Microbiota: The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Prebiotics: Non-digestible food ingredients mostly of a carbohydrate base that improve human health by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of existing BACTERIA in the COLON.Bifidobacterium: A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.Germ-Free Life: Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Dysbiosis: Changes in quantitative and qualitative composition of MICROBIOTA. The changes may lead to altered host microbial interaction or homeostatic imbalance that can contribute to a disease state often with inflammation.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Bacteroidetes: A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.Lactobacillus: A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Metagenomics: The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Verrucomicrobia: A phylum of gram-negative bacteria containing seven class-level groups from a wide variety of environments. Most members are chemoheterotrophs.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Microbial Interactions: The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Synbiotics: Nutritional supplements combining PROBIOTICS (bacteria) and PREBIOTICS (sugars).Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.Ruminococcus: A genus of gram-positive bacteria in the family Lachnospiraceae that inhabits the RUMEN; LARGE INTESTINE; and CECUM of MAMMALS.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Actinobacteria: Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)Prevotella: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods. Organisms of this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings in 1990 indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was established.Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Chronic, non-specific inflammation of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Etiology may be genetic or environmental. This term includes CROHN DISEASE and ULCERATIVE COLITIS.Vaginosis, Bacterial: Polymicrobial, nonspecific vaginitis associated with positive cultures of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic organisms and a decrease in lactobacilli. It remains unclear whether the initial pathogenic event is caused by the growth of anaerobes or a primary decrease in lactobacilli.Microbial Consortia: A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Colitis: Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.Methanobrevibacter: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, cocci to short rod-shaped ARCHAEA, in the family METHANOBACTERIACEAE, order METHANOBACTERIALES. They are found in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or other anoxic environments.Lactobacillales: An order of gram-positive bacteria in the class Bacilli, that have the ability to ferment sugars to lactic acid. They are widespread in nature and commonly used to produce fermented foods.Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Fusobacteria: A phylum of anaerobic, gram-negative bacteria with a chemoorganotrophic heterotrophic metabolism. They are resident flora of the OROPHARYNX.Biological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Bacterial Translocation: The passage of viable bacteria from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT to extra-intestinal sites, such as the mesenteric lymph node complex, liver, spleen, kidney, and blood. Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the INTESTINAL MUCOSA resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Bacterial translocation from the lung to the circulation is also possible and sometimes accompanies MECHANICAL VENTILATION.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Infant Formula: Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Principal Component Analysis: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Isoptera: An order of insects, restricted mostly to the tropics, containing at least eight families. A few species occur in temperate regions of North America.Lactobacillus acidophilus: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of humans and animals, the human mouth, and vagina. This organism produces the fermented product, acidophilus milk.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Bacteroidaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Lactobacillus reuteri: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped LACTIC ACID bacteria found naturally in the human intestinal flora and BREAST MILK.Eubacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Intestinal Diseases: Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Intestine, Large: A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.Mice, Inbred C57BLEcosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms: Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.Gardnerella vaginalis: A species in the genus GARDNERELLA previously classified as Haemophilus vaginalis. This bacterium, also isolated from the female genital tract of healthy women, is implicated in the cause of bacterial vaginosis (VAGINOSIS, BACTERIAL).Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A disorder with chronic or recurrent colonic symptoms without a clearcut etiology. This condition is characterized by chronic or recurrent ABDOMINAL PAIN, bloating, MUCUS in FECES, and an erratic disturbance of DEFECATION.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Veillonellaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria, in the phylum FIRMICUTES.Bacteria, AnaerobicEnterocolitis: Inflammation of the MUCOSA of both the SMALL INTESTINE and the LARGE INTESTINE. Etiology includes ISCHEMIA, infections, allergic, and immune responses.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Lactobacillus fermentum: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria associated with DENTAL CARIES.Gastrointestinal Contents: The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Lactobacillus rhamnosus: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria used in PROBIOTICS.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Helicobacter hepaticus: A species of HELICOBACTER that colonizes the CECUM and COLON of several strains of MICE, and is associated with HEPATITIS and carcinogenesis.Clostridium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Clostridium difficile: A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.Enteritis: Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Cedrus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. It is the source of cedarwood oil. Cedar ordinarily refers to this but also forms part of the name of plants in other genera.Inulin: A starch found in the tubers and roots of many plants. Since it is hydrolyzable to FRUCTOSE, it is classified as a fructosan. It has been used in physiologic investigation for determination of the rate of glomerular function.Periodontitis: Inflammation and loss of connective tissues supporting or surrounding the teeth. This may involve any part of the PERIODONTIUM. Periodontitis is currently classified by disease progression (CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS; AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS) instead of age of onset. (From 1999 International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions, American Academy of Periodontology)Citrobacter rodentium: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus CITROBACTER, family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE. As an important pathogen of laboratory mice, it serves as a model for investigating epithelial hyperproliferation and tumor promotion. It was previously considered a strain of CITROBACTER FREUNDII.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Lactobacillus plantarum: A species of rod-shaped, LACTIC ACID bacteria used in PROBIOTICS and SILAGE production.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Bacteria, AerobicObesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Megasphaera: A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family ACIDAMINOCOCCACEAE, found in the RUMEN of SHEEP and CATTLE, and also in humans.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Gingiva: Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.Butyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.Periapical Abscess: Acute or chronic inflammation of tissues surrounding the apical portion of a tooth, associated with the collection of pus, resulting from infection following pulp infection through a carious lesion or as a result of an injury causing pulp necrosis. (Dorland, 27th ed)Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Veillonella: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic cocci parasitic in the mouth and in the intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals.Tetrathionic Acid: A sulfuric acid dimer, formed by disulfide linkage. This compound has been used to prolong coagulation time and as an antidote in cyanide poisoning.Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Bacteroides fragilis: Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).Crambe Sponge: A genus of SPONGES in the family Crambeidae characterized by desmoid spicules. The type species is Crambe crambe.Acetobacter: A species of gram-negative bacteria of the family ACETOBACTERACEAE found in FLOWERS and FRUIT. Cells are ellipsoidal to rod-shaped and straight or slightly curved.Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Enterocolitis, Necrotizing: ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Philology: The study of literature in its widest sense, including grammar, etymology, criticism, literary history, language history, linguistic history, systems of writing, and anything else that is relevant to literature or language viewed as literature. Philology as a discipline has both philosophical and scientific overtones.Gingival Pocket: An abnormal extension of a gingival sulcus not accompanied by the apical migration of the epithelial attachment.Microarray Analysis: The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.Lower Gastrointestinal Tract: The segment of GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the small intestine below the DUODENUM, and the LARGE INTESTINE.Milk, HumanFructans: Polysaccharides composed of D-fructose units.Paneth Cells: Differentiated epithelial cells of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA, found in the basal part of the intestinal crypts of Lieberkuhn. Paneth cells secrete GROWTH FACTORS, digestive enzymes such as LYSOZYME and antimicrobial peptides such as cryptdins (ALPHA-DEFENSINS) into the crypt lumen.Gram-Negative Anaerobic Cocci: A group of anaerobic coccoid bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Cefoperazone: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin with a tetrazolyl moiety that is resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed especially against Pseudomonas infections.Trichuris: A genus of nematode worms comprising the whipworms.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Halitosis: An offensive, foul breath odor resulting from a variety of causes such as poor oral hygiene, dental or oral infections, or the ingestion of certain foods.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Cultured Milk Products: Milk modified with controlled FERMENTATION. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KAFFIR CORN.Oropharynx: The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Amorphophallus: A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. Members contain konjac glucomannan (MANNANS) and SEROTONIN.Colic: A clinical syndrome with intermittent abdominal pain characterized by sudden onset and cessation that is commonly seen in infants. It is usually associated with obstruction of the INTESTINES; of the CYSTIC DUCT; or of the URINARY TRACT.Capnocytophaga: A gram-negative gliding bacterium isolated from the oral cavity. It is a pathogen often causing PERIODONTITIS.Lactobacillaceae: A family of gram-positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices. A few species are highly pathogenic.Porphyromonas: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods or coccobacilli. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was created.Amish: An ethnic group with shared religious beliefs. Originating in Switzerland in the late 1600s, and first migrating to the mid-Atlantic, they now live throughout Eastern and Mid-Western United States and elsewhere. Communities are usually close-knit and marriage is within the community.Mucin-2: A gel-forming mucin found predominantly in SMALL INTESTINE and variety of mucous membrane-containing organs. It provides a protective, lubricating barrier against particles and infectious agents.Human Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.Betaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous: An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.Fusobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.Dextran Sulfate: Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Peri-Implantitis: An inflammatory process with loss of supporting bone in the tissues surrounding functioning DENTAL IMPLANTS.Immunomodulation: Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.Colon, Transverse: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between ASCENDING COLON and DESCENDING COLON. It passes from the RIGHT COLIC FLEXURE across the ABDOMEN, then turns sharply at the left colonic flexure into the descending colon.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Bread: Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.Ribosome Subunits, Small: The small ribonucleoprotein component of RIBOSOMES. It contains the MESSENGER RNA binding site and two TRANSFER RNA binding sites - one for the incoming AMINO ACYL TRNA (A site) and the other (P site) for the peptidyl tRNA carrying the elongating peptide chain.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Crohn Disease: A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.Chlortetracycline: A TETRACYCLINE with a 7-chloro substitution.Lactobacillus casei: A rod-shaped bacterium isolated from milk and cheese, dairy products and dairy environments, sour dough, cow dung, silage, and human mouth, human intestinal contents and stools, and the human vagina.Trichuriasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus TRICHURIS, formerly called Trichocephalus.Carnobacteriaceae: A family of gram-positive, lactic acid-producing bacteria in the order Lactobacillales. It includes both high-pressure-loving species (piezophiles) found in the deep ocean, and Antarctic species.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Rifamycins: A group of ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS characterized by a chromophoric naphthohydroquinone group spanned by an aliphatic bridge not previously found in other known ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS. They have been isolated from fermentation broths of Streptomyces mediterranei.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Oligochaeta: A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Streptococcaceae: A family of gram-positive non-sporing bacteria including many parasitic, pathogenic, and saprophytic forms.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Clostridium butyricum: Type species of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM, a gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is used as a source of PROBIOTICS.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Abiotrophia: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family Aerococcaceae.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Fibrobacter: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria in the family Fibrobacteraceae, isolated from the human GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88: An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Pediococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. No endospores are produced. Its organisms are found in fermenting plant products and are nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex: A member of the S-100 protein family that is present at high levels in the blood and interstitial fluid in several infectious, inflammatory, and malignant disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cystic fibrosis. It is a complex of a light chain (CALGRANULIN A) and a heavy chain (CALGRANULIN B). L1 binds calcium through an EF-hand motif, and has been shown to possess antimicrobial activity.Adaptive Immunity: Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).

