Equipment Failure Analysis
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
Cortical Spreading Depression
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
Biological Transport, Active
Heart Conduction System
Cell Membrane Permeability
Prostheses and Implants
Potassium Channel Blockers
Skin Physiological Phenomena
Rats, Inbred Strains
Molecular dynamics of the sodium channel pore vary with gating: interactions between P-segment motions and inactivation. (1/2595)Disulfide trapping studies have revealed that the pore-lining (P) segments of voltage-dependent sodium channels undergo sizable motions on a subsecond time scale. Such motions of the pore may be necessary for selective ion translocation. Although traditionally viewed as separable properties, gating and permeation are now known to interact extensively in various classes of channels. We have investigated the interaction of pore motions and voltage-dependent gating in micro1 sodium channels engineered to contain two cysteines within the P segments. Rates of catalyzed internal disulfide formation (kSS) were measured in K1237C+W1531C mutant channels expressed in oocytes. During repetitive voltage-clamp depolarizations, increasing the pulse duration had biphasic effects on the kSS, which first increased to a maximum at 200 msec and then decreased with longer depolarizations. This result suggested that occupancy of an intermediate inactivation state (IM) facilitates pore motions. Consistent with the known antagonism between alkali metals and a component of slow inactivation, kSS varied inversely with external [Na+]o. We examined the converse relationship, namely the effect of pore flexibility on gating, by measuring recovery from inactivation in Y401C+E758C (YC/EC) channels. Under oxidative conditions, recovery from inactivation was slower than in a reduced environment in which the spontaneous YC/EC cross-link is disrupted. The most prominent effects were slowing of a component with intermediate recovery kinetics, with diminution of its relative amplitude. We conclude that occupancy of an intermediate inactivation state facilitates motions of the P segments; conversely, flexibility of the P segments alters an intermediate component of inactivation. (+info)
Cerebellar Purkinje cell simple spike discharge encodes movement velocity in primates during visuomotor arm tracking. (2/2595)Pathophysiological, lesion, and electrophysiological studies suggest that the cerebellar cortex is important for controlling the direction and speed of movement. The relationship of cerebellar Purkinje cell discharge to the control of arm movement parameters, however, remains unclear. The goal of this study was to examine how movement direction and speed and their interaction-velocity-modulate Purkinje cell simple spike discharge in an arm movement task in which direction and speed were independently controlled. The simple spike discharge of 154 Purkinje cells was recorded in two monkeys during the performance of two visuomotor tasks that required the animals to track targets that moved in one of eight directions and at one of four speeds. Single-parameter regression analyses revealed that a large proportion of cells had discharge modulation related to movement direction and speed. Most cells with significant directional tuning, however, were modulated at one speed, and most cells with speed-related discharge were modulated along one direction; this suggested that the patterns of simple spike discharge were not adequately described by single-parameter models. Therefore, a regression surface was fitted to the data, which showed that the discharge could be tuned to specific direction-speed combinations (preferred velocities). The overall variability in simple spike discharge was well described by the surface model, and the velocities corresponding to maximal and minimal discharge rates were distributed uniformly throughout the workspace. Simple spike discharge therefore appears to integrate information about both the direction and speed of arm movements, thereby encoding movement velocity. (+info)
Neural encoding in orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala during olfactory discrimination learning. (3/2595)Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is part of a network of structures involved in adaptive behavior and decision making. Interconnections between OFC and basolateral amygdala (ABL) may be critical for encoding the motivational significance of stimuli used to guide behavior. Indeed, much research indicates that neurons in OFC and ABL fire selectively to cues based on their associative significance. In the current study recordings were made in each region within a behavioral paradigm that allowed comparison of the development of associative encoding over the course of learning. In each recording session, rats were presented with novel odors that were informative about the outcome of making a response and had to learn to withhold a response after sampling an odor that signaled a negative outcome. In some cases, reversal training was performed in the same session as the initial learning. Ninety-six of the 328 neurons recorded in OFC and 60 of the 229 neurons recorded in ABL exhibited selective activity during evaluation of the odor cues after learning had occurred. A substantial proportion of those neurons in ABL developed selective activity very early in training, and many reversed selectivity rapidly after reversal. In contrast, those neurons in OFC rarely exhibited selective activity during odor evaluation before the rats reached the criterion for learning, and far fewer reversed selectivity after reversal. The findings support a model in which ABL encodes the motivational significance of cues and OFC uses this information in the selection and execution of an appropriate behavioral strategy. (+info)
Correlated firing in rabbit retinal ganglion cells. (4/2595)A ganglion cell's receptive field is defined as that region on the retinal surface in which a light stimulus will produce a response. While neighboring ganglion cells may respond to the same stimulus in a region where their receptive fields overlap, it generally has been assumed that each cell makes an independent decision about whether to fire. Recent recordings from cat and salamander retina using multiple electrodes have challenged this view of independent firing by showing that neighboring ganglion cells have an increased tendency to fire together within +/-5 ms. However, there is still uncertainty about which types of ganglion cells fire together, the mechanisms that produce coordinated spikes, and the overall function of coordinated firing. To address these issues, the responses of up to 80 rabbit retinal ganglion cells were recorded simultaneously using a multielectrode array. Of the 11 classes of rabbit ganglion cells previously identified, coordinated firing was observed in five. Plots of the spike train cross-correlation function suggested that coordinated firing occurred through two mechanisms. In the first mechanism, a spike in an interneuron diverged to produce simultaneous spikes in two ganglion cells. This mechanism predominated in four of the five classes including the ON brisk transient cells. In the second mechanism, ganglion cells appeared to activate each other reciprocally. This was the predominant pattern of correlated firing in OFF brisk transient cells. By comparing the receptive field profiles of ON and OFF brisk transient cells, a peripheral extension of the OFF brisk transient cell receptive field was identified that might be produced by lateral spike spread. Thus an individual OFF brisk transient cell can respond both to a light stimulus directed at the center of its receptive field and to stimuli that activate neighboring OFF brisk transient cells through their receptive field centers. (+info)
Thapsigargin inhibits a potassium conductance and stimulates calcium influx in the intact rat lens. (5/2595)1. An increase in lens cell calcium has long been associated with cortical cataract. Recently, it has been shown that thapsigargin induces a rise in lens cell calcium by release from endoplasmic reticulum stores. The effects of this rise on the optical and membrane characteristics of the lens were studied in the isolated rat lens. 2. The electrical characteristics of the isolated, perifused rat lens were measured using a two-internal microelectrode technique that permits measurement of plasma membrane conductance (Gm), membrane potential (Vm) and junctional conductance in the intact lens. 3. Thapsigargin (1 microM) induced a rapid overall depolarization of Vm that was accompanied by first a decrease and then an increase in Gm. 4. Replacing external Na+ with tetraethylammonium (TEA) abolished the decrease in Gm. However, a transient increase phase was still observed. 5. The changes in conductance were further characterized by measuring 22Na+ and 45Ca2+ influxes into the isolated lens. Thapsigargin (1 microM) induced a transient increase in 45Ca2+, but did not affect Na+ influx. 6. The Ca2+ channel blocker La3+ (10 microM) totally inhibited the thapsigargin-induced Ca2+ influx. It also blocked the increase in Gm observed in control and in Na+-free-TEA medium. In the absence of external calcium, thapsigargin induced a small depolarization in Vm. 7. These data indicate that thapsigargin induces both a decrease in K+ conductance and an increase in Ca2+ conductance. These probably result from release of stored Ca2+ and subsequent activation of store-operated Ca2+ channels (capacitative Ca2+ entry). 8. Thapsigargin application over the time course of these experiments (24 h) had no effect on junctional conductance or on the transparency of the lens. (+info)
Nitric oxide release in penile corpora cavernosa in a rat model of erection. (6/2595)1. Nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured in the corpus cavernosum of urethane-anaesthetized rats by using differential normal pulse voltammetry with carbon fibre microelectrodes coated with a polymeric porphyrin and a cation exchanger (Nafion). A NO oxidation peak could be recorded at 650 mV vs. a Ag-AgCl reference electrode every 100 s. 2. This NO signal was greatly decreased by the NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), given by local and systemic routes, and enhanced by the NO precursor L-arginine. Treatment with L-arginine reversed the effect of L-NAME on the NO peak. 3. Both the NO signal and the intracavernosal pressure (ICP) were increased by electrical stimulation of cavernosal nerves (ESCN). However, the rise in the NO levels long outlived the rapid return to baseline of the ICP values at the end of nerve stimulation. 4. The ICP and the NO responses to ESCN were suppressed by local and systemic injections of L-NAME. Subsequent treatment with L-arginine of L-NAME-treated animals restored the NO signal to basal levels and the NO response to ESCN. The ICP response to ESCN was restored only in part by L-arginine. 5. The observed temporal dissociation between the NO and ICP responses could be accounted for by several factors, including the buffering of NO by the blood filling the cavernosal spaces during erection. 6. These findings indicate that an increased production of NO in the corpora cavernosa is necessary but not sufficient for maintaining penile erection and suggest a complex modulation of the NO-cGMP-cavernosal smooth muscle relaxation cascade. (+info)
