate, which is a substance that the enzyme acts upon. The enzyme then catalyzes the conversion of the substrate into one or more products. By measuring the rate at which the substrate is converted into products, researchers can determine the activity of the enzyme.

There are many different methods for conducting enzyme assays, depending on the specific enzyme and substrate being studied. Some common techniques include spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, and calorimetry. These methods allow researchers to measure changes in various properties of the reaction mixture, such as absorbance, fluorescence, or heat production, which can be used to calculate enzyme activity.

Enzyme assays are important tools in biochemistry, molecular biology, and medical research. They are used to study the mechanisms of enzymes, to identify inhibitors or activators of enzyme activity, and to diagnose diseases that involve abnormal enzyme function.

I could not find a specific medical definition for "Microchip Analytical Procedures" as it is a broad term that can refer to various analytical techniques using microchips or microfluidic devices in different scientific fields, including medicine and biology. However, I can provide some general information about microchip-based analytical procedures in the medical field.

Microchip analytical procedures typically involve the use of microfluidic devices, also known as "lab-on-a-chip" technologies, to perform rapid, automated analysis of biological samples. These microchips contain miniaturized networks of channels and chambers through which fluids can be transported and manipulated for various analytical purposes.

Some examples of medical applications of microchip analytical procedures include:

1. Molecular diagnostics: Microchips can be used to perform nucleic acid amplification (e.g., PCR) or detection assays for the identification of specific genetic sequences, such as those associated with infectious diseases or genetic disorders.
2. Protein analysis: Microchip-based immunoassays can be used to detect and quantify proteins in biological samples, which is important for diagnosing various medical conditions and monitoring disease progression.
3. Cell analysis: Microfluidic devices can be used to manipulate and analyze individual cells or populations of cells, enabling researchers to study cell behavior, function, and interactions in a high-throughput manner.
4. Drug discovery and development: Microchip analytical procedures can be used to screen and optimize drug candidates, as well as to evaluate their safety and efficacy in preclinical studies.
5. Point-of-care testing: The miniaturized and portable nature of microchips makes them suitable for use in point-of-care settings, enabling rapid and accurate diagnosis of medical conditions in resource-limited settings or in remote locations.

Overall, microchip analytical procedures offer several advantages over traditional analytical techniques, including faster analysis times, lower sample volumes, higher sensitivity and specificity, and reduced costs. These features make them valuable tools for various applications in the medical field.

Cycloparaffins, also known as naphthenes or cycloalkanes, are a type of hydrocarbon molecule that contain one or more closed rings of carbon atoms. These rings can be saturated, meaning that they contain only single bonds between the carbon atoms, and may also contain one or more alkyl substituents.

The term "cycloparaffin" is used in the context of organic chemistry and petroleum refining to describe a specific class of hydrocarbons. In medical terminology, cycloparaffins are not typically referenced directly, but they may be relevant in certain contexts, such as in discussions of industrial chemicals or environmental exposures.

Cycloparaffins can be found in various sources, including crude oil and natural gas, and they are often used as feedstocks in the production of various chemicals and materials. They are also found in some foods, such as vegetable oils and animal fats, and may be present in trace amounts in some medications or medical devices.

While cycloparaffins themselves are not typically considered to have direct medical relevance, exposure to certain types of cycloparaffins or their derivatives may be associated with various health effects, depending on the level and duration of exposure. For example, some cycloparaffin-derived chemicals have been linked to respiratory irritation, skin and eye irritation, and potential developmental toxicity. However, it is important to note that these effects are typically associated with high levels of exposure in occupational or industrial settings, rather than with normal environmental or dietary exposures.

Biosensing techniques refer to the methods and technologies used to detect and measure biological molecules or processes, typically through the use of a physical device or sensor. These techniques often involve the conversion of a biological response into an electrical signal that can be measured and analyzed. Examples of biosensing techniques include electrochemical biosensors, optical biosensors, and piezoelectric biosensors.

Electrochemical biosensors measure the electrical current or potential generated by a biochemical reaction at an electrode surface. This type of biosensor typically consists of a biological recognition element, such as an enzyme or antibody, that is immobilized on the electrode surface and interacts with the target analyte to produce an electrical signal.

Optical biosensors measure changes in light intensity or wavelength that occur when a biochemical reaction takes place. This type of biosensor can be based on various optical principles, such as absorbance, fluorescence, or surface plasmon resonance (SPR).

Piezoelectric biosensors measure changes in mass or frequency that occur when a biomolecule binds to the surface of a piezoelectric crystal. This type of biosensor is based on the principle that piezoelectric materials generate an electrical charge when subjected to mechanical stress, and this charge can be used to detect changes in mass or frequency that are proportional to the amount of biomolecule bound to the surface.

Biosensing techniques have a wide range of applications in fields such as medicine, environmental monitoring, food safety, and biodefense. They can be used to detect and measure a variety of biological molecules, including proteins, nucleic acids, hormones, and small molecules, as well as to monitor biological processes such as cell growth or metabolism.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Electronics" is not a medical term, but rather a branch of physics and engineering that deals with the design, construction, and operation of electronic devices and systems. It involves the study and application of electrical properties of materials, components, and systems, and how they can be used to process, transmit, and store information and energy.

However, electronics have numerous applications in the medical field, such as in diagnostic equipment, monitoring devices, surgical tools, and prosthetics. In these contexts, "electronics" refers to the specific electronic components or systems that are used for medical purposes.

In the context of medical terminology, "lenses" generally refers to optical lenses used in various medical devices and instruments. These lenses are typically made of glass or plastic and are designed to refract (bend) light in specific ways to help magnify, focus, or redirect images. Here are some examples:

1. In ophthalmology and optometry, lenses are used in eyeglasses, contact lenses, and ophthalmic instruments to correct vision problems like myopia (nearsightedness), hypermetropia (farsightedness), astigmatism, or presbyopia.
2. In surgical microscopes, lenses are used to provide a magnified and clear view of the operating field during microsurgical procedures like ophthalmic, neurosurgical, or ENT (Ear, Nose, Throat) surgeries.
3. In endoscopes and laparoscopes, lenses are used to transmit light and images from inside the body during minimally invasive surgical procedures.
4. In ophthalmic diagnostic instruments like slit lamps, lenses are used to examine various structures of the eye in detail.