Impact of deoxynivalenol on the intestinal microflora of pigs. (1/360)

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The role of probiotics in the poultry industry. (2/360)

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Estimating population diversity with unreliable low frequency counts. (3/360)

We consider the classical population diversity estimation scenario based on frequency count data (the number of classes or taxa represented once, twice, etc. in the sample), but with the proviso that the lowest frequency counts, especially the singletons, may not be reliably observed. This arises especially in data derived from modern high-throughput DNA sequencing, where errors may cause sequences to be incorrectly assigned to new taxa instead of being matched to existing, observed taxa. We look at a spectrum of methods for addressing this issue, focusing in particular on fitting a parametric mixture model and deleting the highest-diversity component; we also consider regarding the data as left-censored and effectively pooling two or more low frequency counts. We find that these purely statistical "downstream" corrections will depend strongly on their underlying assumptions, but that such methods can be useful nonetheless.  (+info)

Comparisons of distance methods for combining covariates and abundances in microbiome studies. (4/360)

This article compares different methods for combining abundance data, phylogenetic trees and clinical covariates in a nonparametric setting. In particular we study the output from the principal coordinates analysis on UNIFRAC and WEIGHTED UNIFRAC distances and the output from a double principal coordinate analyses DPCOA using distances computed on the phylogenetic tree. We also present power comparisons for some of the standard tests of phylogenetic signal between different types of samples. These methods are compared both on simulated and real data sets. Our study shows that DPCoA is less robust to outliers, and more robust to small noisy fluctuations around zero.  (+info)

Proteotyping of microbial communities by optimization of tandem mass spectrometry data interpretation. (5/360)

We report the development of a novel high performance computing method for the identification of proteins from unknown (environmental) samples. The method uses computational optimization to provide an effective way to control the false discovery rate for environmental samples and complements de novo peptide sequencing. Furthermore, the method provides information based on the expressed protein in a microbial community, and thus complements DNA-based identification methods. Testing on blind samples demonstrates that the method provides 79-95% overlap with analogous results from searches involving only the correct genomes. We provide scaling and performance evaluations for the software that demonstrate the ability to carry out large-scale optimizations on 1258 genomes containing 4.2M proteins.  (+info)

Phyloseq: a bioconductor package for handling and analysis of high-throughput phylogenetic sequence data. (6/360)

We present a detailed description of a new Bioconductor package, phyloseq, for integrated data and analysis of taxonomically-clustered phylogenetic sequencing data in conjunction with related data types. The phyloseq package integrates abundance data, phylogenetic information and covariates so that exploratory transformations, plots, and confirmatory testing and diagnostic plots can be carried out seamlessly. The package is built following the S4 object-oriented framework of the R language so that once the data have been input the user can easily transform, plot and analyze the data. We present some examples that highlight the methods and the ease with which we can leverage existing packages.  (+info)

Artificial functional difference between microbial communities caused by length difference of sequencing reads. (7/360)

Homology-based approaches are often used for the annotation of microbial communities, providing functional profiles that are used to characterize and compare the content and the functionality of microbial communities. Metagenomic reads are the starting data for these studies, however considerable differences are observed between the functional profiles-built from sequencing reads produced by different sequencing techniques-for even the same microbial community. Using simulation experiments, we show that such functional differences are likely to be caused by the actual difference in read lengths, and are not the results of a sampling bias of the sequencing techniques. Furthermore, the functional differences derived from different sequencing techniques cannot be fully explained by the read-count bias, i.e. 1) the higher fraction of unannotated shorter reads (i.e., "read length matters"), and 2) the different lengths of proteins in different functional categories. Instead, we show here that specific functional categories are under-annotated, because similarity-search-based functional annotation tools tend to miss more reads from functional categories that contain less conserved genes/proteins. In addition, the accuracy of functional annotation of short reads for different functions varies, further skewing the functional profiles. To address these issues, we present a simple yet efficient method to improve the frequency estimates of different functional categories in the functional profiles of metagenomes, based on the functional annotation of simulated reads from complete microbial genomes.  (+info)

MetaDomain: a profile HMM-based protein domain classification tool for short sequences. (8/360)

Protein homology search provides basis for functional profiling in metagenomic annotation. Profile HMM-based methods classify reads into annotated protein domain families and can achieve better sensitivity for remote protein homology search than pairwise sequence alignment. However, their sensitivity deteriorates with the decrease of read length. As a result, a large number of short reads cannot be classified into their native domain families. In this work, we introduce MetaDomain, a protein domain classification tool designed for short reads generated by next-generation sequencing technologies. MetaDomain uses relaxed position-specific score thresholds to align more reads to a profile HMM while using the distribution of alignment positions as an additional constraint to control false positive matches. In this work MetaDomain is applied to the transcriptomic data of a bacterial genome and a soil metagenomic data set. The experimental results show that it can achieve better sensitivity than the state-of-the-art profile HMM alignment tool in identifying encoded domains from short sequences. The source codes of MetaDomain are available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/metadomain/.  (+info)

