The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Non-digestible food ingredients mostly of a carbohydrate base that improve human health by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of existing BACTERIA in the COLON.
A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.
The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.
Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.
Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.
Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)
Changes in quantitative and qualitative composition of MICROBIOTA. The changes may lead to altered host microbial interaction or homeostatic imbalance that can contribute to a disease state often with inflammation.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.
A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
A phylum of gram-negative bacteria containing seven class-level groups from a wide variety of environments. Most members are chemoheterotrophs.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
Nutritional supplements combining PROBIOTICS (bacteria) and PREBIOTICS (sugars).
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
A genus of gram-positive bacteria in the family Lachnospiraceae that inhabits the RUMEN; LARGE INTESTINE; and CECUM of MAMMALS.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods. Organisms of this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings in 1990 indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was established.
Chronic, non-specific inflammation of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Etiology may be genetic or environmental. This term includes CROHN DISEASE and ULCERATIVE COLITIS.
Polymicrobial, nonspecific vaginitis associated with positive cultures of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic organisms and a decrease in lactobacilli. It remains unclear whether the initial pathogenic event is caused by the growth of anaerobes or a primary decrease in lactobacilli.
A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, cocci to short rod-shaped ARCHAEA, in the family METHANOBACTERIACEAE, order METHANOBACTERIALES. They are found in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or other anoxic environments.
An order of gram-positive bacteria in the class Bacilli, that have the ability to ferment sugars to lactic acid. They are widespread in nature and commonly used to produce fermented foods.
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A phylum of anaerobic, gram-negative bacteria with a chemoorganotrophic heterotrophic metabolism. They are resident flora of the OROPHARYNX.
Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The passage of viable bacteria from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT to extra-intestinal sites, such as the mesenteric lymph node complex, liver, spleen, kidney, and blood. Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the INTESTINAL MUCOSA resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Bacterial translocation from the lung to the circulation is also possible and sometimes accompanies MECHANICAL VENTILATION.
Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.
Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
An order of insects, restricted mostly to the tropics, containing at least eight families. A few species occur in temperate regions of North America.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of humans and animals, the human mouth, and vagina. This organism produces the fermented product, acidophilus milk.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.
Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped LACTIC ACID bacteria found naturally in the human intestinal flora and BREAST MILK.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.
The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.
A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.
A species in the genus GARDNERELLA previously classified as Haemophilus vaginalis. This bacterium, also isolated from the female genital tract of healthy women, is implicated in the cause of bacterial vaginosis (VAGINOSIS, BACTERIAL).
A disorder with chronic or recurrent colonic symptoms without a clearcut etiology. This condition is characterized by chronic or recurrent ABDOMINAL PAIN, bloating, MUCUS in FECES, and an erratic disturbance of DEFECATION.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
A family of gram-negative bacteria, in the phylum FIRMICUTES.
Inflammation of the MUCOSA of both the SMALL INTESTINE and the LARGE INTESTINE. Etiology includes ISCHEMIA, infections, allergic, and immune responses.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria associated with DENTAL CARIES.
The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria used in PROBIOTICS.
The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
A species of HELICOBACTER that colonizes the CECUM and COLON of several strains of MICE, and is associated with HEPATITIS and carcinogenesis.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.
Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. It is the source of cedarwood oil. Cedar ordinarily refers to this but also forms part of the name of plants in other genera.
A starch found in the tubers and roots of many plants. Since it is hydrolyzable to FRUCTOSE, it is classified as a fructosan. It has been used in physiologic investigation for determination of the rate of glomerular function.
Inflammation and loss of connective tissues supporting or surrounding the teeth. This may involve any part of the PERIODONTIUM. Periodontitis is currently classified by disease progression (CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS; AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS) instead of age of onset. (From 1999 International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions, American Academy of Periodontology)
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus CITROBACTER, family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE. As an important pathogen of laboratory mice, it serves as a model for investigating epithelial hyperproliferation and tumor promotion. It was previously considered a strain of CITROBACTER FREUNDII.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
A species of rod-shaped, LACTIC ACID bacteria used in PROBIOTICS and SILAGE production.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family ACIDAMINOCOCCACEAE, found in the RUMEN of SHEEP and CATTLE, and also in humans.
Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.
Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.
Acute or chronic inflammation of tissues surrounding the apical portion of a tooth, associated with the collection of pus, resulting from infection following pulp infection through a carious lesion or as a result of an injury causing pulp necrosis. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic cocci parasitic in the mouth and in the intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals.
A sulfuric acid dimer, formed by disulfide linkage. This compound has been used to prolong coagulation time and as an antidote in cyanide poisoning.
The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.
Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
A genus of SPONGES in the family Crambeidae characterized by desmoid spicules. The type species is Crambe crambe.
A species of gram-negative bacteria of the family ACETOBACTERACEAE found in FLOWERS and FRUIT. Cells are ellipsoidal to rod-shaped and straight or slightly curved.
The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
The study of literature in its widest sense, including grammar, etymology, criticism, literary history, language history, linguistic history, systems of writing, and anything else that is relevant to literature or language viewed as literature. Philology as a discipline has both philosophical and scientific overtones.
An abnormal extension of a gingival sulcus not accompanied by the apical migration of the epithelial attachment.
The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.
The segment of GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the small intestine below the DUODENUM, and the LARGE INTESTINE.
Polysaccharides composed of D-fructose units.
Differentiated epithelial cells of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA, found in the basal part of the intestinal crypts of Lieberkuhn. Paneth cells secrete GROWTH FACTORS, digestive enzymes such as LYSOZYME and antimicrobial peptides such as cryptdins (ALPHA-DEFENSINS) into the crypt lumen.
A group of anaerobic coccoid bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin with a tetrazolyl moiety that is resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed especially against Pseudomonas infections.
A genus of nematode worms comprising the whipworms.
An infant during the first month after birth.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
An offensive, foul breath odor resulting from a variety of causes such as poor oral hygiene, dental or oral infections, or the ingestion of certain foods.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
Milk modified with controlled FERMENTATION. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KAFFIR CORN.
The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.
A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. Members contain konjac glucomannan (MANNANS) and SEROTONIN.
A clinical syndrome with intermittent abdominal pain characterized by sudden onset and cessation that is commonly seen in infants. It is usually associated with obstruction of the INTESTINES; of the CYSTIC DUCT; or of the URINARY TRACT.
A gram-negative gliding bacterium isolated from the oral cavity. It is a pathogen often causing PERIODONTITIS.
A family of gram-positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices. A few species are highly pathogenic.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods or coccobacilli. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was created.
An ethnic group with shared religious beliefs. Originating in Switzerland in the late 1600s, and first migrating to the mid-Atlantic, they now live throughout Eastern and Mid-Western United States and elsewhere. Communities are usually close-knit and marriage is within the community.
A gel-forming mucin found predominantly in SMALL INTESTINE and variety of mucous membrane-containing organs. It provides a protective, lubricating barrier against particles and infectious agents.
The use of humans as investigational subjects.
A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.
Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
An inflammatory process with loss of supporting bone in the tissues surrounding functioning DENTAL IMPLANTS.
Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between ASCENDING COLON and DESCENDING COLON. It passes from the RIGHT COLIC FLEXURE across the ABDOMEN, then turns sharply at the left colonic flexure into the descending colon.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.
The small ribonucleoprotein component of RIBOSOMES. It contains the MESSENGER RNA binding site and two TRANSFER RNA binding sites - one for the incoming AMINO ACYL TRNA (A site) and the other (P site) for the peptidyl tRNA carrying the elongating peptide chain.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.
A TETRACYCLINE with a 7-chloro substitution.
A rod-shaped bacterium isolated from milk and cheese, dairy products and dairy environments, sour dough, cow dung, silage, and human mouth, human intestinal contents and stools, and the human vagina.
Infection with nematodes of the genus TRICHURIS, formerly called Trichocephalus.
A family of gram-positive, lactic acid-producing bacteria in the order Lactobacillales. It includes both high-pressure-loving species (piezophiles) found in the deep ocean, and Antarctic species.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
A group of ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS characterized by a chromophoric naphthohydroquinone group spanned by an aliphatic bridge not previously found in other known ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS. They have been isolated from fermentation broths of Streptomyces mediterranei.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A family of gram-positive non-sporing bacteria including many parasitic, pathogenic, and saprophytic forms.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
Type species of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM, a gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is used as a source of PROBIOTICS.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family Aerococcaceae.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria in the family Fibrobacteraceae, isolated from the human GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. No endospores are produced. Its organisms are found in fermenting plant products and are nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.
A member of the S-100 protein family that is present at high levels in the blood and interstitial fluid in several infectious, inflammatory, and malignant disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cystic fibrosis. It is a complex of a light chain (CALGRANULIN A) and a heavy chain (CALGRANULIN B). L1 binds calcium through an EF-hand motif, and has been shown to possess antimicrobial activity.
Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.

Impact of deoxynivalenol on the intestinal microflora of pigs. (1/360)


The role of probiotics in the poultry industry. (2/360)


Estimating population diversity with unreliable low frequency counts. (3/360)

We consider the classical population diversity estimation scenario based on frequency count data (the number of classes or taxa represented once, twice, etc. in the sample), but with the proviso that the lowest frequency counts, especially the singletons, may not be reliably observed. This arises especially in data derived from modern high-throughput DNA sequencing, where errors may cause sequences to be incorrectly assigned to new taxa instead of being matched to existing, observed taxa. We look at a spectrum of methods for addressing this issue, focusing in particular on fitting a parametric mixture model and deleting the highest-diversity component; we also consider regarding the data as left-censored and effectively pooling two or more low frequency counts. We find that these purely statistical "downstream" corrections will depend strongly on their underlying assumptions, but that such methods can be useful nonetheless.  (+info)

Comparisons of distance methods for combining covariates and abundances in microbiome studies. (4/360)

This article compares different methods for combining abundance data, phylogenetic trees and clinical covariates in a nonparametric setting. In particular we study the output from the principal coordinates analysis on UNIFRAC and WEIGHTED UNIFRAC distances and the output from a double principal coordinate analyses DPCOA using distances computed on the phylogenetic tree. We also present power comparisons for some of the standard tests of phylogenetic signal between different types of samples. These methods are compared both on simulated and real data sets. Our study shows that DPCoA is less robust to outliers, and more robust to small noisy fluctuations around zero.  (+info)

Proteotyping of microbial communities by optimization of tandem mass spectrometry data interpretation. (5/360)

We report the development of a novel high performance computing method for the identification of proteins from unknown (environmental) samples. The method uses computational optimization to provide an effective way to control the false discovery rate for environmental samples and complements de novo peptide sequencing. Furthermore, the method provides information based on the expressed protein in a microbial community, and thus complements DNA-based identification methods. Testing on blind samples demonstrates that the method provides 79-95% overlap with analogous results from searches involving only the correct genomes. We provide scaling and performance evaluations for the software that demonstrate the ability to carry out large-scale optimizations on 1258 genomes containing 4.2M proteins.  (+info)

Phyloseq: a bioconductor package for handling and analysis of high-throughput phylogenetic sequence data. (6/360)