In summary, "lenses" in medical terminology refer to optical components that help manipulate light to aid in diagnosis, treatment, or visual correction.

Nanotechnology is not a medical term per se, but it is a field of study with potential applications in medicine. According to the National Nanotechnology Initiative, nanotechnology is defined as "the understanding and control of matter at the nanoscale, at dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications."

In the context of medicine, nanotechnology has the potential to revolutionize the way we diagnose, treat, and prevent diseases. Nanomedicine involves the use of nanoscale materials, devices, or systems for medical applications. These can include drug delivery systems that target specific cells or tissues, diagnostic tools that detect biomarkers at the molecular level, and tissue engineering strategies that promote regeneration and repair.

While nanotechnology holds great promise for medicine, it is still a relatively new field with many challenges to overcome, including issues related to safety, regulation, and scalability.

Cell biology is the branch of biology that deals with the study of cells, which are the basic units of life. It involves understanding the structure, function, and behavior of cells, as well as their interactions with one another and with their environment. Cell biologists may study various aspects of cellular processes, such as cell growth and division, metabolism, gene expression, signal transduction, and intracellular transport. They use a variety of techniques, including microscopy, biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology, to investigate the complex and dynamic world inside cells. The ultimate goal of cell biology is to gain a deeper understanding of how cells work, which can have important implications for human health and disease.

Automation in a laboratory refers to the use of technology and machinery to automatically perform tasks that were previously done manually by lab technicians or scientists. This can include tasks such as mixing and dispensing liquids, tracking and monitoring experiments, and analyzing samples. Automation can help increase efficiency, reduce human error, and allow lab personnel to focus on more complex tasks.

There are various types of automation systems used in laboratory settings, including:

1. Liquid handling systems: These machines automatically dispense precise volumes of liquids into containers or well plates, reducing the potential for human error and increasing throughput.
2. Robotic systems: Robots can be programmed to perform a variety of tasks, such as pipetting, centrifugation, and incubation, freeing up lab personnel for other duties.
3. Tracking and monitoring systems: These systems automatically track and monitor experiments, allowing scientists to remotely monitor their progress and receive alerts when an experiment is complete or if there are any issues.
4. Analysis systems: Automated analysis systems can quickly and accurately analyze samples, such as by measuring the concentration of a particular molecule or identifying specific genetic sequences.

Overall, automation in the laboratory can help improve accuracy, increase efficiency, and reduce costs, making it an essential tool for many scientific research and diagnostic applications.

High-throughput screening (HTS) assays are a type of biochemical or cell-based assay that are designed to quickly and efficiently identify potential hits or active compounds from large libraries of chemicals or biological molecules. In HTS, automated equipment is used to perform the assay in a parallel or high-throughput format, allowing for the screening of thousands to millions of compounds in a relatively short period of time.

HTS assays typically involve the use of robotics, liquid handling systems, and detection technologies such as microplate readers, imagers, or flow cytometers. These assays are often used in drug discovery and development to identify lead compounds that modulate specific biological targets, such as enzymes, receptors, or ion channels.

HTS assays can be used to measure a variety of endpoints, including enzyme activity, binding affinity, cell viability, gene expression, and protein-protein interactions. The data generated from HTS assays are typically analyzed using statistical methods and bioinformatics tools to prioritize and optimize hit compounds for further development.

Overall, high-throughput screening assays are a powerful tool in modern drug discovery and development, enabling researchers to rapidly identify and characterize potential therapeutic agents with improved efficiency and accuracy.

Electrophoresis, Microchip is a laboratory technique that separates and analyzes mixed populations of molecules such as DNA, RNA, or proteins based on their size and electrical charge. This method uses a microchip, typically made of glass or silicon, with multiple tiny channels etched into its surface.

The sample containing the mixture of molecules is loaded into one end of the channel and an electric field is applied, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positively charged end of the channel. The smaller or lighter molecules move faster than the larger or heavier ones, resulting in their separation as they travel through the channel.

The use of microchips allows for rapid and high-resolution separation of molecules, making it a valuable tool in various fields such as molecular biology, genetics, and diagnostics. It can be used to detect genetic variations, gene expression levels, and protein modifications, among other applications.

"Immobilized antibodies" refer to antibodies that have been fixed or attached to a solid support or surface. This is often done for use in various diagnostic and research applications, such as immunoassays, biosensors, and affinity chromatography. The immobilization of antibodies allows them to capture and detect specific target molecules (antigens) from complex samples, while remaining stationary and easily recoverable for reuse.

There are several methods for immobilizing antibodies, including physical adsorption, covalent attachment, and non-covalent entrapment. The choice of method depends on the specific application and the desired properties of the immobilized antibodies, such as stability, orientation, and accessibility.

It is important to note that the immobilization process may affect the binding affinity and specificity of the antibodies, and therefore careful optimization and validation are necessary to ensure the performance of the assay or application.

"Wettability" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a term that is more commonly used in the fields of chemistry, physics, and materials science to describe how well a liquid spreads on a solid surface. In other words, it refers to the ability of a liquid to maintain contact with a solid surface, which can have implications for various medical applications such as the design of medical devices or the study of biological surfaces. However, it is not a term that would typically be used in a clinical medical context.

Equipment Failure Analysis is a process of identifying the cause of failure in medical equipment or devices. This involves a systematic examination and evaluation of the equipment, its components, and operational history to determine why it failed. The analysis may include physical inspection, chemical testing, and review of maintenance records, as well as assessment of design, manufacturing, and usage factors that may have contributed to the failure.