Sex differences in peripheral immune responses are well recognized. This is associated with sex differences in many immunological diseases. As the intestinal microbiota is known to influence the immune system, such sex differences in immune responses may be a consequence of sex-specific microbiota. Therefore, this mini-review discusses sex differences in intestinal microbiota and the possible role of microbiota in shaping sexually dimorphic immunity. Sex differences in microbiota composition are clearly found in mice studies and also in human studies. However, the lack of standardization in human studies may mask the sexual dimorphism in microbiota composition in human studies, since many factors such as age, genetic background, BMI, diet, and sex hormones appear to interfere with the sexual dimorphism in microbiota composition. Only a few mice studies found that differences in gut microbiota composition are causative for some aspects of sexually dimorphic immunity. Therefore, future studies should
Beyond its role in therapy, FMT is providing insights into the importance of intestinal microbiota in health and disease. As physicians and scientists, we live in exciting times! Bacteria are no longer viewed solely as pathogens, but also as key partners in the maintenance of health. It is conceivable that altering the microbiota in our gastrointestinal tract may either predispose us to disease or ameliorate conditions we already have. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has captured the attention of the lay press and professional journals since 1958, when faecal enema was reported to have cured four patients near death from severe Micrococcus pyogenes colitis.1. ...
Public awareness about the importance of the gut microbiota is growing, but many nutrition professionals struggle to know how to incorporate findings from gut microbiota science into their practice. In a rapidly-progressing field, what should clinicians know about how gut microbes and diet interact to produce different health outcomes?. At the 2017 Gut Microbiota for Health World Summit in Paris on March 11th and 12th, Dr. Elena Verdú, Associate Professor at McMaster University (Canada) chaired a special workshop for registered dietitians and physicians specializing in nutrition and gastrointestinal disorders. The workshop -called "Nutrition and the human gut microbiome: What should health professionals know for their daily practice?"- addressed issues and questions relevant to nutrition practice.. The official report of this clinically-oriented session is now available! See below or download it at this link.. The full conference report from the GMFH World Summit 2017 is available here.. GMFH ...
The gut microbiota has the capability to generate a series of metabolites and thereby regulate homeostasis of the host metabolism (1). Antibiotic treatment, as an important therapeutic approach in clinical practice, can adversely affect the gut microbiota, inevitably giving rise to metabolic disorders (19). However, whether antibiotics have sex-dependent effects on the gut microbiota and host metabolism is unknown.. In the present study, at first we found that the gut microbiome and metabolome are influenced by gender. Results showed that male mice had higher abundances of Adlercreutzia, AF12, Anaeroplasma, Bacteroides, Dehalobacterium, Dorea, Mucispirillum, Roseburia, and Ruminococcus as well as lower levels of Lactobacillus, Prevotella, and Sutterella than female mice. In fact, sex-dependent differences in the gut microbiota have been reported due to hormonal effects (20), but many other factors may also affect microbial composition changes, such as genotype (21), age (22), body weight (23), ...
BackgroundAttention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neuropsychiatric condition that may be related to an imbalance of neural transmitters. The gut microbiota is the largest ecosystem in the human body, and the brain-gut axis theory proposes that the gut microbiome can affect brain function in multiple ways. The purpose of this study was to explore the gut microbiota in children with ADHD and assess the possible role of the gut microbiota in disease pathogenesis to open new avenues for ADHD treatment.MethodsA case-control design was used. We enrolled 17 children aged 6-12 years with ADHD who were treated in the Pediatric Outpatient Department of the First Medical Center of the Chinese PLA General Hospital from January to June, 2019. Seventeen children aged 6-12 years were selected as the healthy control (HC) group. Fecal samples of cases and controls were analyzed by shotgun metagenomics sequencing. Alpha diversity and the differences in the relative abundances of bacteria were compared
Dysbiosis of gut microbiota exists in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus). Lupus patients who experienced pregnancy usually had more severe disease flares post-delivery. However, the possible role of gut microbiota in the link between pregnancy and exacerbation of lupus remains to be explored. In the classical lupus mouse model MRL/lpr, we compared the structures of gut microbiota in pregnant and lactating individuals vs. age-matched naïve mice. Consistent with studies on non-lupus mice, both pregnancy and lactation significantly changed the composition and diversity of gut microbiota. Strikingly, modulation of gut microbiota using the same strategy resulted in different disease outcomes in postpartum (abbreviated as
The role of gut microbiota has been extensively researched in recent years and it has been demonstrated that healthy gut microbiota can stimulate proper development of the immune system, provide humans with extra energy and protect against invading pathogens.. However, gut dysbiosis - an imbalance of the resident gut microbiota population instigated by a long-term high-fat and high-sugar diet - results in an increased inflammatory tone both locally and systematically which is a factor to bone loss.. The reports authors looked at all relevant, published, up-to-date findings on the subject of obesity, gut microbiota and jaw bone density, in order to establish a relationship between the three.. They found that the recent data did suggest that diet-induced obesity has a negative impact on bone health possibly via the alteration of gut microbiota and host immune status, and that manipulating gut microbiota could improve bone health.. The majority of the studies looked at were animal studies, largely ...
The gut microbiota has been implicated in cancer and shown to modulate anticancer drug efficacy. Altered gut microbiota is associated with resistance to chemo drugs or immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), whereas supplementation of distinct bacterial species restores responses to the anticancer drugs. Accumulating evidence has revealed the potential of modulating the gut microbiota to enhance the efficacy of anticancer drugs. Regardless of the valuable findings by preclinical models and clinical data of patients with cancer, a more thorough understanding of the interactions of the microbiota with cancer therapy helps researchers identify novel strategy for cancer prevention, stratify patients for more effective treatment and reduce treatment complication. In this review, we discuss the scientific evidence on the role of gut microbiota in cancer treatment, and highlight the latest knowledge and technologies leveraged to target specific bacteria that contribute to tumourigenesis. First, we provide ...
The gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem that wields great influence over the health of its host.32 Conversely, mammalian hosts use a broad array of mechanisms to shape the microbiota in a way that maximises its benefit and minimises its potential to harm.33 That, at least among healthy persons, intraindividual variance in microbiota composition (ie, repeat sampling of individual subjects) is much smaller than that seen when comparing different individuals33-35 indicates that the ability of host and microbiota to influence each other typically results in a relatively stable equilibrium within specific hosts. Yet, some exogenous factors, for example, pathogens or antibiotics, can dramatically and lastingly disturb this equilibrium in a manner that promotes persistent disease.36 Moreover, even factors that cause relatively modest disturbances of the host-microbiota relationship have been associated with chronic low-grade inflammatory diseases, including metabolic syndrome.36 The genetics of the ...
The handling and treatment of biological samples is critical when characterizing the composition of the intestinal microbiota between different ecological niches or diseases. Specifically, exposure of fecal samples to room temperature or long term storage in deep freezing conditions may alter the composition of the microbiota. Thus, we stored fecal samples at room temperature and monitored the stability of the microbiota over twenty four hours. We also investigated the stability of the microbiota in fecal samples during a six month storage period at −80°C. As the stability of the fecal microbiota may be affected by intestinal disease, we analyzed two healthy controls and two patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We used high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize the microbiota in fecal samples stored at room temperature or −80°C at six and seven time points, respectively. The composition of microbial communities in IBS patients and healthy controls were determined
Background: Although immune responses directed against antigens from the intestinal microbiota are observed in certain diseases, the normal human adaptive immune response to intestinal microbiota is poorly defined. Objective: Our goal was to assess the adaptive immune response to the intestinal microbiota present in 143 healthy adults and compare this response with the response observed in 52 children and their mothers at risk of having allergic disease. Methods: Human serum was collected from adults and children followed from birth to 7 years of age, and the serum IgG response to a panel of intestinal microbiota antigens was assessed by using a novel protein microarray. Results: Nearly every subject tested, regardless of health status, had serum IgG that recognized a common set of antigens. Seroreactivity to the panel of antigens was significantly lower in atopic adults. Healthy infants expressed the highest level of IgG seroreactivity to intestinal microbiota antigens. This adaptive response ...
We read with interest the paper by Rehman et al1 reporting the contribution of Nod2 genotype to the composition of gut microbiota in mice and Crohns disease (CD) patients. This was followed by a similar description for another CD-predisposing gene, FUT2.2 To date, 163 CD- and ulcerative colitis-risk loci have been identified, and while most of the known causative genes are involved in immune functions and response to infections, their effects on the composition of the gut microbiota are mostly unknown. Studies like those mentioned above are therefore very important, since the relative abundance of specific enteric bacteria has been clearly shown to be of pathogenetic relevance in mouse models of colitis.3 By studying genotype-microbiota correlations in healthy individuals, key information could also be sought for devoid of potentially confounding effects from disease status and therapeutic treatment.. We studied the impact of 30 unequivocal CD-risk loci, each tagged by a single nucleotide ...
This study constitutes the largest and deepest sampling of the composition of the elderly gut microbiota reported to date. The fecal microbiota of younger adults was previously shown by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) and phylochip (HitChip) analysis to be stable and individual-specific (7, 42). In the present study, all 161 of the time-0 microbiota samples could be clearly separated by UniFrac analysis (Fig. S5), and fine-detail analysis of genus confirmed individual-specific microbiota configurations. The HitChip study also found that temporally paired samples from elderly subjects were more similar than randomly compared samples from different subjects. However, the similarity of paired samples decreased from time 1 mo to time 2 mo. In the five elderly subjects that they investigated, the decrease in microbiota similarity was more pronounced in the Actinobacteria (42), whereas in younger adults, greatest divergence was recorded for Clostridium cluster IV. We observed a similar ...