We present a detailed description of a new Bioconductor package, phyloseq, for integrated data and analysis of taxonomically-clustered phylogenetic sequencing data in conjunction with related data types. The phyloseq package integrates abundance data, phylogenetic information and covariates so that exploratory transformations, plots, and confirmatory testing and diagnostic plots can be carried out seamlessly. The package is built following the S4 object-oriented framework of the R language so that once the data have been input the user can easily transform, plot and analyze the data. We present some examples that highlight the methods and the ease with which we can leverage existing packages.  (+info)

Artificial functional difference between microbial communities caused by length difference of sequencing reads. (7/360)

Homology-based approaches are often used for the annotation of microbial communities, providing functional profiles that are used to characterize and compare the content and the functionality of microbial communities. Metagenomic reads are the starting data for these studies, however considerable differences are observed between the functional profiles-built from sequencing reads produced by different sequencing techniques-for even the same microbial community. Using simulation experiments, we show that such functional differences are likely to be caused by the actual difference in read lengths, and are not the results of a sampling bias of the sequencing techniques. Furthermore, the functional differences derived from different sequencing techniques cannot be fully explained by the read-count bias, i.e. 1) the higher fraction of unannotated shorter reads (i.e., "read length matters"), and 2) the different lengths of proteins in different functional categories. Instead, we show here that specific functional categories are under-annotated, because similarity-search-based functional annotation tools tend to miss more reads from functional categories that contain less conserved genes/proteins. In addition, the accuracy of functional annotation of short reads for different functions varies, further skewing the functional profiles. To address these issues, we present a simple yet efficient method to improve the frequency estimates of different functional categories in the functional profiles of metagenomes, based on the functional annotation of simulated reads from complete microbial genomes.  (+info)

MetaDomain: a profile HMM-based protein domain classification tool for short sequences. (8/360)

Protein homology search provides basis for functional profiling in metagenomic annotation. Profile HMM-based methods classify reads into annotated protein domain families and can achieve better sensitivity for remote protein homology search than pairwise sequence alignment. However, their sensitivity deteriorates with the decrease of read length. As a result, a large number of short reads cannot be classified into their native domain families. In this work, we introduce MetaDomain, a protein domain classification tool designed for short reads generated by next-generation sequencing technologies. MetaDomain uses relaxed position-specific score thresholds to align more reads to a profile HMM while using the distribution of alignment positions as an additional constraint to control false positive matches. In this work MetaDomain is applied to the transcriptomic data of a bacterial genome and a soil metagenomic data set. The experimental results show that it can achieve better sensitivity than the state-of-the-art profile HMM alignment tool in identifying encoded domains from short sequences. The source codes of MetaDomain are available at  (+info)