In vitro simultaneous measurements of relaxation and nitric oxide concentration in rat superior mesenteric artery. (7/2595)1. The relationship between nitric oxide (NO) concentration measured with an NO-specific microelectrode and endothelium-dependent relaxation was investigated in isolated rat superior mesenteric artery contracted with 1 microM noradrenaline. 2. Acetylcholine (10 microM) induced endothelium-dependent simultaneous increases in luminal NO concentration of 21 +/- 6 nM, and relaxations with pD2 values and maximum of 6.95 +/- 0.32 and 97.5 +/- 0.7 % (n = 7), respectively. An inhibitor of NO synthase, N G-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG, 100 microM) inhibited the relaxations and increases in NO concentration induced by acetylcholine. 3. Oxyhaemoglobin (10 microM) reversed the relaxations and increases in NO concentrations induced by acetylcholine, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) and S-morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN-1), but not the relaxations induced with forskolin. Oxyhaemoglobin also decreased the NO concentration below baseline level. 4. In the presence of L-NOARG (100 microM), a small relaxation to acetylcholine (10 microM) of noradrenaline-contracted segments was still seen; oxyhaemogobin inhibited this relaxation and decreased the NO concentration by 14 +/- 4 nM (n = 4). 5. The NO concentration-relaxation relationship for acetylcholine resembled that for SNAP and SIN-1 more than for authentic NO. Thus while 7-17 nM NO induced half-maximal relaxations in response to SNAP or SIN-1, 378 +/- 129 nM NO (n = 4) was needed for half-maximal relaxation to authentic NO. 6. The present study provides direct evidence that the relaxation of the rat superior mesenteric artery with the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine is correlated to the endogeneous release of NO. The study also suggests that NO mediates the L-NOARG-resistant relaxations in this artery, and that there is a basal NO release. (+info)
Firing properties of single vasoconstrictor neurones in human subjects with high levels of muscle sympathetic activity. (8/2595)1. Single-unit recordings were made from 19 postganglionic muscle vasoconstrictor axons via tungsten microelectrodes in the peroneal nerve in seven healthy subjects with many multi-unit sympathetic discharges at rest ('high group', 75 +/- 5 multi-unit bursts per 100 heart beats, mean +/- s.e.m.). The results were compared with previous data from 14 units in subjects with 21 +/- 2 multi-unit bursts per 100 heart beats ('low group'). 2. In the 'high group' the units fired spontaneously in 35 +/- 4 % of all cardiac intervals. One unit only ever fired once per cardiac interval, 14 units (74 %) generated maximally two to three spikes, and four units (21 %) up to four to five spikes. Of those cardiac intervals in which a unit fired, a single spike occurred in 78 %, two spikes in 18 %, three spikes in 4 % and four spikes in less than 1 % of cardiac intervals. Measured as the inverse of all interspike intervals, the mean rate was 0.33 +/- 0.04 Hz and the mean intraburst frequency 22.2 +/- 1.6 Hz. Most results were similar to those in the 'low group', but in the 'low group' heart rate was higher (64.5 vs. 50.4 beats min-1) and mean firing frequency was higher (0.49 +/- 0.06 Hz). 3. During increases of multi-unit burst activity evoked by sustained inspiratory-capacity apnoea the firing probability of nine units in the 'high group' increased from 33 +/- 6 to 56 +/- 3 % of the cardiac intervals. Simultaneously, the incidence of single spikes decreased and the incidence of multiple spikes per cardiac interval increased, resulting in an increase of mean firing frequency from 0. 23 +/- 0.04 Hz at rest to 1.04 +/- 0.14 Hz during the apnoea. 4. We conclude that single muscle vasoconstrictor neurones usually fire only a solitary spike during sympathetic bursts both in subjects with a high and in subjects with a low number of bursts at rest. Presumably, differences in the numbers of bursts are due mainly to differences in firing probability and recruitment of sympathetic fibres. During acute increases of multi-unit activity, both increases in discharge frequency and recruitment of additional neurones contribute to the increased intensity of an individual sympathetic burst. (+info)
Action potentials are electrical signals that are generated by neurons in the nervous system. They are responsible for transmitting information throughout the body and are the basis of all neural communication. When a neuron is at rest, it has a negative electrical charge inside the cell and a positive charge outside the cell. When a stimulus is received by the neuron, it causes the membrane around the cell to become more permeable to sodium ions. This allows sodium ions to flow into the cell, causing the membrane potential to become more positive. This change in membrane potential is called depolarization. Once the membrane potential reaches a certain threshold, an action potential is generated. This is a rapid and brief change in the membrane potential that travels down the length of the neuron. The action potential is characterized by a rapid rise in membrane potential, followed by a rapid fall, and then a return to the resting membrane potential. Action potentials are essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system. They allow neurons to communicate with each other and transmit information throughout the body. They are also involved in a variety of important physiological processes, including muscle contraction, hormone release, and sensory perception.
Potassium is a mineral that is essential for the proper functioning of many bodily processes. It is the most abundant positively charged ion in the body and plays a crucial role in maintaining fluid balance, regulating muscle contractions, transmitting nerve impulses, and supporting the proper functioning of the heart. In the medical field, potassium is often measured in blood tests to assess its levels and determine if they are within the normal range. Abnormal potassium levels can be caused by a variety of factors, including certain medications, kidney disease, hormonal imbalances, and certain medical conditions such as Addison's disease or hyperaldosteronism. Low levels of potassium (hypokalemia) can cause muscle weakness, cramps, and arrhythmias, while high levels (hyperkalemia) can lead to cardiac arrhythmias, muscle weakness, and even cardiac arrest. Treatment for potassium imbalances typically involves adjusting the patient's diet or administering medications to correct the imbalance.
Fluorocarbon polymers are a class of synthetic polymers that contain carbon-fluorine bonds. They are known for their unique properties, such as high chemical stability, low surface energy, and non-reactivity with most chemicals. In the medical field, fluorocarbon polymers are used in a variety of applications, including: 1. Medical implants: Fluorocarbon polymers are used to make medical implants, such as heart valves, because of their biocompatibility and durability. 2. Drug delivery: Fluorocarbon polymers can be used to encapsulate drugs and deliver them to specific areas of the body, such as the lungs or the eye. 3. Wound healing: Fluorocarbon polymers can be used to create dressings that promote wound healing by creating a moist environment and preventing bacterial infection. 4. Dental materials: Fluorocarbon polymers are used in dental materials, such as fillings and sealants, because of their ability to bond to tooth enamel and resist wear and tear. Overall, fluorocarbon polymers have a wide range of potential applications in the medical field due to their unique properties and versatility.
Sodium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in various bodily functions. In the medical field, sodium is often measured in the blood and urine to assess its levels and monitor its balance in the body. Sodium is primarily responsible for regulating the body's fluid balance, which is essential for maintaining blood pressure and proper functioning of the heart, kidneys, and other organs. Sodium is also involved in nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and the production of stomach acid. Abnormal levels of sodium in the body can lead to various medical conditions, including hyponatremia (low sodium levels), hypernatremia (high sodium levels), and dehydration. Sodium levels can be affected by various factors, including diet, medications, and underlying medical conditions. In the medical field, sodium levels are typically measured using a blood test called a serum sodium test or a urine test called a urine sodium test. These tests can help diagnose and monitor various medical conditions related to sodium levels, such as kidney disease, heart failure, and electrolyte imbalances.
Bicarbonates, also known as bicarbonate ions or HCO3-, are a type of ion found in the blood and other body fluids. They play an important role in regulating the acid-base balance of the body and maintaining the proper pH of the blood. In the medical field, bicarbonate levels are often measured as part of a routine blood test. Abnormal levels of bicarbonate can indicate a variety of medical conditions, including metabolic acidosis (a condition in which the body produces too much acid), metabolic alkalosis (a condition in which the body produces too little acid), and respiratory acidosis (a condition in which the body is not able to remove enough carbon dioxide from the blood). Bicarbonate is also used in medicine to treat certain conditions, such as metabolic acidosis and respiratory acidosis. It is given intravenously (through a vein) or by mouth in the form of a salt, such as sodium bicarbonate.
Chlorides are a type of anion that are commonly found in the human body. They are produced when chlorine combines with other elements, such as sodium or potassium, to form compounds. In the body, chlorides are primarily found in the fluid that surrounds cells, known as extracellular fluid, and in the fluid that fills the lungs and other cavities, known as intracellular fluid. Chlorides play an important role in maintaining the balance of fluids in the body and in regulating the pH of the blood. They also help to transport nutrients and waste products throughout the body. Chlorides are an essential component of many bodily functions, including the production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach, which aids in the digestion of food. In the medical field, chlorides are often measured as part of a routine blood test to assess the overall health of the body. Abnormal levels of chlorides in the blood can be a sign of a variety of medical conditions, including kidney disease, liver disease, and respiratory disorders.
