Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Heart-Lung Machine: Apparatus that provides mechanical circulatory support during open-heart surgery, by passing the heart to facilitate surgery on the organ. The basic function of the machine is to oxygenate the body's venous supply of blood and then pump it back into the arterial system. The machine also provides intracardiac suction, filtration, and temperature control. Some of the more important components of these machines include pumps, oxygenators, temperature regulators, and filters. (UMDNS, 1999)Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Glucuronosyltransferase: A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive: Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.Extracellular Fluid: The fluid of the body that is outside of CELLS. It is the external environment for the cells.Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Famous PersonsMagnolia: A plant genus of the family MAGNOLIACEAE. The germacranolide sesquiterpene lactones costunolide, parthenolide, and costunolide diepoxide have been isolated from the leaves. Bark contains honokiol and magnolol. Parts are an ingredient of Banxia Houpo Tang.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Hypogravity: Condition wherein the force of gravity is less than or is decreased below that on the surface of the earth. This is expressed as being between 0 and 1 g.Hallucinations: Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Web Browser: Software application for retrieving, presenting and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Dialysis: A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hydroxyindoleacetic AcidDopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Catheters, Indwelling: Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Peritoneal Dialysis: Dialysis fluid being introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity as either a continuous or an intermittent procedure.Catheters: A flexible, tubular device that is used to carry fluids into or from a blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Subthalamic Nucleus: Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Globus Pallidus: The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Vasospasm, Intracranial: Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Prostaglandins: A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.Eicosanoids: A class of compounds named after and generally derived from C20 fatty acids (EICOSANOIC ACIDS) that includes PROSTAGLANDINS; LEUKOTRIENES; THROMBOXANES, and HYDROXYEICOSATETRAENOIC ACIDS. They have hormone-like effects mediated by specialized receptors (RECEPTORS, EICOSANOID).Prostaglandins E: (11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.Achilles Tendon: A fibrous cord that connects the muscles in the back of the calf to the HEEL BONE.Prostaglandins F: (9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.Prostaglandin D2: The principal cyclooxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid. It is released upon activation of mast cells and is also synthesized by alveolar macrophages. Among its many biological actions, the most important are its bronchoconstrictor, platelet-activating-factor-inhibitory, and cytotoxic effects.Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Prostaglandins A: (13E,15S)-15-Hydroxy-9-oxoprosta-10,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGA(1)); (5Z,13E,15S)-15-hydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,10,13-trien-1-oic acid (PGA(2)); (5Z,13E,15S,17Z)-15-hydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,10,13,17-tetraen-1-oic acid (PGA(3)). A group of naturally occurring secondary prostaglandins derived from PGE; PGA(1) and PGA(2) as well as their 19-hydroxy derivatives are found in many organs and tissues.Syringes: Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Needle-Exchange Programs: Organized services for exchange of sterile needles and syringes used for injections as a potential means of reducing the transmission of infectious diseases.Infusion Pumps: Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Medical Waste Disposal: Management, removal, and elimination of biologic, infectious, pathologic, and dental waste. The concept includes blood, mucus, tissue removed at surgery or autopsy, soiled surgical dressings, and other materials requiring special control and handling. Disposal may take place where the waste is generated or elsewhere.Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Ventilators, Mechanical: Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Ventilator Weaning: Techniques for effecting the transition of the respiratory-failure patient from mechanical ventilation to spontaneous ventilation, while meeting the criteria that tidal volume be above a given threshold (greater than 5 ml/kg), respiratory frequency be below a given count (less than 30 breaths/min), and oxygen partial pressure be above a given threshold (PaO2 greater than 50mm Hg). Weaning studies focus on finding methods to monitor and predict the outcome of mechanical ventilator weaning as well as finding ventilatory support techniques which will facilitate successful weaning. Present methods include intermittent mandatory ventilation, intermittent positive pressure ventilation, and mandatory minute volume ventilation.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Cardia: That part of the STOMACH close to the opening from ESOPHAGUS into the stomach (cardiac orifice), the ESOPHAGOGASTRIC JUNCTION. The cardia is so named because of its closeness to the HEART. Cardia is characterized by the lack of acid-forming cells (GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS).Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Anastomotic Leak: Breakdown of the connection and subsequent leakage of effluent (fluids, secretions, air) from a SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS of the digestive, respiratory, genitourinary, and cardiovascular systems. Most common leakages are from the breakdown of suture lines in gastrointestinal or bowel anastomosis.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Pepsinogen C: This is one of the 2 related pepsinogen systems in humans. It is found in prostate and seminal fluid whereas PEPSINOGEN A is not.Pepsinogen A: This is one of 2 related pepsinogen systems in humans and is also known as pepsinogen. (The other is PEPSINOGEN C.) This includes isozymogens Pg1-Pg5 (pepsinogens 1-5, group I or products of PGA1-PGA5 genes). This is the main pepsinogen found in urine.Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Astrocytoma: Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts: Tubes inserted to create communication between a cerebral ventricle and the internal jugular vein. Their emplacement permits draining of cerebrospinal fluid for relief of hydrocephalus or other condition leading to fluid accumulation in the ventricles.Osteosarcoma, Juxtacortical: A form of osteogenic sarcoma of relatively low malignancy, probably arising from the periosteum and initially involving cortical bone and adjacent connective tissue. It occurs in middle-aged as well as young adults and most commonly affects the lower part of the femoral shaft. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure: Manometric pressure of the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID as measured by lumbar, cerebroventricular, or cisternal puncture. Within the cranial cavity it is called INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE.Hydrocephalus: Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.Medicine in ArtHistory, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.TriazolesResearch Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tFungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Electrophoresis, Microchip: A highly miniaturized version of ELECTROPHORESIS performed in a microfluidic device.Candida: A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).

Novel insights into human endometrial paracrinology and embryo-maternal communication by intrauterine microdialysis. (1/2093)

The regulation of human implantation is still unknown. Evidence from mice suggests an essential role for several paracrine mediators but species differences with implantation in the human preclude the extrapolation of these concepts to humans. An intrauterine microdialysis device (IUMD), consisting of microdialysis tubing glued into a balloon catheter on one side and into a polypropylene tube on the other, allows a dynamic and accurate in-vivo measurement of uterine paracrine interactions in humans. Inserted into the uterine cavity in the form of a loop, it can be continuously perfused with saline to reveal a number of relevant cytokines and growth factors in uterine effluents of non-pregnant women in both follicular and luteal phases. These included interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF), macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), epidermal growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), prolactin, and human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG). The source of intrauterine HCG is unclear since endometrial mRNA for the HCG beta-subunit is not revealed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. Applying urinary HCG locally via the IUMD profoundly alters endometrial secretory parameters. Prolactin, IGFBP-1, and M-CSF are significantly inhibited and VEGF is regulated in a biphasic manner involving early stimulation followed by inhibition of intrauterine levels. Use of the IUMD has thus shown that the urinary HCG preparations routinely used for ovulation induction and luteal support may directly alter endometrial function.  (+info)

N-Acetylaspartate distribution in rat brain striatum during acute brain ischemia. (2/2093)

Brain N-acetylaspartate (NAA) can be quantified by in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and is used in clinical settings as a marker of neuronal density. It is, however, uncertain whether the change in brain NAA content in acute stroke is reliably measured by 1H-MRS and how NAA is distributed within the ischemic area. Rats were exposed to middle cerebral artery occlusion. Preischemic values of [NAA] in striatum were 11 mmol/L by 1H-MRS and 8 mmol/kg by HPLC. The methods showed a comparable reduction during the 8 hours of ischemia. The interstitial level of [NAA] ([NAA]e) was determined by microdialysis using [3H]NAA to assess in vivo recovery. After induction of ischemia, [NAA]e increased linearly from 70 micromol/L to a peak level of 2 mmol/L after 2 to 3 hours before declining to 0.7 mmol/L at 7 hours. For comparison, [NAA]e was measured in striatum during global ischemia, revealing that [NAA]e increased linearly to 4 mmol/L after 3 hours and this level was maintained for the next 4 h. From the change in in vivo recovery of the interstitial space volume marker [14C]mannitol, the relative amount of NAA distributed in the interstitial space was calculated to be 0.2% of the total brain NAA during normal conditions and only 2 to 6% during ischemia. It was concluded that the majority of brain NAA is intracellularly located during ischemia despite large increases of interstitial [NAA]. Thus, MR quantification of NAA during acute ischemia reflects primarily changes in intracellular levels of NAA.  (+info)

Determination of free interstitial concentrations of piperacillin-tazobactam combinations by microdialysis. (3/2093)

The investigation of tissue penetration and distribution of antibiotics is of great importance, since infections occur mostly in the tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of piperacillin and tazobactam, alone and in combination, by measuring total plasma and free interstitial concentrations, and to examine the relationship between free levels of both drugs in blood and those in the extracellular space. Piperacillin and tazobactam were administered, alone and in combination, to anaesthetized rats as a single iv bolus dose. Total plasma concentrations and free extracellular concentrations were quantified by HPLC. In-vivo microdialysis sampling was used to study the free tissue distribution patterns of both drugs. The pharmacokinetics of piperacillin and tazobactam in plasma were consistent with a two-compartment body model. Piperacillin pharmacokinetics were not influenced by co-administration of tazobactam. Tazobactam's volumes of distribution and clearance were decreased by the co-administration of piperacillin and the area under the curve was significantly increased. Comparisons between calculated free concentrations in the peripheral compartment for both drugs and measured free extracellular concentrations revealed excellent agreement. For piperacillin and tazobactam, alone and in combination, predictions of the concentration-time profiles of free drug in the peripheral compartment can be made on the basis of plasma data.  (+info)

Effects of mCPP on the extracellular concentrations of serotonin and dopamine in rat brain. (4/2093)

Intravenous administration of m-chloro-phenylpiperazine (mCPP) (0.25 or 2.5 mg/kg) induced a marked and dose-related increase in extracellular concentrations of serotonin in hippocampus (300-1,400% of baseline) as measured using in vivo microdialysis in awake male Wistar rats of the spontaneously hypertensive (SH) strain. Indicating that the effect of mCPP was caused by a reversal of the serotonin transporter, it was antagonized by pretreatment with the serotonin re-uptake inhibitor citalopram (10 mg/kg) but was unaffected by local administration of the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX; 1 microns). mCPP was also shown to induce an increase in extracellular concentrations of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum of SH rats and in the nucleus accumbens of rats of the Sprague-Dawley (SD) strain; this effect of mCPP was, however, much weaker (125-170% of baseline) than the effect on serotonin; moreover, it seems to be TTX-sensitive. In anesthetized SD rats, mCPP induced a moderate reduction of nigral dopamine cell firing rate; supporting the assumption that this effect is secondary to the observed increase in dopamine release, it was blocked by pretreatment either with the dopamine synthesis inhibitor alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine or with the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol. In conclusion, the results suggest that mCPP induces a marked, TTX-insensitive increase in serotonin release in rat brain, but only a modest and TTX-sensitive increase in the extracellular levels of dopamine.  (+info)

Estimation of rat muscle blood flow by microdialysis probes perfused with ethanol, [14C]ethanol, and 3H2O. (5/2093)

We used the perfused rat hindquarter to evaluate whether the microdialysis ethanol technique can be used to qualitatively estimate nutritive skeletal muscle blood flow. Four microdialysis probes were inserted in different hindlimb muscles in each of 16 rats. Hindquarters were perfused at blood flow rates ranging from 0 to 21 ml. 100 g-1. min-1. The microdialysis probes were perfused at 2 microliter/min with perfusate containing ethanol, [14C]ethanol, and 3H2O. Within and between experiments outflow-to-inflow ratios (o/i) generally varied inversely with blood flow. When a low flow or no flow was maintained in hindquarters, o/i ratios first increased with time (for at least 60 min) and then leveled off. The long time constant impaired detection of rapid oscillations in blood flow, especially at low blood flow rates. Contractions per se apparently decreased o/i ratios independent of blood flow. Ethanol and [14C]ethanol o/i ratios did not differ. 3H2O o/i paralleled ethanol and [14C]ethanol o/i ratios but it was significantly lower. In conclusion, differences in skeletal muscle blood flow can be detected by the microdialysis technique. However, the slow changes in o/i, in particular at low blood flow rates, limit the usefulness of the technique for measuring dynamic changes in blood flow; caution must also be exerted during muscle contractions. 3H2O and [14C]ethanol are good alternatives to ethanol in the determination of blood flow by microdialysis.  (+info)

Metabolism and inflammatory mediators in the peritendinous space measured by microdialysis during intermittent isometric exercise in humans. (6/2093)