Very recent publications in Gut and elsewhere1 2 suggest that gut microbiota affects fertility. The application of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to modify fertility is an emerging novel area of interest.3 FMT from women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) leads to the disruption of ovarian function and a decrease in fertility which indicates that modification of gut microbiota may be a valuable approach in the management of PCOS.2 FMT of gut microbes, that developed under a high-fat diet, into mice on a normal diet leads to the disruption of spermatogenesis and a reduction of sperm motility,1 which highlights that restoring gut microbiota may be a means of improving disturbed male infertility caused by environmental factors.1 However, to date, there are no reports that address improvements of fertility following FMT. In a recent study,4 we found that busulfan damages spermatogenesis and sperm quality, and disturbs gut microbiota as found in many other studies.5 6 Alginate ...
Sex differences in peripheral immune responses are well recognized. This is associated with sex differences in many immunological diseases. As the intestinal microbiota is known to influence the immune system, such sex differences in immune responses may be a consequence of sex-specific microbiota. Therefore, this mini-review discusses sex differences in intestinal microbiota and the possible role of microbiota in shaping sexually dimorphic immunity. Sex differences in microbiota composition are clearly found in mice studies and also in human studies. However, the lack of standardization in human studies may mask the sexual dimorphism in microbiota composition in human studies, since many factors such as age, genetic background, BMI, diet, and sex hormones appear to interfere with the sexual dimorphism in microbiota composition. Only a few mice studies found that differences in gut microbiota composition are causative for some aspects of sexually dimorphic immunity. Therefore, future studies should
Beyond its role in therapy, FMT is providing insights into the importance of intestinal microbiota in health and disease. As physicians and scientists, we live in exciting times! Bacteria are no longer viewed solely as pathogens, but also as key partners in the maintenance of health. It is conceivable that altering the microbiota in our gastrointestinal tract may either predispose us to disease or ameliorate conditions we already have. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has captured the attention of the lay press and professional journals since 1958, when faecal enema was reported to have cured four patients near death from severe Micrococcus pyogenes colitis.1. ...
Full Text - Multiple exposures to anesthesia may increase the risk of cognitive impairment in young children. However, the mechanisms underlying this neurodevelopmental disorder remain elusive. In this study, we investigated alteration of the gut microbiota after multiple neonatal exposures to the anesthetic sevoflurane and the potential role of microbiota alteration on cognitive impairment using a young mice model. Multiple neonatal sevoflurane exposures resulted in obvious cognitive impairment symptoms and altered gut microbiota composition. Fecal transplantation experiments confirmed that alteration of the microbiota was responsible for the cognitive disorders in young mice. Microbiota profiling analysis identified microbial taxa that showed consistent differential abundance before and after fecal microbiota transplantation. Several of the differentially abundant taxa are associated with memory and/or health of the host, such as species of Streptococcus, Lachnospiraceae, and Pseudoflavonifractor. The
Public awareness about the importance of the gut microbiota is growing, but many nutrition professionals struggle to know how to incorporate findings from gut microbiota science into their practice. In a rapidly-progressing field, what should clinicians know about how gut microbes and diet interact to produce different health outcomes?. At the 2017 Gut Microbiota for Health World Summit in Paris on March 11th and 12th, Dr. Elena Verdú, Associate Professor at McMaster University (Canada) chaired a special workshop for registered dietitians and physicians specializing in nutrition and gastrointestinal disorders. The workshop -called Nutrition and the human gut microbiome: What should health professionals know for their daily practice?- addressed issues and questions relevant to nutrition practice.. The official report of this clinically-oriented session is now available! See below or download it at this link.. The full conference report from the GMFH World Summit 2017 is available here.. GMFH ...
The gut microbiota has the capability to generate a series of metabolites and thereby regulate homeostasis of the host metabolism (1). Antibiotic treatment, as an important therapeutic approach in clinical practice, can adversely affect the gut microbiota, inevitably giving rise to metabolic disorders (19). However, whether antibiotics have sex-dependent effects on the gut microbiota and host metabolism is unknown.. In the present study, at first we found that the gut microbiome and metabolome are influenced by gender. Results showed that male mice had higher abundances of Adlercreutzia, AF12, Anaeroplasma, Bacteroides, Dehalobacterium, Dorea, Mucispirillum, Roseburia, and Ruminococcus as well as lower levels of Lactobacillus, Prevotella, and Sutterella than female mice. In fact, sex-dependent differences in the gut microbiota have been reported due to hormonal effects (20), but many other factors may also affect microbial composition changes, such as genotype (21), age (22), body weight (23), ...
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with intestinal dysbiosis. Therefore, faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been hypothesised to have a positive effect in patients with IBS. In this study, we analysed previously unexamined data from our randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (trial registration number NCT02788071). The objective was to evaluate the effect of FMT on abdominal pain, stool frequency, and stool form.. METHOD: The study included 52 adult patients with moderate-to-severe IBS assigned randomly to treatment with FMT capsules or placebo capsules (1:1) for 12 days. The patients were followed for a total of six months, during which they kept a daily symptom diary tracking their abdominal pain on a scale from 0-10 and their bowel movements using the Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS). Diary data were not collected before treatment start.. RESULTS: A statistically significant improvement in stool frequency was found in the FMT group from during ...
BackgroundAttention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neuropsychiatric condition that may be related to an imbalance of neural transmitters. The gut microbiota is the largest ecosystem in the human body, and the brain-gut axis theory proposes that the gut microbiome can affect brain function in multiple ways. The purpose of this study was to explore the gut microbiota in children with ADHD and assess the possible role of the gut microbiota in disease pathogenesis to open new avenues for ADHD treatment.MethodsA case-control design was used. We enrolled 17 children aged 6-12 years with ADHD who were treated in the Pediatric Outpatient Department of the First Medical Center of the Chinese PLA General Hospital from January to June, 2019. Seventeen children aged 6-12 years were selected as the healthy control (HC) group. Fecal samples of cases and controls were analyzed by shotgun metagenomics sequencing. Alpha diversity and the differences in the relative abundances of bacteria were compared
Dysbiosis of gut microbiota exists in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus). Lupus patients who experienced pregnancy usually had more severe disease flares post-delivery. However, the possible role of gut microbiota in the link between pregnancy and exacerbation of lupus remains to be explored. In the classical lupus mouse model MRL/lpr, we compared the structures of gut microbiota in pregnant and lactating individuals vs. age-matched naïve mice. Consistent with studies on non-lupus mice, both pregnancy and lactation significantly changed the composition and diversity of gut microbiota. Strikingly, modulation of gut microbiota using the same strategy resulted in different disease outcomes in postpartum (abbreviated as
Esberg A, Haworth S, Hasslöf P, Lif Holgerson P, Johansson I Nutrients 12 (3) - [2020-03-03; online 2020-03-03] Oral microbiota ecology is influenced by environmental and host conditions, but few studies have evaluated associations between untargeted measures of the entire oral microbiome and potentially relevant environmental and host factors. This study aimed to identify salivary microbiota cluster groups using hierarchical cluster analyses (Wards method) based on 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, and identify lifestyle and host factors which were associated with these groups. Group members ( n = 175) were distinctly separated by microbiota profiles and differed in reported sucrose intake and allelic variation in the taste-preference-associated genes TAS1R1 (rs731024) and GNAT3 (rs2074673). Groups with higher sucrose intake were either characterized by a wide panel of species or phylotypes with fewer aciduric species, or by a narrower profile that included documented aciduric- and ...
PMID: J Neuroendocrinol. 2019 May ;31(5):e12684. Epub 2019 Feb 1. PMID: 30614568 Abstract Title: The role of the gut microbiota in development, function and disorders of the central nervous system and the enteric nervous system. Abstract: The gut microbiota has emerged as an environmental factor that modulates the development of the central nervous system (CNS) and the enteric nervous system (ENS). Before obtaining its own microbiota, eutherian foetuses are exposed to products and metabolites from the maternal microbiota. At birth, the infants are colonised by microorganisms. The microbial composition in early life is strongly influenced by the mode of delivery, the feeding method, the use of antibiotics and the maternal microbial composition. Microbial products and microbially produced metabolites act as signalling molecules that have direct or indirect effects on the CNS and the ENS. An increasing number of studies show that the gut microbiota can modulate important processes during ...
The role of gut microbiota has been extensively researched in recent years and it has been demonstrated that healthy gut microbiota can stimulate proper development of the immune system, provide humans with extra energy and protect against invading pathogens.. However, gut dysbiosis - an imbalance of the resident gut microbiota population instigated by a long-term high-fat and high-sugar diet - results in an increased inflammatory tone both locally and systematically which is a factor to bone loss.. The reports authors looked at all relevant, published, up-to-date findings on the subject of obesity, gut microbiota and jaw bone density, in order to establish a relationship between the three.. They found that the recent data did suggest that diet-induced obesity has a negative impact on bone health possibly via the alteration of gut microbiota and host immune status, and that manipulating gut microbiota could improve bone health.. The majority of the studies looked at were animal studies, largely ...
The microbiota profile assessed from urine EVs might reflect a large part of the gut microbiota. Nonetheless, we do believe that the microbiota profile assessed from urine EVs is not likely a simple alternative for microbiota profile assessed from stool. Possible sources for metagenome analysis of bodily microbiota may include stool bacteria, stool EVs, gut (ex, stomach and/or specific regions of the small and large intestines) bacteria, respiratory exhale EVs, oral/nasal bacteria and EVs, urinary system bacteria and EVs, and blood EVs. Generally speaking, microbiota in stool represents the intestinal compartment, whereas microbiota in urine or blood reflects the whole body including the intestinal compartments, oral system, respiratory system, and urinary system. Nonetheless, among the body parts, the gut is the major source of bodily microbiota. It was reported that the metabolites of intestinal microbiota activities, including phenyllactate, p-cresol sulfate, concentrations, and serotonin in ...
The gut microbiota has been implicated in cancer and shown to modulate anticancer drug efficacy. Altered gut microbiota is associated with resistance to chemo drugs or immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), whereas supplementation of distinct bacterial species restores responses to the anticancer drugs. Accumulating evidence has revealed the potential of modulating the gut microbiota to enhance the efficacy of anticancer drugs. Regardless of the valuable findings by preclinical models and clinical data of patients with cancer, a more thorough understanding of the interactions of the microbiota with cancer therapy helps researchers identify novel strategy for cancer prevention, stratify patients for more effective treatment and reduce treatment complication. In this review, we discuss the scientific evidence on the role of gut microbiota in cancer treatment, and highlight the latest knowledge and technologies leveraged to target specific bacteria that contribute to tumourigenesis. First, we provide ...
Gut Microbiota Profile Autism Spectrum Disorder Relationship: Diversity and Imbalance in Probiotics, Aurelie Razafindralambo, Hary Razafindralambo
The gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem that wields great influence over the health of its host.32 Conversely, mammalian hosts use a broad array of mechanisms to shape the microbiota in a way that maximises its benefit and minimises its potential to harm.33 That, at least among healthy persons, intraindividual variance in microbiota composition (ie, repeat sampling of individual subjects) is much smaller than that seen when comparing different individuals33-35 indicates that the ability of host and microbiota to influence each other typically results in a relatively stable equilibrium within specific hosts. Yet, some exogenous factors, for example, pathogens or antibiotics, can dramatically and lastingly disturb this equilibrium in a manner that promotes persistent disease.36 Moreover, even factors that cause relatively modest disturbances of the host-microbiota relationship have been associated with chronic low-grade inflammatory diseases, including metabolic syndrome.36 The genetics of the ...
The handling and treatment of biological samples is critical when characterizing the composition of the intestinal microbiota between different ecological niches or diseases. Specifically, exposure of fecal samples to room temperature or long term storage in deep freezing conditions may alter the composition of the microbiota. Thus, we stored fecal samples at room temperature and monitored the stability of the microbiota over twenty four hours. We also investigated the stability of the microbiota in fecal samples during a six month storage period at −80°C. As the stability of the fecal microbiota may be affected by intestinal disease, we analyzed two healthy controls and two patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We used high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize the microbiota in fecal samples stored at room temperature or −80°C at six and seven time points, respectively. The composition of microbial communities in IBS patients and healthy controls were determined