Strophanthidin is a medication that is used to treat heart rhythm disorders, such as atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. It works by slowing down the electrical activity in the heart, which can help to regulate the heart rate and improve blood flow. Strophanthidin is typically administered as a tablet or injection and is usually taken once or twice a day. It is important to note that strophanthidin can have side effects, including low blood pressure, dizziness, and an irregular heartbeat, and should only be taken under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Conductometry is a medical technique used to measure the electrical conductivity of a solution or fluid. It is commonly used in clinical settings to monitor the concentration of electrolytes in the body, such as sodium, potassium, and chloride, which play important roles in maintaining proper bodily function. In conductometry, a small electrical current is passed through a solution or fluid, and the resistance of the solution is measured. The resistance is then used to calculate the concentration of the electrolytes in the solution. This technique is particularly useful for monitoring electrolyte levels in patients with conditions such as kidney disease, heart failure, and diabetes, as well as in patients who are receiving intravenous fluids. Conductometry is a non-invasive and relatively simple technique that can provide valuable information about a patient's electrolyte levels and overall health. It is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests to help healthcare providers make informed decisions about a patient's treatment.
In the medical field, the term "carbon" typically refers to the chemical element with the atomic number 6, which is a vital component of all living organisms. Carbon is the building block of organic molecules, including proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids, which are essential for the structure and function of cells and tissues. In medicine, carbon is also used in various diagnostic and therapeutic applications. For example, carbon-13 (13C) is a stable isotope of carbon that is used in metabolic studies to investigate the function of enzymes and pathways in the body. Carbon-14 (14C) is a radioactive isotope of carbon that is used in radiocarbon dating to determine the age of organic materials, including human remains. Additionally, carbon dioxide (CO2) is a gas that is produced by the body during respiration and is exhaled. It is also used in medical applications, such as in carbon dioxide laser therapy, which uses the energy of CO2 lasers to treat various medical conditions, including skin disorders, tumors, and eye diseases.
In the medical field, the term "diamond" is not commonly used. However, there are a few medical terms that contain the word "diamond" in their name. Here are some examples: 1. Diamond-Blackfan Anemia: A rare genetic disorder that affects the bone marrow's ability to produce red blood cells. It is named after the Diamond-Blackfan family, who first described the condition in 1938. 2. Diamond-Blackfan Anemia Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder that affects the bone marrow's ability to produce red blood cells, as well as other blood cells. It is a more severe form of Diamond-Blackfan Anemia. 3. Diamond-Blackfan Anemia Mutation: A genetic mutation that causes Diamond-Blackfan Anemia. The mutation affects the production of a protein called ribosomal protein S19, which is essential for the production of red blood cells. 4. Diamond-Blackfan Anemia Treatment: Treatment for Diamond-Blackfan Anemia typically involves regular blood transfusions and medications to stimulate the bone marrow to produce more red blood cells. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary. It's important to note that these terms are not commonly used in everyday medical practice, and may only be encountered in specialized fields or by medical professionals with a specific interest in rare genetic disorders.
Biosensing techniques refer to the use of various methods and devices to detect, measure, and analyze biological molecules, cells, or tissues for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. These techniques are widely used in the medical field to detect diseases, monitor treatments, and assess the effectiveness of therapies. Biosensors are devices that incorporate biological recognition elements, such as antibodies, enzymes, or nucleic acids, to selectively bind to specific target molecules. The binding event triggers a measurable signal, such as a change in electrical conductivity, optical absorbance, or fluorescence, which can be used to quantify the concentration of the target molecule. Some common biosensing techniques used in the medical field include: 1. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): A technique that uses antibodies to detect and quantify specific antigens in biological samples. 2. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR): A technique that amplifies specific DNA sequences to detect and quantify genetic material in biological samples. 3. Electrochemical biosensors: Devices that use electrodes to detect changes in electrical conductivity or potential caused by the binding of target molecules to biological recognition elements. 4. Optical biosensors: Devices that use light to detect changes in optical properties, such as absorbance or fluorescence, caused by the binding of target molecules to biological recognition elements. 5. Mass spectrometry: A technique that uses ionization and mass analysis to detect and quantify specific molecules in biological samples. Overall, biosensing techniques play a critical role in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases, and ongoing research is focused on developing new and more sensitive biosensors for a wide range of applications in the medical field.
Dimethadione is a medication that was previously used to treat epilepsy, but it is no longer used for this purpose due to its potential for serious side effects. It is a synthetic derivative of vitamin K, and it works by increasing the production of certain chemicals in the brain that help to control seizures. Dimethadione is typically administered orally in the form of tablets or capsules. It is important to note that dimethadione is not currently recommended for the treatment of epilepsy, and it should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
In the medical field, "cats" typically refers to Felis catus, which is the scientific name for the domestic cat. Cats are commonly kept as pets and are known for their agility, playful behavior, and affectionate nature. In veterinary medicine, cats are commonly treated for a variety of health conditions, including respiratory infections, urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal issues, and dental problems. Cats can also be used in medical research to study various diseases and conditions, such as cancer, heart disease, and neurological disorders. In some cases, the term "cats" may also refer to a group of animals used in medical research or testing. For example, cats may be used to study the effects of certain drugs or treatments on the immune system or to test new vaccines.
Calcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It is a vital mineral for the human body and is essential for many bodily functions, including bone health, muscle function, nerve transmission, and blood clotting. In the medical field, calcium is often used to diagnose and treat conditions related to calcium deficiency or excess. For example, low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia) can cause muscle cramps, numbness, and tingling, while high levels (hypercalcemia) can lead to kidney stones, bone loss, and other complications. Calcium supplements are often prescribed to people who are at risk of developing calcium deficiency, such as older adults, vegetarians, and people with certain medical conditions. However, it is important to note that excessive calcium intake can also be harmful, and it is important to follow recommended dosages and consult with a healthcare provider before taking any supplements.
In the medical field, oxygen is a gas that is essential for the survival of most living organisms. It is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including respiratory disorders, heart disease, and anemia. Oxygen is typically administered through a mask, nasal cannula, or oxygen tank, and is used to increase the amount of oxygen in the bloodstream. This can help to improve oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs, which is important for maintaining normal bodily functions. In medical settings, oxygen is often used to treat patients who are experiencing difficulty breathing due to conditions such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or asthma. It may also be used to treat patients who have suffered from a heart attack or stroke, as well as those who are recovering from surgery or other medical procedures. Overall, oxygen is a critical component of modern medical treatment, and is used in a wide range of clinical settings to help patients recover from illness and maintain their health.
4-Acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, also known as SITS, is a synthetic compound that is commonly used as a fluorescent dye in biological research. It is a fluorescent probe that is used to study the transport of ions across cell membranes, particularly chloride ions. SITS is also used as a pH indicator and as a fluorescent probe for studying the activity of various enzymes and proteins. In the medical field, SITS has been used to study the function of ion channels and transporters in various diseases, including cystic fibrosis, epilepsy, and hypertension.
'4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid' is a chemical compound that is used in the medical field as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. It is also known by its chemical name, Gadodiamide, and is marketed under the brand name Omniscan. Gadodiamide is a paramagnetic contrast agent that enhances the visibility of certain structures in the body on MRI scans. It works by increasing the relaxation time of water molecules in the tissues, which allows for better visualization of the affected area on the MRI image. Gadodiamide is commonly used to diagnose and monitor a variety of medical conditions, including brain and spinal cord disorders, kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease. It is administered intravenously and is generally well-tolerated by most patients. However, like all contrast agents, it can cause some side effects, including headache, nausea, and allergic reactions.
Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are a class of cationic compounds that consist of a central nitrogen atom bonded to four alkyl or aryl groups, with one of the alkyl groups replaced by a positively charged ammonium ion. In the medical field, QACs are commonly used as disinfectants, antiseptics, and preservatives due to their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against bacteria, viruses, fungi, and algae. QACs work by disrupting the cell membrane of microorganisms, leading to cell lysis and death. They are particularly effective against Gram-positive bacteria, which have a thick peptidoglycan layer that can be penetrated by the positively charged ammonium ion. QACs are also effective against enveloped viruses, such as influenza and herpes, by disrupting the viral envelope. QACs are used in a variety of medical applications, including as disinfectants for surfaces and equipment, antiseptics for skin and wound care, and preservatives for pharmaceuticals and medical devices. However, QACs can also be toxic to humans and other animals if ingested or inhaled in high concentrations. Therefore, proper handling and use of QACs are essential to minimize the risk of adverse effects.
Ethoxzolamide is a medication that is used to treat glaucoma, a condition in which there is increased pressure in the eye that can damage the optic nerve and lead to vision loss. It is a type of diuretic called a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, which works by reducing the production of aqueous humor, the clear fluid that fills the space inside the eye. This helps to lower the pressure inside the eye and prevent further damage to the optic nerve. Ethoxzolamide is usually taken by mouth, but it can also be given as an eye drop. It is generally well-tolerated, but like all medications, it can cause side effects, such as dizziness, nausea, and stomach pain.
Amiloride is a medication that is used to treat high blood pressure and fluid retention caused by various medical conditions, such as heart failure, kidney disease, and diabetes. It works by blocking the sodium channels in the kidneys, which helps to reduce the amount of sodium and water that is reabsorbed by the kidneys and excreted in the urine. This, in turn, helps to lower blood pressure and reduce swelling in the body. Amiloride is available in both oral and intravenous forms and is usually taken once or twice a day, depending on the condition being treated. It is generally well-tolerated, but can cause side effects such as dizziness, headache, and an increased risk of potassium levels becoming too high.
