Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
The preparation and analysis of samples on miniaturized devices.
The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
3 beta,5,14-Trihydroxy-19-oxo-5 beta-card-20(22)-enolide. The aglycone cardioactive agent isolated from Strophanthus Kombe, S. gratus and other species; it is a very toxic material formerly used as digitalis. Synonyms: Apocymarin; Corchorin; Cynotoxin; Corchorgenin.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
A genus of chiefly Eurasian and African land snails including the principal edible snails as well as several pests of cultivated plants.
A genus of the Proteidae family with five recognized species, which inhabit the Atlantic and Gulf drainages.
The performance of dissections, injections, surgery, etc., by the use of micromanipulators (attachments to a microscope) that manipulate tiny instruments.
A neotenic aquatic species of mudpuppy (Necturus) occurring from Manitoba to Louisiana and Texas.
Modified cardiac muscle fibers composing the terminal portion of the heart conduction system.
Determination of the quantity of a material present in a mixture by measurement of its effect on the electrical conductivity of the mixture. (Webster, 3d ed)
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
A technique of measuring the dielectric properties of materials, which vary over a range of frequencies depending on the physical properties of the material. The technique involves measuring, over a range of frequencies, ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE and phase shift of an electric field as it passes through the material.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The fluid inside CELLS.
Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Diamond. A crystalline form of carbon that occurs as hard, colorless or tinted isomeric crystals. It is used as a precious stone, for cutting glass, and as bearings for delicate mechanisms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Solution titration in which the end point is read from the electrode-potential variations with the concentrations of potential determining ions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
The design or construction of objects greatly reduced in scale.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An anticonvulsant that is the active metabolite of TRIMETHADIONE.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.
A non-penetrating amino reagent (commonly called SITS) which acts as an inhibitor of anion transport in erythrocytes and other cells.
An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.
Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.
Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used as diuretic and in glaucoma. It may cause hypokalemia.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
The decrease in neuronal activity (related to a decrease in metabolic demand) extending from the site of cortical stimulation. It is believed to be responsible for the decrease in cerebral blood flow that accompanies the aura of MIGRAINE WITH AURA. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)
Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.
Selective renal carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. It may also be of use in certain cases of respiratory failure.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.
A class of compounds that reduces the secretion of H+ ions by the proximal kidney tubule through inhibition of CARBONIC ANHYDRASES.
Proteins that cotransport sodium ions and bicarbonate ions across cellular membranes.
Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.
Manufacturing technology for making microscopic devices in the micrometer range (typically 1-100 micrometers), such as integrated circuits or MEMS. The process usually involves replication and parallel fabrication of hundreds or millions of identical structures using various thin film deposition techniques and carried out in environmentally-controlled clean rooms.
Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.
A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The fluid of the body that is outside of CELLS. It is the external environment for the cells.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
The lymph fluid found in the membranous labyrinth of the ear. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An edible species of the family Ranidae, occurring in Europe and used extensively in biomedical research. Commonly referred to as "edible frog".
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)
Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The fluid separating the membranous labyrinth from the osseous labyrinth of the ear. It is entirely separate from the ENDOLYMPH which is contained in the membranous labyrinth. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1396, 642)
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
The small mass of modified cardiac muscle fibers located at the junction of the superior vena cava (VENA CAVA, SUPERIOR) and right atrium. Contraction impulses probably start in this node, spread over the atrium (HEART ATRIUM) and are then transmitted by the atrioventricular bundle (BUNDLE OF HIS) to the ventricle (HEART VENTRICLE).
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
Silicone polymers which consist of silicon atoms substituted with methyl groups and linked by oxygen atoms. They comprise a series of biocompatible materials used as liquids, gels or solids; as film for artificial membranes, gels for implants, and liquids for drug vehicles; and as antifoaming agents.
An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.
Platinum. A heavy, soft, whitish metal, resembling tin, atomic number 78, atomic weight 195.09, symbol Pt. (From Dorland, 28th ed) It is used in manufacturing equipment for laboratory and industrial use. It occurs as a black powder (platinum black) and as a spongy substance (spongy platinum) and may have been known in Pliny's time as "alutiae".
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
The lateral of the two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve. The peroneal (or fibular) nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to parts of the leg and foot.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
A sulfamyl diuretic.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
An optical isomer of quinine, extracted from the bark of the CHINCHONA tree and similar plant species. This alkaloid dampens the excitability of cardiac and skeletal muscles by blocking sodium and potassium currents across cellular membranes. It prolongs cellular ACTION POTENTIALS, and decreases automaticity. Quinidine also blocks muscarinic and alpha-adrenergic neurotransmission.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the enteric nervous system. The submucous (Meissner's) plexus is in the connective tissue of the submucosa. Its neurons innervate the epithelium, blood vessels, endocrine cells, other submucosal ganglia, and myenteric ganglia, and play an important role in regulating ion and water transport. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)
Data processing largely performed by automatic means.
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
A superfamily of various freshwater CRUSTACEA, in the infraorder Astacidea, comprising the crayfish. Common genera include Astacus and Procambarus. Crayfish resemble lobsters, but are usually much smaller.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Liquid components of living organisms.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.
Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Electroneutral chloride bicarbonate exchangers that allow the exchange of BICARBONATE IONS exchange for CHLORIDE IONS across the cellular membrane. The action of specific antiporters in this class serve important functions such as allowing the efficient exchange of bicarbonate across red blood cell membranes as they passage through capillaries and the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions by the kidney.

Molecular dynamics of the sodium channel pore vary with gating: interactions between P-segment motions and inactivation. (1/2595)

Disulfide trapping studies have revealed that the pore-lining (P) segments of voltage-dependent sodium channels undergo sizable motions on a subsecond time scale. Such motions of the pore may be necessary for selective ion translocation. Although traditionally viewed as separable properties, gating and permeation are now known to interact extensively in various classes of channels. We have investigated the interaction of pore motions and voltage-dependent gating in micro1 sodium channels engineered to contain two cysteines within the P segments. Rates of catalyzed internal disulfide formation (kSS) were measured in K1237C+W1531C mutant channels expressed in oocytes. During repetitive voltage-clamp depolarizations, increasing the pulse duration had biphasic effects on the kSS, which first increased to a maximum at 200 msec and then decreased with longer depolarizations. This result suggested that occupancy of an intermediate inactivation state (IM) facilitates pore motions. Consistent with the known antagonism between alkali metals and a component of slow inactivation, kSS varied inversely with external [Na+]o. We examined the converse relationship, namely the effect of pore flexibility on gating, by measuring recovery from inactivation in Y401C+E758C (YC/EC) channels. Under oxidative conditions, recovery from inactivation was slower than in a reduced environment in which the spontaneous YC/EC cross-link is disrupted. The most prominent effects were slowing of a component with intermediate recovery kinetics, with diminution of its relative amplitude. We conclude that occupancy of an intermediate inactivation state facilitates motions of the P segments; conversely, flexibility of the P segments alters an intermediate component of inactivation.  (+info)