The Human Intestinal Microbiota Has A Great Diversity Of Microorganisms, Playing An Important Role In Metabolism. Despite The Positive Aspects, The Intestinal Microbiota Is Associated With The Development Of Various Diseases Such As Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Celiac Disease, Allergic Diseases, And Diabetes. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1d) Is A Chronic Autoimmune Disease Characterized By Increased Blood Glucose Levels Due To A Deficiency In Insulin Production As A Result Of Pancreatic "-Cell Destruction. The Pathophysiology Of Dm1 Is Still Not Fully Understood, However, Only Genetic Factors Are Not Sufficient To Determine The Risk Of Developing The Disease. The Role Of The Intestinal Microbiota As One Of The Triggers Of T1d Has Been Evaluated In Animal And Human Studies, And Strong Evidence Is Available For A Microbiota That Promotes Disease Development. This Study Aims To Compare Fecal Microbiota Among Children And Adolescents With T1d, Their Siblings And Healthy Children With No Family ...
Interestingly, there was a significant drop in interindividual beta-diversity in a short period of time after birth (3-10 days), as assessed by mixed sequencing. Due to practical reasons, many temporal research studies of faecal microbiota face a trade-off between sampling frequency and number of individuals included in the study. To our knowledge, all temporal faecal microbiota studies to date that have extensive sampling during first weeks of life (Favier et al., 2003; Palmer et al., 2007; Koenig et al., 2011) have few individuals analysed, whereas studies with high sample numbers often have fewer or more infrequent time points (Yatsunenko et al., 2012). However, our results illustrate that significant differences in average bacterial composition and beta-diversity occur between 3 and 10 days of age. These data therefore suggest that to better understand the development of gut microbiota, gaps between sampling periods should be reduced, particularly for those studies that compare different ...
We show here the importance of NOD2 in driving a proinflammatory immune response by myeloid cells, inducing the differentiation of pathogenic Th1 and Th17 cells, thus resulting in pancreatic insulitis and the consequent destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β cells and STZ-induced T1D development. Mice lacking NOD2, but not NOD1, did not develop STZ-induced T1D and were unable to induce a Th1 and Th17 immune response in the PLNs and pancreas. Furthermore, diabetic mice had changes in the composition of the gut microbiota, which may be related to the observed bacterial translocation to the PLNs. Notably, antibiotic treatment impaired both the bacterial translocation to the PLNs and the changes in the gut microbiota, which was correlated with protection from the disease. Additionally, we show here that NOD2 plays a critical role in gut microbiota recognition because the addition of the NOD2 ligand, MDP, was sufficient to promote STZ-induced T1D in Abx-treated, STZ-injected WT mice. ...
Recent data suggest that the gut microbiota plays a significant role in fat accumulation. However, it is not clear whether gut microbiota is involved in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. To assess this issue, we modulated gut microbiota via antibiotics administration in two different mouse models with insulin resistance. Results from dose-determination studies showed that a combination of norfloxacin and ampicillin, at a dose of 1 g/L, maximally suppressed the numbers of cecal aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in ob/ob mice. After a 2-wk intervention with the antibiotic combination, both ob/ob and diet-induced obese and insulin-resistant mice showed a significant improvement in fasting glycemia and oral glucose tolerance. The improved glycemic control was independent of food intake or adiposity because pair-fed ob/ob mice were as glucose intolerant as the control ob/ob mice. Reduced liver triglycerides and increased liver glycogen correlated with improved glucose tolerance in the treated mice.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neonatal gut microbiota associates with childhood multisensitized atopy and T cell differentiation. AU - Fujimura, Kei E.. AU - Sitarik, Alexandra R.. AU - Havstad, Suzanne. AU - Lin, Din L.. AU - Levan, Sophia. AU - Fadrosh, Douglas. AU - Panzer, Ariane R.. AU - Lamere, Brandon. AU - Rackaityte, Elze. AU - Lukacs, Nicholas W.. AU - Wegienka, Ganesa. AU - Boushey, Homer A.. AU - Ownby, Dennis Randall. AU - Zoratti, Edward M.. AU - Levin, Albert M.. AU - Johnson, Christine C.. AU - Lynch, Susan V.. PY - 2016/10/1. Y1 - 2016/10/1. N2 - Gut microbiota bacterial depletions and altered metabolic activity at 3 months are implicated in childhood atopy and asthma. We hypothesized that compositionally distinct human neonatal gut microbiota (NGM) exist, and are differentially related to relative risk (RR) of childhood atopy and asthma. Using stool samples (n = 298; aged 1-11 months) from a US birth cohort and 16S rRNA sequencing, neonates (median age, 35 d) were divisible into three ...
Our study focused on comparing the microbiota of patients diagnosed with adenoma, advanced adenoma, and carcinoma before and after treatment. For all three groups of patients, we observed changes in their microbiota. Some of these changes, specifically for adenoma, may be due to normal temporal variation, however, those with advanced adenoma and carcinoma clearly had large microbiota changes. After treatment, the microbiota of patients with carcinoma changed significantly more than the other groups. This change resulted in communities that more closely resembled those of patients with a normal colon. This may suggest that treatment for carcinoma is not only successful for removing the carcinoma but also at reducing the associated bacterial communities. Understanding the effect of treatment on the microbiota of those diagnosed with carcinomas may have important implications for reducing disease recurrence. It is intriguing that it may be possible to use microbiome-based biomarkers to not only ...
Gut Microbiota and Health - Sneaking through barrier gaps: Gut microbiota imbalance harms the liver | HealthPRZone.com - Making PR Easy for Healthcare Professionals
The intestinal tract is inhabited by a large and diverse community of microbes collectively referred to as the gut microbiota. While the gut microbiota provides important benefits to its host, especially in metabolism and immune development, disturbance of the microbiota-host relationship is associated with numerous chronic inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease and the group of obesity-associated diseases collectively referred to as metabolic syndrome. A primary means by which the intestine is protected from its microbiota is via multi-layered mucus structures that cover the intestinal surface, thereby allowing the vast majority of gut bacteria to be kept at a safe distance from epithelial cells that line the intestine. Thus, agents that disrupt mucus-bacterial interactions might have the potential to promote diseases associated with gut inflammation. Consequently, it has been hypothesized that emulsifiers, detergent-like molecules that are a ubiquitous component of ...
A recently published study in Science from researchers at the University of Texas Southwestern (UT; TX, USA) has demonstrated that NFIL3 is expressed in small IECs. They also discovered that the gut microbiome appears to regulate lipid uptake and storage by altering the function of the circadian clock in these cells.. Lora Hooper (UT), the lead author of the study, commented: "These findings indicate a mechanism by which the intestinal microbiota regulate body composition and establish the circadian transcription factor NFIL3 as the essential molecular link among the microbiota, the circadian lock and host metabolism.". Adding on to this, author Yuhao Wang (UT) explained: "The human gut is teeming with trillions of bacteria that help us digest our food, protect us from infection and produce certain vitamins. There is accumulating evidence that certain bacteria that live in our gut might predispose us to gain weight, especially when we consume a high fat, high sugar Western-style diet.". "Mice ...
From CHILD study: looked at bacterial 16S rRNA in stool samples at 2 times points in infancy, V3 region specifically. The gut microbiota at 3 months and 1 year were analyzed to determine which bacteria are present via RNA analysis. The gut microbiota at 3 months and 1 yr were analyzed to determine which bacteria are present via 16S RNA analysis. Microbiota results then compared to patient phenotype (wheezing or not, atopic/sensitized or not). They compared 319 children in the @CHILDSTUDY with 74 controls, 87 atopic only, 136 wheeze only and 22 subjects with both ...
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O papel da microbiota intestinal na patogênese das doenças inflamatórias intestinais / The role of the intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of inflammatory intestinal disease
The intestinal tract is inhabited by a large and diverse community of microbes collectively referred to as the gut microbiota. While the gut microbiota provides important benefits to its host, especially in metabolism and immune development, disturbance of the microbiota-host relationship is associa …
We are starting to explain the complex mechanisms of interaction and dynamics between the gut microbiota and its host.. Our data show that relatively minor changes in microbiota profiles or its metabolic activity induced by neonatal stress can have profound effects on host behaviour in adulthood.. It would be important to determine whether this also applies to humans.. For instance, whether we can detect abnormal microbiota profiles or different microbial metabolic activity in patients with primary psychiatric disorders, like anxiety and depression," ...
These data suggest that a loss of anti‐inflammatory (beneficial) bacteria and an increase in pro‐inflammatory bacteria with HIV infection has the potential to drive chronic inflammation observed in HIV‐infected individuals. Furthermore, our infectivity assays indicate a potential role of the MSM‐associated gut microbiota in disease transmission and progression ...
Recent observations indicate that acute enteric infections may contribute to various intestinal and extra-intestinal disorders long after elimination of the inciting microorganism. The mechanisms remain unclear. This review discusses how alterations to the gut microbiota by enteropathogens during the acute stage of an infection may at least in part contribute to these presentations. After providing a critical discussion of the biology of the human intestinal microbiota, the review presents recent data that illustrate how enteropathogens may activate latent virulence genes in commensal bacteria, disrupt the microbiota biofilm phenotype, and promote the release of pathobionts from the commensal biofilm. Evidence suggests that, in turn, these planktonic pathobionts may spontaneously translocate across the mucus and the gut epithelium to trigger, at least in part, the pro-inflammatory events that lead to these long-term, post-infectious sequelae.
During recent years, the composition of the gut microbiota (GM) has received increasing attention as a factor in the development of experimental inflammatory disease in animal models. Because increased variation in the GM might lead to increased variation in disease parameters, determining and reducing GM variation between laboratory animals may provide more consistent models. Both genetic and environmental aspects influence the composition of the GM and may vary between laboratory animal breeding centers and within an individual breeding center. This study investigated the variation in cecal microbiota in 8-wk-old NMRI and C57BL/6 mice by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to profile PCR-derived amplicons from bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Comparison of the cecal microbiotas revealed that the similarity index of the inbred C57BL/6Sca strain was 10% higher than that of the outbred Sca:NMRI stock. Comparing C57BL/6 mice from 2 vendors revealed significant differences in the microbial ...
The microbiota plays a critical role in human health and disease. For instance, the gut microbiota aides in the digestion of foods, thereby contributing to our ability to metabolize compounds from our diet. Recently, it has become clear that the … Continue reading →. ...