The goal of Equipment Failure Analysis is to identify the root cause of the failure, so that corrective actions can be taken to prevent similar failures in the future. This is important in medical settings to ensure patient safety and maintain the reliability and effectiveness of medical equipment.

An electrode is a medical device that can conduct electrical currents and is used to transmit or receive electrical signals, often in the context of medical procedures or treatments. In a medical setting, electrodes may be used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Recording electrical activity in the body: Electrodes can be attached to the skin or inserted into body tissues to measure electrical signals produced by the heart, brain, muscles, or nerves. This information can be used to diagnose medical conditions, monitor the effectiveness of treatments, or guide medical procedures.
2. Stimulating nerve or muscle activity: Electrodes can be used to deliver electrical impulses to nerves or muscles, which can help to restore function or alleviate symptoms in people with certain medical conditions. For example, electrodes may be used to stimulate the nerves that control bladder function in people with spinal cord injuries, or to stimulate muscles in people with muscle weakness or paralysis.
3. Administering treatments: Electrodes can also be used to deliver therapeutic treatments, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for depression or deep brain stimulation (DBS) for movement disorders like Parkinson's disease. In these procedures, electrodes are implanted in specific areas of the brain and connected to a device that generates electrical impulses, which can help to regulate abnormal brain activity and improve symptoms.

Overall, electrodes play an important role in many medical procedures and treatments, allowing healthcare professionals to diagnose and treat a wide range of conditions that affect the body's electrical systems.

Biochemical phenomena refer to the chemical processes and reactions that occur within living organisms. These phenomena are essential for the structure, function, and regulation of all cells and tissues in the body. They involve a wide range of molecular interactions, including enzyme-catalyzed reactions, signal transduction pathways, and gene expression regulatory mechanisms.

Biochemical phenomena can be studied at various levels, from individual molecules to complex biological systems. They are critical for understanding the underlying mechanisms of many physiological processes, as well as the basis of various diseases and medical conditions.

Examples of biochemical phenomena include:

1. Metabolism: the chemical reactions that occur within cells to maintain life, including the breakdown of nutrients to produce energy and the synthesis of new molecules.
2. Protein folding: the process by which a protein molecule assumes its three-dimensional structure, which is critical for its function.
3. Signal transduction: the molecular mechanisms by which cells respond to external signals, such as hormones or neurotransmitters, and convert them into intracellular responses.
4. Gene expression regulation: the complex network of molecular interactions that control the production of proteins from DNA, including transcription, RNA processing, and translation.
5. Cell-cell communication: the mechanisms by which cells communicate with each other to coordinate their functions and maintain tissue homeostasis.
6. Apoptosis: the programmed cell death pathway that eliminates damaged or unnecessary cells.
7. DNA repair: the molecular mechanisms that detect and correct damage to DNA, preventing mutations and maintaining genomic stability.

Cell culture is a technique used in scientific research to grow and maintain cells from plants, animals, or humans in a controlled environment outside of their original organism. This environment typically consists of a sterile container called a cell culture flask or plate, and a nutrient-rich liquid medium that provides the necessary components for the cells' growth and survival, such as amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and hormones.

There are several different types of cell culture techniques used in research, including:

1. Adherent cell culture: In this technique, cells are grown on a flat surface, such as the bottom of a tissue culture dish or flask. The cells attach to the surface and spread out, forming a monolayer that can be observed and manipulated under a microscope.
2. Suspension cell culture: In suspension culture, cells are grown in liquid medium without any attachment to a solid surface. These cells remain suspended in the medium and can be agitated or mixed to ensure even distribution of nutrients.
3. Organoid culture: Organoids are three-dimensional structures that resemble miniature organs and are grown from stem cells or other progenitor cells. They can be used to study organ development, disease processes, and drug responses.
4. Co-culture: In co-culture, two or more different types of cells are grown together in the same culture dish or flask. This technique is used to study cell-cell interactions and communication.
5. Conditioned medium culture: In this technique, cells are grown in a medium that has been conditioned by previous cultures of other cells. The conditioned medium contains factors secreted by the previous cells that can influence the growth and behavior of the new cells.

Cell culture techniques are widely used in biomedical research to study cellular processes, develop drugs, test toxicity, and investigate disease mechanisms. However, it is important to note that cell cultures may not always accurately represent the behavior of cells in a living organism, and results from cell culture experiments should be validated using other methods.

Surface properties in the context of medical science refer to the characteristics and features of the outermost layer or surface of a biological material or structure, such as cells, tissues, organs, or medical devices. These properties can include physical attributes like roughness, smoothness, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, and electrical conductivity, as well as chemical properties like charge, reactivity, and composition.

In the field of biomaterials science, understanding surface properties is crucial for designing medical implants, devices, and drug delivery systems that can interact safely and effectively with biological tissues and fluids. Surface modifications, such as coatings or chemical treatments, can be used to alter surface properties and enhance biocompatibility, improve lubricity, reduce fouling, or promote specific cellular responses like adhesion, proliferation, or differentiation.

Similarly, in the field of cell biology, understanding surface properties is essential for studying cell-cell interactions, cell signaling, and cell behavior. Cells can sense and respond to changes in their environment, including variations in surface properties, which can influence cell shape, motility, and function. Therefore, characterizing and manipulating surface properties can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of cellular processes and offer new strategies for developing therapies and treatments for various diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Microchemistry" is not a commonly used term in medicine. It is, however, a branch of chemistry that deals with the separation, identification, and analysis of chemical substances in minute quantities. This field can be applied in various scientific disciplines, including forensic science, environmental science, and materials science.

In the medical field, you might encounter similar concepts under terms like "microanalysis" or "clinical chemistry," which refer to the identification and measurement of chemical components in body fluids (like blood or urine) for diagnostic purposes. But again, "Microchemistry" is not a standard term used in this context.