Cerebellar Purkinje cell simple spike discharge encodes movement velocity in primates during visuomotor arm tracking. (2/2595)

Pathophysiological, lesion, and electrophysiological studies suggest that the cerebellar cortex is important for controlling the direction and speed of movement. The relationship of cerebellar Purkinje cell discharge to the control of arm movement parameters, however, remains unclear. The goal of this study was to examine how movement direction and speed and their interaction-velocity-modulate Purkinje cell simple spike discharge in an arm movement task in which direction and speed were independently controlled. The simple spike discharge of 154 Purkinje cells was recorded in two monkeys during the performance of two visuomotor tasks that required the animals to track targets that moved in one of eight directions and at one of four speeds. Single-parameter regression analyses revealed that a large proportion of cells had discharge modulation related to movement direction and speed. Most cells with significant directional tuning, however, were modulated at one speed, and most cells with speed-related discharge were modulated along one direction; this suggested that the patterns of simple spike discharge were not adequately described by single-parameter models. Therefore, a regression surface was fitted to the data, which showed that the discharge could be tuned to specific direction-speed combinations (preferred velocities). The overall variability in simple spike discharge was well described by the surface model, and the velocities corresponding to maximal and minimal discharge rates were distributed uniformly throughout the workspace. Simple spike discharge therefore appears to integrate information about both the direction and speed of arm movements, thereby encoding movement velocity.  (+info)

Neural encoding in orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala during olfactory discrimination learning. (3/2595)

Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is part of a network of structures involved in adaptive behavior and decision making. Interconnections between OFC and basolateral amygdala (ABL) may be critical for encoding the motivational significance of stimuli used to guide behavior. Indeed, much research indicates that neurons in OFC and ABL fire selectively to cues based on their associative significance. In the current study recordings were made in each region within a behavioral paradigm that allowed comparison of the development of associative encoding over the course of learning. In each recording session, rats were presented with novel odors that were informative about the outcome of making a response and had to learn to withhold a response after sampling an odor that signaled a negative outcome. In some cases, reversal training was performed in the same session as the initial learning. Ninety-six of the 328 neurons recorded in OFC and 60 of the 229 neurons recorded in ABL exhibited selective activity during evaluation of the odor cues after learning had occurred. A substantial proportion of those neurons in ABL developed selective activity very early in training, and many reversed selectivity rapidly after reversal. In contrast, those neurons in OFC rarely exhibited selective activity during odor evaluation before the rats reached the criterion for learning, and far fewer reversed selectivity after reversal. The findings support a model in which ABL encodes the motivational significance of cues and OFC uses this information in the selection and execution of an appropriate behavioral strategy.  (+info)

Correlated firing in rabbit retinal ganglion cells. (4/2595)

A ganglion cell's receptive field is defined as that region on the retinal surface in which a light stimulus will produce a response. While neighboring ganglion cells may respond to the same stimulus in a region where their receptive fields overlap, it generally has been assumed that each cell makes an independent decision about whether to fire. Recent recordings from cat and salamander retina using multiple electrodes have challenged this view of independent firing by showing that neighboring ganglion cells have an increased tendency to fire together within +/-5 ms. However, there is still uncertainty about which types of ganglion cells fire together, the mechanisms that produce coordinated spikes, and the overall function of coordinated firing. To address these issues, the responses of up to 80 rabbit retinal ganglion cells were recorded simultaneously using a multielectrode array. Of the 11 classes of rabbit ganglion cells previously identified, coordinated firing was observed in five. Plots of the spike train cross-correlation function suggested that coordinated firing occurred through two mechanisms. In the first mechanism, a spike in an interneuron diverged to produce simultaneous spikes in two ganglion cells. This mechanism predominated in four of the five classes including the ON brisk transient cells. In the second mechanism, ganglion cells appeared to activate each other reciprocally. This was the predominant pattern of correlated firing in OFF brisk transient cells. By comparing the receptive field profiles of ON and OFF brisk transient cells, a peripheral extension of the OFF brisk transient cell receptive field was identified that might be produced by lateral spike spread. Thus an individual OFF brisk transient cell can respond both to a light stimulus directed at the center of its receptive field and to stimuli that activate neighboring OFF brisk transient cells through their receptive field centers.  (+info)

Thapsigargin inhibits a potassium conductance and stimulates calcium influx in the intact rat lens. (5/2595)

1. An increase in lens cell calcium has long been associated with cortical cataract. Recently, it has been shown that thapsigargin induces a rise in lens cell calcium by release from endoplasmic reticulum stores. The effects of this rise on the optical and membrane characteristics of the lens were studied in the isolated rat lens. 2. The electrical characteristics of the isolated, perifused rat lens were measured using a two-internal microelectrode technique that permits measurement of plasma membrane conductance (Gm), membrane potential (Vm) and junctional conductance in the intact lens. 3. Thapsigargin (1 microM) induced a rapid overall depolarization of Vm that was accompanied by first a decrease and then an increase in Gm. 4. Replacing external Na+ with tetraethylammonium (TEA) abolished the decrease in Gm. However, a transient increase phase was still observed. 5. The changes in conductance were further characterized by measuring 22Na+ and 45Ca2+ influxes into the isolated lens. Thapsigargin (1 microM) induced a transient increase in 45Ca2+, but did not affect Na+ influx. 6. The Ca2+ channel blocker La3+ (10 microM) totally inhibited the thapsigargin-induced Ca2+ influx. It also blocked the increase in Gm observed in control and in Na+-free-TEA medium. In the absence of external calcium, thapsigargin induced a small depolarization in Vm. 7. These data indicate that thapsigargin induces both a decrease in K+ conductance and an increase in Ca2+ conductance. These probably result from release of stored Ca2+ and subsequent activation of store-operated Ca2+ channels (capacitative Ca2+ entry). 8. Thapsigargin application over the time course of these experiments (24 h) had no effect on junctional conductance or on the transparency of the lens.  (+info)