Una microbiota és la totalitat de microorganismes, els seus elements genètics (genomes), i la interacció mediambiental dins un ambient biofísic particular. Es pot definir com una "comunitat ecològica de microorganismes comensals, simbiòtics i patògens"[1][2] que es troben en tots els organismes vius estudiats fins ara, des de plantes fins animals. Una microbiota inclou bacteris, arqueobacteris, protists, fongs i virus. Sha demostrat que les macrobiota són fonamentals per lhomeòstasi immunològica, hormonal i metabòlica del seu hoste. El terme sinònim microbioma descriu o bé els genomes col·lectius dels microorganismes que resideixen en un nínxol mediambiental, o bé els propis microorganismes. El terme "microbiota" va ser encunyat per Joshua Lederberg, qui argumentà que els microorganismes que habiten el cos humà podrien ser inclosos com a part del genoma humà, per la seva influència en la fisiologia humana. Es considerava que el cos humà conté unes 10 vegades més ...
Inflammation and microbiota are critical components of intestinal tumorigenesis. To dissect how the microbiota contributes to tumor distribution, we generated germ-free (GF) ApcMin/+ and ApcMin/+ ...
The composition of gut microbiota is altered in patients with Alzheimers disease, potentially supporting the inflammatory theory of the diseases pathogenesis, new research suggests.
The role of diet and gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimers, has recently come under intense investigatio
Recent investigations suggest that gut microbiota affects the brain activity through the microbiota-gut-brain axis under both physiological and pathological disease conditions like Parkinsons disease. Further dopamine synthesis in the brain is induced by dopamine producing enzymes that are controll …
Answers to common questions about getting a fecal microbiota transplant to help cure c diff and potentially to help ulcerative colitis.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Induction of Th17 cells by intestinal microbiota. AU - Honda, Kenya. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=79952473134&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=79952473134&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 21226338. AN - SCOPUS:79952473134. VL - 82. SP - 1060. EP - 1064. JO - Seikagaku. The Journal of Japanese Biochemical Society. JF - Seikagaku. The Journal of Japanese Biochemical Society. SN - 0037-1017. IS - 11. ER - ...
In the study of "Prostate Cancer Chemoprevention by Soy Isoflavones-Role of intestinal bacteria as the "second human genome" by Akaza H., posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that the composition of intestinal microbiota can indicate the risk of disease to each individual. The concepts of biodynamics as employed by the Benziger Winery in California, which treats every part of an agricultural environment as a living, breathing entity, can be usefully employed in the construction of a system for cancer prevention, which seeks to utilize the relationship of coexistence (symbiosis) shared between people and intestinal symbiosis, that is microbiota. Changes in the incidence rate of cancer among Japanese emigrants to Hawaii demonstrate the impact of the changes in the living environment. This leads to the hypothesis that an intake of soy-derived food products and the metabolization of the isoflavones they contain by intestinal microbiota is one of ...
Every body part has its own composition of bacteria, which are called microbiota. These microbiota play an important role in human health.
Anaerobes comprise the predominant class of bacteria of the normal human microbiota (formerly termed "the normal human flora") that reside on mucous membranes and predominate in many infectious processes, particularly those arising from mucosal surfaces. These organisms generally cause disease subsequent to the breakdown of mucosal barriers and the leakage of the microbiota into normally sterile sites. Infections resulting from contamination by the microbiota are usually polymicrobial and involve both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. However, the difficulties encountered in handling specimens in which anaerobes may be important and the technical challenges entailed in cultivating and identifying these organisms in clinical microbiology laboratories continue to leave the anaerobic etiology of an infectious process unproven in many cases. Therefore, an understanding of the types of infections in which anaerobes can play a role is crucial in selecting appropriate microbiologic tools to identify the ...
The presence of Gardnerella in the cervicovaginal microbiota of women with high-risk oncogenic papillomavirus may indicate an increase in microbial diversity and predict progression towards precancerous lesions.
Proteins such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are a major component of the outer membrane of some bacteria, acting as a protective barrier, and their production is boosted by age. Unfortunately, they can also trigger the bodys immune system and cause inflammation. Levels of LPS production in the gut microbiota, and expression levels of inflamm-aging markers such as p16. P16 is a cell-cycle regulator, and is an inductor of senescence, the process of deterioration with age. With age, p16 expression increases in order to suppress stem cell proliferation and tissue regeneration. Results from the study showed that LPS lead to increased p16 expression in the colon of aged mice, along with increased activation of inflammatory markers. These results indicate that aging can accelerate inflamm-aging by inducing p16 expression in mice by increasing LPS levels in gut microbiota.. Such age-related gut microbiota modifications and imbalances are associated with inflamm-aging and immunosenescence, a decline in ...
The human body is inhabited by billions of symbiotic bacteria, carrying a diversity that is unique to each individual. The microbiota is involved in many mechanisms, including digestion, vitamin synthesis and host defense. ...
How might knowledge regarding the gut and lung microbiome contribute to the field of intensive care medicine? Could there be therapeutic implications?
Daily News Thousands of Mutations Accumulate in the Human Brain Over a Lifetime Single-cell genome analyses reveal the amount of mutations a human brain cell will collect from its fetal beginnings until death.. ...
Gut Microbiota for Health is pleased to show its new Year at a Glance 2015 document, which covers the important developments in gut microbiota science.
To investigate the differences in the gut microbiota in abstinence and current drinking populations with AUD, by analyzing and comparing the gut microbiota of abstinent AUD participants, Abstinent Group to that of a group of currently drinking A ...
The alimentary tract represents an interface between the external environment and the body. Within it exists a complex polymicrobial ecology that interacts with the internal and external environment and has an important influence on health and diseas
Microbiota[edit]. The K-Pg boundary represents one of the most dramatic turnovers in the fossil record for various calcareous ... As the marine microbiota recovered, however, it is thought that increased speciation of benthic foraminifera resulted from the ...
Role in gut microbiota[edit]. Research of human microbiota show that human gut is mainly inhabited by two phyla of bacteria - ... Role in vaginal microbiota[edit]. Prevotella species are also common vaginal commensals. Increased abundance of Prevotella in ... are members of the oral, vaginal, and gut microbiota and are often recovered from anaerobic infections of the respiratory tract ... Thus, changes in the microbiota Prevotella may be related to the development of osteomyelitis.[13] ...
Main article: Human microbiota. The human microbiota includes bacteria, fungi, archaea and viruses. Micro-animals which live on ... A microbiota includes bacteria, archaea, protists, fungi and viruses. Microbiota have been found to be crucial for immunologic ... The Human Microbiome Project sequenced the genome of the human microbiota, focusing particularly on the microbiota that ... A microbiota is an "ecological community of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms"[1][2] found in and on all ...
Vaginal microbiota[edit]. Lactobacillus acidophilus is part of the vaginal microbiota along with other species in the genus ... Nardis, C.; Mastromarino, P.; Mosca, L. (September-October 2013). "Vaginal microbiota and viral sexually transmitted diseases ...
Your note states: It has been widely reported that microbiota "outnumber human cells by 10 to 1"; however, more recent ... Here are links to possibly useful sources of information about Microbiota.. *PubMed provides review articles from the past five ... Material from Microbiota was split to Earth Microbiome Project on 02:03, 5 March 2012‎. The former page's history now serves to ... The reason I referred to your edits as an "awkward rewrite" was to do with the way you left microbiota defined in the lead ...
Disappearing microbiota: Helicobacter pylori protection against esophageal adenocarcinoma. Cancer Prevention Research 2008; 1: ... Host demise as a beneficial function of indigenous microbiota in human hosts. mBio 2014; 5:1-9. doi: 10.1128/mBio.02262-14. ... Blaser MJ, Falkow S. What are the consequences of the disappearing human microbiota? Nature Reviews Microbiology 2009; 7:887- ... Altering the intestinal microbiota during a critical developmental window has lasting metabolic consequences. Cell. 2014 Aug 14 ...
The term skin flora (also commonly referred to as skin microbiota) refers to the microorganisms which reside on the skin, ... Bacillus oleronius, a Demodex associated microbe, is not typically found in the commensal skin microbiota but initiates ... Although it is a part of the commensal skin microbiota, patients affected with rosacea show an increase in D. folliculorum ... Bacteroides have anti-inflammatory properties which are essential against dermatitis.[43] (See gut microbiota) ...
Main article: List of bacterial vaginosis microbiota. Healthy vaginal microbiota consists of species which neither cause ... BV microbiota has been found in the penis, coronal sulcus, and male urethra, in the male partners of infected females. Partners ... It is dominated mainly by Lactobacillus species.[12][24] BV is defined by the disequilibrium in the vaginal microbiota, with ... Another mode of transmission of the BV-associated microbiota is to a female sexual partner via skin-to-skin transfer. BV may be ...
"Microbiota and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease". Seminars in Reproductive Medicine. 32 (01): 043-049. doi:10.1055/s-0033-1361822 ...
... female vaginal microbiota. Infection with this bacterium is one cause of bacterial vaginosis and pelvic inflammatory disease.[2 ... "Microbiota and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease". Seminars in Reproductive Medicine. 32 (01): 043-049. doi:10.1055/s-0033-1361822 ...
Human microbiome Human microbiome project Human virome List of bacterial vaginosis microbiota Microbiota of the lower ... The placental microbiota varies between low birth weights and normal birth weights. While bacteria are often found in the ... Microbiota of the Human Body. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 902. pp. 1-3. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-31248-4_1. ... A change in the composition of the microbiota in the placenta is associated with excess gestational weight gain, pre-term birth ...
List of bacterial vaginosis microbiota. References[edit]. *^ a b Baron, Samuel (1996). Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). ... Since they are commonly found in soils and in microbiota of humans and animals, Clostridia wounds and infections are found ...
Enteric microbiota and/or self antigens. Hyperactivation of T-cells, cytokine release, recruitment of macrophages and other ...
... it is possible to influence the large intestine microbiota, with consequent health benefits. Although there are numerous ... "Introduction to the human gut microbiota". Biochem. J. 474 (11): 1823-1836. doi:10.1042/BCJ20160510. PMC 5433529 . PMID ...
Fermentable fibers are consumed by the microbiota within the large intestines, mildly increasing fecal bulk and producing short ... receptors and storage protein and alters the microbiota in the pig intestine". Br J Nutr. 99 (Sep): 1-9. doi:10.1017/ ... feed the bacteria and microbiota of the large intestine, and are metabolized to yield short-chain fatty acids, which have ... While clinical studies have shown changes in the microbiota at lower levels of inulin intake, some of the health effects ...
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health. 35 (3): 129-136. doi:10.12938/bmfh.2015-026.. ...
