Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Extracellular Fluid: The fluid of the body that is outside of CELLS. It is the external environment for the cells.Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Dialysis: A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid: A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Homovanillic AcidSerotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Rats, Hairless: Mutant strains of rats that produce little or no hair. Several different homozygous recessive mutations can cause hairlessness in rats including rnu/rnu (Rowett nude), fz/fz (fuzzy), shn/shn (shorn), and nznu/nznu (New Zealand nude). Note that while NUDE RATS are often hairless, they are most characteristically athymic.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Subcutaneous Tissue: Loose connective tissue lying under the DERMIS, which binds SKIN loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of ADIPOCYTES, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state.Excitatory Amino Acids: Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Hydroxyindoleacetic AcidChromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin: A serotonin 1A-receptor agonist that is used experimentally to test the effects of serotonin.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Neostriatum: The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.Amphetamine: A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Biogenic Monoamines: Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Raphe Nuclei: Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of adrenergic transmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. The tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) and amphetamines are among the therapeutically important drugs that may act via inhibition of adrenergic transport. Many of these drugs also block transport of serotonin.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Laser-Doppler Flowmetry: A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Serotonin Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate serotonin receptors, thereby blocking the actions of serotonin or SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Serotonin Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate SEROTONIN RECEPTORS. Many serotonin receptor agonists are used as ANTIDEPRESSANTS; ANXIOLYTICS; and in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.Electrophoresis, Microchip: A highly miniaturized version of ELECTROPHORESIS performed in a microfluidic device.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Dopamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT1: A subclass of G-protein coupled SEROTONIN receptors that couple preferentially to GI-GO G-PROTEINS resulting in decreased intracellular CYCLIC AMP levels.Nomifensine: An isoquinoline derivative that prevents dopamine reuptake into synaptosomes. The maleate was formerly used in the treatment of depression. It was withdrawn worldwide in 1986 due to the risk of acute hemolytic anemia with intravascular hemolysis resulting from its use. In some cases, renal failure also developed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p266)Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.

Novel insights into human endometrial paracrinology and embryo-maternal communication by intrauterine microdialysis. (1/2093)

The regulation of human implantation is still unknown. Evidence from mice suggests an essential role for several paracrine mediators but species differences with implantation in the human preclude the extrapolation of these concepts to humans. An intrauterine microdialysis device (IUMD), consisting of microdialysis tubing glued into a balloon catheter on one side and into a polypropylene tube on the other, allows a dynamic and accurate in-vivo measurement of uterine paracrine interactions in humans. Inserted into the uterine cavity in the form of a loop, it can be continuously perfused with saline to reveal a number of relevant cytokines and growth factors in uterine effluents of non-pregnant women in both follicular and luteal phases. These included interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF), macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), epidermal growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), prolactin, and human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG). The source of intrauterine HCG is unclear since endometrial mRNA for the HCG beta-subunit is not revealed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. Applying urinary HCG locally via the IUMD profoundly alters endometrial secretory parameters. Prolactin, IGFBP-1, and M-CSF are significantly inhibited and VEGF is regulated in a biphasic manner involving early stimulation followed by inhibition of intrauterine levels. Use of the IUMD has thus shown that the urinary HCG preparations routinely used for ovulation induction and luteal support may directly alter endometrial function.  (+info)

N-Acetylaspartate distribution in rat brain striatum during acute brain ischemia. (2/2093)