1. The metabolic processes that occur around the tendon during mechanical loading and exercise are undescribed in man. These processes are important for understanding the development of overuse inflammation and injury. 2. A microdialysis technique was used to determine interstitial concentrations of glycerol, glucose, lactate, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) as well as to calculate tissue substrate balance in the peritendinous region of the human Achilles tendon. Recovery of 48-62 % (range) at rest and 70-77 % during exercise were obtained for glycerol, glucose and PGE2. 3. Six young healthy humans were studied at rest, during 30 min of intermittent static plantar flexion of the ankle at a workload corresponding to individual body weight, and during 60 min of recovery. Microdialysis was performed in both legs with simultaneous determination of blood flow by 133Xe washout in the same area, and blood sampling from the radial artery. 4. With exercise, the net release of lactate as well as of glycerol from the peritendinous space of the Achilles tendon increased 2-fold (P < 0.05). Furthermore a 100 % increase in interstitial concentration of PGE2 and TXB2 was found, but it was only significant for TXB2(P < 0.05). As peritendinous blood flow increased 2- to 3-fold during intermittent static contractions, this indicates also that the output of these substances from the tissue increased during exercise. 5. This study indicates that both lipid and carbohydrate metabolism as well as inflammatory activity is accelerated in the peritendinous region of the human Achilles tendon with dynamic loading.  (+info)

Evaluation of the microdialysis technique in the dog fat pad. (7/2093)

In the present study the microdialysis technique was evaluated in an isolated autoperfused dog fat pad. Concentrations of glucose, lactate, and glycerol were measured in interstitial fluid by microdialysis and simultaneously in arterial and adipose venous plasma. Adipose tissue blood flow was measured by both 133Xe washout and timed weighing of venous blood. Metabolite concentrations in adipose venous plasma calculated from interstitial and arterial metabolite concentrations and 133Xe washout were positively correlated with measured venous concentrations (glucose: r = 0.95, lactate: r = 0.92, glycerol: r = 0.81). Calculated and measured venous plasma concentrations did not differ for either glucose or lactate, but for glycerol, calculated concentration was on average 76% of measured concentration. Metabolite exchanges (Fick's principle) calculated from interstitial metabolite concentrations were positively correlated with measured exchanges only for lactate (r = 0.69). In conclusion, metabolite concentrations in adipose venous plasma can be calculated from microdialysis measurements with greater accuracy for glucose and lactate than for glycerol. The precision, however, is too low to allow calculation of metabolite exchange when arteriovenous metabolite differences are low.  (+info)

Interstitial Ca2+ undergoes dynamic changes sufficient to stimulate nerve-dependent Ca2+-induced relaxation. (8/2093)

We recently described a perivascular sensory nerve-linked dilator system that can be activated by interstitial Ca2+ (Ca2+isf). The present study tested the hypothesis that Ca2+isf in the rat duodenal submucosa varies through a range that is sufficient to activate this pathway. An in situ microdialysis method was used to estimate Ca2+isf. When the duodenal lumen was perfused with Ca2+-free buffer, Ca2+isf was 1.0 +/- 0.13 mmol/l. Ca2+isf increased to 1.52 +/- 0.04, 1.78 +/- 0.10, and 1.89 +/- 0.1 when the lumen was perfused with buffer containing 3, 6, and 10 mmol/l Ca2+, respectively (P < 0.05). Ca2+isf was 1.1 +/- 0.06 mmol/l in fasted animals and increased to 1. 4 +/- 0.06 mmol/l in free-feeding rats (P < 0.05). Wire myography was used to study isometric tension responses of isolated mesenteric resistance arteries. Cumulative addition of extracellular Ca2+-relaxed serotonin- and methoxamine-precontracted arteries with half-maximal effective doses of 1.54 +/- 0.05 and 1.67 +/- 0.08 mmol/l, respectively (n = 5). These data show that duodenal Ca2+isf undergoes dynamic changes over a range that activates the sensory nerve-linked dilator system and indicate that this system can link changes in local Ca2+ transport with alterations in regional resistance and organ blood flow.  (+info)

*Microdialysis

The microdialysis technique requires the insertion of a small microdialysis catheter (also referred to as microdialysis probe) ... The microdialysis probe is designed to mimic a blood capillary and consists of a shaft with a semipermeable hollow fiber ... The microdialysis principle was first employed in the early 1960s, when push-pull canulas and dialysis sacs were implanted into ... The microdialysis technique has undergone much development since its first use in 1972, when it was first employed to monitor ...

*Bromantane

A microdialysis study". Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine. 119 (3): 294-296. doi:10.1007/BF02445840. ISSN 0007-4888 ...

*UH-232

... a microdialysis study". European Journal of Pharmacology. 242 (2): 151-63. doi:10.1016/0014-2999(93)90075-S. PMID 8253112. ... in vivo microdialysis study)". Pharmacological research : the official journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society. 43 (3): ...

*Stereotactic surgery

Surgery can also be used for microdialysis protocols to implant and tether the dialysis probe and guide cannula. Radiosurgery ... A.4A.1-A.4A.9. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Zapata, Agustin (2009). "Microdialysis in Rodents". Current ... Zapata, A., Chefer, V. I. and Shippenberg, T. S. (2009). Microdialysis in Rodents. Current Protocols in Neuroscience. 47:7.2.1- ... applications of stereotactic surgery are to introduce fluids directly to the brain or to implant cannulae and microdialysis ...

*Esterom

McDonald, Sarah; Lunte, Craig (2003). "Determination of the Dermal Penetration of Esterom Components Using Microdialysis ...

*ST-1936

"A microdialysis study of ST1936, a novel 5-HT6 receptor agonist". Neuropharmacology. 60 (4): 602-608. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm. ...

*Fast atom bombardment

Samples can be introduced by flow injection, microdialysis, or by coupling with liquid chromatography. Flow rates are typically ...

*Syringe driver

Applications include electrospinning, electrospraying, microdialysis, microfluidics, dispensing/dilution, organ/tissue ...

*Substance P

Wong BJ, Tublitz NJ, Minson CT (Nov 2005). "Neurokinin-1 receptor desensitization to consecutive microdialysis infusions of ...

*Medial forebrain bundle

Other microdialysis studies that have been performed have shown that the presence of natural reinforcers such as food, water, ... Another research technique that was used in determining the function of the MFB was microdialysis. Reinforcing electrical ...

*Blood glucose monitoring

"Comparison of a Needle-Type and a Microdialysis Continuous Glucose Monitor in Type 1 Diabetic Patients". Diabetes Care. 28: ...

*Itch

... a dermal microdialysis study". Br. J. Dermatol. 142 (6): 1114-20. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2133.2000.03535.x. PMID 10848733. ...

*Molecular weight cut-off

Microdialysis may also be used to separate nanoparticles from the solutions in which they were formed. In such a separation, ... Commercially available microdialysis probes typically have molecular weight cutoffs that range from 1,000 to 300,000 Da, and ...

*4-Methylamphetamine

However, more recent in vivo studies that involved performing microdialysis on rats showed a different trend. These studies ...

*Flibanserin

... a microdialysis study". J Sex Med. 7 (5): 1757-67. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.01763.x. PMID 20163532. D'Aquila P, Monleon S, ...

*Meclinertant

... and aspartate release from rat prefrontal cortex studied in vivo with microdialysis". Brain Research Bulletin. 77 (2-3): 129-35 ...

*Freezing behavior

Through in vivo microdialysis, certain concentrations of extracellular serotonin in the rat brain were able to be measured. It ...

*Mechanotherapy

... and type I collagen changes in human peritendinous connective tissue determined by microdialysis". Journal of Applied ...

*Astrid Linthorst

... an in vivo microdialysis study in transgenic mice". European Journal of Neuroscience. 12 (1): 283-291. doi:10.1046/j.1460- ... an in vivo microdialysis study". The Journal of Neuroscience. 15 (4): 2920-2934. Retrieved 4 November 2015. Linthorst, Astrid C ... a combined in vivo microdialysis/EEG study in rats". European Journal of Neuroscience. Federation of European Neuroscience ...

*Brain ischemia

... a combined microdialysis and positron emission tomography study". Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism. 25 (6): 763-74. ...

*White adipose tissue

"Physiological levels of glucagon do not influence lipolysis in abdominal adipose tissue as assessed by microdialysis". J Clin ...

*Modafinil

... a microdialysis study in rats". Neuroreport. 12 (16): 3533-7. doi:10.1097/00001756-200111160-00032. PMID 11733706. Gallopin T, ...

*Huáng bǎi

... compounds with biofingerprinting chromatogram analysis of traditional Chinese medicines targeting DNA by microdialysis/HPLC". ...

*Traumatic brain injury

Microdialysis allows ongoing sampling of extracellular fluid for analysis of metabolites that might indicate ischemia or brain ... a combined microdialysis and positron emission tomography study". J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 25 (6): 763-74. doi:10.1038/sj. ...