Intestinal microbiotaEdit. The large intestine hosts several kinds of bacteria that can deal with molecules that the human body ... "The gut microbiota and host health: A new clinical frontier". Gut. 65 (2): 330-339. doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2015-309990. PMC ... "Minireview: Gut Microbiota: The Neglected Endocrine Organ". Molecular Endocrinology. 28 (8): 1221-38. doi:10.1210/me.2014-1108 ... "Role of intestinal microbiota and metabolites on gut homeostasis and human diseases". BMC Immunology. 18 (1): 2. doi:10.1186/ ...
Epithelial microbiotaEdit. Glycogen is the complex form of sugar present in the vaginal epithelium that is metabolized into ... Low pH is necessary to control vaginal microbiota. Vaginal epithelial cells have a relatively high concentration of glycogen ... "Microbiota and pelvic inflammatory disease". Seminars in Reproductive Medicine. 32 (1): 43-9. doi:10.1055/s-0033-1361822. PMC ... "Enhanced Trapping of HIV-1 by Human Cervicovaginal Mucus Is Associated with Lactobacillus crispatus-Dominant Microbiota". mBio ...
McCawley, Tom; McCawley, Mark; Rams, Thomas (2018). "Effects of LANAP on Chronic Periodontitis Microbiota". Journal of the ...
The gut metagenome is the aggregate of all the genomes of gut microbiota. The gut is one niche that human microbiota inhabit. ... In humans, the gut microbiota has the largest numbers of bacteria and the greatest number of species compared to other areas of ... May 2015). "Gut-Microbiota-Brain Axis and Its Effect on Neuropsychiatric Disorders With Suspected Immune Dysregulation". Clin ... Studies looking at maternal separation for rats shows neonatal stress leads to long-term changes in the gut microbiota such as ...
... s develop their own, distinctive microbiota. Investigations into characterizing and identifying the phyla, ... "New Molecular Techniques to Study the Skin Microbiota of Diabetic Foot Ulcers". Advances in Wound Care. 4 (1): 38-49. doi: ... and species of nonpathogenic bacteria or other microorganisms populating these ulcers may help identify one group of microbiota ...
"Persistent gut microbiota immaturity in malnourished Bangladeshi children". Nature. Nature Publishing Group. 510.. ...
Microbiota Kom. Platycladus Spach - Chinese arborvitae Xanthocyparis Farjon & T. H. Nguyên - cypress Cupressus L. - cypress ... Microbiota, Platycladus, and Taxodium) the seed is larger and wingless. The seedlings usually have two cotyledons, but in some ...
Tang WH, Hazen SL (October 2014). "The contributory role of gut microbiota in cardiovascular disease". J. Clin. Invest. 124 (10 ...
Though in mammals a number of defenses exist to keep the microbiota at a safe distance, including a constant sampling and ... "Coordination of tolerogenic immune responses by the commensal microbiota". J Autoimmun. 34 (3): J220-J225. doi:10.1016/j.jaut. ...
The gut microbiota of preterm (PT) infants displayed a significantly greater abundance of Proteobacteria compared to FT infants ... The aim of this study was to characterise the initial gut microbiota development of a cohort of breastfed infants (n = 192) ... Prolonged breastfeeding was shown to have a significant effect on the microbiota composition of FT-CS infants at 24 weeks of ... FT-CS infants gradually progressed to harbouring a microbiota closely resembling FT-SVD (which remained stable) by week 8 of ...
Main article: Human microbiota. The human microbiota includes bacteria, fungi, archaea and viruses. Micro-animals which live on ... A microbiota includes bacteria, archaea, protists, fungi and viruses. Microbiota have been found to be crucial for immunologic ... The Human Microbiome Project sequenced the genome of the human microbiota, focusing particularly on the microbiota that ... A microbiota is an "ecological community of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms"[1][2] found in and on all ...
Your note states: It has been widely reported that microbiota "outnumber human cells by 10 to 1"; however, more recent ... Here are links to possibly useful sources of information about Microbiota.. *PubMed provides review articles from the past five ... Material from Microbiota was split to Earth Microbiome Project on 02:03, 5 March 2012‎. The former pages history now serves to ... The reason I referred to your edits as an "awkward rewrite" was to do with the way you left microbiota defined in the lead ...
The skin microbiota is the term used to describe the collection of microorganisms that live on our skin. More specifically, it ... The skin microbiota is the term used to describe the collection of microorganisms that live on our skin. More specifically, it ... Generally, the skin microbiota is similar between different individuals, although it is never exactly the same. Environment and ... Resident and transient microbiota. Related Stories. *Diet and nutrition influence microbiome in colonic mucosa ...
The microbiota is a complex ecosystem of microorganisms consisting of bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi, living in ... The causes of the microbiota alterations and the mechanisms by which microbiota modifications can act on the development of ... W.H.W. Tang, Z. Wang, D.J. Kennedy, Y. Wu, J.A. Buffa, B. Agatisa-Boyle, X.S. Li, B.S. Levison, S.L. Hazen, Gut microbiota- ... Microbiota Microbiome Diabetes Obesity Cardiovascular disease Metabolic syndrome Abbreviations. AMPK. AMP-Activated protein ...
... (FMT) is a relatively new but successful technique of treatment of refractory Clostridium difficile ... It is becoming clear that the gut microbiota has a great impact on systemic health, so that alteration of the gut microbes ... Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is a relatively new but successful technique of treatment of refractory Clostridium difficile ... Fecal Microbiota Transplant. News-Medical. 14 August 2020. ,https://www.news-medical.net/health/Fecal-Microbiota-Transplant. ...
Its not just what we eat that changes the composition of our gut microbiota. Exercise can, too, according to the results to ... Exercise alone alters our gut microbiota. Written by Honor Whiteman on December 5, 2017. - Fact checked by Ana Sandoiu ... The first study, which investigated the effects of exercise on the gut microbiota of mice, was published in the journal Gut ... The state of our gut microbiota has been tied to our mental well-being, but how do stressful conditions impact our inner ...
Microbiota humana[modifica]. La microbiota humana consta duns 39 bilions de cèl·lules microbianes, superant en una proporció ... Una microbiota és la totalitat de microorganismes, els seus elements genètics (genomes), i la interacció mediambiental dins un ... Una microbiota inclou bacteris, arqueobacteris, protists, fongs i virus. Sha demostrat que les macrobiota són fonamentals per ... El terme "microbiota" va ser encunyat per Joshua Lederberg, qui argumentà que els microorganismes que habiten el cos humà ...
The composition of gut microbiota is altered in patients with Alzheimers disease, potentially supporting the inflammatory ... Lopizzo said it is unclear what causes the differences in gut microbiota in those with and those without AD but noted that it ... Comparing the results with the samples taken during follow-up showed that the gut microbiota at both the phylum and genus ... The hypothesis is that alterations in the gut microbiota may cause the intestinal barrier to become more permeable, allowing ...
The microbiota or metabolites derived from the microbiota could modulate allergic disease through affecting epigenetic ... Initial colonizers and early-life modifications of the microbiota likely influence the structure of the microbiota into adult ... to better design therapeutic microbiota combinations or microbiota-derived products which can be used to mitigate the adverse ... While the intestinal microbiota have received the most attention over the past decade, microbial communities also reside on the ...
The gut microbiota (GM) is the whole of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms living in our intestine. The GM- ... Osteoporosis Gut microbiota Bone Immune system Probiotics Inflammation This is a preview of subscription content, log in to ... Maeda Y, Takeda K (2017) Role of gut microbiota in rheumatoid arthritis. J Clin Med 6:60. doi: 10.3390/jcm6060060 PubMedCentral ... Lee N, Kim WU (2017) Microbiota in T-cell homeostasis and inflammatory diseases. Exp Mol Med 49:e340. doi: 10.1038/emm.2017.36 ...
We also highlighted some of the new methods that can be applied to the study of substratum-associated microbiota and included ... review of the literature published in 2010 on topics relating to on the subject of ecology of substratum-associated microbiota ...
The complex microbiota of raw milk.. Quigley L1, OSullivan O, Stanton C, Beresford TP, Ross RP, Fitzgerald GF, Cotter PD. ... Milk, due to its high nutritional content, can support a rich microbiota. These microorganisms enter milk from a variety of ...
The composition of bear oral microbiota dramatically differs from human oral microbiota and has much more in common with human ... B) Heat map indicating the portion of bacteria and influence of Ami on different microbiota samples: oral microbiota of ... Indication is represented as follows: bear oral microbiota (B), human fecal microbiota from a patient with colitis (P), a ... Scrutinizing the microbiota of a plethora of organisms is becoming a mainstream of modern microbiology. The microbiota of wild ...
Clostridium difficile and the microbiota Anna M. Seekatz et al. * The contributory role of gut microbiota in cardiovascular ... Antibiotics and the gut microbiota. Sheetal R. Modi,1,2 James J. Collins,1,2 and David A. Relman3,4 1Department of Biomedical ... Microbiota-targeted therapies: an ecological perspective. Sci Transl Med. 2012;4(137):137rv135.. View this article via: PubMed ... Microbial community-wide effects of antibiotics on the human gut microbiota. Antibiotic treatment alters the population ...
Comparison of oral microbiota in tumor and non-tumor tissues of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. BMC Microbiol 12, ... Zhao, H., Chu, M., Huang, Z. et al. Variations in oral microbiota associated with oral cancer. Sci Rep 7, 11773 (2017). https ... Comparison of oral microbiota structures in the N and T groups. (a) Rarefaction analysis of bacterial 16 S rRNA gene sequences ... Hu, X., Zhang, Q., Hua, H. & Chen, F. Changes in the salivary microbiota of oral leukoplakia and oral cancer. Oral Oncol 56, e6 ...
A microbiota includes bacteria, archaea, protists, fungi and viruses. Microbiota have been found to be crucial for immunologic ... Main article: Human microbiota. The human microbiota includes bacteria, fungi, archaea and viruses. Micro-animals which live on ... The Human Microbiome Project sequenced the genome of the human microbiota, focusing particularly on the microbiota that ... For other uses, see Microbiota (disambiguation).. This articles lead section does not adequately summarize key points of its ...
Supervised classification of microbiota mitigates mislabeling errors.. Knights D1, Kuczynski J, Koren O, Ley RE, Field D, ...
By itself, S. alvi appears to give some protection, but not as much as the whole gut microbiota (SI Appendix, Fig. S6). S. alvi ... 2012) Functional diversity within the simple gut microbiota of the honey bee. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:11002-11007. ... 2B). S. alvi was the most strongly affected member of the gut microbiota and decreased in both absolute and relative abundance ... A consistent effect of glyphosate on the bee gut microbiota was a negative impact on growth of S. alvi, which possesses a ...
Microarray profiling of the microbial communities of infant guts throughout the first year shows initial variation then convergence on the adult flora, providing new insight into this human ecosystem.
Instrumental for gut microbiota manipulation is the understanding of mechanisms regulating gut microbiota composition. Several ... The role of the Western diet in promoting an obesogenic gut microbiota is being confirmation in subjects. Following encouraging ... The connection between gut microbiota and energy homeostasis and inflammation and its role in the pathogenesis of obesity- ... Animals models of obesity connect an altered microbiota composition to the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and ...
Postnatally, the newborns microbiota is strongly influenced by the maternal vaginal or skin-derived microbiota (depending on ... Influences on the gut microbiota/brain axis in the perinatal period. Multiple factors affecting the maternal gut microbiota can ... Effect of interventions targeting the gut microbiota. Another approach to determining the effects of the gut microbiota on ... the newborns gut microbiota is shaped by the maternal vaginal (or skin) microbiota (reviewed in refs. 22, 81). Even though the ...