In the context of medical definitions, polymers are large molecules composed of repeating subunits called monomers. These long chains of monomers can have various structures and properties, depending on the type of monomer units and how they are linked together. In medicine, polymers are used in a wide range of applications, including drug delivery systems, medical devices, and tissue engineering scaffolds. Some examples of polymers used in medicine include polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and biodegradable polymers such as polylactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL).

Electrochemical techniques are a group of analytical methods used in chemistry and biochemistry that involve the study of chemical processes that cause electrons to move. These techniques use an electrochemical cell, which consists of two electrodes (a working electrode and a counter electrode) immersed in an electrolyte solution. An electrical potential is applied between the electrodes, which drives redox reactions to occur at the electrode surfaces. The resulting current that flows through the cell can be measured and related to the concentration of analytes in the solution.

There are several types of electrochemical techniques, including:

1. Voltammetry: This technique measures the current that flows through the cell as a function of the applied potential. There are several types of voltammetry, including cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, and square wave voltammetry.
2. Amperometry: This technique measures the current that flows through the cell at a constant potential.
3. Potentiometry: This technique measures the potential difference between the working electrode and a reference electrode at zero current flow.
4. Impedance spectroscopy: This technique measures the impedance of the electrical circuit formed by the electrochemical cell as a function of frequency.

Electrochemical techniques are widely used in various fields, such as environmental monitoring, pharmaceuticals, food analysis, and biomedical research. They offer several advantages, including high sensitivity, selectivity, and simplicity, making them a powerful tool for chemical analysis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Optics and Photonics" is a broad field that encompasses various scientific and engineering disciplines. It doesn't have a specific medical definition, as it's not a term typically used in a medical context.

However, I can provide a general definition:

Optics is the study of light and its interactions with matter. This includes how light is produced, controlled, transmitted, and detected. It involves phenomena such as reflection, refraction, diffraction, and interference.

Photonics, on the other hand, is a branch of optics that deals with the generation, detection, and manipulation of individual photons, the basic units of light. Photonics is often applied to technologies such as lasers, fiber optics, and optical communications.

In a medical context, these fields might be used in various diagnostic and therapeutic applications, such as endoscopes, ophthalmic devices, laser surgery, and imaging technologies like MRI and CT scans. But the terms "Optics" and "Photonics" themselves are not medical conditions or treatments.

Robotics, in the medical context, refers to the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots in medical fields. These machines are capable of performing a variety of tasks that can aid or replicate human actions, often with high precision and accuracy. They can be used for various medical applications such as surgery, rehabilitation, prosthetics, patient care, and diagnostics. Surgical robotics, for example, allows surgeons to perform complex procedures with increased dexterity, control, and reduced fatigue, while minimizing invasiveness and improving patient outcomes.

Circulating neoplastic cells (CNCs) are defined as malignant cancer cells that have detached from the primary tumor site and are found circulating in the peripheral blood. These cells have undergone genetic and epigenetic changes, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division, and can form new tumors at distant sites in the body, a process known as metastasis.

The presence of CNCs has been shown to be a prognostic factor for poor outcomes in various types of cancer, including breast, colon, and prostate cancer. The detection and characterization of CNCs can provide valuable information about the tumor's biology, aggressiveness, and response to therapy, allowing for more personalized treatment approaches.

However, the detection of CNCs is challenging due to their rarity in the bloodstream, with only a few cells present among billions of normal blood cells. Therefore, highly sensitive methods such as flow cytometry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and next-generation sequencing are used for their identification and quantification.

Cell separation is a process used to separate and isolate specific cell types from a heterogeneous mixture of cells. This can be accomplished through various physical or biological methods, depending on the characteristics of the cells of interest. Some common techniques for cell separation include:

1. Density gradient centrifugation: In this method, a sample containing a mixture of cells is layered onto a density gradient medium and then centrifuged. The cells are separated based on their size, density, and sedimentation rate, with denser cells settling closer to the bottom of the tube and less dense cells remaining near the top.

2. Magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS): This technique uses magnetic beads coated with antibodies that bind to specific cell surface markers. The labeled cells are then passed through a column placed in a magnetic field, which retains the magnetically labeled cells while allowing unlabeled cells to flow through.

3. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS): In this method, cells are stained with fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies that recognize specific cell surface or intracellular markers. The stained cells are then passed through a laser beam, which excites the fluorophores and allows for the detection and sorting of individual cells based on their fluorescence profile.

4. Filtration: This simple method relies on the physical size differences between cells to separate them. Cells can be passed through filters with pore sizes that allow smaller cells to pass through while retaining larger cells.

5. Enzymatic digestion: In some cases, cells can be separated by enzymatically dissociating tissues into single-cell suspensions and then using various separation techniques to isolate specific cell types.

These methods are widely used in research and clinical settings for applications such as isolating immune cells, stem cells, or tumor cells from biological samples.

An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a specific protein, antibody, or antigen in a sample using the principles of antibody-antigen reactions. It is commonly used in clinical laboratories to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions such as infections, hormonal disorders, allergies, and cancer.

Immunoassays typically involve the use of labeled reagents, such as enzymes, radioisotopes, or fluorescent dyes, that bind specifically to the target molecule. The amount of label detected is proportional to the concentration of the target molecule in the sample, allowing for quantitative analysis.

There are several types of immunoassays, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), radioimmunoassay (RIA), fluorescence immunoassay (FIA), and chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA). Each type has its own advantages and limitations, depending on the sensitivity, specificity, and throughput required for a particular application.

Point-of-care (POC) systems refer to medical diagnostic tests or tools that are performed at or near the site where a patient receives care, such as in a doctor's office, clinic, or hospital room. These systems provide rapid and convenient results, allowing healthcare professionals to make immediate decisions regarding diagnosis, treatment, and management of a patient's condition.