*Steven Laureys

in Pharmaceutical Medicine working on pain and stroke using in vivo microdialysis and diffusion MRI in the rat (1997). Drawn by ...
Due to the constant perfusion of the microdialysis probe with fresh perfusate, a total equilibrium cannot be established.[1] This results in dialysate concentrations that are lower than those measured at the distant sampling site. In order to correlate concentrations measured in the dialysate with those present at the distant sampling site, a calibration factor (recovery) is needed. The recovery can be determined at steady-state using the constant rate of analyte exchange across the microdialysis membrane. The rate at which an analyte is exchanged across the semipermeable membrane is generally expressed as the analytes extraction efficiency. The extraction efficiency is defined as the ratio between the loss/gain of analyte during its passage through the probe (Cin−Cout) and the difference in concentration between perfusate and distant sampling site (Cin−Csample). In theory, the extraction efficiency of a microdialysis probe can be determined by: 1) changing the drug concentrations while ...
inproceedings{7de808a3-6420-4c5b-87b8-6fa623b3f32d, author = {Nordström, Carl-Henrik}, booktitle = {Microdialysis - Monitoring Tissue Chemistry in Intensive Care Medicine. Experimental Results and Clinical Application of Biochemical Tissue Monitoring in Critical Illness}, isbn = {3-89967-124-4}, language = {eng}, pages = {23--34}, publisher = {Pabst Science Publishers}, title = {Intracerebral microdialysis during routine neuro intensive care}, year = {2004 ...
Infusion of the GABAA agonist muscimol and the GABAB agonist baclofen into the VTA clearly decreased extracellular dopamine in the ipsilateral PFC. These findings indicate the presence of GABAA as well as GABAB receptors on somatodendritic sites of mesocortical dopamine neurons. The localization of both types of GABA receptors on dopamine cell bodies in the VTA is supported by anatomical data (Bayer and Pickel, 1991) and by electrophysiologic studies based on brain slices (Johnson and North, 1992; Jiang et al., 1993; Seutin et al., 1994).. When the present results are compared with previously published data from dual-probe experiments on nigrostriatal and mesolimbic neurons (Santiago and Westerink, 1991; 1992; Westerink et al., 1992;1996), a significant difference emerges with respect to the participation of GABAA receptors. Although the stimulatory effect of bicuculline was very similar for the three dopamine systems studied, muscimol stimulated the A9 neurons but inhibited the A10 neurons. ...
Principal Investigator:SHIMAMURA Yohnosuke, Project Period (FY):1990 - 1992, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:内分泌・代謝学
A microdialysis probe includes a dialysis membrane located and supported between a closed distal end of the probe and a proximal end of the same, the membrane essentially surrounding a space for passage of perfusion liquid. The probe has an inlet and outlet for perfusion liquid, where a position indicating object at the distal part of the probe allows non-invasive examination of the location of the distal part of the microdialysis probe.
Prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP, EC 3.4.21.26) inhibitors have potential as cognition enhancers, but the mechanism of action behind the cognitive effects remains unclear. Since acetylcholine (ACh) and dopamine (DA) are known to be associated with the regulation of cognitive processes, we investigated the effects of two PREP inhibitors on the extracellular levels of ACh and DA in the rat striatum using in vivo microdialysis. KYP-2047 and JTP-4819 were administered either as a single systemic dose (50 μmol/kg∼17 mg/kg i.p.) or directly into the striatum by retrodialysis via the microdialysis probe (12.5, 37.5 or 125 μM at 1.5 μl/min for 60 min). PREP inhibitors had no significant effect on striatal DA levels after systemic administration. JTP-4819 significantly decreased ACh levels both after systemic (by ∼25%) and intrastriatal (by ∼3050%) administration. KYP-2047 decreased ACh levels only after intrastriatal administration by retrodialysis (by ∼4050%) when higher drug levels were reached, ...
Antiepileptic drug (AED) resistance affects one third of patients with epilepsy and is associated with significant disability. Brain microdialysis studies on the epileptogenic hippocampus of patients with medication refractory epilepsy have identified elevations in extracellular glutamate, the primary brain excitatory neurotransmitter, both acutely during seizures and chronically during the interictal periods. Whether extracellular glutamate, along with the metabolites glutamine and the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), are elevated in other cortical regions is unknown. In addition, the effect of the administration of AEDs on the extracellular levels of these neurochemicals in patients with medication-refractory epilepsy is also unknown. Microdialysis samples were obtained from probes coupled to the EEG depth electrodes and implanted in the cortex and hippocampus of 81 awake patients with medication-refractory epilepsy undergoing intracranial electroencephalographic (EEG)
Background. Cytokines, such as the interleukins (IL1β, IL2, IL6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) can modulate myocardial structure and function with ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) but dynamic assessment of these biological molecules within the human myocardial interstitium with I/R has not been performed, and the inter-relationship to matrix metalloproteinases activity (MMPact) remains unexplored. Accordingly, a fluorogenic microdialysis method was used to simultaneously measure myocardial interstitial cytokine levels and MMPact in patients during and following I/R.. Methods. MMPact was measured in patients (n=13) undergoing cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB) at baseline, during myocardial arrest and CPB (on-CPB), and immediately following reperfusion and separation from CPB (post-CPB) by a validated in-line microdialysis fluorescent detection system. Myocardial interstitial fluid was subjected to cytokine analysis by high sensitivity multiplex suspension array.. Results. Interstitial MMPact increased ...
This study reveals the major contribution of ANP in the stimulation of lipid mobilization from SCAT during repeated bouts of endurance exercise. Numerous works have mentioned the role of epinephrine and insulin in this process, but the role of ANP has never been evoked. Sequential 45-min exercise bouts separated by a 60-min rest were used to promote SNS activation and ANP release. On the basis of the use of the microdialysis technique and local selective blockade of α2- and β1/2-ARs within SCAT, we showed that more than 50% of the nonadrenergic lipolysis observed during a repeated bout of exercise is ANP dependent.. Catecholamines released under SNS activation during exercise were long considered to be the major agents controlling lipid mobilization from adipose tissue in humans (16, 34). We recently demonstrated (27) that NP act in a new pathway to control human fat cell lipolysis in vitro or when administered intravenously. Using the microdialysis method, we previously demonstrated that ...
INTRODUCTION: Accurate assessment of muscle insulin sensitivity requires measurement of insulin concentration in interstitial fluid (ISF), but has proved difficult. We aimed to optimise measurement of ISF insulin concentrations in rat muscles in vivo using microdialysis. METHODS: Factorial experimental design experiments were performed in vitro to determine optimal conditions for insulin recovery with microdialysis probes. These conditions were tested in vivo, adjusted appropriately and used in lean and obese Zucker rats to compare ISF insulin concentrations basally and during hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic (HE) clamp. RESULTS: Optimal conditions in vivo were: a 100kDa microdialysis probe inserted in muscle, perfused with 1% BSA, 1.5mM glucose in 0.9% sodium chloride at 1μl/min. Samples were collected into siliconised glass microvials. As a reference for insulin, we established a protocol of inulin infusion, beginning at -80min and reaching equilibrium within 60min. HE clamp, beginning at 0min, ...
Background: Microdialysis (MD) is a method for continuously sampling small molecules in tissue extracellular fluid in vivo. To determine if free (non-protein bound) drug exposure (AUC) in plasma could be accurately measured by MD under non-steady state conditions, we compared intravenous MD to standard serial plasma sampling during and after a short infusion of etoposide. Methods: CMA IView 64 catheters (10 mm PAES membrane with 20 kD MWT cutoff) were surgically implanted into the external jugular vein of Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Catheter inflow and outflow tubing was tunneled subcutaneously from neck to the area on back between shoulder blades, brought through skin and attached to a MD pump (CMA 106 pump with fixed flow rate of 0.3 μL/min). The MD pump was secured in a fitted mesh jacket on the dorsum of the awake animal. Retrodialysis using 10 µM etoposide was used to measure in vivo relative recovery (RR) in each catheter. Following retrodialysis and catheter re-equilibration with ...
In the first day, the ICP was 12 mmHg, but lactate-pyruvate ratio was raised (35.7), which indicated early ischemia/intracranial hypertension. We opened the system with external ventricular drainage and hypothermia was performed with substantial improvement in the subsequent evaluations. Glycerol remained elevated during the monitoring period. In the second day, we verified elevation of glutamate and reduction of glucose. These metabolic disorders improved with optimization of ventilation and hypothermia, maintaining adequate blood pressure and perfusion pressure (Fig D). After six months, the patient presented moderate disability.. DISCUSSION. The microdialysis technique allows a better understanding of secondary insults and description of changes in cerebral metabolism before cessation of blood flow2, other monitoring methods usually do not reveal the consequences of secondary adverse events until large parts of the brain are affected2.. Glucose is the energy source of the brain3. Lactate and ...
In this thesis, fluid characteristics and sampling efficiency of high molecular weight cut-off microdialysis are presented, with the aim of improving the understanding of microdialysis sampling mechanisms and its performance regarding extraction efficiency of biological fluid and biomarkers.. Microdialysis is a well-established clinical sampling tool for monitoring small biomarkers such as lactate and glucose. In recent years, interest has raised in using high molecular weight cut-off microdialysis to sample macro molecules such as neuropeptides, cytokines and proteins. However, with the increase of the membrane pore size, high molecular weight cut-off microdialysis exhibits drawbacks such like unstable catheter performance, imbalanced fluid recovery, low and unstable molecule extraction efficiency, etc. But still, the fluid characteristics of high molecular weight cut-off microdialysis is rarely studied, and the clinical or in vitro molecule sampling efficiency from recent studies vary from ...
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been established as an effective treatment for Parkinsons disease and other movement disor- ders. The stimulation is currently administered using tetrode-macroelectrodes that target the subthalamic nucleus (STN). This often leads to side effects which bias the surrounding ar- eas, e.g. the speech centre. Targeting a spe- cific brain region can better be achieved with micro-stimulation electrodes with directed elec- trical field distribution. Experimental studies showed the effectiveness of microelectrode DBS by comparing neurotransmitter outflow before and after the stimulation. The neurotransmit- ter outflow in close proximity to the stimulation is hereby measured by means of microdialysis. To establish ideal distances and stimulation strength, the electric potential around the stim- ulation electrode and microdialysis membrane were modelled using comsol Multiphysics.. ...
Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2013 Mar;41(3):229-35. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2012.10.020. Epub 2013 Jan 6. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
Over the last years, a number of systems for continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring have been marketed and are routinely used in patients with diabetes to obtain more detailed information about 24-hour glucose profiles.. In the hospital, numerous factors influencing glycemic control and possibly leading to glucose excursions out of the desired range exist, e.g. interventions for which the patient has to remain fasting or medications such as corticosteroids or vasopressors. A reliable continuous glucose signal could help to observe levels of glycaemia not only at defined time-points but continuously, making it possible for physicians and nursing staff to better adjust antihyperglycemic therapy and to react before the patient is exposed to severe hypo- or hyperglycaemia.. In the hospital setting, vascular access is granted in the majority of patients and could as well be used as an alternative site for continuous glucose monitoring.. The aim of the present study is to assess accuracy of the ...
The analysis of low abundant biological molecules is often challenging due to their chemical properties, low concentration and limited sample volumes. Neuropeptides are one group of molecules that fits these criteria. Neuropeptides also play an important role in biological functions, which makes them extra interesting to analyze. A classic chemical analysis involves sampling, sample preparation, separation and detection. In this thesis, an enhanced solid supported microdialysis method was developed and used as a combined sampling- and preparation technique. In general, significantly increased extraction efficiency was obtained for all studied peptides. To be able to control the small sample volumes and to minimize the loss of neuropeptides because of unwanted adsorption onto surfaces, the subsequent analysis steps were miniaturized to a micro total analysis system (µ-TAS), which allowed sample pre-treatment, injection, separation, manipulation and detection.. In order to incorporate these ...
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To determine the neuropharmacokinetics (nPK) and systemic levels of bafetinib in patients with recurrent malignant brain tumors.. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To investigate the intrapatient variability of nPK parameters as assessed by intracerebral microdialysis.. II. To document the toxicity of bafetinib in this cohort of patients. III. To describe the response rate, progression-free survival, and overall survival in patients with malignant brain tumors treated with bafetinib.. IV. To assess for the expression of Lyn and Fyn kinases and phosphorylation status in pre-treatment tumor samples.. OUTLINE:Patients undergo intracerebral microdialysis during debulking craniotomy or stereotactic biopsy. Beginning 24 hours later, patients receive oral bafetinib twice daily for 1 day. Beginning at least 2 weeks after craniotomy or 1 week after biopsy, patients continue to receive oral bafetinib twice daily in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.. After ...
We demonstrated previously that excitotoxic lesions of the BNST abolished F-CPA without reducing nociceptive behaviors (Deyama et al., 2007a). Our current study using a conditioned place paradigm and an in vivo microdialysis technique extends those findings by showing that enhanced noradrenergic transmission via β-adrenoceptors within the vBNST plays a key role in the negative affective component of pain. In addition, intra-vBNST injection of a PKA inhibitor suppressed F-CPA, showing the involvement of PKA in pain-induced aversion. To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide evidence of the crucial role of PKA activation within the BNST in the development of negative emotion.. Because the CPA test used in this study was based on associative learning between a noxious stimulus-induced aversive affect and a neutral environmental context, whether the attenuation of CPA was caused by the impairment of associative learning or the suppression of the primary aversive affect is difficult to ...
A catheter for insertion into a blood vessel of a living being, which includes an elongated catheter body and membrane defining a dialysis chamber; a first channel provided for delivery of dialysis liquid to the dialysis chamber and a second channel provided for the discharge of dialysis liquid from the dialysis chamber, wherein the dialysis chamber comprises a plurality of tubular members, each having an inlet end and an outlet end, all the inlet ends being connected to the first channel and all the outlet ends being connected to the second channel.
Dopamine modulates the covariation of serotonin and behavioral activation under physiological conditions through a D2 receptor-mediated mechanism: In vivo microdialysis study in rat ...
The technique of microdialysis enables sampling and collecting of small‐molecular‐weight substances from the interstitial space
In this study, we determined in situ cytokine production by AT in response to hyperinsulinemia and its modulation during hypocaloric dietary intervention in obese women. The most important finding of our study is that experimental hyperinsulinemia increases AT levels and plasma levels of IL-6, MCP-1, and IL-8. Furthermore, this effect is enhanced following 4 wk of VLCD. Secondary, our study reported for the first time the SCAT interstitial concentration of several adipokines (IL-8, IL-1β, TNFα, and PAI-1).. The levels of the investigated adipokines were found to be considerably higher in SCAT than in plasma in the present study, except of PAI-1 (Table 2). Indeed, SCAT interstitial concentrations of IL-6 and MCP-1 were 1,000 and 50 times higher, respectively, than their plasma levels. The interstitial concentrations of these cytokines in our study (5.7 ± 3.0 ng/ml and 2.7 ± 1.9 for IL-6 and MCP-1, respectively) are similar to data of Sopasakis et al. (29), who reported a concentration of IL-6 ...