Nitric oxide release in penile corpora cavernosa in a rat model of erection. (6/2595)

1. Nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured in the corpus cavernosum of urethane-anaesthetized rats by using differential normal pulse voltammetry with carbon fibre microelectrodes coated with a polymeric porphyrin and a cation exchanger (Nafion). A NO oxidation peak could be recorded at 650 mV vs. a Ag-AgCl reference electrode every 100 s. 2. This NO signal was greatly decreased by the NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), given by local and systemic routes, and enhanced by the NO precursor L-arginine. Treatment with L-arginine reversed the effect of L-NAME on the NO peak. 3. Both the NO signal and the intracavernosal pressure (ICP) were increased by electrical stimulation of cavernosal nerves (ESCN). However, the rise in the NO levels long outlived the rapid return to baseline of the ICP values at the end of nerve stimulation. 4. The ICP and the NO responses to ESCN were suppressed by local and systemic injections of L-NAME. Subsequent treatment with L-arginine of L-NAME-treated animals restored the NO signal to basal levels and the NO response to ESCN. The ICP response to ESCN was restored only in part by L-arginine. 5. The observed temporal dissociation between the NO and ICP responses could be accounted for by several factors, including the buffering of NO by the blood filling the cavernosal spaces during erection. 6. These findings indicate that an increased production of NO in the corpora cavernosa is necessary but not sufficient for maintaining penile erection and suggest a complex modulation of the NO-cGMP-cavernosal smooth muscle relaxation cascade.  (+info)

In vitro simultaneous measurements of relaxation and nitric oxide concentration in rat superior mesenteric artery. (7/2595)

1. The relationship between nitric oxide (NO) concentration measured with an NO-specific microelectrode and endothelium-dependent relaxation was investigated in isolated rat superior mesenteric artery contracted with 1 microM noradrenaline. 2. Acetylcholine (10 microM) induced endothelium-dependent simultaneous increases in luminal NO concentration of 21 +/- 6 nM, and relaxations with pD2 values and maximum of 6.95 +/- 0.32 and 97.5 +/- 0.7 % (n = 7), respectively. An inhibitor of NO synthase, N G-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG, 100 microM) inhibited the relaxations and increases in NO concentration induced by acetylcholine. 3. Oxyhaemoglobin (10 microM) reversed the relaxations and increases in NO concentrations induced by acetylcholine, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) and S-morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN-1), but not the relaxations induced with forskolin. Oxyhaemoglobin also decreased the NO concentration below baseline level. 4. In the presence of L-NOARG (100 microM), a small relaxation to acetylcholine (10 microM) of noradrenaline-contracted segments was still seen; oxyhaemogobin inhibited this relaxation and decreased the NO concentration by 14 +/- 4 nM (n = 4). 5. The NO concentration-relaxation relationship for acetylcholine resembled that for SNAP and SIN-1 more than for authentic NO. Thus while 7-17 nM NO induced half-maximal relaxations in response to SNAP or SIN-1, 378 +/- 129 nM NO (n = 4) was needed for half-maximal relaxation to authentic NO. 6. The present study provides direct evidence that the relaxation of the rat superior mesenteric artery with the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine is correlated to the endogeneous release of NO. The study also suggests that NO mediates the L-NOARG-resistant relaxations in this artery, and that there is a basal NO release.  (+info)

Firing properties of single vasoconstrictor neurones in human subjects with high levels of muscle sympathetic activity. (8/2595)

1. Single-unit recordings were made from 19 postganglionic muscle vasoconstrictor axons via tungsten microelectrodes in the peroneal nerve in seven healthy subjects with many multi-unit sympathetic discharges at rest ('high group', 75 +/- 5 multi-unit bursts per 100 heart beats, mean +/- s.e.m.). The results were compared with previous data from 14 units in subjects with 21 +/- 2 multi-unit bursts per 100 heart beats ('low group'). 2. In the 'high group' the units fired spontaneously in 35 +/- 4 % of all cardiac intervals. One unit only ever fired once per cardiac interval, 14 units (74 %) generated maximally two to three spikes, and four units (21 %) up to four to five spikes. Of those cardiac intervals in which a unit fired, a single spike occurred in 78 %, two spikes in 18 %, three spikes in 4 % and four spikes in less than 1 % of cardiac intervals. Measured as the inverse of all interspike intervals, the mean rate was 0.33 +/- 0.04 Hz and the mean intraburst frequency 22.2 +/- 1.6 Hz. Most results were similar to those in the 'low group', but in the 'low group' heart rate was higher (64.5 vs. 50.4 beats min-1) and mean firing frequency was higher (0.49 +/- 0.06 Hz). 3. During increases of multi-unit burst activity evoked by sustained inspiratory-capacity apnoea the firing probability of nine units in the 'high group' increased from 33 +/- 6 to 56 +/- 3 % of the cardiac intervals. Simultaneously, the incidence of single spikes decreased and the incidence of multiple spikes per cardiac interval increased, resulting in an increase of mean firing frequency from 0. 23 +/- 0.04 Hz at rest to 1.04 +/- 0.14 Hz during the apnoea. 4. We conclude that single muscle vasoconstrictor neurones usually fire only a solitary spike during sympathetic bursts both in subjects with a high and in subjects with a low number of bursts at rest. Presumably, differences in the numbers of bursts are due mainly to differences in firing probability and recruitment of sympathetic fibres. During acute increases of multi-unit activity, both increases in discharge frequency and recruitment of additional neurones contribute to the increased intensity of an individual sympathetic burst.  (+info)