Cortical Spreading Depression (CSD) is a phenomenon that occurs in the cerebral cortex, which is the outer layer of the brain. It is characterized by a wave of depolarization that spreads across the cortex, followed by a period of hyperpolarization. This wave of depolarization is accompanied by a decrease in blood flow, a decrease in oxygen levels, and an increase in glutamate release. CSD is thought to play a role in a variety of neurological conditions, including migraine headaches, stroke, and epilepsy. It is also thought to be involved in the spread of brain injury following trauma, and in the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. CSD is typically studied using electroencephalography (EEG), which measures the electrical activity of the brain. It is also studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which can visualize changes in blood flow and oxygen levels in the brain during a CSD event.
Benzolamide is a medication that is used to treat glaucoma, a condition that can lead to vision loss and blindness. It works by decreasing the production of aqueous humor, a clear fluid that fills the front part of the eye and helps to maintain its shape. By reducing the production of aqueous humor, benzolamide helps to lower the pressure inside the eye, which can help to prevent further damage to the optic nerve and preserve vision. Benzolamide is available as a prescription medication and is typically taken once or twice a day, either by mouth or as a gel applied to the eye. It is generally well-tolerated, but like all medications, it can cause side effects. Common side effects of benzolamide include headache, dizziness, and dry mouth. More serious side effects are rare, but may include allergic reactions, changes in blood pressure, and difficulty breathing. As with any medication, it is important to talk to your doctor about the potential risks and benefits of benzolamide before starting to take it.
In the medical field, brain waves refer to the electrical activity that occurs in the brain. These electrical signals are generated by the movement of ions across the cell membranes of neurons in the brain. Brain waves can be measured using an electroencephalogram (EEG), which is a non-invasive test that records the electrical activity of the brain. There are several different types of brain waves, each with its own characteristic frequency and pattern. The most common types of brain waves are: 1. Alpha waves: These are the most common type of brain wave, and they occur when a person is relaxed and awake. Alpha waves have a frequency of 8-13 Hz. 2. Beta waves: These brain waves occur when a person is alert and focused. Beta waves have a frequency of 14-30 Hz. 3. Theta waves: These brain waves occur when a person is in a light sleep or daydreaming state. Theta waves have a frequency of 4-7 Hz. 4. Delta waves: These brain waves occur when a person is in a deep sleep state. Delta waves have a frequency of less than 4 Hz. Brain waves can be used to diagnose and monitor a variety of neurological conditions, including epilepsy, sleep disorders, and brain injuries. They can also be used to study the effects of drugs and other substances on brain function.
Ouabain is a cardiac glycoside that is extracted from the plant Digitalis purpurea, also known as the foxglove plant. It is a potent inhibitor of the sodium-potassium ATPase pump, which is responsible for maintaining the electrochemical gradient across the cell membrane. In the medical field, ouabain is used as a medication to treat heart failure, particularly in cases where other treatments have been ineffective. It works by increasing the strength of the heart's contractions and decreasing the workload on the heart, which can help to improve symptoms and reduce the risk of complications such as heart failure and arrhythmias. However, ouabain can also have side effects, including nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and an irregular heartbeat. It is therefore typically used under close medical supervision and with careful monitoring of the patient's response to the medication.
Barium is a chemical element with the symbol Ba and atomic number 56. In the medical field, barium is commonly used as a contrast agent in imaging studies, particularly in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Barium sulfate is the most commonly used form of barium in medical imaging. It is administered orally or through an enema, and it coats the lining of the GI tract, making it easier to see on X-rays. Barium studies are used to diagnose a variety of conditions in the digestive system, including ulcers, tumors, inflammation, and structural abnormalities. Barium is also used in other medical applications, such as in the treatment of certain types of arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats) and in the production of certain types of glass and ceramics. However, in these applications, barium is typically used in much smaller quantities and under more controlled conditions.
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) are a class of drugs that are used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including glaucoma, altitude sickness, and certain types of epilepsy. These drugs work by inhibiting the activity of an enzyme called carbonic anhydrase, which is involved in the production of bicarbonate ions in the body. By inhibiting this enzyme, CAIs can help to lower the production of bicarbonate ions, which can help to reduce the pressure inside the eye in the case of glaucoma, or help to reduce the symptoms of altitude sickness by reducing the body's production of carbon dioxide. CAIs are also sometimes used to treat certain types of epilepsy by reducing the frequency and severity of seizures.
Sodium-bicarbonate symporters are a group of membrane transport proteins that simultaneously transport sodium ions (Na+) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) into cells. These transporters are found in various tissues and cells throughout the body, including the kidneys, pancreas, and red blood cells. In the kidneys, sodium-bicarbonate symporters play a critical role in regulating the body's acid-base balance by transporting bicarbonate ions into the bloodstream. This helps to buffer the blood against changes in pH and maintain a stable internal environment. In the pancreas, sodium-bicarbonate symporters are involved in the production of digestive enzymes and the secretion of bicarbonate ions into the small intestine to neutralize stomach acid. In red blood cells, sodium-bicarbonate symporters are involved in the transport of bicarbonate ions across the cell membrane, which helps to regulate the pH of the blood and maintain proper oxygen-carrying capacity. Overall, sodium-bicarbonate symporters are essential for maintaining the body's acid-base balance and regulating various physiological processes.
Dark adaptation is the process by which the human eye adjusts to low levels of light. When we enter a dark environment, the pupils dilate to allow more light to enter the eye. The retina, which is the light-sensitive layer at the back of the eye, contains specialized cells called rods and cones that detect light. Rods are more sensitive to low levels of light and are responsible for our ability to see in dim conditions. At first, when we enter a dark environment, the rods are not very sensitive, and our vision is poor. However, as we continue to be in the dark, the rods become more sensitive, and our vision improves. This process can take several minutes to complete, and it is influenced by factors such as age, health, and previous exposure to light. Dark adaptation is an important process for night vision and is essential for activities such as driving at night or navigating in low-light conditions. Any disruption to the process of dark adaptation, such as prolonged exposure to bright light, can affect our ability to see in low-light conditions.
In the medical field, "buffers" typically refer to substances that help regulate the pH of bodily fluids, such as blood and urine. Buffers work by neutralizing excess acid or base in the body, helping to maintain a stable pH level. This is important because many enzymes and other biological processes in the body require a specific pH range in order to function properly. There are several different types of buffers that can be used in the medical field, including bicarbonate buffers, phosphate buffers, and protein buffers. Bicarbonate buffers are the most common type of buffer used in the body, and they are primarily found in the blood and extracellular fluid. Phosphate buffers are also commonly used in the body, and they are found in the blood, urine, and other bodily fluids. Protein buffers are less common, but they can be used in certain medical situations where bicarbonate or phosphate buffers are not effective. In addition to regulating pH, buffers can also be used to treat certain medical conditions, such as acidosis (a condition in which the blood is too acidic) or alkalosis (a condition in which the blood is too alkaline). Buffers may be administered intravenously or orally, depending on the specific condition being treated and the needs of the patient.
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin that is produced by certain species of marine animals, including pufferfish, cone snails, and some species of sea slugs. TTX is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless compound that is highly toxic to humans and other animals. In the medical field, TTX is primarily used as a research tool to study the function of voltage-gated sodium channels, which are essential for the transmission of nerve impulses. TTX blocks these channels, leading to a loss of electrical activity in nerve cells and muscles. TTX has also been used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as chronic pain and epilepsy. However, its use in humans is limited due to its toxicity and the difficulty in administering it safely. In addition to its medical uses, TTX has also been used as a pesticide and a tool for controlling invasive species. However, its use as a pesticide is controversial due to its potential toxicity to non-target organisms and its persistence in the environment.
Biological transport, active refers to the movement of molecules across cell membranes against a concentration gradient, which means from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration. This type of transport requires energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and is facilitated by specific proteins called transporters or pumps. Active transport is essential for maintaining the proper balance of ions and molecules within cells and between cells and their environment. Examples of active transport include the sodium-potassium pump, which maintains the electrochemical gradient necessary for nerve impulse transmission, and the glucose transporter, which moves glucose into cells for energy production.
In the medical field, ions are charged particles that are either positively or negatively charged. They are formed when an atom gains or loses electrons, and they play a crucial role in many bodily functions. For example, ions such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride are essential for maintaining the proper balance of fluids in the body, which is necessary for proper nerve and muscle function. Imbalances in these ions can lead to a variety of medical conditions, such as hypertension, heart disease, and muscle cramps. In addition, ions are also important in the transmission of nerve impulses and the functioning of the immune system. They are also used in medical treatments such as electrotherapy and iontophoresis, which involve the application of electrical currents to the body to treat various conditions.
In the medical field, acid-base equilibrium refers to the balance between acids and bases in the body fluids, particularly in the blood. The body maintains a narrow range of pH levels in the blood, which is essential for the proper functioning of various physiological processes. Acids and bases are chemical substances that can donate or accept hydrogen ions (H+). In the body, acids are produced by various metabolic processes, while bases are produced by the kidneys and lungs. The balance between these acids and bases is maintained by a complex system of buffers, which are substances that can neutralize excess acids or bases. Disruptions in acid-base equilibrium can lead to acidosis or alkalosis, which can have serious consequences for the body. Acidosis occurs when there is an excess of acids in the blood, leading to a decrease in pH levels. Alkalosis, on the other hand, occurs when there is an excess of bases in the blood, leading to an increase in pH levels. In the medical field, acid-base equilibrium is closely monitored and managed through various diagnostic tests and treatments. For example, blood gas analysis is a common test used to measure pH levels and other acid-base parameters in the blood. Treatment for acid-base imbalances may involve changes in diet, medication, or other interventions to restore the body's acid-base balance.