Background: Although immune responses directed against antigens from the intestinal microbiota are observed in certain diseases, the normal human adaptive immune response to intestinal microbiota is poorly defined. Objective: Our goal was to assess the adaptive immune response to the intestinal microbiota present in 143 healthy adults and compare this response with the response observed in 52 children and their mothers at risk of having allergic disease. Methods: Human serum was collected from adults and children followed from birth to 7 years of age, and the serum IgG response to a panel of intestinal microbiota antigens was assessed by using a novel protein microarray. Results: Nearly every subject tested, regardless of health status, had serum IgG that recognized a common set of antigens. Seroreactivity to the panel of antigens was significantly lower in atopic adults. Healthy infants expressed the highest level of IgG seroreactivity to intestinal microbiota antigens. This adaptive response ...
The NutBrain Study aims to understand the biological mechanisms through which diet influences cognitive disorders with a special focus on the impact of nutrition on gut microbiota and brain characteristics, by applying a novel multi-level approach that integrates traditional epidemiological methods with neuroimaging and gut microbiota profiling. Aims of the NutBrain study are: i) to estimate the occurrence of MCI and other cognitive disorders in community-dwelling older people aged 65 + years; ii) to investigate the association between lifestyle habits and cognitive ageing outcomes; iii) to explore the role of diet, in modulating the gut microbiota composition, which in turn impacts on brain structures and functions as well.. The NutBrain Study is an ongoing population-based cohort study promoted by the Institute of Biomedical Technologies of the National Research Council (ITB-CNR, Segrate, Italy) and the Hospital IRCCS Fondazione Mondino (Pavia, Italy). The NutBrain Study is structured in three ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transferring the blues: Depression-associated gut microbiota inducesneurobehavioural changes in the rat. AU - Kelly, John R. AU - Borre, Yuliya. AU - O Brien, Ciaran. AU - Patterson, Elaine. AU - El Aidy, Sahar. AU - Deane, Jennifer. AU - Kennedy, Paul. AU - Beers, Sasja. AU - Scott, Karen. AU - Maloney, Gerard. AU - Hoban, Alan E. AU - Scott, Lucinda. AU - Fitzgerald, Patrick. AU - Paul, Ross. AU - Stanton, Catherine. AU - Clarke, Gerald. AU - Cryan, John F. AU - Dinan, Timothy G. PY - 2016/7/25. Y1 - 2016/7/25. N2 - The gut microbiota interacts with the host via neuroimmune, neuroendocrine and neural pathways.These pathways are components of the brain-gut-microbiota axis and preclinical evidence suggests that the microbiota can recruit this bidirectional communication system to modulate brain development, function and behaviour. The pathophysiology of depression involves neuroimmune-neuroendocrine dysregulation. However, the extent to which changes in gut microbiota ...
This study constitutes the largest and deepest sampling of the composition of the elderly gut microbiota reported to date. The fecal microbiota of younger adults was previously shown by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) and phylochip (HitChip) analysis to be stable and individual-specific (7, 42). In the present study, all 161 of the time-0 microbiota samples could be clearly separated by UniFrac analysis (Fig. S5), and fine-detail analysis of genus confirmed individual-specific microbiota configurations. The HitChip study also found that temporally paired samples from elderly subjects were more similar than randomly compared samples from different subjects. However, the similarity of paired samples decreased from time 1 mo to time 2 mo. In the five elderly subjects that they investigated, the decrease in microbiota similarity was more pronounced in the Actinobacteria (42), whereas in younger adults, greatest divergence was recorded for Clostridium cluster IV. We observed a similar ...
The Human Intestinal Microbiota Has A Great Diversity Of Microorganisms, Playing An Important Role In Metabolism. Despite The Positive Aspects, The Intestinal Microbiota Is Associated With The Development Of Various Diseases Such As Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Celiac Disease, Allergic Diseases, And Diabetes. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1d) Is A Chronic Autoimmune Disease Characterized By Increased Blood Glucose Levels Due To A Deficiency In Insulin Production As A Result Of Pancreatic -Cell Destruction. The Pathophysiology Of Dm1 Is Still Not Fully Understood, However, Only Genetic Factors Are Not Sufficient To Determine The Risk Of Developing The Disease. The Role Of The Intestinal Microbiota As One Of The Triggers Of T1d Has Been Evaluated In Animal And Human Studies, And Strong Evidence Is Available For A Microbiota That Promotes Disease Development. This Study Aims To Compare Fecal Microbiota Among Children And Adolescents With T1d, Their Siblings And Healthy Children With No Family ...
Interestingly, there was a significant drop in interindividual beta-diversity in a short period of time after birth (3-10 days), as assessed by mixed sequencing. Due to practical reasons, many temporal research studies of faecal microbiota face a trade-off between sampling frequency and number of individuals included in the study. To our knowledge, all temporal faecal microbiota studies to date that have extensive sampling during first weeks of life (Favier et al., 2003; Palmer et al., 2007; Koenig et al., 2011) have few individuals analysed, whereas studies with high sample numbers often have fewer or more infrequent time points (Yatsunenko et al., 2012). However, our results illustrate that significant differences in average bacterial composition and beta-diversity occur between 3 and 10 days of age. These data therefore suggest that to better understand the development of gut microbiota, gaps between sampling periods should be reduced, particularly for those studies that compare different ...
We show here the importance of NOD2 in driving a proinflammatory immune response by myeloid cells, inducing the differentiation of pathogenic Th1 and Th17 cells, thus resulting in pancreatic insulitis and the consequent destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β cells and STZ-induced T1D development. Mice lacking NOD2, but not NOD1, did not develop STZ-induced T1D and were unable to induce a Th1 and Th17 immune response in the PLNs and pancreas. Furthermore, diabetic mice had changes in the composition of the gut microbiota, which may be related to the observed bacterial translocation to the PLNs. Notably, antibiotic treatment impaired both the bacterial translocation to the PLNs and the changes in the gut microbiota, which was correlated with protection from the disease. Additionally, we show here that NOD2 plays a critical role in gut microbiota recognition because the addition of the NOD2 ligand, MDP, was sufficient to promote STZ-induced T1D in Abx-treated, STZ-injected WT mice. ...
Recent data suggest that the gut microbiota plays a significant role in fat accumulation. However, it is not clear whether gut microbiota is involved in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. To assess this issue, we modulated gut microbiota via antibiotics administration in two different mouse models with insulin resistance. Results from dose-determination studies showed that a combination of norfloxacin and ampicillin, at a dose of 1 g/L, maximally suppressed the numbers of cecal aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in ob/ob mice. After a 2-wk intervention with the antibiotic combination, both ob/ob and diet-induced obese and insulin-resistant mice showed a significant improvement in fasting glycemia and oral glucose tolerance. The improved glycemic control was independent of food intake or adiposity because pair-fed ob/ob mice were as glucose intolerant as the control ob/ob mice. Reduced liver triglycerides and increased liver glycogen correlated with improved glucose tolerance in the treated mice.
We found that oral antibiotics induced gut microbiota changes and attenuated the development of CCI neuropathic pain, as demonstrated by dampened mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Percentages of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells and Foxp3+ regulatory T cells were significantly different between animals that received oral antibiotics (Th1 mean = 1.0, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9-1.2; Foxp3 mean = 8.1, 95% CI, 6.8-9.3) and those that received regular water (Th1 mean = 8.4, 95% CI, 7.8-9.0, P , .01 oral antibiotics versus water, Cohens d = 18.8; Foxp 3 mean = 2.8, 95% CI, 2.2-3.3, P , .01 oral antibiotics versus water, Cohens d = 6.2). These T cells characterized a skewing from a proinflammatory to an anti-inflammatory immune profile induced by gut microbiota changes. Moreover, we depleted Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and found that their depletion reversed the protection of neuropathic pain mediated by gut microbiota changes, along with a dramatic increase of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cell ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neonatal gut microbiota associates with childhood multisensitized atopy and T cell differentiation. AU - Fujimura, Kei E.. AU - Sitarik, Alexandra R.. AU - Havstad, Suzanne. AU - Lin, Din L.. AU - Levan, Sophia. AU - Fadrosh, Douglas. AU - Panzer, Ariane R.. AU - Lamere, Brandon. AU - Rackaityte, Elze. AU - Lukacs, Nicholas W.. AU - Wegienka, Ganesa. AU - Boushey, Homer A.. AU - Ownby, Dennis Randall. AU - Zoratti, Edward M.. AU - Levin, Albert M.. AU - Johnson, Christine C.. AU - Lynch, Susan V.. PY - 2016/10/1. Y1 - 2016/10/1. N2 - Gut microbiota bacterial depletions and altered metabolic activity at 3 months are implicated in childhood atopy and asthma. We hypothesized that compositionally distinct human neonatal gut microbiota (NGM) exist, and are differentially related to relative risk (RR) of childhood atopy and asthma. Using stool samples (n = 298; aged 1-11 months) from a US birth cohort and 16S rRNA sequencing, neonates (median age, 35 d) were divisible into three ...
Our study focused on comparing the microbiota of patients diagnosed with adenoma, advanced adenoma, and carcinoma before and after treatment. For all three groups of patients, we observed changes in their microbiota. Some of these changes, specifically for adenoma, may be due to normal temporal variation, however, those with advanced adenoma and carcinoma clearly had large microbiota changes. After treatment, the microbiota of patients with carcinoma changed significantly more than the other groups. This change resulted in communities that more closely resembled those of patients with a normal colon. This may suggest that treatment for carcinoma is not only successful for removing the carcinoma but also at reducing the associated bacterial communities. Understanding the effect of treatment on the microbiota of those diagnosed with carcinomas may have important implications for reducing disease recurrence. It is intriguing that it may be possible to use microbiome-based biomarkers to not only ...
Gut Microbiota and Health - Sneaking through barrier gaps: Gut microbiota imbalance harms the liver | - Making PR Easy for Healthcare Professionals
Diarrhoea is common in foals and can lead to marked morbidity and also death, particularly when infectious agents are involved. Important bacterial causes of foal diarrhoea include Clostridium difficile, C. perfringens and Salmonella species, which often result in systemic responses and risk of organ dysfunction. Treatment of diarrhoea is usually symptomatic to address homeostatic derangements and systemic effects and antimicrobial agents are frequently used when bacterial agents are suspected/confirmed. A major limitation of these treatment strategies is an inability to directly influence the disruption in the intestinal bacterial microbiota: this is a critical challenge and therapeutic goal.This project will investigate the safety, clinical efficacy and metagenomic effects on the microbiota of faecal microbiota transplant (FMT) in foals with bacterial diarrhoea. A randomised placebocontrolled clinical trial will be undertaken using foals presented for veterinary management of bacterial ...
The intestinal tract is inhabited by a large and diverse community of microbes collectively referred to as the gut microbiota. While the gut microbiota provides important benefits to its host, especially in metabolism and immune development, disturbance of the microbiota-host relationship is associated with numerous chronic inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease and the group of obesity-associated diseases collectively referred to as metabolic syndrome. A primary means by which the intestine is protected from its microbiota is via multi-layered mucus structures that cover the intestinal surface, thereby allowing the vast majority of gut bacteria to be kept at a safe distance from epithelial cells that line the intestine. Thus, agents that disrupt mucus-bacterial interactions might have the potential to promote diseases associated with gut inflammation. Consequently, it has been hypothesized that emulsifiers, detergent-like molecules that are a ubiquitous component of ...
A recently published study in Science from researchers at the University of Texas Southwestern (UT; TX, USA) has demonstrated that NFIL3 is expressed in small IECs. They also discovered that the gut microbiome appears to regulate lipid uptake and storage by altering the function of the circadian clock in these cells.. Lora Hooper (UT), the lead author of the study, commented: These findings indicate a mechanism by which the intestinal microbiota regulate body composition and establish the circadian transcription factor NFIL3 as the essential molecular link among the microbiota, the circadian lock and host metabolism.. Adding on to this, author Yuhao Wang (UT) explained: The human gut is teeming with trillions of bacteria that help us digest our food, protect us from infection and produce certain vitamins. There is accumulating evidence that certain bacteria that live in our gut might predispose us to gain weight, especially when we consume a high fat, high sugar Western-style diet.. Mice ...
From CHILD study: looked at bacterial 16S rRNA in stool samples at 2 times points in infancy, V3 region specifically. The gut microbiota at 3 months and 1 year were analyzed to determine which bacteria are present via RNA analysis. The gut microbiota at 3 months and 1 yr were analyzed to determine which bacteria are present via 16S RNA analysis. Microbiota results then compared to patient phenotype (wheezing or not, atopic/sensitized or not). They compared 319 children in the @CHILDSTUDY with 74 controls, 87 atopic only, 136 wheeze only and 22 subjects with both ...