The four compounds tested generated interesting, and in one case paradoxical effects. Frontal cortex cultures were all inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, which included total cessation of activity by halothane, CBX, I-octanol, or oleamide (at concentrations 250 muM, 100 muM, 20 muM, 20 muM, respectively). All cultures showed spontaneous recovery at lower concentrations and reversibility after culture medium changes at higher concentrations. In addition, measurements of network burst rates and coefficients of variation of burst period indicate that burst coordination among channels was reduced by these compounds. These responses were generally mirrored in the spinal cord, except for CBX, which produced a paradoxical transient intense increase in network spike and burst production ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electrochemical Performance of Self-Assembled Monolayer Gold Nanoparticle-Modified Ultramicroelectrode Array Architectures. AU - Orozco, Jahir. AU - Jiménez-Jorquera, Cecilia. AU - Fernández-Sánchez, César. PY - 2012/3/1. Y1 - 2012/3/1. N2 - Surface architectures based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) electrodeposited on gold ultramicroelectrode arrays (UMEAs) and further modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of two different thiol molecules were evaluated. The voltammetric behavior of the resulting electrochemical transducer approaches appeared to be fairly different compared to that of SAM-modified UMEAs and microelectrode counterparts. Such behavior indicates that the electrodeposited AuNPs played a key role in the arrangement of the thiolated probes and the electron transfer processes at the transducer solution interface. A detailed description of this phenomenon was carried out with the aim of showing the potential of the presented SAM-AuNP-UMEA based transducer to ...
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Current research in prosthetic device design aims to mimic natural movements using a feedback system that connects to the patients own nerves to control the device. The first step in using neurons to control motion is to make and maintain contact between neurons and the feedback sensors. Therefore, the goal of this project was to determine if changes in electrode resistance could be detected when a neuron extended a neurite to contact a sensor. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were harvested from chick embryos and cultured on a collagen-coated carbon nanotube microelectrode array for two days. The DRG were seeded along one side of the array so the processes extended across the array, contacting about half of the electrodes. Electrode resistance was measured both prior to culture and after the two day culture period. Phase contrast images of the microelectrode array were taken after two days to visually determine which electrodes were in contact with one or more DRG neurite or tissue. Electrodes in contact
L-glutamate (Glu) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. Monitoring extracellular Glu is critical to understanding Glu regulation to discriminate physiological and pathological roles. To overcome the limitations of previous in vivo extracellular Glu studies, we developed Glu selective microelectrode arrays with better spatial and temporal resolutions than commonly used techniques like microdialysis. We used these microelectrode arrays to characterize basal and potassium-evoked Glu neurotransmission in the normal rat brain. We then investigated disease-related Glu alterations in a rat model of Parkinsons disease and normal Glu regulation in young and aged rhesus monkeys. In the normal anesthetized rat striatum and frontal cortex, basal Glu was regulated by active release and uptake mechanisms, fully TTX-dependent, and measured at ~2 micromolar levels. Potassium-evoked Glu kinetics were fast, concentration-dependent, and rapidly reproducible at 15-20 seconds
Na+- and CA2+-sensitive microelectrodes were used to measure intracellular Na+ and Ca2+ activities (alpha iCa) of sheep ventricular muscle and Purkinje strands to study the interrelationship between Na+ and Ca2+ electrochemical gradients (delta muNa and delta muCa) under various conditions. In ventricular muscle, alpha iNa was 6.4 +/- 1.2 mM and alpha iCa was 87 +/- 20 nM ([Ca/+] = 272 nM). A graded decrease of external Na+ activity (alpha oNa) resulted in decrease of alpha iNa, and increase of alpha iCa. There was increase of twitch tension in low-alpha oNa solutions, and occasional increase of resting tension in 40% alpha oNa. Increase of external Ca2+ (alpha oCa) resulted in increase of alpha iCa and decrease of alpha iNa. Decrease of alpha oCa resulted in decrease of alpha iCa and increase of alpha iNa. The apparent resting Na-Ca energy ratio (delta muCa/delta muNa) was between 2.43 and 2.63. When the membrane potential (Vm) was depolarized by 50 mM K+ in ventricular muscle, Vm depolarized ...
Some embodiments of the invention comprise a customizable multichannel microelectrode array with a modular planar microfabricated electrode array attached to a carrier and a high density of recording and/or stimulation electrode sites disposed thereon. Novel methods of making and using same are also disclosed.
Localized stimulation and recording in the spinal cord with microelectrode arrays. Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012; 2012:1851-4 ...
Our Linear Microelectrode Array is designed to provide a linear array with extreme layout flexibility. Contacts can be situated anywhere along the circumference of the probe.
Dielectrophoresis (DEP) has been used for many years for the analysis of the electrophysiological properties of cells. However, such analyses have in the past been time-consuming, such that it can take 30 min or more to collect sufficient data to make valid interpretations from a single DEP spectrum. This has limited the application of the technology to a rapid tool for non-invasive, label-free research in areas from drug discovery to diagnostics. In this paper we present the development of a programmable, multi-channel DEP system for rapid biophysical assessment of populations of biological cells. A new assay format has been developed for continuous near-real-time monitoring, using simultaneous application of up to eight alternating current electrical signals to independently addressable dot microelectrodes in an array format, allowing a DEP spectrum to be measured in 20 s, with a total cycle time between measurements of 90 s. To demonstrate the system, human leukaemic K562 cells were monitored ...
2017 - NMI Imagebrochure. 2015 - NMI Studie Sicheres Kleben. 2015 - NMI Imagebrochure. 2014 - NMI Imagebroschüre. 2012 - NMI Microelectrode arrays für extracellular electrophysiology. 2010 - NMI 25 Jahre ...
When using the EEG as a clinical tool, one should always keep in mind that the EEG recording is simply a random sampling of the persons brain electric activity taken at a particular period of time....
Microarrays can be fabricated using a variety of technologies, including printing with fine-pointed pins onto glass slides, photolithography using pre-made masks, photolithography using dynamic micromirror devices, ink-jet printing,[11][12] or electrochemistry on microelectrode arrays.. In spotted microarrays, the probes are oligonucleotides, cDNA or small fragments of PCR products that correspond to mRNAs. The probes are synthesized prior to deposition on the array surface and are then spotted onto glass. A common approach utilizes an array of fine pins or needles controlled by a robotic arm that is dipped into wells containing DNA probes and then depositing each probe at designated locations on the array surface. The resulting grid of probes represents the nucleic acid profiles of the prepared probes and is ready to receive complementary cDNA or cRNA targets derived from experimental or clinical samples. This technique is used by research scientists around the world to produce in-house ...
Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have been applied to a microelectrode array,and been demonstrated to form effective, membrane-free amperometric gas sensors. Determining the RTIL [P6,6,6,14][FAP] as the most appropriate choice for extended use, the amperometric quantification of oxygen has been demonstrated. The response of the sensor was quantified by both cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. A range of O2 contents (2 to 13 % v/v) and RTIL layer thicknesses (from ca. 6 to 125 μm) have been investigated. The combination of microelectrode array and RTIL, as well as the absence of membrane and volatile solvent, results in an elegant, easy to calibrate gas sensor with potential utility in standard and non-standard conditions ...
Amperometry and cyclic voltammetry are two electrochemical techniques that enable the detection of electroactive neurotransmitters that are released from single cells