To test the hypothesis that inflammatory pain could dysregulate the function of the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway, we first conducted in vivo microdialysis analyses to measure heroin-evoked DA release in the NAc core in the presence of inflammatory pain (Fig. 1). Although several reports have investigated the role of the DA increase in NAc shell versus NAc core in drug-induced motivated behaviors (Everitt and Robbins, 2005), we elected to focus on the NAc core given its role in instrumental action according to the value of the predicted outcome and motivated behavior (Di Chiara, 2002; Saddoris et al., 2013). Forty-eight hours following the administration of CFA or saline (control) in the rat hindpaw (n = 5 or 6 per group), a microdialysis probe targeting the NAc core was inserted, and extracellular DA content in the dialysates was monitored every 15 min. Once a stable baseline for DA was achieved (,10% variation in three consecutive samples), one of two heroin doses (75 or 150 μg/kg) was ...
It has previously been shown that Wortmannin, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, inhibits glucose transport activated by insulin but not by ischemia, suggesting the importance of an activating mechanism that bypasses the insulin signal. To evaluate the relevance of this insulin-independent pathway in insulin-resistant subjects, the ability of ischemia to stimulate glucose uptake was investigated in 9 patients with type 2 diabetes and in 9 healthy control subjects (fasting glucose level 9.4 +/- 0.8 vs. 5.1 +/- 0.1 mmol/l, P , 0.001, in type 2 diabetic patients and control subjects, respectively; fasting insulin level insulin 8.1 +/- 2.6 vs. 4.5 +/-0.7 mU/l, P , 0.05, respectively) matched for sex, age, and BMI. Arterial plasma and interstitial concentrations of glucose and lactate (measured by subcutaneous and muscle microdialysis) were recorded in the forearm before, during, and after ischemia induced locally for 20 min. During ischemia, the muscle interstitial glucose concentration ...
Principal Investigator:ABE Youichi, Project Period (FY):1995 - 1996, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A), Section:試験, Research Field:応用薬理学・医療系薬学
BioAssay record AID 173934 submitted by ChEMBL: Subcutaneously administered dose (in vivo) in male Wistar rats in a striatal microdialysis analysis and its metabolite, 5,6-di-OH-DPAT was found to be present.
A one-use, disposable device for use by soldiers in the field is being developed to measure glucose, glutamine and lactate (USAMRMC-funded).. A continuous version of this device is also being developed for diabetes care. The optoelectronics of the sensor and the microfluidics for the sample cells are being optimized. Preliminary evaluation in comparison to commercially available glucose meters is ongoing. Application to monitoring nutrients in cell culture through a microdialysis sampling procedure is underway.. ...
Elevated Lactate and Pyruvate-ratio is a sensitive marker of ischemia following acute brain Injury. The Lund group (Nordstrom et al. Anesthesiology 2003,(4), 98:809-14) have concluded that cerebral Microdialysis can be used to assess the safe lower limit of CPP, suggesting that CPP management might be individualized rather than delivered to a generic target value. If the patients has an elevated Lactate and Pyruvate-ratio the single value of Pyruvate can distinguish if the increase is due to ischemia or mithocondrial dysfunction. During mitochondrial dysfunction, the increase in LP-ratio is characterized by a very high lactate level and a pyruvate concentration within or above normal limits, in contrast during cerebral ischemia, the increase in LP-ratio is associated with a very low pyruvate concentration(Nielsen et al Neuro Critical care 2013). ...
Apart from conventional microdialysis that sample small molecular weight analytes, Charles River offers a push-pull method to sample high molecular weight analytes.
Adequate drug penetration to a site of infection is absolutely imperative to ensure sufficient antimicrobial treatment. Microdialysis is a minimally invasive, versatile technique, which can be used...
The technique of in vivo microdialysis has been used most frequently with larger species to measure extracellular levels of neurotransmitters but only recently has been adapted to mice because this species is being used to elucidate the genetic regulation of elements involved in neurotransmission. The baseline values for extracellular 5-HT measured in the mouse striatum were similar to those we have previously obtained from studies in rats (Kirby et al., 1997). In this study, we pharmacologically characterized the activity of two novel 5-HT receptor agonists in the mouse with in vivo microdialysis: the selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-PIPAT and the selective 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist CP 94,253. This is the first report for 8-OH-PIPAT as a drug that appears to be a potent and efficacious agonist at the 5-HT1A receptor in vivo in mice and for CP 94,253 as a drug that activates the 5-HT1B terminal autoreceptor on systemic administration. The response to these drugs effects was measured in ...
A homogenous fluorescence dual-probe assay containing 2-N-(pyren-1-ylmethyl)-2-amino-LNA (locked nucleic acid) building blocks has been developed for effective mismatch-sensitive nucleic acid detection. The pyrene units, which are connected to the rigid bicyclic furanose derivative of 2-amino-LNA through a short linker, are positioned at the 3 and 5 ends of a dual-probe ...
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The flow from a high-speed rotor in a rotor-first arrangement has been measured using a dual-probe, digital sampling (DPDS) technique. The flow field was found...
teaching kits for introduction to fatty acids, lipids and membranes, electroelution of DNA, RNA or protein, microdialysis, protein labeling and cross-linking, and RNA isolation
Implantation of Microdialysis Guide Cannulae and Probe Insertions in the Hippocampus. Seven days before being used in microdialysis experiments, rats were anesthetized with a mixture of chloral hydrate and pentobarbital (170 and 36 mg/kg, respectively, in 30% propylene glycol and 14% ethanol), placed in a stereotaxic apparatus, and implanted unilaterally with guide cannulae (Bioanalytical Systems, Inc., West Lafayette, IN) in the hippocampus (coordinates: anteroposterior, -5.2; mediolateral, 5.2; dorsoventral, -3.8) according to the stereotaxic atlas of Paxinos and Watson (1998). Twenty-four hours before testing, a 4-mm concentric microdialysis probe (BAS Bioanalytical Systems, West Lafayette, IN) was inserted through the guide cannula.. Likewise, for mice, 2-mm microdialysis probes (CMA/Microdialysis, Solna, Sweden) were implanted unilaterally in the hippocampus (mediolateral, +3.1; anteroposterior, -3.3; dorsoventral, -4.2, based on the stereotaxic atlas of Franklin and Paxinos, 1997) under ...
Aortic surgery results in ischemia-reperfusion injury that induces an inflammatory response and frequent complications. The magnitude of the inflammatory response in blood and bronchi may be associated with the risk of immediate complications. The purpose of the study was to evaluate bronchial microdialysis as a continuous monitoring of cytokines in bronchial epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and to determine whether bronchial ELF cytokine levels reflect the ischemia-reperfusion injury and risk for complications during open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. We measured cytokines in venous blood using microdialysis and in serum for comparison. Sixteen patients scheduled for elective open AAA repair were included in a prospective observational study. Microdialysis catheters were introduced into a bronchi and a cubital vein. Eighteen cytokines were measured using a Bio‐Plex Magnetic Human Cytokine Panel. Samples were collected before and during cross‐clamping of the aorta as well as from 0 to ...
Microsyringes are available in 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 mL sizes. These glass syringes have a 60 mm piston stroke. Syringe Needles are pretreated to reduce degradation of labile molecules, such as catecholamines and their metabolites during a microdialysis experiment. |br/| |br/| The Syringe Clip enables the withdrawal of liquids when using either the CMA 400 or the CMA 402 Syringe Pumps. The clip fastens the syringe plunger to the carriage of the pump. |br/| |br/| The Micro T is a three-way connector. Connected to the syringes in the CMA 402 Syringe Pump and a Microdialysis probe, two different perfusion fluids can be combined, even gradually, without introducing air bubbles into the system.
l-glutamate (Glu) is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) and is associated with motor behavior and sensory perception. While microdialysis methods have been used to record tonic levels of Glu, little is known about the more rapid changes in Glu signals that may be observed in awake rats. We have reported acute recording methods using enzyme-based microelectrode arrays (MEA) with fast response time and low detection levels of Glu in anesthetized animals with minimal interference. The current paper concerns modification of the MEA design to allow for reliable measures in the brain of conscious rats. In this study, we characterized the effects of chronic implantation of the MEA into the brains of rats. We were capable of measuring Glu levels for 7 days without loss of sensitivity. We performed studies of tail-pinch induced stress, which caused a robust biphasic increase in Glu. Histological data show chronic implantation of the MEAs caused minimal injury to the ...
Disturbances in serotonergic neurotransmission have been suggested to be closely interlinked with hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system, and are likely to be involved in the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders and major depression. We therefore investigated markers of serotonergic transmission and their modulation by chronic paroxetine in rats selectively bred for high (HAB) or low (LAB) anxiety-related behaviour, both under basal conditions and in response to emotional stress. Hippocampal serotonin 1 A (5-HT1A) receptor mRNA expression was reduced in HAB rats, whereas 5-HT concentrations in hippocampal microdialysates did not differ between HAB and LAB rats under basal conditions. In the hippocampus, overall expression of serotonin transporter binding sites was increased in HAB compared with LAB rats. Exposure to emotional stress failed to increase intrahippocampal 5-HT release in HAB rats whereas LAB rats displayed a physiological, albeit small rise. Chronic ...
Although microdialysis (MD) and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) are widely used sampling techniques, a comparison study has not been performed to date. The goal of the research presented was not only to address this issue but also to develop new analytical methods that were more suitable for in vivo study using MD and SPME. A new calibration method called kinetic microdialysis was developed for in vivo sampling. Two MD probes with different flow rates were simultaneously inserted into the symmetric parts of sampling system. A simple empirical equation was proposed to calculate the analyte concentrations in the sample matrix using two different dialysate concentrations. Several factors that influenced the correction factor in this equation were discussed. An excellent correlation was observed between the calculated and theoretical value. This method was subsequently applied for in vivo sampling, for the measurement of pesticide allocation in the different leaves of a jade plant (Crassula ...
Abstract:. Glycemic control of intensive care patients can be beneficial for this patient group but the continuous determination of their glucose concentration is challenging. Current continuous glucose monitoring systems based on the measurement of interstitial fluid glucose concentration struggle with sensitivity losses, resulting from biofouling or inflammation reactions. Their use as decision support systems for the therapeutic treatment is moreover hampered by physiological time delays as well as gradients in glucose concentration between plasma and interstitial fluid. To overcome these drawbacks, we developed and clinically evaluated a system based on microdialysis of whole blood. Venous blood is heparinised at the tip of a double lumen catheter and pumped through a membrane based micro-fluidic device where protein-free microdialysate samples are extracted. Glucose recovery as an indicator of long term stability was studied in vitro with heparinised bovine blood and remained highly stable ...
Background: The microdialysis (MD) technique is widely spread and used both experi-mentally and in clinical practice. The MD technique allows continuous collection of small molecules such as glucose, lactate, pyruvate and glycerol. Samples are often analysed using the CMA 600 analyser, an enzymatic and colorimetric analyser. Data evaluating the performance of the CMA 600 analysis system and associated sample han-dling are sparse. The aim of this work was to identify sources of variability related to han-dling of microdialysis samples and sources of error associated with use of the CMA 600 analyser. Further, to develop and compare different application techniques of the micro-dialysis probes both within an organ and on the surface of an organ.. Material and Methods: Papers I and II are mainly in vitro studies with the exception of the No Net Flux calibration method in paper I where a pig model (n=7) was used to exam-ine the true concen-tration of glucose and urea in subcutaneous tissue. Flow ...
Compact, flexible, dual syringe pump designed for low pulse-free flow rates suitable for microdialysis experiments and other low flow experiments
Cutaneous vitamin D(3) (VD(3)) is generated by UVB-induced photolysis of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC). VD(3) then undergoes sequential hydroxylation to calcidiol (25-OHD(3)) in the liver and to hormonally active calcitriol (1 alpha,25-(OH)(2)D(3)) in the kidney. Recently, we have described the epidermal VD(3) metabolic pathway by demonstrating the autochthonous formation of calcitriol in cultured keratinocytes. In this study we sought to determine whether photolysis of 7-DHC induced by irradiation of human skin with monochromatic UVB at 300 nm results in epidermal synthesis of calcitriol in vivo. Using a microdialysis technique we demonstrated that UVB irradiation results in a dose- and time-dependent increase in the calcitriol concentration in the extracellular fluid of UVB-irradiated skin. Topical treatment of skin with an ointment containing 2% ketoconazole immediately after irradiation suppressed UVB-induced intraepidermal calcitriol synthesis. This study demonstrates for the first time ...
Other projects are investigating the role of serotonin in the expression and regulation of female sexual behavior. A combination of behavioral and neurochemical techniques are applied. Specific nuclei within the preoptic-hypothalamus continuum are sampled and analyzed for content of monoamines, serotonin and their metabolites. Changes in levels and/or activity of the monoamines are correlated with changes in behavioral receptivity induced by pharmacological (drugs or hormones) or physiological (estrus cycle, neonatal manipulation) means. Dialysis probes are also inserted into the hypothalamus using stereotaxic surgery techniques, and serotonin release is measured in vivo in a conscious rat in relation to lordosis responsivity.. Selected Publications:. Luine, V.N., Mohan, G., Tu, Z. and Efange, S.M.N., Chromaproline and Chromaperidine, nicotine agonists, and Donepezil, cholinesterase inhibitor, enhance memory tasks in ovariectomized rats. Pharmac. Biochem. & Behav. 74: 213-21 (2002 ...
Other projects are investigating the role of serotonin in the expression and regulation of female sexual behavior. A combination of behavioral and neurochemical techniques are applied. Specific nuclei within the preoptic-hypothalamus continuum are sampled and analyzed for content of monoamines, serotonin and their metabolites. Changes in levels and/or activity of the monoamines are correlated with changes in behavioral receptivity induced by pharmacological (drugs or hormones) or physiological (estrus cycle, neonatal manipulation) means. Dialysis probes are also inserted into the hypothalamus using stereotaxic surgery techniques, and serotonin release is measured in vivo in a conscious rat in relation to lordosis responsivity.. Selected Publications:. Luine, V.N., Mohan, G., Tu, Z. and Efange, S.M.N., Chromaproline and Chromaperidine, nicotine agonists, and Donepezil, cholinesterase inhibitor, enhance memory tasks in ovariectomized rats. Pharmac. Biochem. & Behav. 74: 213-21 (2002 ...
We characterized the role of endogenous serotonin (5-HT) in regulating in vivo acetylcholine (ACh) output in frontal cortex of freely moving rats using the microdialysis technique. Systemic (0.63, 1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or local (20 and 40 microM, reverse dialysis) administration of the 5-HT releaser and uptake inhibitor, d-norfenfluramine, dose-dependently enhanced frontal cortex ACh output. The d-norfenfluramine-induced increase in cortical ACh release was tetrodotoxin sensitive and completely prevented by a 7-day chemical degeneration of the serotonergic afferents to the frontal cortex. Investigating the 5-HT receptors that might mediate the d-norfenfluramine cholinergic effect, we found that the 5-HT4 (GR 125487) and 5-HT2A/2C (ritanserin) receptor antagonists, at doses effective in other in vivo tests, did not prevent the increase in cortical ACh output induced by the maximal effective does of d-norfenfluramine. However, the 5-HT1A/1B receptor antagonists (-)-pindolol (8 mg/kg, s.c.) or ...
BioAssay record AID 426688 submitted by ChEMBL: Increase in extracellular serotonin level in frontal cortex of awake and free moving rat at 1 mg/kg, po by microdialysis relative to basal level.
Results-Initial stroke volume ranged from 122 to 479 cm3 with a median of 295 cm3. Nine of 18 patients (50%) had delayed infarct progression (median, 44 cm3; range, 19-93 cm3). In these patients, glucose and individual pyruvate levels were significantly lower when compared with patients without infarct progression, whereas glutamate and the lactate-pyruvate ratio were significantly elevated in patients with infarct progression early after surgery (12-36 hours) at the 15-mm microdialysis probe location. Lactate was elevated but without difference between groups.. ...