POC systems can include various types of diagnostic tests, such as:

1. Lateral flow assays (LFAs): These are paper-based devices that use capillary action to detect the presence or absence of a target analyte in a sample. Examples include pregnancy tests and rapid strep throat tests.
2. Portable analyzers: These are compact devices used for measuring various parameters, such as blood glucose levels, coagulation status, or electrolytes, using small volumes of samples.
3. Imaging systems: Handheld ultrasound machines and portable X-ray devices fall under this category, providing real-time imaging at the point of care.
4. Monitoring devices: These include continuous glucose monitors, pulse oximeters, and blood pressure cuffs that provide real-time data to help manage patient conditions.

POC systems offer several advantages, such as reduced turnaround time for test results, decreased need for sample transportation, and increased patient satisfaction due to faster decision-making and treatment initiation. However, it is essential to ensure the accuracy and reliability of these tests by following proper testing procedures and interpreting results correctly.

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One of the core advantages of digital microfluidics, and of microfluidics in general, is the use and actuation of picoliter to ... "Duke Microfluidics Lab". Retrieved 2017-05-22. Kim CJ (November 2001). Micropumping by ... And in contrast to continuous-flow microfluidics, digital microfluidics works much the same way as traditional bench-top ... "Precise droplet volume measurement and electrode-based volume metering in digital microfluidics". Microfluidics and ...
In open microfluidics, also referred to as open surface microfluidics or open-space microfluidics, at least one boundary ... Open microfluidics can be categorized into various subsets. Some examples of these subsets include open-channel microfluidics, ... paper-based, and thread-based microfluidics. In open-channel microfluidics, a surface tension-driven capillary flow occurs and ... Microfluidics refers to the flow of fluid in channels or networks with at least one dimension on the micron scale. ...
The benefits of microfluidics can be scaled up to higher throughput using larger channels to allow more droplets to pass or by ... Droplet based microfluidics often operate under low Reynold's numbers to ensure laminar flow within the system. Droplet size is ... Since microfluidics enables experiments with small volumes (including analysis of single cells or few cells), Raman is a ... Gu S, Lu Y, Ding Y, Li L, Zhang F, Wu Q (September 2013). "Droplet-based microfluidics for dose-response assay of enzyme ...
Further lamination of multiple paper microfluidics creates pseudo-3D microfluidics that could provide an additional dimension ... Paper-based microfluidics has also been used to detect pesticides in food products, such as apple juice and milk. A recent ... Paper-based microfluidics has also been used to conduct environmental and food safety tests. The main issues in the application ... Recently, paper microfluidics was used in the fabrication of numerous immunological tests. Khan et al. in 2010 investigated a ...
... Duke University Digital Microfluidics (Orphaned articles from August 2023, All orphaned ... The UBC Okanagan Digital Microfluidics Research Group is an interdisciplinary research group at University of British Columbia ...
... is the application of microfluidics in the study of chemical biology. Due to its physical ... Microfluidics has a vast potential for single-molecule studies. In order to detect single molecules, it is often necessary to ... Tice JD, Song H, Lyon AD, Ismagilov RF (2003). "Formation of Droplets and Mixing in Multiphase Microfluidics at Low Values of ... Defined as the manipulation of fluids through micron sized channels, the field of microfluidics has been studied extensively ...
Open microfluidics has also been coupled with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to allow for cells to be contained in ... Open microfluidics can be employed in the multidimensional culturing of cell types for various applications including organ-on- ... A major advantage of this type of open-microfluidics includes the low cost, the variety of dimensions of porous papers that are ... This issue can be addressed in several ways including the modification of the device design, using droplet microfluidics, and ...
5-8 June 2017). "Microfluidics: Proceedings of the 162nd Nobel Symposium" (PDF). Microfluidics. 162nd Nobel Symposium. ... Cho Yoon-Kyoung is an interdisciplinary researcher involved in basic science to translational research in microfluidics and ... "Yoon-Kyoung Cho's Biography". Microfluidics, Circulating Biomarkers & Exosomes Asia Seoul, Korea. Select Biosciences. Retrieved ... Much of Cho's research has focused on centrifugal microfluidics. Cho and her team have developed lab-on-a-disc systems to ...
... s are a subset of paper-based microfluidics used to detect the presence of pathogens in water. Paper-based ... Bridle, Helen; Miller, Brian; Desmulliez, Marc P. Y. (2014-05-15). "Application of microfluidics in waterborne pathogen ...
Teh, Shia-Yen; Lin, Robert; Hung, Lung-Hsin; Lee, Abraham P. (2008-01-29). "Droplet microfluidics". Lab on a Chip. 8 (2): 198- ... Self-propelled system demonstrate a potential as micro-fluidics devices and micro-mixers. Self-propelled liquid marbles have ...
ISBN 978-0-521-11903-0. Bruus, H. (2007). Theoretical Microfluidics. Oxford University Press. Karniadakis, G.M., Beskok, A., ... Li, D. (2004). Electrokinetics in Microfluidics. Academic Press. Chang, H.C., Yeo, L. (2009). Electrokinetically Driven ... Microfluidics and Nanofluidics. Cambridge University Press.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) " ...
Electrokinesis is of considerable practical importance in microfluidics, because it offers a way to manipulate and convey ... Chang, H.C.; Yeo, L. (2009). Electrokinetically Driven Microfluidics and Nanofluidics. Cambridge University Press. Kirby, B.J ... ISBN 978-0-521-11903-0. Bruus, H. (2007). Theoretical Microfluidics. Oxford University Press. Patterson, Michael; Kesner, ...