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Modulation of epileptogenesis. T2 - A paradigm for the integration of enzyme-based microelectrode arrays and optogenetics. AU - Butler, Corwin R.. AU - Boychuk, Jeffery A.. AU - Pomerleau, Francois. AU - Alcala, Ramona. AU - Huettl, Peter. AU - Ai, Yi. AU - Jakobsson, Johan. AU - Whiteheart, Sidney W.. AU - Gerhardt, Greg A.. AU - Smith, Bret N.. AU - Slevin, John T.. PY - 2020/1. Y1 - 2020/1. N2 - Background: Genesis of acquired epilepsy includes transformations spanning genetic-to- network-level modifications, disrupting the regional excitatory/inhibitory balance. Methodology concurrently tracking changes at multiple levels is lacking. Here, viral vectors are used to differentially express two opsin proteins in neuronal populations within dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus. When activated, these opsins induced excitatory or inhibitory neural output that differentially affected neural networks and epileptogenesis. In vivo measures included behavioral observation coupled to ...
Despite latest advances in our understanding of the molecular and mobile mechanisms behind vascular conducted responses (VCRs) in systemic arterioles, we even now know hardly any about their potential physiological and pathophysiological part in brain penetrating arterioles controlling blood circulation to the deeper areas of the brain. of VCRs, which is a rather new finding in this field, is discussed in the light of changes in plasma membrane ion channel conductance as a function of health status or disease. Finally, we discuss the possible role of VCRs in cerebrovascular function and disease as well as suggest future directions for studying VCRs in the cerebral circulation. were recently reported using a transgenic mouse expressing a GCamP2 Ca2+ sensor under the control of a Cx40 promotor found only in ECs of the vasculature and Purkinje fibers of the heart.16 Finally, sharp microelectrode measurements of models are routinely performed in only a few laboratories.10, 32, 34, 35 Molecular and ...
Profiles of flow velocity and dissolved oxygen concentration were studied by NMR and microelectrodes near mixed population biofilms growing on polycarbonate substratum. The profile of dissolved oxygen concentration within the diffusion boundary layer and profiles of flow velocity within the hydrodynamic boundary layer can be described by exponential equations ...
The transport of mineral ions into and out of tissues and cells is central to the life of plants. Ion transport and the plasma membrane transporters themselves have been studied using a variety of techniques. In the last 15 years, measurement of specific ion fluxes has contributed to the characteriz …
In vivo brain glucose measurements: differential normal pulse voltammetry with enzyme-modified carbon fiber microelectrodes.: The enzyme glucose oxidase was imm
The site of impulse origination in surviving rabbit atria has been localized electrically. With the aid of the ultramicroelectrode, membrane potentials during spontaneous activity were recorded from pacemaker and from non-pacemaker regions.. The pacemaker region lies in a flat band of tissue separating the two caval orifices in the right atrium. In contrast to sites elsewhere in the atria, recordings from this area exhibit a diastolic prepotential, relatively slow depolarization and slow repolarization. The magnitude of the resting membrane potential is less in pacemaker cells and overshoot during activity characteristically is diminished or absent. By means of a second microelectrode to establish a time reference, pacemaker cells showing early firing may be located, although all cells associated with a prepotential are not necessarily the site of impulse origination.. Shifts in pacemaker locus are demonstrated and often appear following the application of drugs acting on the sinoatrial ...
The radial now microring electrode (RFMRE), a new hydrodynamic ultramicroelectrode, is described. In the RFMRE, solution flows from a capillary nozzle, which is positioned very close to a planar substrate using micro-positioners. The RFMRE can be operated in one of two configurations: either (a) with the ring electrode on the capillary or (b) with the ring electrode positioned in the plane of the substrate directly underneath the capillary. In both arrangements, as fluid leaves the capillary, it is forced into the nozzle/substrate gap and flows radially past the ring electrode. Under these conditions, the RFMRE is effectively analogous to a microband channel electrode. The RFMRE is shown to be characterized by well-defined, variable, and high mass-transfer rates under steady-state voltammetric conditions. Mass-transfer coefficients in excess of 2 cm s(-1) have been readily achieved with the RFMRE operating at relatively low volume now rates (1.67 x 10(-2) cm(3) s(-1)). The device thus has ...
This program models a basic SECM configuration, using an ultramicroelectrode (UME) tip and a substrate with Butler-Volmer conditions for the electrochemistry of two redox pairs (o1/r1 at the tip and o2/r2 at the substrate). You can use this program to become familiarized with the 3D environment and to get some examples on how to build your own 3D simulations ...
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Description: Extracellular electrophysiology recordings by two electrophysiology setups for extracellular recordings, including: Faraday cage; Amplifiers, filters and signal integrators for electrophysiology (Digitimer: Neurolog 900; Grass DC and AC amplifiers); Digitizer for electrophysiology (Axon Instruments: Digidata 1322A + Axoscope software); Stereo microscope adapted to electrophysiology cabin (Olympus + light source); Horizontal pipette puller (Narishige) for glass microelectrodes; and Electrodes and other accessories. Potential application: Electro-olfactogram (EOG), Electroencephalogram (EEG), Multi-unit nerve recordings. Type of samples: In vivo organisms e.g. fish, molluscs, crustaceans. ...
The electrolyte inside creates a (distributed) resistor, but normally most (probably more than half) of the resistance resides in the tip. Typical resistances of intracellular electrodes to DC-current are 10-500 Megaohms. The resistance depends not only on the length of the electrode shank and the size of the tip, but also on the nature of the conductive electrolyte inside (cf. Brown and Flaming, 1986). As an example of the latter, a typical 100 Megaohm electrode (with 3 M KCl filling) with a shank of about 15 mm and with a tip outer diameter of about 70 nm will have a resistance of about 600 Megaohms or more when filled with the neuron-marking solution Lucifer Yellow (5 % LY with 0.1 % LiCl), which has much lower mobility than potassium or chloride ions. The electrode resistance may also depend on the current used to measure the resistance. Typically glass microelectrodes have a very non-linear current-voltage relation, and often the response may saturate (i.e. no larger currents can be pushed ...
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Microelectrode array for MEA2100-HS120:. TiN electrodes, SiN isolator, contact pads and tracks transparent (ITO), with 4 internal reference electrodes, electrode grid 12x12, 120 recording electrodes, electrode spacing 100µm, electrode diameter 30µm, warranty: 6 months. ...
Microelectrode array for MEA2100-HS120:. TiN electrodes, SiN isolator, contact pads and tracks opaque (Ti), with 4 internal reference electrodes, electrode grid 12x10, 120 electrodes, electrode spacing 1000 µm vertical, 1500 µm horizontal, electrode diameter 30 µm, with plastic ring with thread, warranty: 6 months.. ...
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The impedance response of a quadrupolar microelectrode array was studied over a wide frequency range to determine whether particles captured at the center of the array could be detected impedimetrically. The microelectrode ...
Good question. You have just described the difference between the sign convention used for transmembrane currents and the convention used for currents that are applied with a microelectrode. Most users who want a noise current typically want something that mimics the effect of spontaneous fluctuation of transmembrane current, e.g. channel noise or background synaptic noise. Thats why the current generated by InGauss is declared to be a NONSPECIFIC_CURRENT. An SEClamp or IClamp, however, is an external signal source that injects charge directly into the interior of a cell through a microelectrode, and you will see that the currents generated by those mechanisms are declared to be ELECTRODE_CURRENTs ...
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Lourenço, C.F., et al. Microelectrode array biosensor for high-resolution measurements of extracellular glucose in the brain. Biosensors and Actuators B: Chemistry, 2016, 237:298-307. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925400516309352. ...
The MCE100C micro-electrode amplifier module is useful for a wide range of physiological recording applications that require the use of micro-electrodes,
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No data available that match "microelectrodes"