Ion channels are specialized proteins embedded in the cell membrane that regulate the flow of ions across the membrane. These channels are essential for many cellular processes, including the transmission of nerve impulses, muscle contraction, and the regulation of cell volume and pH. Ion channels are selective for specific ions, such as sodium, potassium, calcium, or chloride, and they can be opened or closed by various stimuli, such as changes in voltage, ligand binding, or mechanical stress. When an ion channel opens, it creates a pore in the membrane that allows ions to flow through, either down their electrochemical gradient or against it, depending on the specific channel and the conditions. In the medical field, ion channels play important roles in many diseases and disorders, including neurological disorders such as epilepsy, muscular dystrophy, and cardiac arrhythmias, as well as metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity. Understanding the function and regulation of ion channels is therefore crucial for developing new treatments and therapies for these conditions.
In the medical field, the term "alkalies" refers to substances that have a pH greater than 7 and are basic or alkaline in nature. These substances can help to neutralize or counteract the effects of acidic substances in the body. Alkalies are often used to treat acidosis, a condition in which the body's pH becomes too acidic. They can also be used to help treat certain digestive disorders, such as heartburn and acid reflux, by neutralizing stomach acid. Some common examples of alkalies used in medicine include baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), antacids, and certain types of diuretics. It is important to note that while alkalies can be helpful in certain situations, they should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as excessive use can have negative side effects.
In the medical field, silicon is a chemical element that is commonly used in the production of medical devices and implants. Silicon is a hard, brittle, and non-metallic element that is found in the Earth's crust and is the second most abundant element in the Earth's crust after oxygen. Silicon is used in the production of a variety of medical devices, including orthopedic implants, dental implants, and prosthetic devices. It is also used in the production of medical-grade silicone, which is used in the manufacture of medical devices such as catheters, tubing, and other medical equipment. Silicon is also used in the production of certain types of medical implants, such as silicone breast implants and silicone gel-filled prosthetic devices. These implants are made from a silicone gel that is encased in a silicone shell. In addition to its use in medical devices and implants, silicon is also used in the production of certain types of medical equipment, such as syringes, catheters, and other medical devices. It is also used in the production of certain types of medical-grade silicone, which is used in the manufacture of medical devices such as catheters, tubing, and other medical equipment.
Octanols are a group of organic compounds that contain eight carbon atoms and one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups. They are commonly used in the medical field as solvents, emulsifiers, and surfactants in various pharmaceutical and medical applications. One specific octanol that is commonly used in the medical field is octanol-1, which has the chemical formula C8H18O. It is a colorless, odorless liquid that is widely used as a solvent in the production of various medications and medical devices. Octanols are also used in the production of ointments, creams, and lotions, as well as in the formulation of inhalation solutions and nasal sprays. They are also used as solvents in the extraction of various natural compounds, such as essential oils and plant extracts, which are used in the production of herbal remedies and dietary supplements. In addition, octanols have been studied for their potential use in the treatment of various medical conditions, such as respiratory diseases, skin disorders, and cancer. However, more research is needed to fully understand their therapeutic potential and potential side effects.
In the medical field, cell membrane permeability refers to the ability of molecules to pass through the cell membrane. The cell membrane is a selectively permeable barrier that regulates the movement of substances in and out of the cell. Some molecules, such as water and gases, can pass through the cell membrane freely, while others require specific transport proteins to cross the membrane. The permeability of the cell membrane is important for maintaining the proper balance of ions and molecules inside and outside the cell, which is essential for cell function and survival. Abnormalities in cell membrane permeability can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including fluid and electrolyte imbalances, nutrient deficiencies, and the development of diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate cell membrane permeability is an important area of research in medicine.
In the medical field, "gold" typically refers to the use of gold compounds in the treatment of certain medical conditions. Gold has been used in medicine for centuries, and it is still used today in the treatment of certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. Gold therapy involves the administration of gold compounds, usually in the form of a pill or injection, to help reduce inflammation and pain. The exact mechanism of action of gold therapy is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve the modulation of the immune system and the production of anti-inflammatory molecules. Gold therapy is generally considered safe and effective, although it can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and skin rashes. It is important to note that gold therapy is not suitable for everyone, and it should only be used under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional.
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in the brain's reward and pleasure centers. It is also involved in regulating movement, motivation, and emotional responses. In the medical field, dopamine is often used to treat conditions such as Parkinson's disease, which is characterized by a lack of dopamine in the brain. It can also be used to treat high blood pressure, as well as to manage symptoms of depression and schizophrenia. Dopamine is typically administered through injections or intravenous infusions, although it can also be taken orally in some cases.
In the medical field, carbon dioxide (CO2) is a gas that is produced as a byproduct of cellular respiration and is exhaled by the body. It is also used in medical applications such as carbon dioxide insufflation during colonoscopy and laparoscopic surgery, and as a component of medical gases used in anesthesia and respiratory therapy. High levels of CO2 in the blood (hypercapnia) can be a sign of respiratory or metabolic disorders, while low levels (hypocapnia) can be caused by respiratory failure or metabolic alkalosis.
In the medical field, the brain is the most complex and vital organ in the human body. It is responsible for controlling and coordinating all bodily functions, including movement, sensation, thought, emotion, and memory. The brain is located in the skull and is protected by the skull bones and cerebrospinal fluid. The brain is composed of billions of nerve cells, or neurons, which communicate with each other through electrical and chemical signals. These neurons are organized into different regions of the brain, each with its own specific functions. The brain is also divided into two hemispheres, the left and right, which are connected by a bundle of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum. Damage to the brain can result in a wide range of neurological disorders, including stroke, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Treatment for brain disorders often involves medications, surgery, and rehabilitation therapies to help restore function and improve quality of life.
Dimethylpolysiloxanes, also known as silicone oils or silicones, are a type of synthetic polymer that are commonly used in medical applications. They are composed of repeating units of silicon and oxygen atoms, with methyl groups attached to the silicon atoms. In the medical field, dimethylpolysiloxanes are used in a variety of ways, including as lubricants, adhesives, and implants. They are often used in surgical procedures to reduce friction and improve the ease of movement of surgical instruments. They are also used in the production of medical devices, such as catheters and prosthetic devices, to improve their flexibility and durability. Dimethylpolysiloxanes are generally considered to be safe for medical use, as they are non-toxic and non-reactive with biological tissues. However, they can cause allergic reactions in some individuals, and they may also have some environmental impacts if they are not disposed of properly.
Ammonium chloride is a salt that is commonly used in the medical field as a decongestant and expectorant. It works by reducing swelling in the nasal passages and thinning mucus, making it easier to cough up. It is often used to treat conditions such as the common cold, bronchitis, and sinusitis. Ammonium chloride is available over-the-counter in various forms, including nasal sprays, inhalers, and oral solutions. It is generally considered safe when used as directed, but it can cause side effects such as dry mouth, throat irritation, and stomach upset in some people.
In the medical field, calibration refers to the process of verifying and adjusting the accuracy and precision of medical equipment or instruments. Calibration is important to ensure that medical equipment is functioning properly and providing accurate results, which is critical for making informed medical decisions and providing appropriate patient care. Calibration typically involves comparing the performance of the medical equipment to known standards or references. This can be done using specialized equipment or by sending the equipment to a calibration laboratory for testing. The calibration process may involve adjusting the equipment's settings or replacing worn or damaged components to restore its accuracy and precision. Calibration is typically performed on a regular basis, depending on the type of equipment and the frequency of use. For example, some medical equipment may need to be calibrated daily, while others may only require calibration every six months or so. Failure to properly calibrate medical equipment can lead to inaccurate results, which can have serious consequences for patient safety and outcomes.
The cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin, flexible barrier that surrounds and encloses the cell. It is composed of a phospholipid bilayer, which consists of two layers of phospholipid molecules arranged tail-to-tail. The hydrophobic tails of the phospholipids face inward, while the hydrophilic heads face outward, forming a barrier that separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment. The cell membrane also contains various proteins, including channels, receptors, and transporters, which allow the cell to communicate with its environment and regulate the movement of substances in and out of the cell. In addition, the cell membrane is studded with cholesterol molecules, which help to maintain the fluidity and stability of the membrane. The cell membrane plays a crucial role in maintaining the integrity and function of the cell, and it is involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell signaling, cell adhesion, and cell division.
Catecholamines are a group of neurotransmitters that are produced by the adrenal glands and certain neurons in the brain. They include norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline), epinephrine (also known as adrenaline), and dopamine. Catecholamines play a crucial role in the body's "fight or flight" response, which is triggered in response to stress or danger. They are released by the adrenal glands in response to stress, and by certain neurons in the brain in response to certain stimuli. Norepinephrine and epinephrine are primarily responsible for the physical effects of the fight or flight response, such as increased heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration. Dopamine, on the other hand, is primarily responsible for the psychological effects of the response, such as increased alertness and focus. Catecholamines are also involved in a number of other physiological processes, including the regulation of blood sugar levels, the control of blood vessel diameter, and the regulation of mood and motivation. They are often used as medications to treat a variety of conditions, including hypertension, heart disease, and depression.