Brain N-acetylaspartate (NAA) can be quantified by in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and is used in clinical settings as a marker of neuronal density. It is, however, uncertain whether the change in brain NAA content in acute stroke is reliably measured by 1H-MRS and how NAA is distributed within the ischemic area. Rats were exposed to middle cerebral artery occlusion. Preischemic values of [NAA] in striatum were 11 mmol/L by 1H-MRS and 8 mmol/kg by HPLC. The methods showed a comparable reduction during the 8 hours of ischemia. The interstitial level of [NAA] ([NAA]e) was determined by microdialysis using [3H]NAA to assess in vivo recovery. After induction of ischemia, [NAA]e increased linearly from 70 micromol/L to a peak level of 2 mmol/L after 2 to 3 hours before declining to 0.7 mmol/L at 7 hours. For comparison, [NAA]e was measured in striatum during global ischemia, revealing that [NAA]e increased linearly to 4 mmol/L after 3 hours and this level was maintained for the next 4 h. From the change in in vivo recovery of the interstitial space volume marker [14C]mannitol, the relative amount of NAA distributed in the interstitial space was calculated to be 0.2% of the total brain NAA during normal conditions and only 2 to 6% during ischemia. It was concluded that the majority of brain NAA is intracellularly located during ischemia despite large increases of interstitial [NAA]. Thus, MR quantification of NAA during acute ischemia reflects primarily changes in intracellular levels of NAA.  (+info)

Determination of free interstitial concentrations of piperacillin-tazobactam combinations by microdialysis. (3/2093)

The investigation of tissue penetration and distribution of antibiotics is of great importance, since infections occur mostly in the tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of piperacillin and tazobactam, alone and in combination, by measuring total plasma and free interstitial concentrations, and to examine the relationship between free levels of both drugs in blood and those in the extracellular space. Piperacillin and tazobactam were administered, alone and in combination, to anaesthetized rats as a single iv bolus dose. Total plasma concentrations and free extracellular concentrations were quantified by HPLC. In-vivo microdialysis sampling was used to study the free tissue distribution patterns of both drugs. The pharmacokinetics of piperacillin and tazobactam in plasma were consistent with a two-compartment body model. Piperacillin pharmacokinetics were not influenced by co-administration of tazobactam. Tazobactam's volumes of distribution and clearance were decreased by the co-administration of piperacillin and the area under the curve was significantly increased. Comparisons between calculated free concentrations in the peripheral compartment for both drugs and measured free extracellular concentrations revealed excellent agreement. For piperacillin and tazobactam, alone and in combination, predictions of the concentration-time profiles of free drug in the peripheral compartment can be made on the basis of plasma data.  (+info)

Effects of mCPP on the extracellular concentrations of serotonin and dopamine in rat brain. (4/2093)

Intravenous administration of m-chloro-phenylpiperazine (mCPP) (0.25 or 2.5 mg/kg) induced a marked and dose-related increase in extracellular concentrations of serotonin in hippocampus (300-1,400% of baseline) as measured using in vivo microdialysis in awake male Wistar rats of the spontaneously hypertensive (SH) strain. Indicating that the effect of mCPP was caused by a reversal of the serotonin transporter, it was antagonized by pretreatment with the serotonin re-uptake inhibitor citalopram (10 mg/kg) but was unaffected by local administration of the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX; 1 microns). mCPP was also shown to induce an increase in extracellular concentrations of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum of SH rats and in the nucleus accumbens of rats of the Sprague-Dawley (SD) strain; this effect of mCPP was, however, much weaker (125-170% of baseline) than the effect on serotonin; moreover, it seems to be TTX-sensitive. In anesthetized SD rats, mCPP induced a moderate reduction of nigral dopamine cell firing rate; supporting the assumption that this effect is secondary to the observed increase in dopamine release, it was blocked by pretreatment either with the dopamine synthesis inhibitor alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine or with the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol. In conclusion, the results suggest that mCPP induces a marked, TTX-insensitive increase in serotonin release in rat brain, but only a modest and TTX-sensitive increase in the extracellular levels of dopamine.  (+info)

Estimation of rat muscle blood flow by microdialysis probes perfused with ethanol, [14C]ethanol, and 3H2O. (5/2093)