The total height of these microelectrodes is 47 μm, of which the upper 20 or 2 μm, respectively, are exposed Pt tips with a ... This paper describes the realization of Pt-tip microelectrodes by using microfabrication technology. ... Microfabrication of Pt-tip microelectrodes Thiébaud, P. ; Beuret, C. ; de Rooij, Nicolaas F. ; Koudelka-Hep, Milena In: Sensors ... Pt-tip microelectrodes ; Microfabrication technology ; Si anisotropic etching. OAI-PMH Identifier. *oai:doc.rero.ch: ...
Electrochemical characterizations of carbon nanomaterials by the cavity microelectrode technique (Portet, C., Chmiola, J., ... Electrochemical characterizations of carbon nanomaterials by the cavity microelectrode technique}, journal = {Electrochimica ...
The CiPA Microelectrode Array Assay with hSC-Derived Cardiomyocytes: Current Protocol, Future Potential ... The CiPA Microelectrode Array Assay with hSC Derived Cardiomyocytes: Current Protocol, Future Potential ... Cross-site reliability of human induced pluripotent stem-cell derived cardiomyocyte based safety assays using microelectrode ... chapter details the current CiPA protocol for evaluating drug-induced changes in hSC-CM electrophysiology using microelectrode ...
... physiological localization using microelectrode recordings, and macrostimulation techniques. We summarize the standard ... Microelectrode Recordings in Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery. Chapter:. (p.275) 15 Microelectrode Recordings in Deep Brain ... Ethical and Practical Considerations for Human Microelectrode Recording Studies * 5. Subchronic In Vivo Human Microelectrode ... Ethical and Practical Considerations for Human Microelectrode Recording Studies * 5. Subchronic In Vivo Human Microelectrode ...
To test this hypothesis, 2D and 3D microelectrodes with different sizes were designed and fabricated for ac-EHD studies using ...
SCAN Lab TN6 Ultra Micro Electrodes UMEs for SECM techniques You cannot access this resource because you are not logged in. Log ... SCAN-Lab Technical Notes 06: Ultra Micro-Electrodes (UMEs) for SECM techniques Latest updated: May 18, 2021 Introduction ... chevron_rightSCAN-Lab Technical Notes 06: Ultra Micro-Electrodes (UMEs) for SECM techniques ...
Micro-electrodes for in situ temperature and bio-impedance measurement. Authors. Leung, TKWJi, XPeng, BChik, GKKDai, DSHSFANG, ... Article: Micro-electrodes for in situ temperature and bio-impedance measurement. *Show simple item record ...
... homopolymers were synthesized electrochemically onto carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs). The influences of the substituent ... phenylpyrrole and methoxyphenylpyrrole on carbon fiber microelectrodes ...
Effects of localized stimulation by means of microelectrodes of the cardioinhibitory vagal center in Rana esculenta].,Author: ...
... detection of Enterobacteriaceae in river water by measuring β-galactosidase activity at interdigitated microelectrode arrays. ... detection of Enterobacteriaceae in river water by measuring β-galactosidase activity at interdigitated microelectrode arrays, ... detection of Enterobacteriaceae in river water by measuring β-galactosidase activity at interdigitated microelectrode arrays. ... are compared for the detection of faecal contamination in water using amperometry at gold interdigitated microelectrodes. They ...
There several aspects responsible for the ups and downs in the Micro Electrode Array industry dynamics. The global Micro ... The global Micro Electrode Array market research includes insightful data based on the demands of the market at different times ... Micro Electrode Array Market Key Players Analysis by 2025: MaxWell Biosystems, Smart Ephys, Axion Biosystems, Multi Channel ... "The document on the global Micro Electrode Array market is aimed to offer data regarding the competitive arena of the business ...
A bonded microelectrodes array with dimensions. The width of the device is 2.0 cm and length is 2.5 cm. The 5 mm length each ... the thickness of the microelectrode and microchannel. In fabrication of microfluidic the microelectrode and microchannel ... The microelectrode will be deposited on the glass wafer by using the electron beam lithography. This technique will ensure the ... Microelectrodes on the glass were patterned using photolithography and ion beam milling over titanium, Ti, seed layer. Pt or Au ...
A floating metal microelectrode array for chronic implantation. Musallam S, Bak MJ, Troyk PR, Andersen RA. Musallam S, et al. J ...
Neurophysiology of Insects Using Microelectrode Arrays: Current Trends and Future Prospects. Pages 493-500 ...
Implantable Microelectrodes. Bio Medical Micro Devices (BioMEMS) research at UBC works to miniaturize systems or devices, such ... Implantable Microelectrodes research attempts to increase biocompatibility of implants used for extended periods […] ... The research focuses on areas including Implantable Microelectrodes, Chemical Sensors and Microfludic Devices. ...
The microelectrodes were manufactured on PI by a combination of soft lithographical tools. To produce an operational mu LoC, a ... Cyclic voltammetry was applied as the characterization technique for the gold microelectrode surface properties. Finally, ... a mu LoC containing eight gold microelectrodes based on a polyimide (PI) substrate was fabricated. ... a mu LoC containing eight gold microelectrodes based on a polyimide (PI) substrate was fabricated. The microelectrodes were ...
Electrohydrodynamics in Microelectrode Structures. En: Institute of Physics Conference Series. 2004. N m. 178. Pag. 175-180 ... AC Electric-Field-Induced Fluid Flow in Microelectrodes. En: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 1999. Vol. 217. N m. 2. ... Electrothermally Induced Fluid Flow on Microelectrodes. En: Journal of Electrostatics. 2001. Vol. 53. N m. 2. Pag. 71-87 Morgan ... Fluid Flow Driven by A.C. Electric Fields in Microelectrodes. En: Institute of Physics Conference Series. 1999. Vol. 163. Pag. ...
Journal Article] Carbon nanotube growth on microelectrode tips by femtosecond laseruthography2007. *. Author(s). Y. Akanislii, ...
Can DigiSim simulate radial diffusion at disk microelectrodes?. No. DigiSim can only simulate diffusion to those electrode ... Cyclic voltammetric responses at a disk microelectrode can be approximated in DigiSim by using a hemispherical electrode of the ...