The CMA 31 Linear Microdialysis Probe is ideal for peripheral tissues such as skin, muscle, heart, adipose tissue, liver, eye, pancreas and other organs as well
Video articles in JoVE about acrylic resins include Acrylic Resin Molding Based Head Fixation Technique in Rodents, Nano-fEM: Protein Localization Using Photo-activated Localization Microscopy and Electron Microscopy, Application of Light-cured Dental Adhesive Resin for Mounting Electrodes or Microdialysis Probes in Chronic Experiments.
The HSE-HA MiniVent Mouse Ventilator is an ideal ventilator suited for mice. It is remarkable small in size and can be placed close to the animal. It provides a stroke volume from 30 to 350 µl and can ventilate from 60 to 400 breaths/minute. The stroke volume may be adjusted while the ventilator is running ...
Postoperative anastomotic leakage is a serious complication in patients with oesophageal or cardia cancer. Early diagnosis and treatment are mandatory.
Our head block tether assemblies were designed for microdialysis, but also work well for standard infusion applications. In fact, we have found that the head block tether is the best option for all applications when working with mice. It provides a solid attachment to the animal with little risk of infection.
INTRODUCTION: Adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) increases after meal intake and a failure to regulate ATBF in the postprandial period seems to be a feature of insulin resistance and obesity. ATBF can be measured quantitatively by the (133)Xe washout technique, but the microdialysis ethanol escape method has also been employed to detect relative changes in ATBF. METHODS: We compared (133)Xe washout and the recovery of exogenous ethanol and endogenous urea by microdialysis in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, after physiological stimulation of ATBF by ingestion of oral glucose (75 g) in eight healthy people (age 23-52 y, body mass index (BMI) 19.4-29.6 kg/m(2)). RESULTS: The ATBF response was heterogeneous. In subjects responding vigorously to the stimulus as measured by (133)Xe washout, the microdialysis ethanol escape was increased (indicating an increase in ATBF). An increased recovery of urea was observed, also indicating an increase in ATBF. The recovery of both small molecules was delayed
Fourteen male Mongolian gerbils were used in this experiment. The animals were randomly assigned to a group receiving nitrous oxide (nitrous oxide group, n = 7) or a group receiving nitrogen (nitrogen group, n = 7). Concentrations of oxygen, nitrous oxide or nitrogen, and halothane were the same as those in the first experiment. The preparative surgery until head placement was also the same as that in the first experiment. After making a bar hole in the right temporal bone, a microdialysis probe (membrane length of 1.5 mm, molecular weight cutoff of 50,000, OD of 220 μm; A-I-015, Eicom, Kyoto, Japan) was inserted instead of the borosilicate glass electrode in the area that mostly reflected the right hippocampal CA1 region (2 mm posterior to the bregma, 1.5 mm lateral from the sagittal line, and 2 mm below the cortical surface). Before the experiment, the relative recovery rate of each probe was determined by performing microdialysis in a glutamate standard solution (100 μm). The probes were ...
Glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway after human traumatic brain injury: microdialysis studies using 1,2-13C2 glucose. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Multimodal cerebral monitoring was utilized to examine the relationship between pathological changes in microdialysis parameters and the occurrence of spreading depolarizations (SD) in brain-injured patients. SD are a relatively newly discovered phen
In acute ischaemia, glucose-insulin-potassium administration reduces mortality and β-adrenoceptor antagonists have favourable effects on the outcome of ischaemic heart disease. The present study was designed to investigate whether insulin (1.4×10−7 M) and the β-adrenoceptor antagonist, propranolol (10−5 M), increase hypoxic vasodilation in correspondence with changes in glycolysis. Porcine coronary arteries, precontracted with 10−5 M prostaglandin F2α, were mounted in a pressure myograph and a microdialysis catheter was inserted in the tunica media. Hypoxic vasodilation, interstitial lactate/pyruvate ratio and interstitial glucose were measured at low (2 mM) and high (20 mM) glucose concentrations. Hypoxia (60 min) caused vasodilation and doubled the lactate/pyruvate ratio. Treatment with insulin quadrupled the lactate/pyruvate ratio during hypoxia, but did not change hypoxic vasodilation. Propranolol blocked isoprenaline-evoked vasodilation, but hypoxic increases in lactate/pyruvate ...
The sympathetic nerve system is one important regulator of lipolysis. The regulatory role of neuronal transmitter release (e.g. of norepinephrine) and re-uptake in adipose tissue is only poorly understood. Furthermore, adipose tissue secretes hormones, e.g. angiotensin II (Ang II), which can affect adipose tissue lipolysis. Finally, lipolysis depends on blood flow and cellularity of adipose tissue. Aims of this thesis were (I) to characterize the impact of local neuronal norepinephrine release on blood flow and metabolism in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) and to assess possible gender effects, (II) to proof if Ang II inhibits lipolysis and blood flow in SAT, and (III) to test if SAT thickness is negatively correlated with blood flow and metabolism even in non-obese subjects. 42 lean subjects (18 men, 24 women) were studied using microdialysis technique. Tyramine (Tyr) and isoproterenol (Iso) were used to characterize adrenergic response of SAT. Dialysate [ethanol], [glycerol], ...
Urea as a recovery marker for quantitative assessment of tumor interstitial solutes with microdialysis.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Purpose: Human neural stem cells (NSCs) are inherently tumor-tropic, making them attractive drug delivery vehicles. Toward this goal, we retrovirally transduced an immortalized, clonal NSC line to stably express cytosine deaminase (HB1.F3.CD.C21; CD-NSCs), which converts the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Experimental Design: Recurrent high grade glioma patients underwent intracranial administration of CD-NSCs during tumor resection or biopsy. Four days later, patients began taking oral 5-FC every 6 hours for 7 days. Study treatment was given only once. A standard 3+3 dose escalation schema was used to increase doses of CD-NSCs from 10 million to 50 million and 5-FC from 75 to 150 mg/kg/day. Intracerebral microdialysis was performed to measure brain levels of 5-FC and 5-FU. Serial blood samples were obtained to assess systemic drug concentrations as well as to perform immunologic correlative studies. Results: Fifteen patients underwent study treatment. We saw no ...
The microdialysate concentrations (lactate, glutamate, L/P ratio, and glycerol) of SAH patients with AFND were significantly higher than those of controls (P,0.005). The presence of infarction on CT was associated with pathological microdialysis values, while the presence of ICH alone was not. In AFND patients, glutamate, lactate, and the L/P ratio were equivalent markers of acute ischemia. Microdialysate concentrations of glutamate, lactate, and/or the L/P ratio that deteriorated further were predictors of subsequent neurological worsening, eg, as a result of brain swelling or cerebral vasospasm, and were highly indicative of the development of cerebral infarction (P,0.002) and permanent neurological deficits (P,0.003).. In patient studies and experimental positron emission tomography (PET) studies, the L/P ratio is discussed as the most robust marker of acute ischemia, with a high sensitivity and specificity,4,11⇓ while in transient ischemia without development of infarction or permanent ...
Die Erfindung betrifft ein Verfahren und eine Anordnung zur kontinuierlichen berwachung der Konzentration ei nes Metaboliten, wie Glukose oder Milchs ure, in Bioge weben, wobei einer vorzugsweise im Subkutangewebe im plantierten Mikrodialysesonde ein Perfusatstrom zuge f hrt und unter Anreicherung mit dem in der Gewebefl s sigkeit enthaltenen Metaboliten als Dialysatstrom ent nommen wird, und wobei die Konzentration des Metaboli ten im Dialysatstrom unter selektiver Einwirkung eines Enzyms an einer vorzugsweise extrakorporal angeordneten Me stelle bestimmt wird. The invention relates to a method and an arrangement for the continuous monitoring of the concentration ei Nes metabolites such as glucose or lactic acid, weave in Bioge, one preferably in the subcutaneous tissue in-implanted microdialysis probe a perfusate leads and fed as a enrichment with the fluid contained in the Gewebefl s metabolites dialysate is taken ent, and the concentration of the Metaboli th in the dialysate with selective ...
There are two major areas of focus currently in my lab. Abundant evidence suggests a central role for both the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide as well as the tau protein in Alzheimer`s disease (AD) pathogenesis. Changes in Aβ conformation from forms with predominantly random coil/alpha helix to both soluble and insoluble forms with high beta-sheet content appears to be a key event in AD. We are interested in developing a better understanding of Aβ metabolism in the CNS. Some of our studies are trying to understand the role of endogenous (e.g. apoE) and exogenous Aβ binding molecules (anti-Aβ antibodies) in regulating Aβ metabolism and toxicity. ApoE genotype is the most important genetic risk factor for AD and understanding how it contributes to AD pathogenesis is likely to provide key insights into the cause of and potentially treatments for AD. We use a variety of transgenic and knockout mice as well as unique biological assays (e.g. Aβ brain microdialysis) to study mechanisms leading to AD ...
Luca Bors1, Ágnes Bajza1, Barbara Hutka1, László Dénes1, Krisztián Szigeti2, Nikolett Hegedűs2, Dávid Szöllősi2, Domokos Máthé2, Attila Csorba3 and Franciska Erdő1. Investigation of the impact of aging on blood-brain barrier function in rats - Does P-glycoprotein (P-gp) have any role in changing BBB permeability?. ...
This randomized phase II trial provides further rationale supporting a compelling explanation for at least part of this resistance, namely very high interstitial concentrations of hyaluronan," he continued. "These data also support the use of tumor HA as a potential predictive biomarker for patient selection in the ongoing, global phase III study of PAG versus AG in patients with HA-high PDA.". The HALO-202 trial was conducted in two stages. In stage 1 (March 2013 to April 2014), 146 patients were randomized 1:1 to receive PAG or AG -- but researchers observed an imbalance in thromboembolic events early in the study. The trial was subsequently put on hold and 29 patients receiving PAG continued treatment with AG alone. Seven of these patients went back on PEGPH20 therapy when stage 2 of the trial started (August 2014 to February 2016) with an amended protocol.. In stage 2, patients with thromboembolic events were excluded, enoxaparin (Lovenox) prophylaxis was initiated in both arms, and an ...
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Do you want to know how to increase dopamine naturally? This article has all the answers you need. Control your dopamine levels and reap the benefits.
Since the neuropeptide cholecystokinin (CCK) plays a role in the modulation of opiate-induced analgesia, the morphine-mediated release of CCK in the spinal cord of rats was compared with in vivo microdialysis in normals and different pain models ...
The treatment. "For more than 20 years I have used the treatment on my patients. Even when doctors gave them no chances, many of these patients have completely recovered from the disease. The best way to eliminate a tumor is for it to come in contact with baking soda, which can be applied intravenous injection for brain and lung tumors, as an enema for digestive cancers, and inhalation for tumors in the upper respiratory system. Subcutaneous tumors, breast, and lymph system can be treated with a local perfusion. Internal organ tumors should be treated with baking soda by applying it directly into the arteries. It is also important the proper dose to be used for the treatment of every type of cancer," Dr. Simonchini explains. Further he says: "Youll need about 500 cm. of 5% or 8.4% solution for phleboclisis; in some cases, the mixture only needs to be salty enough. During every treatment, it is important to know that a minimum of 6 days of treatment is required because tumor colonies come back ...
de Lange EC, Ravenstijn PG, Groenendaal D, van Steeg TJ. Toward the prediction of CNS drug-effect profiles in physiological and pathological conditions using microdialysis and mechanism-based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling ...
arousal consciousness neural systems fMRI motor cortex EEG MEG microdialysis epilepsy 46-6079A 617-324-1880 … sources of neural activity in the brain from EEG and MEG recordings made during cognitive, motor and somatosensory … ...
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The concentration of extracellular molecules sampled is influenced by recovery-that is, the relation between the true extracellular concentration and the concentration found in the sample collected. Recovery depends on many factors, the most important being membrane length and perfusion rate. Two different membrane lengths and a wide range of perfusion rates have been used in previous studies. Additionally, the concentration of metabolites and amino acids differs between different areas of the brain. As most previous studies have been done in patients with different pathological conditions and with a juxtacortical placement of the microdialysis catheter, there is a lack of comparable normal values for human brain metabolism. The interpretation of our results must therefore be restricted to the patterns in metabolite concentrations and their alterations.. The pattern of baseline values on day 1 of our study-that is, before manipulation of the CSF system-were consistent with disrupted energy ...
The aim of this study was to examine the accumulation of serotonin (5-HT) and degradation of 5-HT taken up into cells in the ischemic region during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion. Using microdialysis technique in anesthetized rats, we monitored myocardial interstitial levels of 5-HT and its metabolite produced by monoamine oxidase (MAO), 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), during 30-min coronary occlusion followed by 45-min reperfusion, and investigated the effects of local administration of the MAO inhibitor pargyline and the 5-HT uptake inhibitor fluoxetine. In the vehicle group, the dialysate 5-HT concentration increased from 1.3 ± 0.2 nM at baseline to 29.6 ± 2.8 nM at 22.5-30 min of occlusion, but the dialysate 5-HIAA concentration did not change from baseline (9.9 ± 1.1 nM). Upon reperfusion, the dialysate 5-HT concentration increased further to a peak (34.2 ± 4.2 nM) at 0-7.5 min and then declined. The dialysate 5-HIAA concentration increased to 31.9 ± 5.2 nM at 7.5-15 min of ...
Chronic myalgia is associated with higher muscle levels of certain algesic biomarkers. The aim of this study was to investigate if hypertonic saline-induced jaw myalgia also leads to release of such biomarkers and if there were any sex differences in this respect. Healthy participants, 15 men and 15 aged-matched women (25.7 +/- 4.3 years) participated. Intramuscular microdialysis into masseter muscles was performed to sample serotonin (5-HT), glutamate, lactate, pyruvate, glucose and glycerol. After 2 hours 0.2 mL hypertonic saline (58.5 mg/mL) was injected into the masseter on one side and 0.2 mL isotonic saline (9 mg/mL) into the contralateral masseter close to the microdialysis catheter. Microdialysis continued for 1 hour after the injections. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) and pain were assessed before and after injections. The median (IQR) peak pain intensity (0-100 visual analogue scale) after hypertonic saline was 52.5 (38.0) and after isotonic saline 7.5 (24.0) (p less than 0.05). 5-HT, ...
The in vivo release of cholecystokinin (CCK)-like material (CCKLM) was measured in the frontal cortex of freely moving rats using the microdialysis technique combined with a sensitive radioimmunoassay. Local perfusion of K+ (100 mM)-enriched artificial CSF resulted in a 10-fold increase in CCKLM outflow, as compared with that occurring under basal resting (K+ = 3.0 mM) conditions, and this effect could be completely prevented by removal of Ca2+ in the perfusing fluid. Chromatographic analyses demonstrated that CCK-8S contributed to 70% of CCKLM. Stressful stimuli such as a 2-min exposure to diethyl ether and a 30-min restraint produced a marked but transient increase in cortical CCKLM release. In addition, anxiety-like behavior induced by the systemic administration of yohimbine (5 mg/kg i.p.) was associated with a long-lasting enhancement in the peptide outflow. Pretreatment with the potent anxiolytic drug diazepam (5 mg/kg i.p., 5 min before each condition), which exerted no effect on its own,
Using intracerebral microdialysis, we reported previously that acute in vivo activation of NMDA glutamate receptors triggers rapid and transient releases of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and F2-isoprostane 15-F2t-IsoP in the hippocampus of freely moving rats. The formation of the two metabolites - produced through cyclo-oxygenase (COX) enzymatic activity and free radical-mediated peroxidation of arachidonic acid (AA), respectively, - was prevented by the specific NMDA antagonist MK-801, and was largely dependent on COX-2 activity. Here, we demonstrate that besides COX-2, which is the prominent COX isoform in the brain and particularly in the hippocampus, the constitutive isoform, COX-1 also contributes to prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and oxidative damage following in vivo acute activation of hippocampal NMDA glutamate receptors. The relative contribution of the two isoforms is dynamically regulated, as the COX-2 selective inhibitor NS398 immediately prevented PGE2 and 15-F2t-IsoP formation during the ...