We used the perfused rat hindquarter to evaluate whether the microdialysis ethanol technique can be used to qualitatively estimate nutritive skeletal muscle blood flow. Four microdialysis probes were inserted in different hindlimb muscles in each of 16 rats. Hindquarters were perfused at blood flow rates ranging from 0 to 21 ml. 100 g-1. min-1. The microdialysis probes were perfused at 2 microliter/min with perfusate containing ethanol, [14C]ethanol, and 3H2O. Within and between experiments outflow-to-inflow ratios (o/i) generally varied inversely with blood flow. When a low flow or no flow was maintained in hindquarters, o/i ratios first increased with time (for at least 60 min) and then leveled off. The long time constant impaired detection of rapid oscillations in blood flow, especially at low blood flow rates. Contractions per se apparently decreased o/i ratios independent of blood flow. Ethanol and [14C]ethanol o/i ratios did not differ. 3H2O o/i paralleled ethanol and [14C]ethanol o/i ratios but it was significantly lower. In conclusion, differences in skeletal muscle blood flow can be detected by the microdialysis technique. However, the slow changes in o/i, in particular at low blood flow rates, limit the usefulness of the technique for measuring dynamic changes in blood flow; caution must also be exerted during muscle contractions. 3H2O and [14C]ethanol are good alternatives to ethanol in the determination of blood flow by microdialysis.  (+info)

Metabolism and inflammatory mediators in the peritendinous space measured by microdialysis during intermittent isometric exercise in humans. (6/2093)

1. The metabolic processes that occur around the tendon during mechanical loading and exercise are undescribed in man. These processes are important for understanding the development of overuse inflammation and injury. 2. A microdialysis technique was used to determine interstitial concentrations of glycerol, glucose, lactate, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) as well as to calculate tissue substrate balance in the peritendinous region of the human Achilles tendon. Recovery of 48-62 % (range) at rest and 70-77 % during exercise were obtained for glycerol, glucose and PGE2. 3. Six young healthy humans were studied at rest, during 30 min of intermittent static plantar flexion of the ankle at a workload corresponding to individual body weight, and during 60 min of recovery. Microdialysis was performed in both legs with simultaneous determination of blood flow by 133Xe washout in the same area, and blood sampling from the radial artery. 4. With exercise, the net release of lactate as well as of glycerol from the peritendinous space of the Achilles tendon increased 2-fold (P < 0.05). Furthermore a 100 % increase in interstitial concentration of PGE2 and TXB2 was found, but it was only significant for TXB2(P < 0.05). As peritendinous blood flow increased 2- to 3-fold during intermittent static contractions, this indicates also that the output of these substances from the tissue increased during exercise. 5. This study indicates that both lipid and carbohydrate metabolism as well as inflammatory activity is accelerated in the peritendinous region of the human Achilles tendon with dynamic loading.  (+info)

Evaluation of the microdialysis technique in the dog fat pad. (7/2093)

In the present study the microdialysis technique was evaluated in an isolated autoperfused dog fat pad. Concentrations of glucose, lactate, and glycerol were measured in interstitial fluid by microdialysis and simultaneously in arterial and adipose venous plasma. Adipose tissue blood flow was measured by both 133Xe washout and timed weighing of venous blood. Metabolite concentrations in adipose venous plasma calculated from interstitial and arterial metabolite concentrations and 133Xe washout were positively correlated with measured venous concentrations (glucose: r = 0.95, lactate: r = 0.92, glycerol: r = 0.81). Calculated and measured venous plasma concentrations did not differ for either glucose or lactate, but for glycerol, calculated concentration was on average 76% of measured concentration. Metabolite exchanges (Fick's principle) calculated from interstitial metabolite concentrations were positively correlated with measured exchanges only for lactate (r = 0.69). In conclusion, metabolite concentrations in adipose venous plasma can be calculated from microdialysis measurements with greater accuracy for glucose and lactate than for glycerol. The precision, however, is too low to allow calculation of metabolite exchange when arteriovenous metabolite differences are low.  (+info)

Interstitial Ca2+ undergoes dynamic changes sufficient to stimulate nerve-dependent Ca2+-induced relaxation. (8/2093)