Biomedical Sciences: Development of neuron-based biosensors on a microelectrode array platform. ... Her research includes development of neuron-based biosensors on a microelectrode array platform and exploring a holistic ...
SiC microelectrode arrays for ex-vivo characterization Post-doc. Multi-scale modeling of the electromagnetic quantum dot ...
SiC microelectrode arrays for ex-vivo characterization Post-doc. Multi-scale modeling of the electromagnetic quantum dot ...
SiC microelectrode arrays for ex-vivo characterization Post-doc. Multi-scale modeling of the electromagnetic quantum dot ...
SiC microelectrode arrays for ex-vivo characterization Post-doc. Multi-scale modeling of the electromagnetic quantum dot ...
SiC microelectrode arrays for ex-vivo characterization Post-doc. Multi-scale modeling of the electromagnetic quantum dot ...
What is a microelectrode array (MEA)?. Microelectrode arrays (MEA), also known as multielectrode arrays, contain a grid of ... The microelectrodes detect the action potentials fired as well as their propagation across the network. ...
CDE series carbon disc microelectrodes. Order No. Description Unit USD CDE1000-3 Carbon disc microelectrode, 10 μm (diameter) ... CFE series carbon fiber microelectrodes. Order No. Description Unit USD CFE10100-3 Carbon fiber microelectrode, 10 μm x 100 μm ... Implantable CF Microelectrode. Spikelmplant-1 Implantable miniature carbon fiber microelectrode. Order No. Description Unit USD ... Carbon disc microelectrode, 10 μm (diameter) Box of 10 $ 600.00 CDE1000-20 Carbon disc microelectrode, 10 μm (diameter) Box of ...
The recording of neural signals with microelectrodes that are implanted into the cortex of the brain is potentially useful for ...
Microelectrode AC Amplifier , Model 1800: Model 1800 Manual , Model 1800 Features and Specifications ...
  • Microelectrode arrays (MEA), also known as multielectrode arrays, contain a grid of tightly spaced electrodes embedded in the culture surface of the well. (axionbiosystems.com)
  • In this thesis, microelectrode arrays of micropumps have been designed, fabricated and characterized for transporting microfluid by AC electro-osmosis (ACEO). (queensu.ca)
  • To characterize a specific function of the brain, invasive means such as implantable cortical microelectrode arrays that directly detect the electrical field potentials/spikes from the somatomotor areas have been used, for example, to provide BCI control options for quadriplegic patients. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • BDD microelectrode arrays (MEA) further decrease the intrinsically low background current of BDD, yielding electrodes capable of ultra-sensitive analyte measurements. (fraunhofer.org)
  • The functional significance of differences in the balance of excitatory to inhibitory synapses was confirmed by the assessment of network activity using microelectrode arrays. (elsevier.com)
  • These results suggest that high-content imaging and microelectrode arrays provide complementary approaches for quantitative assessment of synaptogenesis, which should provide a robust readout of toxicologic and pharmacologic effects on this critical neurodevelopmental event. (elsevier.com)
  • High density microelectrode arrays (MEAs) provide extracellular recordings from thousands of closely spaced electrodes and with sub-millisecond resolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Center for Microelectrode Technology Electrode Service Center now has sufficient production capacity to sell our ceramic-based microelectrode arrays (MEAs) to anyone wishing to purchase them for use in any electrochemical or electrophysiological recording system. (ukycenmet.com)
  • All ceramic microelectrode arrays (MEAs) are pretested with peroxide to verify performance and only those that pass our criteria are shipped. (ukycenmet.com)
  • Cyclic voltammetry was applied as the characterization technique for the gold microelectrode surface properties. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • A unique beads polishing system incorporated at the electrode system maintains the electrode in good working condition, free of interferences at the gold microelectrode, and ensures stable measurement. (analyticon.com)
  • A realistic neural network was used to simulate a region of neocortex to obtain extracellular LFPs from 'virtual micro-electrodes' and produce test data for comparison with multisite microelectrode recordings. (yale.edu)
  • The possibility of using such needles as protruding microelectrodes able to penetrate individual living cells, and thus providing an access channel to electrochemical signals within the cells, motivates the systematic analysis of the influence of the relevant etching parameters on the needle shape. (vde-verlag.de)
  • The MIFE system uses a stepper motor-driven micromanipulator to move, in a "square wave", four microelectrodes that measure the electrochemical potential of the ions at two positions in solution close to a tissue surface. (edu.au)
  • These MEAs can be fabricated on various substrates with custom designs including electrically isolated individually addressable microelectrodes. (fraunhofer.org)
  • We describe radiologic atlas-based targeting using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, physiological localization using microelectrode recordings, and macrostimulation techniques. (universitypressscholarship.com)
  • The SEC-03M is a switched mode single electrode voltage and current clamp amplifier module for recordings with sharp microelectrodes or suction (patch) pipettes. (npielectronic.com)
  • In this work, we investigate spatiotemporal characteristics of SPW-Rs and how microelectrode size and distance influence SPW-R recordings using a biophysical model of hippocampus. (yale.edu)
  • Background: In deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) for Parkinson's Disease (PD), often microelectrode recordings (MER) are used for STN identification. (utwente.nl)
  • The electrode can be connected to a preamplifier with a microelectrode holder . (elproscan.com)
  • The microelectrodes detect the action potentials fired as well as their propagation across the network. (axionbiosystems.com)
  • Through simulations of field potentials across a high-density microelectrode array, we demonstrate the importance of finding the ideal spatial resolution for capturing SPW-Rs with great sensitivity. (yale.edu)
  • ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE:To examine the efficacy of intracerebral recording of visual evoked potentials (VEPs) during posteroventral pallidotomy comparing macro- and microelectrode stimulation.MATERIALS AND METHODS:The optic tract was identified by intracerebral recording of VEPs in 16 patients. (deepdyve.com)
  • The research focuses on areas including Implantable Microelectrodes, Chemical Sensors and Microfludic Devices. (ubc.ca)
  • Surgeons implanted a microelectrode array with 100 sensors in Hutchinson's motor cortex, the brain's control center for movement. (nautil.us)
  • The work proposed is to attempt new methods of solid-state voltammetric microelectrode fabrication to enable new sensor configurations and environmentally-relevant experiments. (darkenergybiosphere.org)
  • This chapter details the current CiPA protocol for evaluating drug-induced changes in hSC-CM electrophysiology using microelectrode array (MEA) technology. (axionbiosystems.com)
  • A floating metal microelectrode array for chronic implantation. (nih.gov)
  • Her research includes development of neuron-based biosensors on a microelectrode array platform and exploring a holistic approach to optimize a learner's mental state in order to improve learning outcomes. (oakland.edu)
  • Biomedical Sciences: Development of neuron-based biosensors on a microelectrode array platform. (oakland.edu)
  • What is a microelectrode array (MEA)? (axionbiosystems.com)
  • Recent advances in microelectrode array technology now permit a direct examination of the way populations of sensory neurons encode information about a limb's position in space. (utah.edu)
  • In this study, N-pyrrole (Py), N-phenylpyrrole (PhPy), and 1[4-methoxyphenyl]-1H-pyrrole (MPhPy) homopolymers were synthesized electrochemically onto carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs). (itu.edu.tr)
  • Carbon fiber microelectrode, 10 μm x 100 μm (diam. (kationscientific.com)
  • Carbon fiber microelectrode, 34 μm x 200 μm (diam. (kationscientific.com)
  • Carbon disc stereo microelectrode, 2x10μm (no. of discs x disc diam. (kationscientific.com)
  • View cart "BASI-MF-2007 Carbon Fiber Microelectrode - 11 µm (±2 µm) diameter" has been added to your cart. (palmsens.com)
  • WARRANTY INFORMATION: All carbon fiber microelectrodes (SF1As) are tested for performance prior to shipping. (ukycenmet.com)
  • Historically, iridium alloys were sought after for fountain pen tips and components of cannons that suffered from significant wear, while modern uses include electrical contacts for spark plugs, microelectrodes for use in electrophysiology, and extremely resilient aircraft engine parts . (americanelements.com)
  • This has to be considered when conparing the oxygen reduction activity (measured by impedance spectroscopy on microelectrodes) of single-phase with two-phase films. (mpg.de)
  • Sediment pore-water dissolved oxygen concentrations were measured using a clark-type oxygen microelectrode (Unisense, Denmark). (ucar.edu)
  • This includes microelectrode measurements, geochemical analyses as well as optical and mineralogical analyses of temporal and spatial distribution of Fe(III) mineral formation. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • My interests cover a wide range of areas including redox reactions in the environment, trace element speciation in marine waters and sediments including metal-ligand complexes, biogeochemical processes in marine environments, application of molecular orbital theory to geochemical processes, in situ electrochemistry and microelectrode technology. (udel.edu)
  • Effects of localized stimulation by means of microelectrodes of the cardioinhibitory vagal center in Rana esculenta]. (cngb.org)
  • As she pictured moving the cursor left and right, forward and backward, the microelectrodes picked up electrical "spikes" in her neurons. (nautil.us)
  • Se estima que para el año 2020 la producción de equipos eléctricos y electrónicos en el país alcanzará los $USD76,540 millones de dólares americanos (INEGI, 2012). (tec.mx)
  • Kostyuk was the first Soviet scientist to use microelectrodes for intracellular recording of electrical signals in neurons. (shevchenko.org)
  • This paper describes the realization of Pt-tip microelectrodes by using microfabrication technology. (rero.ch)
  • In microfluidic, a fabrication of it devices with integrated microchannels and microelectrodes of dimensions are made comparable to biological cells or particles size. (intechopen.com)
  • The recording of neural signals with microelectrodes that are implanted into the cortex of the brain is potentially useful for a range of clinical applications. (cambridge.org)
  • To-date, most of the knowledge about SPW-Rs comes from experimental studies averaging responses from neuronal populations monitored by conventional microelectrodes. (yale.edu)
  • By attaching microelectrodes to the insects' antennae, the researchers could measure the electrical impulses that are generated when mosquitoes recognize a chemical. (janetterallison.com)
  • The new technique relies on measuring 2 parameters simultaneously and at the same point in the water above the sediment: the fluctuating vertical velocity using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter and the fluctuating O 2 concentration using an O 2 microelectrode. (int-res.com)
  • The ion-selective microelectrode technique to measure specific ion fluxes non-invasively is ideally suited to this purpose. (edu.au)
  • The system will also function as an excellent electrometer/recorder with a 10 Hz bandwidth for microelectrode studies of membrane potential or for any other data acquisition. (edu.au)
  • To test this hypothesis, 2D and 3D microelectrodes with different sizes were designed and fabricated for ac-EHD studies using standard lithography and etching processes. (edu.sa)
  • The microelectrodes were manufactured on PI by a combination of soft lithographical tools. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Microelectrode and respiration data also demonstrated a clear effect of organic loading on sediments. (edu.au)
  • We most commonly perform ablation therapy by guiding a small needle and microelectrode to the source of the pain. (uthscsa.edu)
  • It can be shown that the net flux of an ion, typically measured in units of nmol m -2 s -1 , may be found from a measurement of the change in voltage of an ion selective microelectrode that is moved through a small known distance in the solution. (edu.au)

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