Although cannabinoid-induced behavioral sensitization and cross-sensitization with opiates has been recently demonstrated, no information is available on the associated state and responsiveness of dopamine (DA) transmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell and core. In this study we investigate by means of dual probe microdialysis, the effect of exposure to a sensitizing regimen of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) and morphine on the extracellular concentrations of DA under basal conditions and after challenge with Delta(9)-THC and morphine in the NAc shell and core. Different groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered twice daily for 3 days with increasing doses of Delta(9)-THC (2, 4, and 8 mg/kg i.p.), morphine (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg s.c.), and vehicle. After 14-20 days from the last injection, the animals were implanted with two microdialysis probes, one aimed at the NAc shell and the other at the core. The following day animals pre-treated with Delta(9)-THC and ...
The effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), 3-morfolinosydnonimine (SIN-1), or S-nitroso-Nacetylpenicillamine (SNAP), on striatal dopamine release in freely moving rats, were evaluated using microdialysis 1 . When infused (1 mM) for 180 min, both SNP (n=3) and SIN-1 (n=3) increased DA dialysate concentrations (baseline levels 6.73±1.02 and 7.15±1.12 nM, respectively). The SNP-induced DA increase was inhibited by deferoxamine co-infusion, thus suggesting a key role for iron in SNP-induced increases in DA release. SNAP 1 mM 180 min infusion decreased dialysate DA (baseline levels 5.34±0.80 nM, n=3). The decrease was a consequence of SNAP-induced non-enzymatic oxidation of extracellular DA; in fact, the decrease was inhibited by N-acetyl-cysteine or uric acid co-infusion. Both SNP and SNAP greatly decreased dialysate ascorbic acid (AA, baseline values 10.82±2.5 and 8.55±2.62 μM, respectively); on the contrary, SIN-1 did not affect dialysate AA (baseline levels 7.90±0.73 μM). These finding ...
Human blood platelets were stored for five days as concentrates in 60 mL of: (a) plasma; (b) non-plasma medium with anticoagulant; and (c) non-plasma medium without anticoagulant. All preparations were equally functional when tested for platelet aggregation and release reaction in response to single agonist or synergistic pairs of agonists in vitro. Platelets stored in non-plasma medium with anti-coagulant had lower kallikrein, fibrino(gen)peptide A, lactate, and beta-thromboglobulin than did plasma controls after five days. In vivo recovery and survival of platelets stored in non-plasma medium with anticoagulant were 51.2% +/- 4.3% and 8.7 +/- 0.3 days, respectively, which were not statistically different from plasma controls of 39.2% +/- 4.9% and 7.2 +/- 0.8 days, respectively. It is concluded that platelets can be stored for five days in a non-plasma medium and still have good in vivo recoveries and survivals. ...
Characterization of extracellular GABA in the sub- stantia nigra reticulata next to means of brain microdialysis. Medical directorship involves blood glucose monitoring; day after day injections of insulin and/or management of oral hypoglycemic medications; a real and together diet; an execute program; and self-management and decision-making skills. Keep a reposeful part in the bedchamber cheap avanafil 100 mg erectile dysfunction treatment by injection. After the producer of the diarrhea is known, edify the toddler and blood how to avoid depth occurrences. While this underlying categorisation remains unsullied, aftermath of inspection added extra lay- ers of cunning to the developmental toxicity of the cup that cheers such that FAS any longer includes malformations of different internal organs as wonderfully as foetal death. Last, but not least, we descend to herbal treatments viagra jelly 100mg sale erectile dysfunction treatment natural in india. The toxicities in the four rare arms were ...
The main findings of the present study were that adenosine causes the secretion of VEGF from human skeletal muscle and that contraction-induced VEGF secretion is partly dependent on adenosine receptor activation. The A2B receptor appears to be important for the adenosine-mediated effect. Moreover, inhibition of PKA and MAPK both reduced the contraction-induced secretion of VEGF, suggesting an involvement of both pathways, although only MAPK appeared to be involved in the adenosine-mediated VEGF secretion.. Skeletal muscle cells contain large amounts of VEGF that can be secreted in response to muscle contraction (15, 17), and the resulting increase in muscle extracellular VEGF is believed to be important for the regulation of angiogenesis (4, 6). In the current study, we investigated contraction-induced VEGF secretion and the potential involvement of adenosine. Infusion of adenosine in human skeletal muscle via microdialysis probes enhanced the extracellular level of VEGF up to approximately ...
Sustained persistence and function of adoptively transferred T-cells are critical parameters for effective anti-tumor activity. To address this, our group has explored the mechanisms by which TLR agonist-induced cytokines, such as IL-12, are capable of efficiently priming CD8+ T-cells. IL-12 primed CD8+ T-cells upregulate the expression of the high affinity IL-2 receptor (CD25) and STAT5. Enhancement of these signaling components increases IL-2 mediated signaling events at low concentrations of IL-2. Blockade with anti-CD25 antibody effectively terminates this enhanced IL-2 signaling in IL-12 primed CD8+ T-cells. More importantly, IL-12 priming of CD8+ T-cells significantly increases in vivo proliferation as measured by CFSE dilution, and ex vivo recovery from lymphoid organs. Utilization of in vivo bioluminescent imaging of firefly luciferase transduced IL-12 primed T-cells demonstrated their ability to traffic into the tumor area, through lymph nodes and bone marrow. Finally, adoptive transfer ...
Publications. Supasid J, Rungkit T, Monitoring interstitial glucose changes during ischemia/reperfusion in human cutaneous free flaps. Thai J Surg 2012; 33: 132-138.. ...
Author: Peñalva, RG et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2002; Keywords: corticotropin-releasing hormone; 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid; free corticosterone; behaviour; forced swimming; stress; Title: Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1-deficiency enhances hippocampal serotonergic neurotransmission: An in vivo microdialysis study in mutant mice
article{9fbb1b35-100c-4956-9da0-cee45e196e94, abstract = {,p,Release properties of intrahippocampal transplants of noradrenergic neurons were monitored by microdialysis in awake and halothane-anaesthetized rats. Fetal locus coeruleus neurons were implanted as a cell suspension into hippocampi deprived of their innate noradrenalin (NA) innervation by intraventricular 6-hydroxydopamine treatment. Dialysis probes of the loop type were implanted into the dorsal hippocampus 1 - 2 days before each experiment, i.e. 7 - 11 months after grafting. Age-matched intact and lesion-only animals served as controls. Microscopic analysis showed a graft-derived tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive, presumably noradrenergic, fibre network throughout the dorsal hippocampal formation, surrounding the probe site. The innervation density varied from sub- to supranormal. The grafts restored baseline NA release in the graft-reinnervated hippocampus to near-normal levels both in awake and halothane-anaesthetized animals. ...
We report the effects of a tyrosine (and phenylalanine)-free amino acid mixture on tyrosine levels, ex vivo catecholamine synthesis and in vivo catecholamine release in brain regions of the rat. Administration of a tyrosine-free amino acid load reduced tissue levels of tyrosine (-50% after 2 h) in all brain regions examined (frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum). The tyrosine-free amino acid mixture also reduced DOPA accumulation: this effect was most marked in striatum (-44%) and nucleus accumbens (-34%), areas with a predominantly dopaminergic innervation. Smaller decreases (-20-24%) were detected in other areas (cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus). The effect on DOPA accumulation was prevented by supplementing the mixture with tyrosine/phenylalanine. The tyrosine-free amino acid mixture did not alter 5-HTP accumulation in any region. In microdialysis experiments, the tyrosine-free amino acid mixture did not consistently alter striatal extracellular dopamine under basal conditions but markedly, and
Altered dopamine neurotransmission has long been implicated in the susceptibility to and development of addictions. However, our understanding of how this occurs remains poor, particularly in humans.. Todays presentation will summarize recent developments using functional neuroimaging and methods for manipulating dopamine transmission.. These studies suggest that, in healthy humans, compulsively abused drugs across multiple pharmacological classes increase extracellular dopamine levels in the striatum. These effects are closely related to the ability of reward-related cues to elicit and sustain approach and desire, weakly related to positive mood tone, and related to euphoria only tenuously if at all.. Individual differences in the magnitude of these dopamine responses have been associated with differences in personality traits, cortical thickness, serotonergic tone, autoreceptor mediated inhibitory feedback, and past drug exposure. Following repeated drug use, the dopamine responses can become ...
The effect of systemic administration of desmethylimipramine (DMI), an inhibitor of the noradrenaline (NA) reuptake carrier, and of GBR 12909, an inhibitor of the dopamine (DA) reuptake carrier, on the in vivo extracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA) was studied by transcerebral dialysis in the prefrontal cortex and in the dorsal caudate of freely moving rats. In the NA-rich prefrontal cortex only DMI increased extracellular DA concentrations whereas in the dorsal caudate only GBR 12909 was effective. Haloperidol increased extracellular DA concentrations more effectively in the dorsal caudate than in the prefrontal cortex. Pretreatment with DMI, which failed to modify the effect of haloperidol in the dorsal caudate, potentiated its action in the prefrontal cortex. The reverse was obtained after GBR 12909 + haloperidol in the two areas. 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning of the dorsal NA bundle prevented the ability of DMI to increase DA concentrations. The results suggest that reuptake into NA ...
Evidence suggests that dopamine (DA) is crucial for initiation and termination as well as sustained execution of movement. For the present study, it was hypothesized that DA plays a more important role in initiation and termination of movement than in its sustained production. To test these hypotheses, rats were trained to walk on a treadmill in a continuous and discontinuous (walk 30 secs/stop 15 seconds) fashion for one hour while striatal DA samples were collected using In Vivo Microdialysis (IVMCD). We predicted larger increases during discontinuous compared to continuous walking. It was found that brain dialysate levels of DA consistently increased from baseline to walking [p|0.05]. However, no significant difference was found in brain dialysate DA between continuous and discontinuous walking [p|0.05]. Similar to DA, its major metabolites DOPAC and HVA, and the serotonin metabolite 5-HIAA, increased during treadmill walking from resting state levels [p|0.05]. None of these metabolites showed a
Biography. The laboratory examines neural mechanisms underlying sleep state: control of breathing, somatomotor activity, and cardiovascular action in developing and adult small animal preparations. Neural mechanisms are examined through neurophysiologic techniques which include assessment of intrinsic optical changes in neural tissue, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and chronic single neuron recording; the optical imaging and cell recording studies are often combined with microdialysis techniques to determine neurochemical mechanisms underlying cell action. We found that a substantial portion of sleep effects on normal and disordered breathing result from rostral brain influences on pontine and medullary structures, that activity over wide areas of these structures can be visualized during ventilatory and pressor challenges in freely behaving animals, and that immature development of mechanisms controlling descending rostral brain influences on breathing can place the organism at ...
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Mitochondrial dysfunction secondary to CKD is a potential source of oxidative stress that may impair vascular function. This study sought to determine if mitochondria derived reactive oxygen species contribute to microvascular dysfunction in Stage 3-5 CKD. Cutaneous vasodilation in response to local heating was assessed in 20 CKD patients (60±13 years; eGFR 46±13ml/kg/1.73m2) and eleven matched healthy participants (58±2 years; eGFR,90ml/kg/1.73m2). Participants were instrumented with 2 microdialysis fibers for the delivery of 1) Ringers solution 2) mitochondria specific superoxide scavenger MitoTempo. Skin blood flow was measured via laser Doppler flowmetry during standardized local heating (42°C). Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as a percentage of the maximum conductance achieved with sodium nitroprusside infusion at 43°C. Urinary isofuran/F2-isoprostane ratios were assessed by ...
Rosas-Ballina et al. (2011) show that it is not neurons that are secreting the ACh responsible for activating macrophages. Rather, it is splenic T cells that release ACh after being innervated by the splenic nerve fibers. These T cells express adrenergic receptors that can respond to norepinephrine secreted by the splenic nerve fibers. Hence, T cells are essentially functioning like neurons that can respond to neuronal signals and release a neurotransmitter in response! Using a specific strain of mice called BALB/c, the authors found that electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve in these mice increased acetylcholine levels within minutes, as measured by microdialysis and mass spectrometry. Microdialysis is simply a semi-invasive technique that allows researchers to measure the amount of neurotransmitters or other molecules that are transported to or generated within the extracellular milieu in virtually any organ in the body. This technique is especially useful in in vivo studies and relies on ...
Garces-Ramirez, L., Green, J., Hiranita, T., Kopajtic, T., Mereu, M., Thomas, A., ... Tanda, G. (2011). Sigma receptors agonists: Receptor binding and effects on mesolimbic dopamine neurotransmission assessed by microdialysis in rats. Biological Psychiatry, 69, 208 - 217 ...
Looking for online definition of Pontine reticular formation in the Medical Dictionary? Pontine reticular formation explanation free. What is Pontine reticular formation? Meaning of Pontine reticular formation medical term. What does Pontine reticular formation mean?
Regular walking exercise attenuates lower-limb cutaneous microvascular endothelial dysfunction in post-surgical varicose-vein patients. This study assessed the effects of upper-limb exercise training on lower-limb cutaneous microvascular function in this patient group. Six post-surgical (4-5 weeks) varicose-vein patients completed an 8-week arm-crank exercise training programme. Changes in cutaneous microvascular function of the lower leg were assessed using laser Doppler flowmetry and iontophoretic administration of endothelial-dependent and -independent agonists [acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), respectively]. At 8 weeks, median lower-limb cutaneous vasodilator responsives to ACh and SNP remained unchanged relative to baseline (e.g. 6 mC: 37 (interquartile range 24-63) vs. 40 (20-71) PU and 35 (23-48) vs. 38 (21-64) PU, respectively for the supine position). Upper-limb exercise appears ineffective for improving lower-limb cutaneous microvascular function in post-surgical ...
CONTEXT Knowledge of the role that qualitative as opposed to energy aspects of diet play in the accumulation of visceral abdominal adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) is limited and not conclusive. OBJECTIVE A systematic review was conducted to evaluate and summarize the existing literature investigating the relationships between qualitative aspects of diet, from single dietary components to overall dietary patterns, and VAT and SAAT. DATA SOURCES The PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched. STUDY SELECTION Observational and controlled intervention studies that assessed healthy adults or adolescents using magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, or ultrasound were eligible for inclusion. After quality assessment of all eligible studies, 20 observational and 23 controlled intervention studies were included. DATA SYNTHESIS Considering study quality, including nutritional and abdominal adipose ...
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) catabolises the catecholamine neurotransmitters and influences cognitive function. COMT modulates dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex and its action in this region is generally invoked to explain its effects on cognition. However, its role in other brain regions important for cognitive function remains largely unexplored. Here, we investigated COMTs impact on dopamine metabolism in the hippocampus and hippocampal-dependent behaviour. We examined the acute effects of a centrally-acting COMT inhibitor, tolcapone (30 mg/kg i.p.), on dopamine metabolism in the rat dorsal hippocampus, assessed both in tissue homogenates and extracellularly, using in vivo microdialysis. Additionally, we investigated the effect of tolcapone on delayed-rewarded alternation and spatial novelty preference, behavioural tasks which are dependent on the dorsal hippocampus. Tolcapone significantly modulated dopamine metabolism in the dorsal hippocampus, as indexed by the depletion of