ISBN 978-0-521-11903-0. Bruus, H. (2007). Theoretical Microfluidics. "microfluidics EO pump". Archived from the original on ... Capillary electrophoresis Electroosmotic flow Glossary of fuel cell terms Microfluidics Micropump Sol-gel Kirby, B.J. (2010). ... Microfluidics and Nanofluidics. 21 (12): 178. doi:10.1007/s10404-017-2017-1. S2CID 254195527. "Planar shallow electroosmotic ...
Berthier, J.; Silberzan, P. Microfluidics for Biotechnology. Gomez, F.A. Biological Applications of Microfluidics.[ISBN missing ... Microfluidics and BioMEMS Applications. Microsystems. Vol. 10. SpringerLink. 2002. doi:10.1007/978-1-4757-3534-5. ISBN 978-1- ... Ion channel screening (patch clamp) Microfluidics Microphysiometry Organ-on-a-chip Real-time PCR: detection of bacteria, ... 2009). Lab-on-a-Chip Technology: Fabrication and Microfluidics. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-46-2. Herold, KE; ...
"Wheeler Microfluidics Laboratory: Aaron Wheeler - Director". Retrieved 2023-02-24. Maundrell, Naamah ... Wheeler is Editor-in-chef for the microfluidics journal Lab on a Chip, published by the Royal Society of Chemistry. Before that ... This involves using digital microfluidics (DMF) to manipulate fluid droplets on an array of electrodes with the goal of ... Dolomite; Pig, Black (2017-07-28). "Pioneers of Miniaturization Lectureship 2017 winner announced". Dolomite Microfluidics. ...
Bruus, H. (2007). Theoretical Microfluidics. Pfitzner, J. (1976). "Poiseuille and his law" (PDF). Anaesthesia. 31 (2): 273-275 ...
Time stretch microscopy and its application to microfluidics for classification of biological cells were invented at UCLA. It ... PMID 26975219.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) D. Di Carlo (2009). "Inertial microfluidics". ... microfluidics, and MEMS. The usual techniques of conventional CCD and CMOS cameras are inadequate for capturing fast dynamical ...
ISBN 978-1-139-48983-6. Bruus, Henrik (2007). Theoretical Microfluidics. Oxford: OUP. ISBN 978-0-19-923509-4. Media related to ...
ISBN 978-0-262-08198-6. Bruus, H. (2007). Theoretical Microfluidics. Kirby, B.J. (2010). Micro- and Nanoscale Fluid Mechanics: ...
Bruus, H. (2007). Theoretical Microfluidics. ISBN 978-0-19-923509-4. Kirby, B. J. (2010). Micro- and Nanoscale Fluid Mechanics ... Chang, H.C.; Yao, L. (2009). Electrokinetically Driven Microfluidics and Nanofluidics. Levich, V. (1962). Physicochemical ... Induced-charge Electrokinetics Streaming potential Zeta potential Electroosmotic pump Electrical double layer Microfluidics ...
Frank, Michael; Drikakis, Dimitris (2017-08-24). "Solid-like heat transfer in confined liquids". Microfluidics and Nanofluidics ... Microfluidics and Nanofluidics. 15 (4): 559-574. doi:10.1007/s10404-013-1154-4. ISSN 1613-4990. S2CID 98537095. Frank, Michael ...
2010). Microfluidics and Microfabrication. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-1543-6. ISBN 978-1-4419-1542-9. "Microfluidics and Microscale ... "Water desalination using graphene oxide-embedded paper microfluidics". Microfluidics and Nanofluidics. 23 (6): 80. doi:10.1007/ ... "Microfluidics and Nanofluidics Handbook, 2 Volume Set". Routledge & CRC Press. Retrieved 2022-04-02. Chakraborty, Suman, ed. ( ... "Microfluidics and Nanofluidics Handbook: Chemistry, Physics, and Life Science Principles". Routledge & CRC Press. Retrieved ...
ISBN 978-0-521-11903-0. Li, D. (2004). Electrokinetics in Microfluidics. Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-088444-5. PC Clemmow & JP ...
Bengtsson, K.; Robinson, N. D. (2017). "A large-area, all-plastic, flexible electroosmotic pump". Microfluidics and ...
Microfluidics and Nanofluidics. 17: 53-71. doi:10.1007/s10404-013-1289-3. S2CID 85525659. Freund, M.; Csikos, R; Keszthelyi, S ...
Sun T, Morgan H (April 2010). "Single-cell microfluidic impedance cytometry: a review". Microfluidics and Nanofluidics. 8 (4): ...
Microfluidics and Nanofluidics. 21 (8): 137. doi:10.1007/s10404-017-1974-8. ISSN 1613-4990. S2CID 103813194. Duryodhan, V. S.; ... Microfluidics and Nanofluidics. 22 (2): 19. doi:10.1007/s10404-018-2034-8. ISSN 1613-4990. S2CID 102682551. Shah, Niraj; ...
Microfluidics and Nanofluidics. 17: 53-71. doi:10.1007/s10404-013-1289-3. S2CID 85525659. Dick, William B (1872). "Encyclopedia ...
Berthier, Jean (2010). Microfluidics for biotechnology. Silberzan, Pascal. (2nd ed.). Boston: Artech House. ISBN 9781596934443 ...
Examples of open microfluidics include open-channel microfluidics, rail-based microfluidics, paper-based, and thread-based ... Droplet-based microfluidics is a subcategory of microfluidics in contrast with continuous microfluidics; droplet-based ... Microfluidic techniques such as droplet microfluidics, paper microfluidics, and lab-on-a-chip are used in the realm of food ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Microfluidics Scholia has a topic profile for Microfluidics. (CS1 errors: missing ...
Microfluidics is a key technology underlying the development of highly miniaturized "labs on a chip" that have shown promise ... NIST, which has pursued an active research program in microfluidics for several years, will offer presentations on several of ... 9, 2007, to showcase several of the agencys microfluidics technologies that have potential for commercial development. The ... ...
The aim of our research is to provide engineering solutions for biological and healthcare applications. Microfluidic technology offers versatile, automatable and high-throughput means to enable the exploitation of bioanalytical systems to control and manipulate biological and chemical samples. Our multidisciplinary expertise, combining microsystems engineering with chemistry and biology know-how, is essential for the development of new technologies for the biosciences and industrial sectors.. We develop bespoke microfluidic systems for various biological and clinical case studies in the field of neuroscience and central nervous system disorders, cancer biology & drug screening, cell-nanoparticle interactions and artificial cell membrane systems.. Research is currently focused on:. ...
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M4_Microfluidics_for_CNT  Borovsky, Jan (University of Jyväskylä, 2018) Size and frequency of the droplets produced in T- ... M11_Microfluidics_for_CNT  Borovsky, Jan (University of Jyväskylä, 2018) The subtle solubility of water in n-decane causes ... M6_Microfluidics_for_CNT  Borovsky, Jan (University of Jyväskylä, 2018) The hydrodynamic trap holds an incoming droplet until ... M3_Microfluidics_for_CNT  Borovsky, Jan (University of Jyväskylä, 2018) Droplet production in T-junction microfluidic device. ...