"The CRC-associated microbiota is being continuously defined as new biomarkers of CRC are discovered," said Yvonne Wettergren, ... The results of our study show that the risk component from diet may be mediated by the microbiota, and that the specific ... "The results of our study show that the risk component from diet may be mediated by the microbiota, and that the specific ... The key finding in the DuPont-backed research study was that the composition and diversity of the microbiota was altered in the ...
This Review discusses the evidence supporting dysbiosis in the gut microbiota in Crohns disease and ulcer… ... Changes in the composition and metabolic function of the gut microbiota have been linked to IBD, but a direct causal ... Fungal microbiota dysbiosis in IBD. . Gut 66, 1039-1048 (2016).. **PubMed*Article*Google Scholar*65.. Ott, S. J. et al. Fungi ... established both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory roles of the gut microbiota, and shown that the gut microbiota is ...
... J Clin Invest. 2014 Oct;124(10):4212-8. doi: 10.1172/JCI72333. Epub 2014 Oct 1. ... These drugs have been found to alter the taxonomic, genomic, and functional capacity of the human gut microbiota, with effects ...
  • Based on their findings, the researchers concluded that 'exercise-induced modifications in the gut microbiota can mediate host-microbial interactions with potentially beneficial outcomes for the host. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Future research is needed to unravel the hormonal, immunomodulatory, and metabolic mechanisms underlying microbe-microbe and microbiota-host interactions and the specific genes that determine the health benefit derived from probiotics. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A series of provocative preclinical studies have suggested a prominent role for the gut microbiota in these gut-brain interactions. (jci.org)
  • The research programmes in the Wu laboratory focus on the mutualistic interactions between the gut microbiota and the host with a particular focus on metabolism. (nature.com)
  • Scientists studying infections used to focus mainly on the direct interaction of the immune system with pathogens, but have since moved on to look more closely at the interactions that go on between microbiota, immune system and pathogen. (innovations-report.com)
  • Published in Cell Host & Microbe, the results of the study of the HZI scientists are an important step towards a better understanding of the interactions of the triad of microbiota, immune system and pathogen. (innovations-report.com)
  • To configure mock communities composed of various combinations of known cultivable species present during conditions of either general oral health or known pathological states together with newly identified uncultivable species in order to understand metabolic and molecular interactions (metabolic cooperation, cell-cell signaling, etc.) required for maintenance of the uncultivable species and to determine their overall role in the composition and resilience of the oral microbiota. (nih.gov)
  • In this context, the reciprocal interactions of the gut microbiota structure and their metabolite profiles with host metabolism predisposing to a range of pathological conditions (e.g., insulin resistance) related to energy homeostasis have been increasingly discussed in various animal models and human cohorts. (go.jp)
  • Nevertheless, the knowledge of the structure, interactions and functions of the intestinal microbiota is still limited and fragmented ( Oakley and Kogut, 2016 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Increasing attention has been attracted to intestinal microbiota, due to interactions with nutrition, metabolism and immune defence of the host. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Modern technologies to quantitatively measure specific members and functional characteristics of the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract, along with fundamental and emerging concepts in the field of immunology, have revealed numerous ways in which host-microbiota interactions proceed beneficially, neutrally, or detrimentally for mammalian hosts. (jimmunol.org)
  • Lastly, we discuss translational therapies stemming from research on host-microbiota interactions that could be used for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. (jimmunol.org)
  • It is becoming clear that the gut microbiota has a great impact on systemic health, so that alteration of the gut microbes leads to abnormal gut metabolism, colonocyte weakening, and impaired mucosal defences. (news-medical.net)
  • Animals models of obesity connect an altered microbiota composition to the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes in the host through several mechanisms: increased energy harvest from the diet, altered fatty acid metabolism and composition in adipose tissue and liver, modulation of gut peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 secretion, activation of the lipopolysaccharide toll-like receptor-4 axis, and modulation of intestinal barrier integrity by GLP-2. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The study was based on this principle: the human gut microbiota contributes to metabolism, interacts with the immune system and protects against pathogens, so it has the potential to substantially impact overall health and well-being. (prweb.com)
  • The authors also concluded that alterations of gut microbiota by antibiotics seem to affect not only gut microbiota but also metabolism. (nutraingredients.com)
  • This review will discuss the recent advances in understanding the mechanisms whereby the gut microbiota modulates the effects of diet and shapes the host metabolism either towards or away from obesity and related metabolic conditions. (go.jp)
  • A healthy, diverse, and stable microbiota have been shown to promote health: they promote absorption of nutrients, support the metabolism and protect from infections. (eurekalert.org)
  • The overall picture that is emerging from our studies is that microbiota changes in the inflamed gut, in particular the outgrowth of Enterobacteriaceae, is driven by changes in the bacterial metabolism and competitive growth. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • The study, "Role of Gut Microbiota and Short Chain Fatty Acids in Modulating Energy Harvest and Fat Partitioning in Youth," is published int the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. (medindia.net)
  • Introduction Intestinal metabolism and microbiota profiles are impaired in obesity and insulin resistance. (medworm.com)
  • To understand whether changes in intestinal metabolism interact with gut microbiota and its release of inflammatory markers, we studied the effects of sprint interval (SIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on intestinal metabolism and microbiota in subjects with insulin resistance. (medworm.com)
  • In animal studies, we are carefully trying to understand how the intestinal microbiota influences body composition and metabolism and what impact antibiotics might have. (prohealth.com)
  • Objective The gut microbiota has been implicated as an environmental factor that modulates obesity, and recent evidence suggests that microbiota-mediated changes in bile acid profiles and signalling through the bile acid nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) contribute to impaired host metabolism. (bmj.com)
  • We monitored weight gain and glucose metabolism and analysed the gut microbiota and bile acid composition, beta-cell mass, accumulation of macrophages in adipose tissue, liver steatosis, and expression of target genes in adipose tissue and liver. (bmj.com)
  • Understanding how the gut microbiota modulates bile acids and signalling through FXR to modulate host metabolism may provide novel insights into how the microbiota can be targeted to prevent obesity. (bmj.com)
  • The gut microbiota is considered an environmental factor that modulates host metabolism, and recent evidence suggests that it contributes to the development of obesity and metabolic diseases. (bmj.com)
  • These insights should help to elucidate the roles of mucosal inflammatory responses and the microbiota in the virulence of enteric pathogens. (nih.gov)
  • It is well established - and perhaps unsurprising - that what we eat affects the microbes that live in our intestine, collectively known as the gut microbiota. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The first study , which investigated the effects of exercise on the gut microbiota of mice, was published in the journal Gut Microbes . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Evolution by cooperation can occur by amplifying existing microbes, gaining novel microbiota and by acquiring microbial and viral genes. (springer.com)
  • The effect of microbes on a certain trait can be independent of the host's genotype, or the microbiota composition may be shaped by traits of the host and in turn confer a phenotypic trait. (sciencemag.org)
  • In some cases, it may be necessary to standardize the microbiota of the experimental animals-for example, by artificially creating a standard microbial mixture (similar to but even more rigorously standardized than the Schaedler flora sometimes used in mice) or by autoclaving or irradiating food and water to prevent the introduction of new microbes. (sciencemag.org)
  • There is growing evidence that any modification in the microbiota composition can lead to several diseases, including metabolic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. (springer.com)
  • But meanwhile it has become clear that patients with NAFLD or NASH - often associated with obesity - also have imbalances in their gut microbiota. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The gut microbiota have been studied in relation to allergic airway disease, obesity, gastrointestinal diseases and diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alterations in the gut microbiota are associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome in both humans and rodents," study coauthor Gerald Shulman of Yale said in a statement . (the-scientist.com)
  • Speaking with Science News , Jonathan Schertzer of McMaster University in Canada who was not involved in the research called the paper a "tour-de-force," noting that it builds upon other studies on the microbiota-obesity link. (the-scientist.com)
  • Bone mineral density could be altered by prebiotics and probiotics, according to a new review that links diet-induced obesity, the gut microbiota and bone health. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Bones which have been damaged by diet-induced obesity could be brought back to health through the use of prebiotics and probiotics to alter the gut microbiota, say researchers from Chiang Mai University in Thailand. (nutraingredients.com)
  • The report's authors looked at all relevant, published, up-to-date findings on the subject of obesity, gut microbiota and jaw bone density, in order to establish a relationship between the three. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Over the past decade, the gut microbiota has emerged as an essential mediator in the pathophysiology of obesity and related metabolic disorders. (go.jp)
  • Therefore, understanding the mechanisms by which the alteration in the gut microbiota produces different signaling activations and phenotype changes may offer an interesting opportunity for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. (mdpi.com)
  • This suggests that targeted modifications to the specific species composing the human microbiota could be developed and could help to prevent or treat early-onset obesity in the future. (medindia.net)
  • 5 Studies are currently underway using sub-therapeutic antibiotic treatment as a tool to disrupt the microbial ecosystem and alter host body composition with the aim of identifying organisms within the microbiota that could either promote or protect against obesity. (prohealth.com)
  • Here we investigated if the gut microbiota modulates obesity and associated phenotypes through FXR. (bmj.com)
  • By transferring the caecal microbiota from HFD-fed Fxr−/− and wild-type mice into GF mice, we showed that the obesity phenotype was transferable. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions Our results indicate that the gut microbiota promotes diet-induced obesity and associated phenotypes through FXR, and that FXR may contribute to increased adiposity by altering the microbiota composition. (bmj.com)
  • 6 , 7 Furthermore, germ-free (GF) mice have reduced adiposity and obesity, and transfer of microbiota from obese conventionally raised (CONV-R) mice to GF recipients has revealed that obesity is a transmissible trait through the microbiota. (bmj.com)