We recently described a perivascular sensory nerve-linked dilator system that can be activated by interstitial Ca2+ (Ca2+isf). The present study tested the hypothesis that Ca2+isf in the rat duodenal submucosa varies through a range that is sufficient to activate this pathway. An in situ microdialysis method was used to estimate Ca2+isf. When the duodenal lumen was perfused with Ca2+-free buffer, Ca2+isf was 1.0 +/- 0.13 mmol/l. Ca2+isf increased to 1.52 +/- 0.04, 1.78 +/- 0.10, and 1.89 +/- 0.1 when the lumen was perfused with buffer containing 3, 6, and 10 mmol/l Ca2+, respectively (P < 0.05). Ca2+isf was 1.1 +/- 0.06 mmol/l in fasted animals and increased to 1. 4 +/- 0.06 mmol/l in free-feeding rats (P < 0.05). Wire myography was used to study isometric tension responses of isolated mesenteric resistance arteries. Cumulative addition of extracellular Ca2+-relaxed serotonin- and methoxamine-precontracted arteries with half-maximal effective doses of 1.54 +/- 0.05 and 1.67 +/- 0.08 mmol/l, respectively (n = 5). These data show that duodenal Ca2+isf undergoes dynamic changes over a range that activates the sensory nerve-linked dilator system and indicate that this system can link changes in local Ca2+ transport with alterations in regional resistance and organ blood flow.  (+info)