Microdialysis - WikipediaMicrodialysis - Wikipedia

The microdialysis technique requires the insertion of a small microdialysis catheter (also referred to as microdialysis probe) ... The microdialysis principle was first employed in the early 1960s, when push-pull canulas[2] and dialysis sacs[3] were ... The first non-metabolite to be analyzed by microdialysis in vivo in the human brain was rifampicin.[12][13][14] ... The microdialysis technique has undergone much development since its first use in 1972,[4] when it was first employed to ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microdialysis

Microdialysis Services | Charles RiverMicrodialysis Services | Charles River

Apart from conventional microdialysis that sample small molecular weight analytes, Charles River offers a push-pull method to ... Case Study: Customized Microdialysis. * Situation Client-developed compound showed clear behavioral phenotype, but mechanism of ... Apart from conventional microdialysis that sample small molecular weight analytes, Charles River offers a push-pull method to ... Microdialysis is a minimally-invasive sampling technique that is used for continuous measurement of free, unbound analyte ...
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WikiGenes - MicrodialysisWikiGenes - Microdialysis

Associations of Microdialysis with chemical compounds. *In conclusion, our data demonstrate that in situ microdialysis is a ... High impact information on Microdialysis. *In vivo microdialysis of muscle tissue was used to determine the gradient between ... Gene context of Microdialysis. *Next, we demonstrated by simultaneous microdialysis of the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the PVN ... Disease relevance of Microdialysis. *Sixty minutes after the insertion of the microdialysis probes, systemic hypoxia was ...
more infohttp://www.wikigenes.org/e/mesh/e/13536.html

Instruments - MicrodialysisInstruments - Microdialysis

CMA 4004 Microdialysis Syringe Pump The CMA 4004 Touch Screen Syringe Pump is a totally new design that is easy-to-use and can ... CMA 402 Microdialysis Syringe Pump The CMA 402 Syringe Pump is a compact, flexible, dual syringe pump designed for low ... CMA 130 In Vitro Stand The CMA 130 In Vitro Stand is used for storage and during testing of microdialysis probes. Learn ... CMA 120 System for Freely Moving Animals The CMA 120 System for Freely Moving Animals enables microdialysis studies on ...
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Instruments - MicrodialysisInstruments - Microdialysis

CMA 4004 Microdialysis Syringe Pump The CMA 4004 Touch Screen Syringe Pump is a totally new design that is easy-to-use and can ... CMA 402 Microdialysis Syringe Pump The CMA 402 Syringe Pump is a compact, flexible, dual syringe pump designed for low ... CMA 130 In Vitro Stand The CMA 130 In Vitro Stand is used for storage and during testing of microdialysis probes. Learn ... CMA 120 System for Freely Moving Animals The CMA 120 System for Freely Moving Animals enables microdialysis studies on ...
more infohttps://www.harvardapparatus.com/microdialysis-cma/instruments.html/

Open Flow Microperfusion: An Alternative Method to Microdialysis?Open Flow Microperfusion: An Alternative Method to Microdialysis?

Microdialysis in Drug Development Microdialysis in Drug Development. AAPS Advances in the Pharmaceutical Sciences Series, Vol. ... Open Flow Microperfusion: An Alternative Method to Microdialysis?. Publikation aus Health. Univ.-Prof. Dr. Thomas Pieber, DI Dr ...
more infohttps://www.joanneum.at/health/publikationen/detail/publications/open-flow-microperfusion-an-alternative-method-to-microdialysis/

Rodent Microdialysis Surgical Kits by Harvard Apparatus | Medline Industries, Inc.Rodent Microdialysis Surgical Kits by Harvard Apparatus | Medline Industries, Inc.