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Nosrati R, Graham P J, Zhang B, Riordon J, Lagunov A, Hannam T G et al. Microfluidics for sperm analysis and selection. Nat Rev ... Sharma S, Venzac B, Burgers T, Le Gac S, Schlatt S. Microfluidics in male reproduction : is ex vivo culture of primate testis ... Le Gac S, Nordhoff V. Microfluidics for mammalian embryo culture and selection : where do we stand now? Mol Hum Reprod 2017 ; ... Microfluidics for reproductive medicine Volume 24, issue 1, Janvier-Février-Mars 2022 *PDF ...
Selling a used 2010 Microfluidics M110P 11, Electric Benchtop Microfluidizer Homogenizer. H10Z, Diamond, 30000 Max PSI. See ... Microfluidics M110P Benchtop Homogenizer - electronics - by owner -.... Selling a used 2010 Microfluidics M110P 11, Electric ... Selling a used 2010 Microfluidics M110P 11, Electric Benchtop Microfluidizer Homogenizer. H10Z, Diamond, 30000 Max PSI. See ...
An MIT-invented microfluidics device could help doctors diagnose sepsis, a leading cause of death in U.S. hospitals, by ... Microfluidics Device Could Diagnose Sepsis in Minutes. News Published: July 29, 2019 ... The current design has eight separate microfluidics channels to measure as many different biomarkers or blood samples in ... onto an automated microfluidics device thats roughly several square centimeters. That required manipulating beads in micron- ...
Futuristic microfluidics incorporating bioinspired functionalities. In: Magnetics and Microhydrodynamics MAMI Microfluidics ... Biological Sciences , Microfluidics. Engineering , Materials. Physical Sciences , Analytical chemistry. Physical Sciences , ...
A miniaturized device integrates the power of droplet microfluidics with multiparameter cell detection, opening new avenues for ... Nanowerk Spotlight) Microfluidics, the technology of precisely controlling fluids at the submillimeter scale, has long held the ... Novel platform harnesses microfluidics and optics for rapid, low-cost cellular analysis. Apr 02, 2024 ... Novel platform harnesses microfluidics and optics for rapid, low-cost cellular analysis. ...
The microfluidics device could help diagnose sepsis. (Credit: Felice Frankel/MIT) slider-crank mechanism. (Credit: AIP). One ... The new microfluidics-based system automatically detects clinically significant levels of IL-6 for sepsis diagnosis in about 25 ...
Single-Cell Analysis with RNA sequencing, quantitative imaging, and microfluidics Aaron Streets, Huang Lab, BIOPIC, Peking Univ ...
Electro-optical classification of pollen grains via microfluidics and machine learning. * January 31, 2022 ... Electro-optical classification of pollen grains via microfluidics and machine learning ...
Today?s talks, from Steven Soper, Emily Hilder, and Chris Pohl, cover microfluidics, monoliths, and ion chromatography. ... Todays Free Tutorials: Microfluidics, Monoliths, Ion Chromatography and Electrophoresis. May 5, 2014. Article ... Today?s talks, from Steven Soper, Emily Hilder, and Chris Pohl, cover microfluidics, monoliths, and ion chromatography. ... Todays talks, from Steven Soper, Emily Hilder, and Chris Pohl, cover microfluidics, monoliths, and ion chromatography. ...
In this respect, microfluidics technologies represent a promising avenue for optimizing the isolation and characterization of ... Embryo; extracellular vesicles; microfluidics; embryo selection; extracellular vesicles isolation. Faculties:. Veterinary ... Despite significant improvements in microfluidics for EV isolation and characterization, the use of EVs as markers of embryo ... We first summarize the conventional methods for isolating EVs and contrast these with the most promising microfluidics methods ...
Microfluidics and Electron Microscopy: A Powerful Couple Highlights of Analytical Sciences In Switzerland Authors. * Luca Rima ... Cryo-em, Microfluidics, Nanoanalytics, Single particle analysis, Single-cell analysis, Visual proteomics ...
Evoluting microfluidics: Moving towards clinical applications. / Shah, Pranjul Jaykumar. Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark: Technical ... Evoluting microfluidics: Moving towards clinical applications. Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark : Technical University of Denmark, 2011. ... Evoluting microfluidics: Moving towards clinical applications. Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark: Technical University of Denmark, 2011. ... Shah, PJ 2011, Evoluting microfluidics: Moving towards clinical applications. Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, ...
  • The fellow has successfully implemented droplet microfluidics RNA-Seq platform at Vilnius University and applied it to profile the individual cells. (
  • However, unlocking the full potential of droplet microfluidics has been hindered by the challenge of rapidly and comprehensively analyzing the contents of these minuscule compartments. (
  • An MIT-invented microfluidics device could help doctors diagnose sepsis, a leading cause of death in U.S. hospitals, by automatically detecting elevated levels of a sepsis biomarker in about 25 minutes, using less than a finger prick of blood. (
  • The microfluidics device could help diagnose sepsis. (
  • ORCID: 0000-0003-2944-4839 , Shinde, Akshay , Donohoe, Andrew , Barrett, Ruairi and McCaul, Margaret (2020) Futuristic microfluidics incorporating bioinspired functionalities. (
  • In this review, we look at the recent advances in the use of microfluidics, from basic research such as understanding cancer cell phenotypes as well as metastatic behaviors to applications such as the detection, diagnosis, prognosis and drug screening. (
  • In a paper published Nov. 1 in the journal Cancer Research , the UCLA researchers describe several new technological advances in microfluidics and imaging detection they co-developed to measure kinase activity in small-input samples. (
  • Kashaninejad N, Shiddiky M J A, Nguyen N T. Advances in Microfluidics-Based Assisted Reproductive Technology : From Sperm Sorter to Reproductive System-on-a-Chip. (
  • Microfluidics for Antibiotic Susceptibility and Toxicity Testing. (