  • The direction of the analyte flow is determined by the respective concentration gradient and allows the usage of microdialysis probes as sampling as well as delivery tools. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molecular weight cutoff of commercially available microdialysis probes covers a wide range of approximately 6-100kD, but also 1MD is available. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microdialysis probes can consequently be calibrated by either measuring the loss of analyte using drug-containing perfusate or the gain of analyte using drug-containing sample solutions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MetaQuant method is a proprietary microdialysis method that uses customizable probes developed by Brainlink. (criver.com)
  • Microdialysis samples were obtained from probes coupled to the EEG depth electrodes and implanted in the cortex and hippocampus of 81 awake patients with medication-refractory epilepsy undergoing intracranial electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring. (yale.edu)
  • In this study, the distribution of a new triazole drug, iodiconazole, in rat dermal interstitial fluid and blood was investigated by double-site microdialysis following dermal administration. (nih.gov)
  • While water-soluble compounds generally diffuse freely across the microdialysis membrane, the situation is not as clear for highly lipophilic analytes, where both successful (e.g. corticosteroids) and unsuccessful microdialysis experiments (e.g. estradiol, fusidic acid) have been reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • The recovery can be determined at steady-state using the constant rate of analyte exchange across the microdialysis membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro microdialysis membrane efficiency of broad-spectrum antibiotics in combination and alone. (springer.com)
  • It was demonstrated that well-calibrated microdialysis sampling in rats could be used to assess the percutaneous penetration kinetics of iodiconazole cream. (nih.gov)
  • Microdialysis is a minimally invasive, versatile technique, which can be used to study the penetration of an antiinfective agent in virtually any tissue of interest. (springer.com)
  • Apart from conventional microdialysis that sample small molecular weight analytes, Charles River offers a push-pull method to sample high molecular weight analytes (peptides, proteins, tau, and interleukins). (criver.com)
  • To this end the effects of a number of agents on extracellular levels of 5-HT and 5-HIAA in cat spinal cord were determined by microdialysis and high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. (utmb.edu)
  • The aim of the present study is to assess accuracy of the glucose data obtained by means of an intravascular microdialysis-based CGM system against venous blood glucose reference measurements. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The microdialysis principle was first employed in the early 1960s, when push-pull canulas and dialysis sacs were implanted into animal tissues, especially into rodent brains, to directly study the tissues' biochemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cerebral oxygen and microdialysis monitoring during aneurysm surgery: effects of blood pressure, cerebrospinal fluid drainage, and temporary clipping on infarction. (mysciencework.com)
  • These techniques include an introduction to fatty acids, lipids and membranes, electroelution of DNA, RNA or protein, microdialysis, protein labeling and cross-linking, and RNA isolation. (gbiosciences.com)
  • In this short review we discuss the recent advances on brain EtOH pharmacokinetic and state-of-the-art available techniques that could be used for in vivo detect EtOH and ACD both non-invasively (magnetic resonance spectroscopy), and invasively (microdialysis and biosensors). (frontiersin.org)
  • This article will describe the above experimental PD models and demonstrate the utility of microdialysis for their characterization. (eurekaselect.com)
  • With the development of microdialysis technique and increasing number of applications of microdialysis for human study, this technique seems to play an important role in clinical practice, for example, bedside microdialysis as drug monitoring or diagnostic of disease. (eurekaselect.com)
  • It lies like download Applications of Microdialysis in asked shown at this HIR. (lagunagrande.com.ar)
  • The articles much are all not long dynamics in a used download Applications of Microdialysis in Pharmaceutical or enough resource. (lagunagrande.com.ar)
  • A study was designed to combine conventional microdialysis with MetaQuant, plasma, and CSF sampling to monitor a range of neurotransmitters, potential biomarkers, and free-drug concentrations in different compartments simultaneously. (criver.com)
  • In particular, microdialysis allows the analysis of extracellular neurotransmitters and metabolites, and jugular venous oximetry and near-infrared spectroscopy are beginning to provide valuable information on cerebral oxygen metabolism. (foyles.co.uk)
  • Syringe Needles are pretreated to reduce degradation of labile molecules, such as catecholamines and their metabolites during a microdialysis experiment. (harvardapparatus.co.uk)
  • In this study, we performed surgery of unilateral single semicircular canal occlusion (USSCO) on guinea pigs, and investigated the change of 5-HT by in vivo microdialysis of the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). (rsc.org)
  • We investigated the effects of pre-hatch T treatment (in ovo injection of 75ng T on day E0, as a model for increased maternal T, vs. control, i.e. solvent only) on baseline and restraint-stress induced 5-HT release in the amygdala by in vivo microdialysis and high performance liquid chromatography. (wur.nl)
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intraperitoneal microdialysis in early detection of anastomotic leakage after low anterior resection for rectosigmoid cancer. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We performed rigorous regional venous blood gas analyses as well as intraperitoneal microdialysis. (physiology.org)
  • Researchers from Kanazawa University report in Journal of Neuroscience performed a microdialysis study on mice to determine mechanisms underlying the inflammatory response in the brain associated with fever that might be used to develop new strategies for treatment. (news-medical.net)
  • Simultaneous determination of cefazolin in rat blood and brain by microdialysis and microbore liquid chromatography. (nih.gov)
  • A selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of S-(N, N-diethylcarbamoyl) glutathione (carbamathione) in microdialysis samples from rat brain and plasma. (ku.edu)
  • An analytical method using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) was developed to determine carbamathione in vivo using microdialysis sampling from rat brain and plasma. (ku.edu)
  • Effect of Iloprost infusion on metabolism in critical limb ischemia, utilizing microdialysis. (minervamedica.it)
  • The nutritive fraction of total blood flow was determined under basal conditions and in response to contraction (electrical field stimulation), insulin (hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp with 10mUmin−1 kg−1 insulin) or saline control from limb blood flow and the microdialysis O/I ratio of L-[14C]glucose. (edu.au)
  • Microdialysis and response during regional chemotherapy by isolated limb infusion of melphalan for limb malignancies. (edu.au)
  • 19 patients undergoing ILI for treatment of various limb malignancies were monitored for intra-operative melphalan concentrations in plasma and, using microdialysis, in subcutaneous and tumour tissues. (edu.au)
  • The microdialysis principle was first employed in the early 1960s, when push-pull canulas and dialysis sacs were implanted into animal tissues, especially into rodent brains, to directly study the tissues' biochemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secondly, whereas the original funded grant focused on behavioral experiments, the supplemental investigation will investigate the neurochemical effects of 5‑HT1A biased agonists by microdialysis. (michaeljfox.org)
  • AtmosLM is a push-pull microdialysis system for measuring the levels of large proteins and peptides, as opposed to the catecholamines and other small molecules typically measured by microdialysis . (amuzainc.com)
  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về bệnh học thý y được đăng trên tạp chí Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về bệnh thú y đề tài: Metabolism during anaesthesia and recovery in colic and healthy horses: a microdialysis study. (tailieu.vn)
  • In the present study, the microdialysis method was used to infuse NSAIDs locally into human skeletal muscles producing a local block of prostaglandin formation. (ku.dk)