Animals in the wild are able to subsist on pathogen-infected and poisonous food and show immunity to various diseases. These characteristics may be contributed largely by the animals microbiota. However, compared with the human microbiota, which has been extensively studied, the microbiota of animals in the wild has received less focus. In this study, we aimed to construct and functionally annotate a comprehensive database of microbiota sampled from wild animals in their natural habitats. Several considerations guided our sample collection and analysis strategy. First, we focused on sampling of animals from the wild, despite the many challenges that such sampling poses, because captivity was shown to alter the microbiome of several animal species. Second, to obtain a broad representation of wild animals, we sampled in four continents and from a diversity of animals with varied traits and feeding patterns. We hand-curated traits for each species, including dietary adaptations, activity hours, ...
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During plant development, the spermosphere that surrounds the root growth travels underground with the root and forms the microbiota of the underground plant. The bacteria in the surrounding soil environment also plays a vital role in the development of the root microbiome. Just like humans, who require an input of correct microbiota from food to support a healthy microbiome, plants also require friendly bacteria from the soil to form theirs. The majority of the microbiota that comprise the root and underground microbiome are anaerobic or facultative anaerobic microorganisms. These bacteria are the main source of group B vitamins for the plant, since the plant cannot produce all required vitamins itself. Vitamins are the active component of most life-supporting plant enzymes.. The spermosphere that surrounds plant growth travels upward with the stem and forms the microbiome of the aboveground plant. The majority of this bacteria is aerobic and includes simple eukaryotes like yeasts.. Both ...
O papel da microbiota intestinal na patogênese das doenças inflamatórias intestinais / The role of the intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of inflammatory intestinal disease
The intestinal tract is inhabited by a large and diverse community of microbes collectively referred to as the gut microbiota. While the gut microbiota provides important benefits to its host, especially in metabolism and immune development, disturbance of the microbiota-host relationship is associa …
We are starting to explain the complex mechanisms of interaction and dynamics between the gut microbiota and its host.. Our data show that relatively minor changes in microbiota profiles or its metabolic activity induced by neonatal stress can have profound effects on host behaviour in adulthood.. It would be important to determine whether this also applies to humans.. For instance, whether we can detect abnormal microbiota profiles or different microbial metabolic activity in patients with primary psychiatric disorders, like anxiety and depression, ...
These data suggest that a loss of anti‐inflammatory (beneficial) bacteria and an increase in pro‐inflammatory bacteria with HIV infection has the potential to drive chronic inflammation observed in HIV‐infected individuals. Furthermore, our infectivity assays indicate a potential role of the MSM‐associated gut microbiota in disease transmission and progression ...
Recent observations indicate that acute enteric infections may contribute to various intestinal and extra-intestinal disorders long after elimination of the inciting microorganism. The mechanisms remain unclear. This review discusses how alterations to the gut microbiota by enteropathogens during the acute stage of an infection may at least in part contribute to these presentations. After providing a critical discussion of the biology of the human intestinal microbiota, the review presents recent data that illustrate how enteropathogens may activate latent virulence genes in commensal bacteria, disrupt the microbiota biofilm phenotype, and promote the release of pathobionts from the commensal biofilm. Evidence suggests that, in turn, these planktonic pathobionts may spontaneously translocate across the mucus and the gut epithelium to trigger, at least in part, the pro-inflammatory events that lead to these long-term, post-infectious sequelae.
Gut Microbiota Composition Reflects Disease Severity and Dysfunctional Immune Responses in Patients with COVID-19. Although COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory illness, there is mounting evidence suggesting that the GI tract is involved in this disease. We investigated whether the gut microbiome is linked to disease severity in patients with COVID-19, and whether perturbations in microbiome composition, if any, resolve with clearance of the SARS-CoV-2 virus…. What are the new findings?. Composition of the gut microbiota in patients with COVID-19 is concordant with disease severity and magnitude of plasma concentrations of several inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and blood markers of tissue damage.. Patients with COVID-19 were depleted in gut bacteria with known immunomodulatory potential, such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Eubacterium rectale and several bifidobacterial species.. The dysbiotic gut microbiota composition in patients with COVID-19 persists after clearance of the ...
Mark Davis, ND. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is also known as human probiotic infusion, fecal transplant, fecal bacteriotherapy, fecal slurry, and gut flora rehabilitation and has been humorously referred to as transpoosion. The procedure consists of collecting stool from a healthy donor; suspending it in water, normal saline, or 4% milk; and administering it to the patient (most frequently via enema but also via colonoscope, nasogastric or nasoduodenal tube, rectal tube, or even [anecdotally] orally as a milkshake1). This massive infusion of healthy colonic bacteria has been used as far back as the 17th century in veterinary medicine to treat digestive disturbances2 and as early as 1958 in humans to treat pseudomembranous colitis.3. Fecal microbiota transplantation has a 90% success rate in curing Clostridium difficile-associated chronic diarrhea, colitis, and pseudomembranous colitis,4 which affect half a million and kill 15 000 to 20 000 Americans per year.5 Fecal microbiota ...
Introduction. There is a growing body of evidence highlighting the possible interactions between the microbiota and cancer. However, little is known about the consequence on the microbiota of the intensive chemotherapy in patients with AML. Indeed, intensive treatments of AML are known to negatively impact gut microbiota composition; it is measured by a deep shutdown of diversity indices (eg. Simpson), also called dysbiosis. Decrease in microbiota diversity may impact the immune system and may have consequences on the outcome of AML patients. Therefore, development of strategies to manipulate the gut microbiota may minimize treatment-related complications and potentially improve outcomes. With this background, we developed a single arm prospective phase I/II multicenter trial ( Identifier: NCT02928523) aiming to evaluate use of auto-FMT in AML patients treated with intensive chemotherapy and antibiotics. Patients and methods. For this purpose, at the time of admission and AML ...
In an effort to reduce Lyme transmission in Dutchess county, the Carry Institute of Ecosystem Studies is evaluating various vector management strategies for their safety and efficacy. One strategy under consideration is treatment of voluntarily enrolled residential areas with Met52, a biopesticide which kills Ixodes scapularis, a principle Lyme vector. The goal of this Senior Project is to evaluate how application of Metarhizium anisopliae F52, commonly known as Met52, changes the soil bacterial microbiome of plots representative of residential areas. We analyzed the microbiomes of 55 samples using the QIIME pipeline. We found that the edge effect was not detectable at distances of 1 m. This allowed us to pool inner and edge samples for comparisons of how lawn and forest microbiomes responded to Met52. We found that despite greater macro scale diversity, the lawn microbiome actually harbored a more diverse soil microbiome. Surprisingly, this complexity was not correlated with greater microbiome
Maternal overweight and obesity increase the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. Gut microbiota composition has recently been associated with both overweight and a range of metabolic diseases. However, it has thus far been unclear whether gut microbiota is involved in the incidence of gestational diabetes.. A clinical study with the purpose to investigate the impact of two food supplements, fish oil and probiotics (containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420), on maternal and child health was conducted at the University of Turku and Turku University Hospital in Finland. The microbiota was analyzed from fecal samples of 270 overweight and obese women using the state of the art analytical and bioinformatics methods based on deep sequencing metagenomics analysis.. Metagenomics is a next-generation sequencing tool that provides species level resolution of the gut microbiota composition. Metagenomics also provides information on the bacterial genes and ...
Gut bacteria are an important component of the microbiota ecosystem in humans and other animals, and they play important roles in human health. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between gut microbiota and multiple demographical-, behavioral-, or biochemical-related factors in subjects with chronic disease. Subjects with a very wide age range who participated in community-based chronic disease prevention and screening programs in China were enrolled. We analyzed the intestinal microbiota composition using 16S rRNA-based high-throughput sequencing of fecal samples, analyzed the association between gut microbiota structure and multiple demographical, behavioral, and biochemical factors, and compared the differences in microbiota composition in age-stratified groups with different blood glucose levels. Our results showed that both age and blood glucose levels had a significant impact on the gut microbiota structure. We also identified several taxa showed distinct abundance in groups
Interest toward the human microbiome, particularly gut microbiome has flourished in recent decades owing to the rapidly advancing sequence-based screening and humanized gnotobiotic model in interrogating the dynamic operations of commensal microbiota. Available data indicates multiple factors have contributed to discrepancies between studies. The study of the human microbiome is important, and it gives an in-depth understanding of the interplay between humans and its indigenous microbiota. Using stool samples (n = 298; aged 1-11 months) from a US birth cohort and 16S rRNA sequencing, neonates (median age, 35 d) were divisible into three microbiota composition states (NGM1-3). The authors declare no conflicts of interest. Due to the coevolution of the human microbiota and the immune system, a balanced and systematic interaction occurs over time. It is important to note that the continuous use of broad-spectrum antibiotics may disrupt the human microbiota. Genome Medicine is pleased to present a ...
PMID: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Oct ;12(10):985-996. Epub 2018 Sep 3. PMID: 30146910 Abstract Title: Microbial modulation of the gut microbiome for treating autoimmune diseases. Abstract: Many studies have shown the relationship between autoimmune diseases and the gut microbiome in humans: those with autoimmune conditions display gut microbiome dysbiosis. The big question that needs to be addressed is if restoring eubiosis of the gut microbiota can help suppress the autoimmune condition by activating various immune regulatory mechanisms. Inducing these self-healing mechanisms should prolong good health in affected individuals. Area covered: Here, we review the available clinical and preclinical studies that have used selective bacteria for modulating gut microbiota for treating autoimmune diseases. The potential bacterial candidates and their mechanism of action in treating autoimmune diseases will be discussed. We searched for genetically modified and potential probiotics for ...
Abstract: We propose to investigate the hypothesis that consistent changes in the human gut microbiome are associated with Crohns disease, a form of inflammatory bowel disease, and that altered microbiota contributes to pathogenesis. Analysis of this problem is greatly complicated by the fact that multiple factors influence the composition of the gut microbiota, including diet, host genotype, and disease state. For example, data from others and us document a drastic impact of diet on the composition of the gut microbiome. No amount of sequencing will yield a useful picture of the role of the microbiota in disease if samples are confounded with uncontrolled variables. Our proposed project will take advantage of our experience with deep sequencing to characterize the composition of the gut microbiome, but also control diet, host genotype, and disease state. Diet will be controlled by analyzing children treated for Crohns disease by placing them on a standardized elemental diet, and by testing ...
NIAID-supported researchers have shown that autologous fecal microbiota transplantation (auto-FMT) is a safe, effective way to replenish beneficial gut bacteria in cancer patients requiring intense antibiotics during allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Auto-FMT resulted in the recovery of beneficial gut bacteria to near baseline levels within days, restoring digestive, immune and other functions. With standard care, beneficial bacteria typically take weeks to recover from antibiotic treatment, leaving patients at risk of other infectious diseases. Science News Wire : Largest Planned Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) study enrolls first patient -- a press release is provided to you ìas isî with little or no review from staff.
Gelatin tannate ameliorates acute colitis in mice by reinforcing mucus layer and modulating gut microbiota composition: Emerging role for gut barrier protectors in IBD? ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Fermented green tea extract alleviates obesity and related complications and alters gut microbiota composition in diet-induced obese mice. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Interrelationship between gut microbiota composition and host metabolic parameters significantly modified by arabinoxylan supplementation.Green connections indi