In the medical field, "platinum" typically refers to a type of chemotherapy drug called a platinum agent. Platinum agents are a class of chemotherapy drugs that are commonly used to treat various types of cancer, including ovarian cancer, testicular cancer, and lung cancer. The most well-known platinum agent is cisplatin, which was first discovered in the 1960s and has been used in cancer treatment for decades. Other platinum agents include carboplatin and oxaliplatin. Platinum agents work by binding to DNA and disrupting the normal process of cell division, which can lead to the death of cancer cells. However, they can also have side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and damage to the kidneys and hearing. It's important to note that the use of platinum agents in cancer treatment is highly individualized and depends on a variety of factors, including the type and stage of cancer, the patient's overall health, and their personal preferences.
Potassium channels are a type of ion channel found in the cell membrane of many types of cells, including neurons, muscle cells, and epithelial cells. These channels are responsible for regulating the flow of potassium ions (K+) in and out of the cell, which is important for maintaining the cell's resting membrane potential and controlling the generation and propagation of electrical signals in the cell. Potassium channels are classified into several different types based on their biophysical properties, such as their voltage sensitivity, pharmacology, and gating mechanisms. Some of the most well-known types of potassium channels include voltage-gated potassium channels, inwardly rectifying potassium channels, and leak potassium channels. In the medical field, potassium channels play a critical role in many physiological processes, including muscle contraction, neurotransmission, and regulation of blood pressure. Abnormalities in potassium channel function can lead to a variety of diseases and disorders, such as epilepsy, hypertension, and cardiac arrhythmias. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of potassium channels is important for developing new treatments for these conditions.
Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in the transmission of signals between neurons in the nervous system. It is synthesized from the amino acid choline and is stored in vesicles within nerve cells. When an electrical signal reaches the end of a nerve cell, it triggers the release of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft, the small gap between the nerve cell and the next cell it communicates with. Acetylcholine then binds to receptors on the surface of the receiving cell, causing a change in its electrical activity. Acetylcholine is involved in a wide range of bodily functions, including muscle movement, memory, and learning. It is also important for the regulation of the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate and digestion. In the medical field, acetylcholine is used as a diagnostic tool to study the function of the nervous system, particularly in conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and myasthenia gravis. It is also used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of certain conditions, such as glaucoma and myasthenia gravis, by increasing the activity of the affected nerves.
Bumetanide is a loop diuretic medication that is used to treat fluid retention (edema) and high blood pressure. It works by blocking the reabsorption of sodium and chloride ions in the kidneys, which helps to increase the amount of urine produced and reduce the amount of fluid in the body. Bumetanide is often used in combination with other diuretics or with other medications to treat heart failure, liver disease, and kidney disease. It is available in oral tablet and intravenous forms. Common side effects of bumetanide include dizziness, headache, nausea, and vomiting.
Sodium chloride, also known as table salt, is a chemical compound composed of sodium and chlorine ions. It is a white, odorless, and crystalline solid that is commonly used as a seasoning and preservative in food. In the medical field, sodium chloride is used as a medication to treat a variety of conditions, including dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and certain types of heart failure. It is also used as a contrast agent in diagnostic imaging procedures such as X-rays and CT scans. Sodium chloride is available in various forms, including oral solutions, intravenous solutions, and topical ointments. It is important to note that excessive consumption of sodium chloride can lead to high blood pressure and other health problems, so it is important to use it only as directed by a healthcare professional.
Quinidine is a medication that is used to treat certain types of abnormal heart rhythms, such as atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. It works by slowing down the electrical activity in the heart and restoring a normal heart rhythm. Quinidine is also used to treat malaria, a parasitic infection that is transmitted by mosquitoes. It works by interfering with the growth and reproduction of the parasites that cause malaria. Quinidine is available in tablet, liquid, and intravenous forms. It is usually taken by mouth, but it can also be given intravenously in severe cases. Quinidine can cause side effects, including nausea, vomiting, headache, and dizziness. It can also cause more serious side effects, such as low blood pressure, heart problems, and allergic reactions.
Automatic Data Processing (ADP) in the medical field refers to the use of computer systems and software to automate the processing of medical data. This includes tasks such as managing patient records, scheduling appointments, processing insurance claims, and generating reports. ADP systems in healthcare can help healthcare providers to streamline their operations, reduce errors, and improve patient care. For example, electronic health records (EHRs) are a type of ADP system that allows healthcare providers to store and manage patient information electronically, making it easier to access and share information among healthcare providers. Other examples of ADP systems used in healthcare include medical billing and coding software, which automates the process of submitting claims to insurance companies, and patient scheduling software, which automates the process of scheduling appointments with patients. Overall, ADP systems in healthcare can help healthcare providers to improve efficiency, reduce costs, and provide better care to their patients.
Tetraethylammonium compounds are a class of organic compounds that contain the tetraethylammonium ion (Et4N+). These compounds are commonly used as ionophores, which are molecules that facilitate the transport of ions across cell membranes. In the medical field, tetraethylammonium compounds are used as muscle relaxants and to treat certain types of arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats). They work by blocking the movement of potassium ions out of cardiac muscle cells, which can help to stabilize the heart rhythm. Tetraethylammonium compounds are also used in research to study the function of ion channels and to develop new drugs for the treatment of heart disease and other conditions.
Potassium chloride is a medication used to treat low potassium levels in the blood (hypokalemia). It is also used to treat certain heart rhythm problems and to help manage certain types of heart failure. Potassium chloride is available as a tablet, oral solution, and injection. It is usually taken by mouth, but can also be given intravenously (into a vein) or by injection into a muscle. Potassium chloride is a salt that contains potassium, which is an important mineral that helps regulate the heartbeat and maintain proper muscle and nerve function. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking potassium chloride, as high levels of potassium in the blood can be dangerous.
In the medical field, "artifacts" typically refer to any objects or substances that are not naturally occurring in the body, but are introduced or created during medical procedures or testing. These can include things like surgical instruments, medical devices, contrast agents used in imaging studies, or even clothing or jewelry worn by a patient during a procedure. Artifacts can sometimes interfere with the accuracy of medical tests or imaging studies, as they can create false signals or distort the true appearance of the body's tissues or organs. For this reason, it is important for medical professionals to be aware of the potential for artifacts and to take steps to minimize their impact on diagnostic tests and procedures. This may involve using specialized techniques or equipment to remove or correct for the effects of artifacts, or simply taking care to minimize their presence during the testing or imaging process.
Chromaffin cells are specialized cells found in the medulla of the adrenal gland. They are responsible for producing and secreting catecholamines, which are a group of neurotransmitters that include adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine). These hormones play a crucial role in the body's "fight or flight" response, helping to regulate heart rate, blood pressure, and other physiological functions in response to stress or danger. Chromaffin cells are also involved in the regulation of blood sugar levels and the immune response. Abnormal function of chromaffin cells can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including pheochromocytoma, a rare tumor of the adrenal gland that can cause high blood pressure and other symptoms.
Nifedipine is a medication that is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension) and angina (chest pain). It belongs to a class of drugs called calcium channel blockers, which work by relaxing blood vessels and allowing blood to flow more easily. This helps to lower blood pressure and reduce the workload on the heart. Nifedipine is available in both oral tablet and extended-release tablet forms, and it is usually taken once or twice a day. It is important to follow your doctor's instructions carefully when taking nifedipine, as it can cause side effects such as headache, dizziness, and swelling in the hands and feet.
Acidosis is a medical condition characterized by an excess of acid in the blood or other body fluids. This can occur when the body is unable to properly regulate the acid-base balance, leading to an increase in the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in the blood. Acidosis can be classified into two main types: respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis. Respiratory acidosis occurs when the body is unable to remove enough carbon dioxide (CO2) from the blood, leading to an increase in H+ concentration. Metabolic acidosis, on the other hand, occurs when the body produces too much acid or not enough base to neutralize it, leading to an increase in H+ concentration. Acidosis can have a range of symptoms, depending on the severity and underlying cause. These may include shortness of breath, confusion, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and muscle weakness. In severe cases, acidosis can lead to organ damage and even death if left untreated. Treatment for acidosis typically involves addressing the underlying cause and managing symptoms as needed.
In the medical field, "Anura" refers to a group of amphibians known as frogs and toads. Anura is a taxonomic order that includes over 6,000 species of frogs and toads found worldwide. These animals are characterized by their moist skin, long hind legs for jumping, and a lack of a tail in adulthood. Frogs and toads play important roles in many ecosystems as predators, prey, and as indicators of environmental health. They are also commonly used in scientific research and as pets.
Tetraethylammonium (TEA) is a quaternary ammonium compound that is commonly used as a muscle relaxant and anesthetic in the medical field. It works by blocking the action of sodium channels in nerve and muscle cells, which can help to reduce muscle spasms and pain. TEA is often used to treat conditions such as muscle cramps, spasms, and convulsions, and it can also be used as an anesthetic during certain medical procedures. However, TEA can have side effects, including dizziness, nausea, and difficulty breathing, and it should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.