  • The results of our study show that the risk component from diet may be mediated by the microbiota, and that the specific probiotic strains used in this study have the potential to support the microbiota in a beneficial way. (prweb.com)
  • A recent research study conducted by the Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg in Gothenburg, Sweden, in collaboration with DuPont Nutrition & Health (DuPont), yielded breakthrough results demonstrating that probiotic intervention can alter and modify intestinal microbiota in patients with colon cancer. (prweb.com)
  • The effect of probiotic strains on the microbiota of the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME). (francoangeli.it)
  • Further, the book introduces readers to the concept of gut remediation, a potential approach to reducing environmental-pollutant toxicity in vivo, based on modulation of gut microbiota using probiotic supplements. (springer.com)
  • This exiting new approach may allow identifying which bacterial taxa are most important functional key species within the microbiota and may serve as novel probiotic candidates. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Until recently, insurance carriers considered fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) a statutorily non-covered service for patients suffering from clostridium difficile infection (CDI). (aapc.com)
  • As a result, much of our understanding about the effects of antibiotics is skewed toward mechanisms of killing and specific resistance genotypes and phenotypes in the context of a narrow subset of the gut microbiota in isolation from the rest of the community. (jci.org)
  • Instrumental for gut microbiota manipulation is the understanding of mechanisms regulating gut microbiota composition. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Current evidence suggests that multiple mechanisms, including endocrine and neurocrine pathways, may be involved in gut microbiota-to-brain signaling and that the brain can in turn alter microbial composition and behavior via the autonomic nervous system. (jci.org)
  • The mechanisms behind the onset of these diseases are illuminated by the findings of Prof Bernd Schnabl (University of California San Diego/USA) who presented his research results at the Gut Microbiota for Health World Summit that took place in Miami/USA, March 5-6 2016. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A second focus of our research group is to understand what mechanisms contribute to microbiota changes in the inflamed intestine in the absence of a bacterial pathogen. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • Mechanisms that facilitate the establishment and stability of the gut microbiota remain poorly described. (sciencemag.org)
  • Although the connections between the microbiota and the host in ALD are well established, the underlying mechanisms are still an active area of research. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The impact of diets and antibiotics on the intestinal microbiota, especially at low-dose growth promoting levels needs to be described in more details to better understand the mechanisms of food-conversion and potentially to develop better alternatives to antibiotics. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • The hypothesis is that alterations in the gut microbiota may cause the intestinal barrier to become more permeable, allowing bacterial components such as gram-negative bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to enter the circulation and cross the blood-brain barrier. (medscape.com)
  • Taken together, these experiments demonstrate a causal link between alterations in the gut microbiota in response to changes in the diet and increased acetate production," Shulman said in the statement. (the-scientist.com)
  • One of her key research interests is therapeutic manipulation of the gut microbiota in IBD. (nature.com)
  • Recent epidemiologic studies have detected a possible link between antibiotic use in childhood and weight gain 1 - with disruption to the normal gut microbiota considered the most likely cause. (prohealth.com)
  • In a genome-wide association study of nutritional traits of flies, for example, some genetic polymorphisms resulted in phenotypic differences only in the presence of microbiota, whereas others did only in the absence of microbiota ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Generally, the skin microbiota is similar between different individuals, although it is never exactly the same. (news-medical.net)
  • Retrieved on August 20, 2019 from https://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/Skin-Microbiota.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • If the establishment of the stable adult microbiota is programmed in infancy, it may lead to a lifelong signature with significant effects on health. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The complex microbiota of raw milk. (nih.gov)
  • The importance of the indigenous microbiota on the development of murine leishmaniasis was investigated by infecting germfree Swiss/NIH in the hind footpad with L. major and conventionalizing after 3 weeks of infection. (scielo.br)
  • There are reports including ours showing that the indigenous microbiota can play an important role in the outcome of parasitic infections, making germfree animals either more susceptible or more resistant to infection when compared with the corresponding animals that are associated to the normal microbiota (conventional animals) 19,26,28,29,30 . (scielo.br)
  • Both the development of T cell responses (delayed-type hypersensitivity) 13 and macrophage activity 4,16 have been found impaired in the absence of the indigenous microbiota, whereas antibody responses seemingly is not affected 13 . (scielo.br)
  • Over the past decade or so, the study of antibiotics and the gut microbiota has taken a decidedly more ecological and system-wide perspective. (jci.org)
  • Perinatal shifting of microbiota through low dose antibiotics can have long-lasting effects on future susceptibility to allergic airway disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence is also mounting that microbiota resilience decreases with each subsequent course of antibiotics 2 and that, once disrupted, the normal microbiota may never recover completely or it may be replaced by resistant organisms. (prohealth.com)
  • The spotlight has recently fallen on the role of the gut microbiota in normal growth and development, with scientists now concerned that altering the microbial balance in the gut with antibiotics may lead to weight gain. (prohealth.com)
  • The role of the Western diet in promoting an obesogenic gut microbiota is being confirmation in subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A team of researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology in Jena, the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology, Giessen University, and Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) has studied the role of the burying beetle ( Nicrophorus vespilloides ) and its microbiota in carrion digestion and chemical preservation during breeding. (uni-mainz.de)
  • The authors conclude their report by saying that no firm conclusions can be made just yet, and more studies are needed to better understand the role of gut microbiota. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Remarkably, as the role of gut microbial metabolites as critical signaling molecules that function through the complementary host receptors has come to be appreciated, tremendous attention has been focused on the proposed diet-gut microbiota-host homeostasis axis, entailing extensive cross-disciplinary efforts in medical, pharmaceutical, and agricultural sciences. (go.jp)
  • Using these methods I discovered a number of ecological rules governing the intestinal microbiota and the role of the intestinl microbiota in health and disease. (go.jp)
  • Moreover, using germfree animals, it was proven that the intestinal microbiota has a role in carcinogenesis and aging in the host. (go.jp)
  • In a study entitled "A Cohort study of Intestinal Microbiota among IBS patients" (CO-MIC), which started in December 2009, we investigate the role and dynamics ofthe microbiota in patients with IBS in a longitudinal way during 1 year and correlate those with aspects related to the quality of life and diet of the host. (wur.nl)
  • Saad, M.J.A. The Role of Gut Microbiota on Insulin Resistance. (mdpi.com)
  • Its role is becoming increasingly well known, and researchers are now attempting to clarify the relationship between imbalances in the microbiota and certain disorders, particularly autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. (inserm.fr)
  • Hence, the role of the intestinal microbiota is becoming increasingly clear. (inserm.fr)
  • Findings from animal models have revealed diverse and context-specific roles of the gut microbiota in health and disease, ranging from protective to pro-inflammatory actions. (nature.com)
  • However, it is not cell stress alone that leads to tumour growth, but the combination of stress and microbiota that favours cancer growth," says Haller, head of ZIEL - the Institute for Food & Health at TUM. (innovations-report.com)
  • Can bone health be improved through microbiota manipulation? (nutraingredients.com)
  • Two studies provide new information on how gut microbiota may contribute to the overall health of infants and why a melamine contaminant in pet food, milk, and formula has proved so deadly to some. (bmj.com)
  • The gut microbiota may contribute to this devastating health disorder. (sciencemag.org)
  • Her talk was one of the topics presented at the Gut Microbiota for Health World Summit in Miami, FL. (prohealth.com)
  • On March 8 and 9, 2014, internationally leading experts discussed the latest advances in gut microbiota research and its impact on health. (prohealth.com)
  • To address the most recent advances in this rapidly developing field, scientists and health-care professionals from all over the world came together at the Gut Microbiota for Health World Summit in Miami, FL, on March 8 and 9, 2014. (prohealth.com)
  • The meeting was hosted by the Gut Microbiota & Health Section of the European Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility (ESNM) and the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) Institute, with the support of Danone. (prohealth.com)
  • Intestinal microbiota are of fundamental importance for host health, because they help in maintaining gut homeostasis. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • So it is important to better understand the link with microbiota and animal health. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Intestinal microbiota are of fundamental importance for host health, because they help in maintaining gut homeostasis by competing with transient enteropathogens, and by producing immunomodulatory metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids, secondary bile acids, and idol derivatives. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • This study will examine the gut microbiota and serum inflammatory markers in patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder vs. healthy controls. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Individuals in the OCD group will be offered 12-weeks of standard SSRI treatment ti determine whether 12-weeks of treatment results in a change of the gut microbiota/inflammatory markers. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Gut microbiota composition was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and serum inflammatory markers with multiplex assays and enzyme-linked immunoassay kit. (medworm.com)
  • Biology is indeed undergoing a paradigm shift, where individual phenotypes are seen as a result of the combined expression of the host and associated microbe genomes, leading to the popularization of notions of the holobiont (the host and its microbiota) and the hologenome (the collective genomes of a holobiont). (biomedcentral.com)
  • As it becomes clear that microbiota and host mutually affect and depend on each other in an intimate relat. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, some microbiota may have a different phenotypic effect in host animals with different genetic backgrounds, and vice versa. (sciencemag.org)
  • Correlating microbiota composition data to host parameters (diet, quality of life). (wur.nl)
  • Changes in the intestinal microbiota result in functional, immunological, and nutritional consequences for the host. (allaboutfeed.net)