The gastrointestinal tract is inhabited by a dense population of organized and highly specialized microbial flora that collectively modulates host immunity and metabolism. Compositional and functional changes in commensal microbiota are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases (Petrof & Khoruts, 2014; Vanhoecke et al, 2015). Recently, epidemiological and clinical studies on symbiotic microbiota have experienced a renaissance (Vasconcelos et al, 2016). Understanding how the enteric microbiota affects health and disease requires a paradigm shift from focusing on individual pathogens to an ecological approach that considers the community as a whole (Lozupone et al, 2012). These intestinal microbes boost biofilm formation by facilitating microbial co‐aggregation and the production of biosurfactants and bacteriocins, which selectively kill other microorganisms to maintain microbiota stability, enhance gut barrier function through interacting with epithelia and modulate the host ...
The 6th Congress of the International Human Microbiome Consortium took place on November 9-11, 2016 in Houston, TX. This first IHMC congress to be held in the USA attracted a wide international audience with attendees from Africa, Asia, Latin America, Australia, Europe, and the United States. This unique community of scientists came together to discuss a wide range of topics in the field of human microbiome science, including crosstalk of environmental microbes with the human microbiome, the importance of microbial communities outside the gut, the role of maternal-infant interactions in the early establishment of the microbiome, and the importance of microbiome science in global health. In this post, we highlight a few key topics that generated significant discussion at the conference.. Sequencing the microbiome: 16S or WGS - or both? On the first day of the conference, an important question was posed to the audience which generated significant debate thereafter: as the field of microbiome ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The alteration of gut microbiota in newly-diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients. AU - Chen, Pei-Chi. AU - Chien, Yi-Wen. AU - Yang, Suh-Ching. PY - 2019/7/1. Y1 - 2019/7/1. N2 - Objectives: Gut microbiota dysbiosis is known to be associated with diabetes; however, the findings of previous studies are conflicting. To clarify the association between type 2 diabetes and the gut microbiota, the present study analyzed the composition of fecal gut microbiota and its correlation with specific clinical parameters in newly diagnosed, treatment-naive diabetic patients and healthy controls. Methods: A total of 50 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and 50 healthy control participants were enrolled in the study. Fecal samples, blood samples, and food diaries were collected from the diabetic patients before and 3 mo after the start of their antidiabetic treatment. These samples were also collected from the healthy controls. The gut microbiota was characterized by 16S ribosomal RNA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Predictable modulation of cancer treatment outcomes by the gut microbiota. AU - Heshiki, Yoshitaro. AU - Vazquez-Uribe, Ruben. AU - Li, Jin. AU - Ni, Yueqiong. AU - Quainoo, Scott. AU - Imamovic, Lejla. AU - Li, Jun. AU - Sørensen, Maria. AU - Chow, Billy K.C.. AU - Weiss, Glen J.. AU - Xu, Aimin. AU - Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander. AU - Panagiotou, Gianni. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - The gut microbiota has the potential to influence the efficacy of cancer therapy. Here, we investigated the contribution of the intestinal microbiome on treatment outcomes in a heterogeneous cohort that included multiple cancer types to identify microbes with a global impact on immune response. Human gut metagenomic analysis revealed that responder patients had significantly higher microbial diversity and different microbiota compositions compared to non-responders. A machine-learning model was developed and validated in an independent cohort to predict treatment outcomes based on gut microbiota ...
The gut microbiome is a highly complex microbial community that strongly impacts human health and disease. The two dominant phyla in healthy humans are Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, with minor phyla such as Proteobacteria having elevated abundances in various disease states. While the gut microbiome has been widely studied, relatively little is known about the role of interspecies interactions in promoting microbiome stability and function. We developed a biofilm metabolic model of a very simple gut microbiome community consisting of a representative bacteroidete (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron), firmicute (Faecalibacterium prausnitzii) and proteobacterium (Escherichia coli) to investigate the putative role of metabolic byproduct cross feeding between species on community stability, robustness and flexibility. The model predicted coexistence of the three species only if four essential cross-feeding relationships were present. We found that cross feeding allowed coexistence to be robustly maintained for
The gut microbiota performs several essential protective, structural, and metabolic functions for host health. The maintenance of a beneficial microbiota requires a homeostatic equilibrium within microbial communities, and between the microorganisms and the host. The gut microbiota composition may be affected by external factors, among them diet habits may be considered most important. In some pathological conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), celiac disease (CD), or neurological disorders (ND), specific dietary regimens as low-fermentable, oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAPs), ketogenic (KD), and gluten-free (GFD) diets are considered therapeutic. These kinds of diets are characterized by a reduction or exclusion of a specific nutrient from the entire dietary pattern. Despite these alimentary regimens showing beneficial effects on disease symptoms, they can affect microbiota composition, especially if they are protracted for a long time. To date, only a few studies have
The human microbiome includes bacteria, viruses, and small eukaryotes, such as fungi, and this chapter focuses on the bacterial members of the microbiome. The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) aims at developing tools and resources for characterization of the human microbiota and to relate this microbiota to human health and disease. The goals of the jumpstart phase have been to sequence 900 reference genomes to provide a catalog of genomes for metagenomic studies, to sample at least 300 healthy adults between 18 and 40 years of age at five body sites, and to develop sequencing and analysis protocols for the samples derived from human subjects. The second phase of the HMP includes human microbiome studies that target particular disease states. In a recent study, four phyla comprised 92.3% of bacterial DNA sequences analyzed from multiple human sources, including hair, oral cavity, skin, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal tract. A study by Pei et al. showed that the distal esophageal microbiomes of four
FMT as a treatment modality has also been tested in a range of other diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome, obesity and metabolic syndrome, as well as neurological and psychological disorders, although most reports of the latter category are merely anecdotal. Yet, the results so far are not convincing. Reports about using FMT to treat IBD patients show considerable heterogeneity in terms of clinical effect (Moayyedi et al, 2015), whereas efficacy in patients with metabolic syndrome was transient. Insulin resistance improved 6 weeks after the FMT, but at 12 weeks, no significant effect was observed anymore on metabolic parameters and fecal microbiota composition (Vrieze et al, 2012).. The reason why FMT has such variable efficacy is probably due to the stability and resilience of the gut microbiota. CDI patients who have been treated multiple times with antibiotics have most of their bacterial diversity wiped out; FMT effectively repopulates this vacated ...
The impact of the gut microbiota on immune homeostasis within the gut and, importantly, also at systemic sites has gained tremendous research interest over the last few years. The intestinal microbiota is an integral component of a fascinating ecosystem that interacts with and benefits its host on several complex levels to achieve a mutualistic relationship. Host-microbial homeostasis involves appropriate immune regulation within the gut mucosa to maintain a healthy gut while preventing uncontrolled immune responses against the beneficial commensal microbiota potentially leading to chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Furthermore, recent studies suggest that the microbiota composition might impact on the susceptibility to immune-mediated disorders such as autoimmunity and allergy. Understanding how the microbiota modulates susceptibility to these diseases is an important step toward better prevention or treatment options for such diseases.. ...
Disruption from the gut microbiota by high-fat diet (HFD) has been implicated in the development of obesity. microbiota in the DIO group had already moved back to the CHO space, and continued to progress along the same age trajectory and completely converged with CHO after 10 weeks. Redundancy analysis identified 77 key phylotypes responding to the dietary perturbations. HFD-induced shifts of these phylotypes all reverted to CHO levels over time. Some of these phylotypes exhibited robust age-related changes despite the dramatic abundance variations in response to dietary alternations. These findings suggest that HFD-induced structural changes of the gut microbiota can be attributed to reversible elevation or diminution of specific phylotypes, indicating the significant structural resilience of the gut microbiota of adult mice to dietary perturbations. may be associated with obesity and body weight loss upon dietary intervention (Ley species and an increase in the prevalence of a single class of ...
We investigated the associations of gut microbiota with a large number of metabolically relevant traits using a subset of 531 Finnish men the from Metabolic Syndrome in Men (METSIM) cohort. The METSIM cohort (total 10,197 individuals) is one of the largest single-site population based cohorts and was collected from Kuopio, Eastern Finland, and established to evaluate genetic determinants of metabolic traits in middle-aged men. There is increasing evidence that gut microbiota are an important factor, in addition to genetic and life style factors, for the development of obesity, insulin resistance, T2D, and cardiovascular disease. The gut microbiome is a complex and metabolically active community, producing many metabolites which can directly influence host phenotype. Our study investigated gut microbiota relationships with a variety of factors that have profound impacts on the development of metabolic and cardiovascular traits. We present several new findings. First, we identified a number of ...
Intervention studies using germ-free (GF) mice or antibiotic-associated microbiota perturbation have demonstrated a causal role of the gut microbiome in regulating host metabolism (1⇓⇓-4). Treatment of mice with antibiotics improves host glucose tolerance, and reduces fat mass and obesity (5, 6), while colonization of GF mice with microbiota from obese mice (1) and humans (4) conveys glucose intolerance in the host. How this occurs remains unknown. Resident cells within the gut wall are leading candidates, as their location enables them to convey microbial signals to the host. Approximately 90% of total body serotonin (5-hydroxytryptophan [5-HT]) is synthesized in nonneuronal cells lining the gut wall, called enterochromaffin (EC) cells (7). The gut microbiome signals to EC cells through microbial metabolites, including short-chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids (8⇓-10), with mucosal 5-HT substantially reduced in GF and antibiotic-treated mice due to decreased EC cell numbers and ...
Perturbations to the gut microbiota can result in a loss of colonization resistance against gastrointestinal pathogens such as Clostridium difficile. Although C. difficile infection is commonly associated with antibiotic use, the precise alterations to the microbiota associated with this loss in function are unknown. We used a variety of antibiotic perturbations to generate a diverse array of gut microbiota structures, which were then challenged with C. difficile spores. Across these treatments we observed that C. difficile resistance was never attributable to a single organism, but rather it was the result of multiple microbiota members interacting in a context-dependent manner. Using relative abundance data, we built a machine learning regression model to predict the levels of C. difficile that were found 24 h after challenging the perturbed communities. This model was able to explain 77.2% of the variation in the observed number of C. difficile per gram of feces. This model revealed important ...
A distinct bacterial signature of the placenta was reported, providing evidence that the fetus does not develop in a sterile environment. The oral microbiome was suggested as a possible source of the bacterial DNA present in the placenta based on similarities to the oral non-pregnant microbiome. Here, the possible origin of the placental microbiome was assessed, examining the gut, oral and placental microbiomes from the same pregnant women. Microbiome profiles from 37 overweight and obese pregnant women were examined by 16SrRNA sequencing. Fecal and oral contributions to the establishment of the placental microbiome were evaluated. Core phylotypes between body sites and metagenome predictive functionality were determined. The placental microbiome showed a higher resemblance and phylogenetic proximity with the pregnant oral microbiome. However, similarity decreased at lower taxonomic levels and microbiomes clustered based on tissue origin. Core genera: Prevotella, Streptococcus and Veillonella ...
The epithelium is a first line of defense against microorganisms in the gut. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have an important role in controlling the normal gut microbiota and pathogenic bacteria. Dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2) is an important source of hydrogen peroxide in the small and large intestine, and the gut microbiota induces Duox2 expression. Here, we investigated the microbial regulation of Duox2 expression. We found that Duox2 was expressed by intestinal epithelial cells mainly in the tip of the epithelium. Duox2 expression was strongly induced by the presence of a normal microbiota in mice, but not when germ-free mice were colonized with various commensal bacteria. Duox2 expression was more rapidly induced by the gut microbiota in the colon than in the ileum. Furthermore, we showed that regulation of Duox2 expression in the ileum involved TIR-domain-containing adaptor protein including interferon-β (TRIF) and canonical nuclear factor-κB p50/p65 signaling, whereas regulation of Duox2 ...