Caffeine is a naturally occurring stimulant that is found in many plants, including coffee beans, tea leaves, and cocoa beans. It is also added to many foods and beverages, such as coffee, tea, soda, and energy drinks, to enhance their flavor and provide a boost of energy. In the medical field, caffeine is used as a medication to treat a variety of conditions, including: 1. Sleep disorders: Caffeine is a stimulant that can help people stay awake and alert, making it useful for treating conditions such as insomnia and sleep apnea. 2. Headaches: Caffeine is a common ingredient in over-the-counter pain relievers, such as aspirin and ibuprofen, and is also used to treat migraines and tension headaches. 3. Fatigue: Caffeine can help to reduce fatigue and increase alertness, making it useful for people who work long hours or have trouble staying awake. 4. Parkinson's disease: Caffeine has been shown to improve symptoms of Parkinson's disease, including tremors and stiffness. 5. Asthma: Caffeine can help to relax the muscles in the airways, making it useful for people with asthma. It is important to note that caffeine can have side effects, including jitters, anxiety, and insomnia, and can interact with other medications. As with any medication, it is important to talk to a healthcare provider before using caffeine to treat a medical condition.
The cerebral cortex is the outermost layer of the brain, responsible for many of the higher functions of the nervous system, including perception, thought, memory, and consciousness. It is composed of two hemispheres, each of which is divided into four lobes: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. The cerebral cortex is responsible for processing sensory information from the body and the environment, as well as generating motor commands to control movement. It is also involved in complex cognitive processes such as language, decision-making, and problem-solving. Damage to the cerebral cortex can result in a range of neurological and cognitive disorders, including dementia, aphasia, and apraxia.
Ammonia is a chemical compound with the formula NH3. It is a colorless, pungent gas with a strong, unpleasant odor. In the medical field, ammonia is often used as a diagnostic tool to test for liver and kidney function. High levels of ammonia in the blood can be a sign of liver or kidney disease, as well as certain genetic disorders such as urea cycle disorders. Ammonia can also be used as a treatment for certain conditions, such as metabolic acidosis, which is a condition in which the body produces too much acid. However, ammonia can be toxic in high concentrations and can cause respiratory and neurological problems if inhaled or ingested.
In the medical field, Astacoidea refers to a superfamily of freshwater crustaceans that includes crayfish. Astacoidea is a taxonomic group that includes several families of crayfish, such as Astacidae, Cambaridae, and Parastacidae. These crayfish are found in various parts of the world, including North and South America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. Crayfish are known for their distinctive claws, which are used for defense and capturing prey. They are also popular as food in many parts of the world and are often farmed for commercial purposes. In addition to their culinary value, crayfish are also used in scientific research, particularly in the fields of genetics, ecology, and evolution.
In the medical field, hydrogen is not typically used as a standalone treatment or medication. However, there is some research being conducted on the potential therapeutic uses of hydrogen gas (H2) in various medical conditions. One area of interest is in the treatment of oxidative stress and inflammation, which are underlying factors in many chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders. Hydrogen gas has been shown to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and some studies have suggested that it may have potential as a therapeutic agent in these conditions. Another area of research is in the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Hydrogen gas has been shown to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation in animal models of TBI, and some studies have suggested that it may have potential as a neuroprotective agent in humans. However, it's important to note that the use of hydrogen gas in medicine is still in the early stages of research, and more studies are needed to fully understand its potential therapeutic benefits and risks. As such, hydrogen gas should not be used as a substitute for conventional medical treatments without the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional.
Serotonin is a neurotransmitter, a chemical messenger that transmits signals between nerve cells in the brain and throughout the body. It plays a crucial role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, and other bodily functions. In the medical field, serotonin is often studied in relation to mental health conditions such as depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Low levels of serotonin have been linked to these conditions, and medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are often prescribed to increase serotonin levels in the brain and improve symptoms. Serotonin is also involved in the regulation of pain perception, blood pressure, and other bodily functions. Imbalances in serotonin levels have been implicated in a variety of medical conditions, including migraines, fibromyalgia, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
Glyburide is a medication used to treat type 2 diabetes. It belongs to a class of drugs called sulfonylureas, which work by stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin. Glyburide is typically used in combination with diet and exercise to help lower blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. It can also be used alone in people who are not able to control their blood sugar levels with diet and exercise alone. Glyburide can cause side effects such as low blood sugar, nausea, and headache. It is important to take glyburide exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider and to monitor blood sugar levels regularly while taking this medication.
Biological transport refers to the movement of molecules, such as nutrients, waste products, and signaling molecules, across cell membranes and through the body's various transport systems. This process is essential for maintaining homeostasis, which is the body's ability to maintain a stable internal environment despite changes in the external environment. There are several mechanisms of biological transport, including passive transport, active transport, facilitated diffusion, and endocytosis. Passive transport occurs when molecules move down a concentration gradient, from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Active transport, on the other hand, requires energy to move molecules against a concentration gradient. Facilitated diffusion involves the use of transport proteins to move molecules across the cell membrane. Endocytosis is a process by which cells take in molecules from the extracellular environment by engulfing them in vesicles. In the medical field, understanding the mechanisms of biological transport is important for understanding how drugs and other therapeutic agents are absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and excreted by the body. This knowledge can be used to design drugs that are more effective and have fewer side effects. It is also important for understanding how diseases, such as cancer and diabetes, affect the body's transport systems and how this can be targeted for treatment.
In the medical field, acids are substances that donate hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water. They are classified as either strong or weak acids, depending on how completely they ionize in water. Acids can have various effects on the body, depending on their concentration and duration of exposure. For example, hydrochloric acid (HCl) is a strong acid that is produced by the stomach to help break down food. However, if the stomach produces too much HCl, it can cause acid reflux, heartburn, and other digestive problems. Other acids that are commonly used in medicine include citric acid, which is used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid, and salicylic acid, which is used as an anti-inflammatory agent in the treatment of conditions such as acne and psoriasis. In some cases, acids can be used to treat medical conditions. For example, hydrofluoric acid is used to treat certain types of bone cancer, and lactic acid is used to treat metabolic acidosis, a condition in which the body produces too much acid. However, it is important to note that acids can also be harmful if they are not used properly. Exposure to high concentrations of acids can cause burns, corrosion of tissues, and other serious injuries. Therefore, it is important for medical professionals to use acids with caution and follow proper safety protocols.
The Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase (Na+/K+-ATPase) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in maintaining the electrochemical gradient across the cell membrane in animal cells. It is responsible for actively pumping three sodium ions (Na+) out of the cell and two potassium ions (K+) into the cell, using energy from ATP hydrolysis. This process is essential for many cellular functions, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and the maintenance of cell volume. The Na+/K+-ATPase is also involved in the regulation of intracellular pH and the transport of other ions across the cell membrane. It is a ubiquitous enzyme found in all animal cells, and its dysfunction can lead to various diseases, including cardiac arrhythmias, muscle weakness, and neurological disorders.
In the medical field, body fluids refer to the liquids that are present within the body of an organism. These fluids include blood, plasma, lymph, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), synovial fluid, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, and amniotic fluid, among others. Body fluids play a crucial role in maintaining the homeostasis of the body, which is the state of equilibrium that allows the body to function properly. They help regulate temperature, transport nutrients and oxygen to cells, remove waste products, and protect the body from infection. In addition, body fluids are often used in medical testing and diagnosis. For example, blood tests can detect various diseases and conditions, while urine tests can help identify kidney problems or infections. Analysis of other body fluids, such as CSF or pleural fluid, can also provide valuable information for diagnosing certain conditions, such as meningitis or pneumonia.
Isoproterenol is a synthetic beta-adrenergic agonist that is used in the medical field as a medication. It is a drug that mimics the effects of adrenaline (epinephrine) and can be used to treat a variety of conditions, including asthma, heart failure, and bradycardia (a slow heart rate). Isoproterenol works by binding to beta-adrenergic receptors on the surface of cells, which triggers a cascade of events that can lead to increased heart rate, relaxation of smooth muscle, and dilation of blood vessels. This can help to improve blood flow and oxygen delivery to the body's tissues, and can also help to reduce inflammation and bronchoconstriction (narrowing of the airways). Isoproterenol is available in a variety of forms, including tablets, inhalers, and intravenous solutions. It is typically administered as a short-acting medication, although longer-acting formulations are also available. Side effects of isoproterenol can include tremors, palpitations, and increased heart rate, and the drug may interact with other medications that affect the heart or blood vessels.
Chloride-Bicarbonate Antiporters are a group of proteins found in the cell membrane of various tissues in the human body. These proteins play a crucial role in regulating the concentration of chloride and bicarbonate ions in the body. The primary function of Chloride-Bicarbonate Antiporters is to transport bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) out of the cell and chloride ions (Cl-) into the cell. This process is essential for maintaining the proper pH balance in the body, particularly in the lungs and kidneys. In the lungs, Chloride-Bicarbonate Antiporters help to regulate the pH of the airways and prevent acidosis. In the kidneys, they help to regulate the pH of the blood and prevent acidosis or alkalosis. There are several types of Chloride-Bicarbonate Antiporters, including the Sodium-Hydrogen Exchanger (NHE), the Sodium-Bicarbonate Cotransporter (NBC), and the Chloride-Bicarbonate Exchanger (ClC). These proteins are regulated by various factors, including hormones, ions, and pH levels, and play a critical role in maintaining the body's acid-base balance.