  • In a paper being presented this week at the Engineering in Medicine and Biology Conference, MIT researchers describe a microfluidics-based system that automatically detects clinically significant levels of IL-6 for sepsis diagnosis in about 25 minutes, using less than a finger prick of blood. (
  • The new microfluidics-based system automatically detects clinically significant levels of IL-6 for sepsis diagnosis in about 25 minutes, using less than a finger prick of blood. (
  • Microfluidics-Enabled Soft Manufacture will be an invaluable reference for graduate students, postgraduates, researchers, and practitioners/professionals working in micro and nanofabrication, materials science, surface science, fluid dynamics, and engineering. (
  • More recently, with the improved understanding in cancer biology as well as the advancements made in microtechnology and rapid prototyping, microfluidics is increasingly being explored and even validated for use in the detection, diagnosis and treatment of cancer. (
  • Q: What types of detection can be used with microfluidics? (
  • Microfluidics emerged in the beginning of the 1980s and is used in the development of inkjet printheads, DNA chips, lab-on-a-chip technology, micro-propulsion, and micro-thermal technologies. (
  • Microfluidics is a key technology underlying the development of highly miniaturized "labs on a chip" that have shown promise for enabling rapid, low-cost biochemical analysis and diagnostics. (
  • Our work with RAB-Microfluidics has helped the company perfect its cutting edge 'lab-on-a-chip' technology. (
  • Q: Do microfluidics allow for on-chip fluid control? (
  • The latter aim can be achieved by using a technology called microfluidics, Lab on a chip, using miniaturized devices that integrate one or several analyses into a single chip, allowing real-time visualization and characterization at the micro scale using spectroscopy. (
  • With inherent advantages such as small sample volume, high sensitivity and fast processing time, microfluidics is well-positioned to serve as a promising platform for applications in oncology. (
  • In their work, the researchers wanted to shrink components of the magnetic-bead-based assay, which is often used in labs, onto an automated microfluidics device that's roughly several square centimeters. (
  • Nanowerk Spotlight ) Microfluidics , the technology of precisely controlling fluids at the submillimeter scale, has long held the promise of revolutionizing biological research and medical diagnostics. (
  • The method involves an integrated microfluidics and imaging platform that can reproducibly measure kinase enzymatic activity from as few as 3,000 cells. (
  • His Ph.D. research focused on the synthesis of protein-based nanomaterials using microfluidics. (
  • His research focuses on the development of new microfluidics-based measurement techniques to quantify cancer cell aggressiveness. (
  • I am a dedicated microfluidic engineer and researcher with a strong foundation in mechanical engineering, specializing in the application of microfluidics within interdisciplinary research contexts. (
  • Microfluidics refers to a system that manipulates a small amount of fluids ((10−9 to 10−18 liters) using small channels with sizes ten to hundreds micrometres. (
  • Another advantage of open microfluidics is the ability to integrate open systems with surface-tension driven fluid flow, which eliminates the need for external pumping methods such as peristaltic or syringe pumps. (
  • The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), in cooperation with the MIT Enterprise Forum™ and TEDCO, will host a technology transfer workshop on Oct. 9, 2007, to showcase several of the agency's microfluidics technologies that have potential for commercial development. (
  • We evaluated the performance of a prototype rapid digital microfluidics powered (DMF) enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) assessing measles and rubella infection, by testing for immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunity from natural infection or vaccine, by testing immunoglobulin G (IgG), in outbreak settings. (
  • In open microfluidics, at least one boundary of the system is removed, exposing the fluid to air or another interface (i.e. liquid). (
  • This book covers state-of-the-art development in microfluidics-enabled soft manufacturing (MESM), ranging from fundamentals to applications. (
  • Continuous flow microfluidics rely on the control of a steady state liquid flow through narrow channels or porous media predominantly by accelerating or hindering fluid flow in capillary elements. (
  • The book addresses the long-standing challenge in the manufacture of simultaneously achieving both precise control over nano-/micro-scale structures and large-scale fabrication of materials for pragmatic use, with microfluidics-enabled soft manufacture to fill the gap between the widely-varied length scales involved. (
  • Oxygen control with microfluidics. (
  • At 8:55 am, Steven Soper of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill will talk about the basic principles and practical applications of microfluidics. (
  • RAB-Microfluidics is the brainchild of Rotimi Alabi, an Aberdeen University graduate from Nigeria who turned his PhD into a business idea. (
  • At the same time, the student will learn how to use microfluidics and to analyze microbial processes at the pore scale using spectroscopy. (
  • Active microfluidics refers to the defined manipulation of the working fluid by active (micro) components such as micropumps or microvalves. (
  • In addition, open microfluidics eliminates the need to glue or bond a cover for devices, which could be detrimental to capillary flows. (
  • Advantages of open microfluidics include accessibility to the flowing liquid for intervention, larger liquid-gas surface area, and minimized bubble formation. (
  • Examples of open microfluidics include open-channel microfluidics, rail-based microfluidics, paper-based, and thread-based microfluidics. (
  • The use of microfluidics to investigate fungal calcium carbonate precipitation at thepore scale. (
  • Microfluidics is about how liquids, when physically limited to micrometer scale, are measured and manipulated. (
  • Q: What materials can be used for microfluidics manufacturing? (
  • Microfluidics for sperm analysis and selection. (