Alteration of the gut microbiota through diet and environmental contaminants may disturb the mammalian digestive system, leading to various diseases. Because most exposure to environmentally pyrethroid pesticides such as permethrin (PERM) occurs through the diet, the commensal gut microbiota is likely to be exposed to PERM. The study aimed at evaluating the effect of low-dose exposure to PERM in early life on the composition of fecal microbiota in rats. Over a 4-month follow-up period, fecal microbiota and short-chain fatty acids were measured in order to identify possible differences between PERM-treated rats and controls. Further in vitro antimicrobial experiments were conducted to establish the antibacterial activity of PERM against different strains to obtain Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations. The main finding focused on the reduced abundance of Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas species, increased Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacillus in PERM-treated rats compared to controls. Changes of ...
The collection of commensal bacteria that permanently colonize humans are called the microbiota and its gene content the microbiome. Compared to human cells, the microbiota is believed to be equal in numbers, whereas the microbiome outnumbers the human genome 100-fold. Humans evolved for centuries with their microbiomes and a large body of work supports that the microbiota is involved in the maturation and differentiation of the immune system. Vice versa, multiple immune cells and mediators affect the composition and function of the microbiota.. More recent studies have implicated the microbiota in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. The Kriegel lab is studying how gut and skin commensal bacteria affect lupus and antiphospholipid syndrome using both patient samples and animal models. A growing number of laboratories at Yale are also exploring how the microbiota can affect immune-mediated diseases. The Kriegel lab specifically tests if certain commensals carry bits and pieces that look ...
2. The gut microbiome of the mother. As discussed by the authors, stool microbiome of the mother was unfortunately not investigated. During the first year, the gut microbiome of infants become increasingly similar to the gut microbiome of their mothers 4. It could be speculated that a significant proportion of the unknown source of the infants stool microbiome (,70%, Figure 4b) could be the mothers gut. Importantly, low diversity of gut microbiome has been reported in several HIV cohorts, in part associated with immune dysfunction and use of ART 5-9 . The authors discuss maternal ART as a contributing factor, and it is noteworthy that we reported decreased alpha diversity and reduction in Prevotella few months after ART initiation 7, the same findings as reported in HIV-exposed children in the present study ...
The symbiotic gut microbiota modulate health and disease of the host through a series of transgenomic metabolic and immune regulatory axes. We explore connections between microbiome composition and function related to individual metabolic phenotypes and consider these interactions as possible targets for developing new personalized therapies and clinical management strategies.. ...
Assessment and characterization of human colon microbiota is now a major research area in human diseases, including in patients with hepatitis B liver cirrhosis (HBLC). We recruited 120 patients with HBLC and 120 healthy controls. The fecal microbial community and functions in the two groups were analyzed using high-throughput Solexa sequencing of the complete metagenomic DNA and bioinformatics methods. Community and metabolism-wide changes of the fecal microbiota in 20 HBLC patients and 20 healthy controls were observed and compared. A negative correlation was observed between the Child-Turcotte-Pugh scores and Bacteroidetes (P | 0.01), whereas a positive correlation was observed between the scores and Enterobacteriaceae and Veillonella (P | 0.01). Analysis of the additional 200 fecal microbiota samples demonstrated that these intestinal microbial markers might be useful for distinguishing liver cirrhosis microbiota samples from normal ones. The functional diversity was significantly reduced in the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Treg cell-IgA axis in maintenance of host immune homeostasis with microbiota. AU - Feng, Ting. AU - Elson, Charles O.. AU - Cong, Yingzi. PY - 2011/5/1. Y1 - 2011/5/1. N2 - The intestine is the home to a vast diversity of microbiota and a complex of mucosal immune system. Multiple regulatory mechanisms control host immune responses to microbiota and maintain intestinal immune homeostasis. This mini review will provide evidence indicating a Treg cell-IgA axis and such axis playing a major role in maintenance of intestinal homeostasis.. AB - The intestine is the home to a vast diversity of microbiota and a complex of mucosal immune system. Multiple regulatory mechanisms control host immune responses to microbiota and maintain intestinal immune homeostasis. This mini review will provide evidence indicating a Treg cell-IgA axis and such axis playing a major role in maintenance of intestinal homeostasis.. KW - IgA. KW - Immune homeostasis. KW - Microbiota. KW - Treg cells. UR - ...
European Commission - this page describes research project 108-Development and application of high throughput molecular methods for studying the human gut microbiota in relation to diet and health. It was funded within Key Action 1 - Food, Nutrition and Health - of the Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources, Fifth Framework Programme for RTD.
The human microbiome is the community of microorganisms that reside in different body habitats. Host-microbiome interactions play an important but poorly-characterized role in health. Advances in high-throughput technologies including next-generation sequencing and mass spectroscopy allow us to query the population of micro-organisms and observe the interactions in greater detail. The effect of choices in measurement protocols, the multivariate longitudinal nature of data, and combining measurements on different scales pose difficulties in discovering and confirming significant relationships in the human microbiome.. The aim of this workshop was to create a forum for ideas for overcoming current and future challenges in the analysis of human microbiome data. In this workshop, participants learned how metagenomic (sequence-based) and metabolomic (mass spectroscopy-based) data are generated and the implications for analysis. Gaps in the current state-of-the-art methods were highlighted, ...
Changes in the composition and metabolic function of the gut microbiota have been linked to IBD, but a direct causal association has yet to be established in humans. This Review discusses the evidence supporting dysbiosis in the gut microbiota in Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis, exploring evidence from animal models and the translation to human disease. A general consensus exists that IBD is associated with compositional and metabolic changes in the intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis). However, a direct causal relationship between dysbiosis and IBD has not been definitively established in humans. Findings from animal models have revealed diverse and context
The importance of gut microbiota in alcohol-related liver disease and liver cancer has been demonstrated in two studies presented at the Digital International Liver Congress 2020. The key role of microbial biodiversity in the gut was highlighted in a study of fecal microbial transplantation. The technique shows promise as an intervention to improve some aspects of alcohol-related liver disease. A second study used a mouse model to associate changes in gut microbiota with the action of key signaling molecules, mediating the risk of hepatocarcinogenesis.
Microbiota Kom. Platycladus Spach - Chinese arborvitae Xanthocyparis Farjon & T. H. Nguyên - cypress Cupressus L. - cypress ... Microbiota, Platycladus, and Taxodium) the seed is larger and wingless. The seedlings usually have two cotyledons, but in some ...
It is a term for a microbial imbalance or maladaptation on or inside the body, such as an impaired microbiota. For example, a ... There has also been evidence that the gut microbiota composition can be altered due to changes in behavior, and changing the ... Similar to IBD, a specific microbiota appears to be linked to the development of obesity. There is a notable reduction in ... FMTs use the same line of reasoning as probiotics; to recreate a healthy balance of microbiota in the microbiome by inserting ...
Corsetti, F. A.; Awramik, S. M.; Pierce, D. (2003). "A complex microbiota from snowball Earth times: Microfossils from the ... Corsetti, F. A.; Awramik, S. M.; Pierce, D. (2003). "A complex microbiota from snowball Earth times: Microfossils from the ... Awramik, S. M.; Barghoorn, E. S. (1977). "The Gunflint microbiota". Precambrian Research. 5 (2): 121. doi:10.1016/0301-9268(77) ... Corsetti and David Pierce published evidence in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of fossilized microbiota in ...
"Small neighbors/Microbiota". Pittsburgh City Paper. Retrieved 2014-03-01. "Daniel Maidman did a painting of a poem..." Kathleen ...
Kanaya T, Ohno H (2014). "The Mechanisms of M-cell Differentiation". Biosci Microbiota Food Health. 33 (3): 91-7. doi:10.12938/ ...
Diet and lifestyle changes also affects the gut, skin and respiratory microbiota. At the same time that concerns about ... Loke, P.; Lim, Y. A. L. (June 2015). "Helminths and the microbiota: parts of the hygiene hypothesis". Parasite Immunology. 37 ( ... Current research suggests that manipulating the intestinal microbiota may be able to treat or prevent allergies and other ... Antibiotic usage reduces the diversity of gut microbiota. Although several studies have shown associations between antibiotic ...
Gut Microbiota News Watch. Retrieved 26 July 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "CSE Faculty Affiliate Honored with ...
rare) Microbiota decussata Kom. - (declining) Larix olgensis A. Henry - (declining) Picea glehnii (Fr. Schmidt) Mast. - (rare) ...
The microbiota of treated patients typically resembles that of the donor after transplantation. In a systematic review of the ... Additionally, microbiota can directly impact the central nervous system (CNS), as studies have shown that bacteria in the gut ... Microbiota reports consistently show significant differences in the gut of autistic patients compared to non-autistic. Ongoing ... Microbiota modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis (HPA axis), which controls reactions to stress and regulates ...
are members of the oral and vaginal microbiota, and are recovered from anaerobic infections of the respiratory tract. These ... Using Wikipedia for Research Clark, Natalie; Tal, Reshef; Sharma, Harsha; Segars, James (2014). "Microbiota and Pelvic ... "Impact of diet in shaping gut microbiota revealed by a comparative study in children from Europe and rural Africa". Proceedings ...
Human Microbiome Project Lactic acid bacteria Skin flora Vaginal microbiota in pregnancy List of microbiota species of the ... The microbiota detected in the human genital and gut econiche do not appear to grow outside their host and probably are likely ... Pregnancy alters the microbiota with a reduction in species/genus diversity. A healthy vaginal microbiome aids in the ... Vaginal flora, vaginal microbiota or vaginal microbiome are the microorganisms that colonize the vagina. They were discovered ...
The disturbance of the naturally occurring vaginal microbiota associated with bacterial vaginosis increases the risk of PID. N ... Sharma H, Tal R, Clark NA, Segars JH (2014). "Microbiota and pelvic inflammatory disease". Seminars in Reproductive Medicine. ...
The gut microbiota, which is a population of microorganisms that live in the human digestive system, also has an important part ... Hur, Kyu Yeon; Lee, Myung-Shik (2015-06-01). "Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders". Diabetes & Metabolism Journal. 39 (3): ...
Sharma H, Tal R, Clark NA, Segars JH (January 2014). "Microbiota and pelvic inflammatory disease". Seminars in Reproductive ...
When the microbiota of obese mice with this higher Firmicutes abundance was transplanted into the guts of germ-free mice, the ... Million, M.; Lagier, J.-C; Yahav, D.; Paul, M. (April 2013). "Gut bacterial microbiota and obesity". Clinical Microbiology and ... doi:10.1001/jama.2016.20099 Chakraborti, Chandra Kanti (15 November 2015). "New-found link between microbiota and obesity". ... Million, M. (April 2013). "Gut bacterial microbiota and obesity". Cell Microbiology and Infection. 19 (4): 305-313. doi:10.1111 ...
Marchesi, editor, Julian R. (2014). The human microbiota and microbiome. Wallingford: CABI. ISBN 978-1-780-64049-5.CS1 maint: ... and Prebiotic Interventions on the Microbiota. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-128-02544-4. Biology portal v t e. ...
BV microbiota has been found in the penis, coronal sulcus, and male urethra, in the male partners of infected females. Partners ... Another mode of transmission of the BV-associated microbiota is to a female sexual partner via skin-to-skin transfer. BV may be ... Healthy vaginal microbiota consists of species which neither cause symptoms or infections, nor negatively affect pregnancy. It ... One of the main risks for developing BV is douching, which alters the vaginal microbiota and predisposes women to developing BV ...
"Microbiota and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease". Seminars in Reproductive Medicine. 32 (1): 043-049. doi:10.1055/s-0033-1361822. ...
The human milk microbiota, also known as human milk probiotics (HMP), refers to the microbiota (community of microorganisms) ... Milk microbiota are thought to play an essential role in programming the infant immune system, and tend to reduce the risk of ... The human milk microbiota which could be source of commensal, mutualistic, and potentially probiotic bacteria to the infant gut ... Human microbiota Breast milk Human milk oligosaccharide Gomez-Gallego C, Garcia-Mantrana I, Salminen S, Collado MC (December ...
Sharma H, Tal R, Clark NA, Segars JH (January 2014). "Microbiota and pelvic inflammatory disease". Seminars in Reproductive ... Pregnancy alters the vaginal microbiota with a reduction in species/genus diversity. Physiological hydronephrosis may appear ...
Wickramasinghe, M.K.; Wickramasinghe, C. (2004). "Interstellar transfer of planetary microbiota". Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 348 ... "Interstellar transfer of planetary microbiota". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 348 (1): 52-57. Bibcode: ...
Low pH is necessary to control vaginal microbiota. Vaginal epithelial cells have a relatively high concentration of glycogen ... Sharma H, Tal R, Clark NA, Segars JH (January 2014). "Microbiota and pelvic inflammatory disease". Seminars in Reproductive ... "Enhanced Trapping of HIV-1 by Human Cervicovaginal Mucus Is Associated with Lactobacillus crispatus-Dominant Microbiota". mBio ...
Mendling W (2016). "Vaginal microbiota". In Schwiertz A (ed.). Microbiota of the human body. Advances in Experimental Medicine ... Aberrant strains of Lactobacilli are incapable to effectively control the vaginal microbiota, leading to an overgrowth of a ... suggest gene exchanges between enteropathogens and normal microbiota during acute enteric infection as one of the possible ... Hypersensitivity responses to commensal enteric microbiota and a perturbation of microbial ecology is observed in many patients ...