Rodent Microdialysis Surgical Kits by Harvard Apparatus. *Rodent Microdialysis Surgical Kit is ideally suited for rat ... Because CMA (a Harvard Apparatus company) specializes in microdialysis,the essential tools required for this application have ...
more infohttp://www.medline.com/product/Rodent-Microdialysis-Surgical-Kits-by-Harvard-Apparatus/Research/Z05-PF97266?question=&index=P9&indexCount=9

Overview of Brain Microdialysis - Current ProtocolsOverview of Brain Microdialysis - Current Protocols

The technique of microdialysis enables sampling and collecting of small‐molecular‐weight substances from the interstitial space ... Use of microdialysis in neuroendocrinology. Methods Enzymol. 168:182‐205. Kendrick, K.M. 1990. Microdialysis measurement of in ... Brain microdialysis. J. Neurochem. 52:1667‐1679. Benveniste, H. and Huttemeier, P.C. 1990. Microdialysis: Theory and ... Microdialysis compared with other in vivo release models. In Microdialysis in the Neurosciences (T.E. Robinson and J.B. Justice ...
more infohttp://www.currentprotocols.com/WileyCDA/CPUnit/refId-ns0701.html

Patent US6346090 - Microdialysis catheter for insertion into a blood vessel - Google PatentsPatent US6346090 - Microdialysis catheter for insertion into a blood vessel - Google Patents

Cma Microdialysis Ab. Microdialysis catheter and a method of making a microdialysis catheter. ... Cma Microdialysis Ab. Microdialysis Catheter and a Method of Making a Microdialysis Catheter. ... Cma/Microdialysis Ab. Microdialysis catheter and a method of making a microdialysis catheter. ... Although this prior microdialysis catheter represents a major step forward in the art of microdialysis, it still suffers from ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US6346090?dq=ininventor:oliver+ininventor:steele

Outcome of microdialysis sampling on liver surface and parenchymaOutcome of microdialysis sampling on liver surface and parenchyma

... Abrahamsson, Pernilla Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, ... Microdialysis, Liver, Ischemia, Reperfusion, Surface probe, Metabolism National Category Physiology Biomedical Laboratory ... Background: To investigate whether surface microdialysis (μD) sampling in probes covered by a plastic film, as compared to ...
more infohttp://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A876273&c=3&searchType=ORGANISATION&language=en&query=&af=%5B%5D&aq=%5B%5B%7B%22organisationId%22%3A%22794%22%7D%5D%5D&aq2=%5B%5B%5D%5D&aqe=%5B%5D&noOfRows=50&sortOrder=author_sort_asc&sortOrder2=title_sort_asc&onlyFullText=false&sf=all

Preferential Targeting of Subpopulations of 5-HT1A Receptors: Microdialysis Study | Parkinsons DiseasePreferential Targeting of Subpopulations of 5-HT1A Receptors: Microdialysis Study | Parkinson's Disease

Preferential Targeting of Subpopulations of 5-HT1A Receptors: Microdialysis Study. Research Grant, 2013. This grant builds upon ... Anti-dyskinetic Activity of the Selective 5-HT1A Agonist NLX-112: Behavioral and Microdialysis Studies ...
more infohttps://www.michaeljfox.org/foundation/grant-detail.php?grant_id=1123

Metabolic profile of injured human spinal cord determined using surface microdialysis.Metabolic profile of injured human spinal cord determined using surface microdialysis.

By visualizing the microdialysis data, Kohonen maps allow us to see these metabolic responses, and may thus aid us in treating ... Metabolic profile of injured human spinal cord determined using surface microdialysis.. Chen S, Phang I, Zoumprouli A, ... glutamate and glycerol using microdialysis as well as intraspinal pressure and spinal cord perfusion pressure. A hexagonal ...
more infohttp://www.wingsforlife.com/de/aktuelles/metabolic-profile-of-injured-human-spinal-cord-determined-using-surface-microdialysis-1695/

Microstimulation in The Brain : Does Microdialysis Influence the Activated Volume of Tissue?Microstimulation in The Brain : Does Microdialysis Influence the Activated Volume of Tissue?

Microstimulation in The Brain-Does Microdialysis Influence the Activated Volume of Tissue?(2151 kB). 632 downloads. ... Microstimulation in The Brain: Does Microdialysis Influence the Activated Volume of Tissue?. Krapohl, David University of ... The neurotransmit- ter outflow in close proximity to the stimulation is hereby measured by means of microdialysis. To establish ... deep brain stimulation, electrode-brain interface, impedance, microdialysis, microelectrodes National Category Industrial ...
more infohttp://www.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:280516

Insulin, intracerebral glucose and bedside biochemical monitoring utilizing microdialysis.Insulin, intracerebral glucose and bedside biochemical monitoring utilizing microdialysis.

... Nordström, Carl-Henrik LU (2008) In ... intracerebral glucose and bedside biochemical monitoring utilizing microdialysis.}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/cc6826}, ...
more infohttps://lup.lub.lu.se/search/publication/1147264

Response to Microdialysis of Prostaglandins, Thromboxane, and Other Eicosanoids: Recall Past Knowledge | HypertensionResponse to Microdialysis of Prostaglandins, Thromboxane, and Other Eicosanoids: Recall Past Knowledge | Hypertension

Response to Microdialysis of Prostaglandins, Thromboxane, and Other Eicosanoids: Recall Past Knowledge. Ylva Hellsten, Jens ... Microdialysis of prostaglandins, thromboxane, and other eicosanoids: recall past knowledge. Hypertension. 2012;59:e39. ... In situ microdialysis of intramuscular prostaglandin and thromboxane in contracting skeletal muscle in humans. Acta Physiol ... We have found that several kinds of commercial microdialysis probes, despite adequate cutoff, have very poor in vivo recoveries ...
more infohttp://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/59/5/e40

Microdialysis Syringes and AccessoriesMicrodialysis Syringes and Accessories

Connected to the syringes in the CMA 402 Syringe Pump and a Microdialysis probe, two different perfusion fluids can be combined ... such as catecholamines and their metabolites during a microdialysis experiment. ,br/, ,br/, The Syringe Clip enables the ... Login to view CMA Microdialysis Products in Improvement of the Mechanical Stability of Microdialysis Catheters.pdf [1.3 MB] Not ... Login to view CMA Microdialysis Products in Muscle Distribution of the Neuromuscular Blocker Gallamine Using Microdialysis.pdf ...
more infohttps://www.harvardapparatus.co.uk/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/haisku2_10001_11555_68472_-1_HAUK_ProductDetail_N_37714_37716

Is microdialysis useful for early detection of acute rejection after kidney transplantation? | Sigma-AldrichIs microdialysis useful for early detection of acute rejection after kidney transplantation? | Sigma-Aldrich

Is microdialysis useful for early detection of acute rejection after kidney transplantation?. [Hamidreza Fonouni, Mohammad ... The aim of this study was to investigate the role of microdialysis (MD) in the early detection of acute graft rejection factor ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/25865085

CMA Microdialysis ABCMA Microdialysis AB

CMA Microdialysis. Phone: +46 8 470 10 00. E-mail: [email protected]microdialysis.se. Please use this link to access to the Harvard ... CMA Microdialysis distributes Harvard Apparatus products. CMA Microdialysis is a subsidiary of Harvard Apparatus and we ... Head office: CMA Microdialysis AB , Torshamnsgatan 30A, SE-164 40 Kista , Phone: +46 8 470 10 00 , © CMA Microdialysis US ...
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Mediastinal Microdialysis in Patients With Oesophageal or Cardia Cancer Treated by ResectionMediastinal Microdialysis in Patients With Oesophageal or Cardia Cancer Treated by Resection

microdialysis during the postoperative period. Subcutaneous microdialysis serves as a. control. Samples are collected every 4- ... Mediastinal Microdialysis in Early Diagnosis of Anastomotic Leakage After Resection for Esophageal Cancer: Preliminary Results ... Mediastinal Microdialysis in Early Diagnosis of Anastomotic Leakage After Resection for Esophageal Cancer: Preliminary Results ... microdialysis. This will be compared to results from patients with various complications.. ...
more infohttp://www.knowcancer.com/cancer-trials/NCT00686569/

CMA Microdialysis ABCMA Microdialysis AB

Head office: CMA Microdialysis AB , Torshamnsgatan 30A, SE-164 40 Kista , Phone: +46 8 470 10 00 , © CMA Microdialysis US ...
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Metabolomic patterns in glioblastoma and changes during radiotherapy : a clinical microdialysis studyMetabolomic patterns in glioblastoma and changes during radiotherapy : a clinical microdialysis study

Microdialysis catheters were implanted in the contrast enhancing tumor as well as in the brain adjacent to tumor (BAT). ... Metabolomic patterns in glioblastoma and changes during radiotherapy: a clinical microdialysis study. Wibom, Carl Umeå ... We employed stereotactic microdialysis to sample extracellular fluid intracranially from glioblastoma patients, before and ... The samples were collected by means of stereotactic microdialysis, both from within the contrast enhancing tumor and the brain ...
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Peritoneal microdialysis. Early diagnosis of anastomotic leakage after low anterior resection for rectosigmoid cancer.Peritoneal microdialysis. Early diagnosis of anastomotic leakage after low anterior resection for rectosigmoid cancer.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intraperitoneal microdialysis in early detection of ... Peritoneal microdialysis was performed by a 1 mm thin catheter anchored in close proximity to the anastomosis. Five patients ... Average microdialysis time in the remaining 45 patients was 177.6 (80-252) hours. Samples were collected every 4-hours, and the ... CONCLUSION: Peritoneal microdialysis is a safe and promising tool in early diagnosis of anastomotic leakage after low anterior ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Peritoneal-microdialysis-early-diagnosis-anastomotic/19919919.html

Intracerebral microdialysis and CSF hydrodynamics in idiopathic adult hydrocephalus syndrome | Journal of Neurology,...Intracerebral microdialysis and CSF hydrodynamics in idiopathic adult hydrocephalus syndrome | Journal of Neurology,...

The microdialysis system was perfused with Perfusion Fluid CNS (CMA Microdialysis) at a flow rate of 2 μl/min. In patients 3 to ... In patients 3 to 10, a subcutaneous microdialysis catheter CMA/60 (CMA Microdialysis) was inserted in the abdominal wall as ... Microdialysis. The mean concentrations of the metabolites on days 1 and 2 for the 10 patients are presented in fig 3⇓. After ... The subcutaneous microdialysis samples on day 2 did not deviate from those on day 1 for any of the metabolites studied (table 2 ...
more infohttp://jnnp.bmj.com/content/74/2/217.full

Recovery rates of combination antibiotic therapy using in vitro microdialysis simulating in vivo conditionsRecovery rates of combination antibiotic therapy using in vitro microdialysis simulating in vivo conditions

In vitro microdialysis recovery studies were conducted on a combination of vancomycin and tobramycin, in a simulated in vivo ... Microdialysis is a technique used to measure the unbound antibiotic concentration in the interstitial spaces, the target site ... Recovery rates of combination antibiotic therapy using in vitro microdialysis simulating in vivo conditions. Dhanani, Jayesh A ... In vitro recovery studies are essential to calibrating the microdialysis system for in vivo studies. The effect of a ...
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In vivo pharmacokinetics and in vitro antifungal activity of iodiconazole, a new triazole, determined by microdialysis sampling...In vivo pharmacokinetics and in vitro antifungal activity of iodiconazole, a new triazole, determined by microdialysis sampling...

It was demonstrated that well-calibrated microdialysis sampling in rats could be used to assess the percutaneous penetration ... In vivo pharmacokinetics and in vitro antifungal activity of iodiconazole, a new triazole, determined by microdialysis sampling ... in rat dermal interstitial fluid and blood was investigated by double-site microdialysis following dermal administration. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23298433
  • Today, the method of choice to measure drug concentrations over time directly at the target site is microdialysis, a minimally invasive sampling technique used for the continuous measurement of unbound, active drug concentrations in e.g. the interstitial space fluid. (fu-berlin.de)
  • According to Brody, microdialysis provides some information that imaging does not, including changes over time. (wustl.edu)
  • The Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration in the agriculture, consumer protection, food and nutrition sector is offering a public funding opportunity titled " Bioequivalence of Topical Products: Elucidating Fundamental Principles of Dermal Pharmacokinetics for Microdialysis or Microperfusion Techniques (U01) Clinical Trials Not Allowed " and is now available to receive applicants. (freehudgrants.com)
  • He now works closely with neurosurgeons at King's College Hospital, bowel and kidney surgeons at Imperial College, and Maxillofacial surgeons at Queen Alexandra's Hospital Portsmouth on the use of on-line microdialysis to detect transient ischaemia, and the development of new clinical monitoring techniques. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • As with all of our services, these surgical/compound administration techniques can be applied in combination with other studies like microdialysis, behavior, or EEG measurements for greatest value and efficiency. (criver.com)
  • My PhD project deals with the analysis of pharmacokinetic (PK) data (plasma/serum and microdialysis drug concentration data) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data (e.g. disease scores, inflammation marker, mortality rate) from clinical trials in special patient populations using the nonlinear mixed-effects modelling approach. (fu-berlin.de)
  • My lab invented long-term pineal microdialysis , which permits automated, computer-controlled and high-resolution analysis of melatonin secretion from rodent pineal gland from four to 10 weeks in the same animal. (wakingtimes.com)
  • Medical device company, Probe Scientific, is developing its existing microdialysis technology to provide therapeutic antibiotic drug monitoring for healthcare practitioners at the bedside. (probescientific.com)
  • The present study was designed to compare the effects of typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs on extracellular dopamine (DA) levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the nucleus accumbens (NAC), using in vivo microdialysis with dual probe implantation in awake, freely moving rats. (elsevier.com)
  • Ongoing work with our collaborators in Italy is to assess axonal injury with both specialized imaging and microdialysis in the same patients. (wustl.edu)