Charles Vincent Taylor
Cultured neuronal network
Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry
Gerald E. Loeb
Microwave enhanced electrochemistry
Electrical discharge machining
Leon Katz (biomedical engineer)
Ida Henrietta Hyde
Anne Warner (scientist)
Alexander Forbes (neurophysiologist)
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The Next Generation in Neural Prosthetics - ASME
- Using electrochemistry, we are able to synthesize individually addressable molecular surfaces on microelectrode arrays and then utilize the surface to probe interactions between receptors and their biological targets. (wustl.edu)
- Therefore, it is extremely important to develop methods that allow us to calibrate the signals produced and recorded on the microelectrode arrays and optimize those signals in a reproducible way. (wustl.edu)
- Metal microelectrode arrays commonly used for recording neural activity cannot be used for such purposes, as they block the field of view, generate optical shadows and are prone to producing light-induced artefacts in the recordings. (nature.com)
- In this study, differentiating murine cortical networks on multiwell microelectrode arrays were repeatedly exposed to an extremely low-electromagnetic field (ELEMF) with alternating 10 and 16 Hz frequencies piggy backed onto a 150 MHz carrier frequency. (frontiersin.org)
- 3-D printed adjustable microelectrode arrays for electrochemical sensing and biosensing. (cdc.gov)
- In this work, silver microelectrode arrays (MEA) with three different electrode spacing were fabricated using 3-D printing by the aerosol jet technology. (cdc.gov)
- Capillary zone electrophoresis was employed for the determination of metronidazole using end-column amperometric detection with a gold microelectrode at a constant potential of -0.52V vs. saturated calomel electrode. (unboundmedicine.com)
- AU - Jin,W, AU - Li,W, AU - Xu,Q, AU - Dong,Q, PY - 2000/5/29/pubmed PY - 2000/9/23/medline PY - 2000/5/29/entrez SP - 1409 EP - 14 JF - Electrophoresis JO - Electrophoresis VL - 21 IS - 7 N2 - Capillary zone electrophoresis was employed for the determination of metronidazole using end-column amperometric detection with a gold microelectrode at a constant potential of -0.52V vs. saturated calomel electrode. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Microelectrodes are electrodes with at least one dimension small enough that the properties at the electrode-electrolyte interface are a function of size. (metrohm.com)
- As working electrodes, a gold (Au) 3 mm diameter disk electrode (surface area approximately 0.07 cm 2 ) and a gold (Au) 10 μm diameter microelectrode (7.85E-7 cm 2 , or 78.5 μm 2 surface area) were employed. (metrohm.com)
- The microelectrodes were printed at a length scale of about 15 µm, with the space between the electrodes accurately controlled to about 2 times (30 um, MEA30), 6.6 times (100 um, MEA100) and 12 times (180 um, MEA180) the trace width, respectively. (cdc.gov)
- The different diffusion profiles are responsible for the differences in electrochemical behavior of the microelectrodes compared to macroelectrodes, as shown in the Results section. (metrohm.com)
- Electrochemical measurements performed with microelectrodes require special attention to check for impurities in the system. (metrohm.com)
- In this article we highlight the potential of microelectrode voltammetry in studying acid-base equilibria, their kinetics and the acid and base content in aqueous solutions by exploiting the hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions. (unive.it)
- Microelectrodes are used as they allow the attainment of reproducible and well-defined convergent mass-transport conditions and the achievement of steady-state diffusion regimes in short times. (unive.it)
- Microelectrodes are used in several areas: in analytical electrochemistry due to the increase in the sensitivity of anodic stripping voltammetry, in fundamental electrochemistry to investigate rapid electron transfer and coupled chemical reactions, and in applications investigating reactions with low conductivity electrolytes. (metrohm.com)
- Further, the sensitivity of the current for the three electrode configurations was shown to decrease with an increase in the microelectrode spacing (sensitivity of MEA30: MEA100: MEA180 was in the ratio of 3.7: 2.8: 1), demonstrating optimal MEA geometry for such applications. (cdc.gov)
- In this paper, We described a low cost silicon based 16-site implantable microelectrode array (MEA) chip fabricated by standard lithography technology for in vivo test. (uky.edu)
- Rosa Villa and Xavi Illa have been in charge of the fabrication of the probes used , more specifically, neuroprobes were designed and manufactured with 16 Ti / Au microelectrodes (20 / 200nm) on flexible polyimide substrates with open areas to improve neuronal tissue viability according to specifications . (nanbiosis.es)
- Before the patients underwent lateral temporal cortical resection, one or two high-density microelectrode arrays were implanted in each individual by using a pneumatic insertion device. (medscape.com)
- [ 1 ] Silicon-based high-density microelectrode arrays have been used in a variety of animal studies to record and stimulate small populations of neurons. (medscape.com)
- The broad objective of the project is to develop multi-channel, penetrating microelectrode arrays for intracortical CNS neural recording that will operate reliably in chronic implants. (nih.gov)
- The purpose of this proposal is to disseminate polymer microelectrode arrays and promote their integrated into neuroscience research practice. (nih.gov)
- With the integration of PMSDT nanogel-based coating in polyimide-based microelectrode arrays, the post-implantation DBS enables frequency-dependent MR imaging in vivo, as well as small focal imaging in response to channel site-specific stimulation on the implant. (nycu.edu.tw)
- 3-D printed adjustable microelectrode arrays for electrochemical sensing and biosensing. (cdc.gov)
- In this work, silver microelectrode arrays (MEA) with three different electrode spacing were fabricated using 3-D printing by the aerosol jet technology. (cdc.gov)
- Here, we used microelectrode arrays to characterize neuronal networks following induction of homeostatic plasticity in human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived gluta. (researchgate.net)
- where stn_mer_mask.nii.gz is a mask for all voxels with microelectrode (mer) recordings. (nih.gov)
- My primary concern is that there is an unequal spatial distribution of recording sites within the mask (microelectrode recordings just happen, we can't record from every voxel in each brain). (nih.gov)
- Flexible carbon fiber ultra-microelectrodes have a much smaller cross-section than traditional electrodes and low tissue reactivity, and thus may enable improved longevity of neural recordings in the central and peripheral nervous systems. (nih.gov)
- Clinical Study of Intraoperative Microelectrode Recordings during Awake and Asleep Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease: A Retrospective Cohort Study. (bvsalud.org)
- Although many techniques and devices have been devised to provide electrical communication with neurons in the intact brain, the microelectrode array is currently the most sophisticated technology available to provide high-density temporal and spatial resolution of neuronal signals. (medscape.com)
- The scientists designed a kind of hammock for the brain organoids: "The hammock-like mesh structure provides 61 microelectrodes for electrophysiological measurements of neuronal network activity," explains Dr. Peter Jones. (compamed-tradefair.com)
- The scientists observed spontaneous neuronal activity recorded by the microelectrodes in the brain organoids. (compamed-tradefair.com)
Deep brain stimu1
- Our objective is to analyze the difference of microelectrode recording (MER) during awake and asleep subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD) and the necessity of MER during "Asleep DBS" under general anesthesia (GA). The differences in MER, target accuracy, and prognosis under different anesthesia methods were analyzed. (bvsalud.org)
- Now, Dr. Thomas Rauen's team, in collaboration with Dr. Peter Jones' team, has developed a novel microelectrode array system (Mesh-MEA) that not only provides optimal growth conditions for human brain organoids, but also enables non-invasive electrophysiological measurements throughout the growth period of the brain organoids. (compamed-tradefair.com)
- Recently, a carpet of microbubbles existing beneath the hydrogen bubble growing at $\diameter$100 $\mu$m microelectrode during water electrolysis was revealed. (aps.org)
- Another kind of measurement using an array-type microelectrode was performed on a composite film consisting of MCMBs and poly(vinylidene fluoride), which is an actual form of MCMB in the use for lithium secondary batteries. (elsevierpure.com)
- Pneumatic insertion of a microelectrode array into human cortex in the operating room was feasible. (medscape.com)
- [ 2 ] To address the need to insert a high-density microelectrode array reliably to a consistent depth, a high-speed pneumatic insertion device had been created previously. (medscape.com)
- [ 8 ] We investigated the transfer of array insertion techniques to humans and examined the acute response of human cortical tissue to microelectrode array implantation. (medscape.com)
- Free demonstration of the Maestro Pro or Edge multiwell microelectrode array system, with the Lumos optical stimulation system. (nih.gov)
- I have a dataset of reconstructed microelectrode recording sites across patients within the subthalamic nucleus (STN) - for each recording/site, I have a statistic for two analyses (testA and testB). (nih.gov)
- Further, the sensitivity of the current for the three electrode configurations was shown to decrease with an increase in the microelectrode spacing (sensitivity of MEA30: MEA100: MEA180 was in the ratio of 3.7: 2.8: 1), demonstrating optimal MEA geometry for such applications. (cdc.gov)
- As demonstrated here, microelectrode-based techniques are unique and an effective approach to study battery active materials from both fundamental and practical standpoints. (elsevierpure.com)
- Glucose oxidase was immobilized on MEA100 microelectrodes to demonstrate a glucose biosensor application. (cdc.gov)