This genus is part of the vaginal and gut microbiota. They have been reported to as present in diabetic skin and soft tissue ... Clark, Natalie; Tal, Reshef; Sharma, Harsha; Segars, James (2014). "Microbiota and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease". Seminars in ... urinimassiliensis Bacterial taxonomy List of bacterial vaginosis microbiota Microbiology Classification of Genera MR entry in ...
Wallis, M.K.; Wickramasinghe N.C. (2004). "Interstellar transfer of planetary microbiota". Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 348 (1): ...
Biosci Microbiota Food Health, 2018. 37(3): p. 59-65. Warda, A.K., et al., Heat-killed lactobacilli alter both microbiota ... 20(10). Berni Canani, R., et al., Specific Signatures of the Gut Microbiota and Increased Levels of Butyrate in Children ...
Animal studies have been used to investigate the relationship between oral microbiota and the placental microbiota. Mice ... Human microbiome Human microbiome project Human virome List of bacterial vaginosis microbiota Microbiota of the lower ... The placental microbiota varies between low birth weight infants and those infants with normal birth weights. While bacteria ... The Human Microbiota : How Microbial Communities Affect Health and Disease. Fredricks, David N. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley- ...
Ganesan K, Chung SK, Vanamala J, Xu B (2018). "Causal Relationship between Diet-Induced Gut Microbiota Changes and Diabetes: A ... Yarandi SS, Peterson DA, Treisman GJ, Moran TH, Pasricha PJ (2016). "Modulatory Effects of Gut Microbiota on the Central ... Festi D, Schiumerini R, Eusebi LH, Marasco G, Taddia M, Colecchia A (November 2014). "Gut microbiota and metabolic syndrome". ...
Michaud, Dominique S.; Izard, Jacques (2014). "Microbiota, Oral Microbiome, and Pancreatic Cancer". The Cancer Journal. 20 (3 ... "Yeast diversity in the oral microbiota of subjects with periodontitis: Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis colonize the ...
When known microbiota are introduced to a germ-free organism, it usually is referred to as a gnotobiotic organism, however ... After germination, the seeds are transferred to either sterile soil or soil with a specific microbiota for use in experiments. ... Mayer, Emeran A.; Tillisch, Kirsten; Gupta, Arpana (2015-03-02). "Gut/brain axis and the microbiota". The Journal of Clinical ... Round JL, Mazmanian SK (May 2009). "The gut microbiota shapes intestinal immune responses during health and disease". Nature ...
The gut microbiota of preterm (PT) infants displayed a significantly greater abundance of Proteobacteria compared to FT infants ... The aim of this study was to characterise the initial gut microbiota development of a cohort of breastfed infants (n = 192) ... Prolonged breastfeeding was shown to have a significant effect on the microbiota composition of FT-CS infants at 24 weeks of ... FT-CS infants gradually progressed to harbouring a microbiota closely resembling FT-SVD (which remained stable) by week 8 of ...
Anagenesis Biome Human virome List of bacterial vaginosis microbiota Marine microbiota Microbiota of the lower reproductive ... Microbiota can be transplanted in the human body for medical purposes. The colonization of the human gut microbiota may start ... Clinically, new microbiota can be acquired through fecal microbiota transplant to treat infections such as chronic C. difficile ... Microbiota include bacteria, archaea, protists, fungi and viruses. Microbiota have been found to be crucial for immunologic, ...
Main article: Human microbiota. The human microbiota includes bacteria, fungi, archaea and viruses. Micro-animals which live on ... A microbiota includes bacteria, archaea, protists, fungi and viruses. Microbiota have been found to be crucial for immunologic ... The Human Microbiome Project sequenced the genome of the human microbiota, focusing particularly on the microbiota that ... A microbiota is an "ecological community of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms"[1][2] found in and on all ...
... microflora and microfauna in an ecosystem Gut microbiota Human microbiota Lung microbiota Skin microbiota Vaginal microbiota ... Microbiota may refer to: Microbiota (plant), a genus of coniferous plants in the family Cupressaceae Microbiota, the ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Microbiota. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to ...
Your note states: It has been widely reported that microbiota "outnumber human cells by 10 to 1"; however, more recent ... Here are links to possibly useful sources of information about Microbiota.. *PubMed provides review articles from the past five ... Material from Microbiota was split to Earth Microbiome Project on 02:03, 5 March 2012‎. The former pages history now serves to ... The reason I referred to your edits as an "awkward rewrite" was to do with the way you left microbiota defined in the lead ...
The skin microbiota is the term used to describe the collection of microorganisms that live on our skin. More specifically, it ... The skin microbiota is the term used to describe the collection of microorganisms that live on our skin. More specifically, it ... Generally, the skin microbiota is similar between different individuals, although it is never exactly the same. Environment and ... Resident and transient microbiota. Related Stories. *Diet and nutrition influence microbiome in colonic mucosa ...
... News-Medical, viewed 30 October 2020, ... Microbiota oral. News-Medical. 30 October 2020. ,,. ... Microbiota oral. News-Medical. (accessed October 30, 2020). ... 2019, February 26). Microbiota oral. News-Medical. Retrieved on October 30, 2020 from ...
A better understanding of the role of the intestinal microbiota in the development of chronic health issues in children could ... Intestinal Microbiota and Immuno-inflammatory Regulation. The host-microbiota interaction is considered to be strongly linked ... A correlation between inflammatory markers and the microbiota profiles from children developing obesity.. Different microbiota ... intestinal microbiota and Metabolic balance, and 3) intestinal microbiota and nervous system: gut-brain axis. ...
The microbiota is a complex ecosystem of microorganisms consisting of bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi, living in ... The causes of the microbiota alterations and the mechanisms by which microbiota modifications can act on the development of ... W.H.W. Tang, Z. Wang, D.J. Kennedy, Y. Wu, J.A. Buffa, B. Agatisa-Boyle, X.S. Li, B.S. Levison, S.L. Hazen, Gut microbiota- ... Microbiota Microbiome Diabetes Obesity Cardiovascular disease Metabolic syndrome Abbreviations. AMPK. AMP-Activated protein ...
Its not just what we eat that changes the composition of our gut microbiota. Exercise can, too, according to the results to ... Exercise alone alters our gut microbiota. Written by Honor Whiteman on December 5, 2017. - Fact checked by Ana Sandoiu ... The first study, which investigated the effects of exercise on the gut microbiota of mice, was published in the journal Gut ... The state of our gut microbiota has been tied to our mental well-being, but how do stressful conditions impact our inner ...
Microbiota humana[modifica]. La microbiota humana consta duns 39 bilions de cèl·lules microbianes, superant en una proporció ... Una microbiota és la totalitat de microorganismes, els seus elements genètics (genomes), i la interacció mediambiental dins un ... Una microbiota inclou bacteris, arqueobacteris, protists, fongs i virus. Sha demostrat que les macrobiota són fonamentals per ... El terme "microbiota" va ser encunyat per Joshua Lederberg, qui argumentà que els microorganismes que habiten el cos humà ...
As such the microbiota offers new prognostic biomarkers and shows promise as a target for future antineoplastic treatments. In ... As such the microbiota offers new prognostic biomarkers and shows promise as a target for future antineoplastic treatments. ... 2017, epidemiological studies in humans and experiments in mouse models showed that the intestinal microbiota determines the ... epidemiological studies in humans and experiments in mouse models showed that the intestinal microbiota determines the ...
A new biobank known as the Microbiota Vault recently received the go ahead to move on to the pilot stage: The ultimate goal is ... A pilot trial tested the effect of skin UVB exposure on the human gut microbiome and found changes in the human gut microbiota ... Gut microbiota composition determined by warmer temperatures could prevent the bone density loss often seen in osteoporosis ... Alterations in gut microbiota composition are associated with metabolic syndrome and chronic inflammatory diseases such as ...
The composition of gut microbiota is altered in patients with Alzheimers disease, potentially supporting the inflammatory ... Lopizzo said it is unclear what causes the differences in gut microbiota in those with and those without AD but noted that it ... Comparing the results with the samples taken during follow-up showed that the gut microbiota at both the phylum and genus ... The hypothesis is that alterations in the gut microbiota may cause the intestinal barrier to become more permeable, allowing ...
The gut microbiota (GM) is the whole of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms living in our intestine. The GM- ... Osteoporosis Gut microbiota Bone Immune system Probiotics Inflammation This is a preview of subscription content, log in to ... Maeda Y, Takeda K (2017) Role of gut microbiota in rheumatoid arthritis. J Clin Med 6:60. doi: 10.3390/jcm6060060 PubMedCentral ... Lee N, Kim WU (2017) Microbiota in T-cell homeostasis and inflammatory diseases. Exp Mol Med 49:e340. doi: 10.1038/emm.2017.36 ...
We also highlighted some of the new methods that can be applied to the study of substratum-associated microbiota and included ... review of the literature published in 2010 on topics relating to on the subject of ecology of substratum-associated microbiota ...
We speculated that the composition of the oral microbiota is associated with general frailty, as well as a relationship between ... In the present study, we investigated the salivary microbiota composition in samples from healthy and frail elderly individuals ... Our findings suggest that general frailty is associated with oral microbiota composition and formation. ... as well as in the microbiota composition at the phyla level. A supervised orthogonal partial least squared discriminant ...
The complex microbiota of raw milk.. Quigley L1, OSullivan O, Stanton C, Beresford TP, Ross RP, Fitzgerald GF, Cotter PD. ... Milk, due to its high nutritional content, can support a rich microbiota. These microorganisms enter milk from a variety of ...
The composition of bear oral microbiota dramatically differs from human oral microbiota and has much more in common with human ... B) Heat map indicating the portion of bacteria and influence of Ami on different microbiota samples: oral microbiota of ... Indication is represented as follows: bear oral microbiota (B), human fecal microbiota from a patient with colitis (P), a ... Scrutinizing the microbiota of a plethora of organisms is becoming a mainstream of modern microbiology. The microbiota of wild ...
Clostridium difficile and the microbiota Anna M. Seekatz et al. * The contributory role of gut microbiota in cardiovascular ... Antibiotics and the gut microbiota. Sheetal R. Modi,1,2 James J. Collins,1,2 and David A. Relman3,4 1Department of Biomedical ... Microbiota-targeted therapies: an ecological perspective. Sci Transl Med. 2012;4(137):137rv135.. View this article via: PubMed ... Microbial community-wide effects of antibiotics on the human gut microbiota. Antibiotic treatment alters the population ...
A microbiota includes bacteria, archaea, protists, fungi and viruses. Microbiota have been found to be crucial for immunologic ... Main article: Human microbiota. The human microbiota includes bacteria, fungi, archaea and viruses. Micro-animals which live on ... The Human Microbiome Project sequenced the genome of the human microbiota, focusing particularly on the microbiota that ... For other uses, see Microbiota (disambiguation).. This articles lead section does not adequately summarize key points of its ...
Supervised classification of microbiota mitigates mislabeling errors.. Knights D1, Kuczynski J, Koren O, Ley RE, Field D, ...
By itself, S. alvi appears to give some protection, but not as much as the whole gut microbiota (SI Appendix, Fig. S6). S. alvi ... 2012) Functional diversity within the simple gut microbiota of the honey bee. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:11002-11007. ... 2B). S. alvi was the most strongly affected member of the gut microbiota and decreased in both absolute and relative abundance ... A consistent effect of glyphosate on the bee gut microbiota was a negative impact on growth of S. alvi, which possesses a ...
Microarray profiling of the microbial communities of infant guts throughout the first year shows initial variation then convergence on the adult flora, providing new insight into this human ecosystem.
Instrumental for gut microbiota manipulation is the understanding of mechanisms regulating gut microbiota composition. Several ... The role of the Western diet in promoting an obesogenic gut microbiota is being confirmation in subjects. Following encouraging ... The connection between gut microbiota and energy homeostasis and inflammation and its role in the pathogenesis of obesity- ... Animals models of obesity connect an altered microbiota composition to the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and ...
Postnatally, the newborns microbiota is strongly influenced by the maternal vaginal or skin-derived microbiota (depending on ... Influences on the gut microbiota/brain axis in the perinatal period. Multiple factors affecting the maternal gut microbiota can ... Effect of interventions targeting the gut microbiota. Another approach to determining the effects of the gut microbiota on ... the newborns gut microbiota is shaped by the maternal vaginal (or skin) microbiota (reviewed in refs. 22, 81). Even though the ...
"The CRC-associated microbiota is being continuously defined as new biomarkers of CRC are discovered," said Yvonne Wettergren, ... The results of our study show that the risk component from diet may be mediated by the microbiota, and that the specific ... "The results of our study show that the risk component from diet may be mediated by the microbiota, and that the specific ... The key finding in the DuPont-backed research study was that the composition and diversity of the microbiota was altered in the ...
... Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012 Oct;9(10):599-608. doi: 10.1038/nrgastro.2012.152. Epub 2012 Aug ... Studies that used these technologies indicate that dysbiosis (that is, abnormal microbiota composition) and decreased ... have enabled novel insights into the microbial composition of the human gut microbiota and the effect of microbial communities ...
... J Clin Invest. 2014 Oct;124(10):4212-8. doi: 10.1172/JCI72333. Epub 2014 Oct 1. ... These drugs have been found to alter the taxonomic, genomic, and functional capacity of the human gut microbiota, with effects ...
... Heart Health. Hormone Health. Immune Health. Metabolic Health. Mood and Emotional Health. Omega-3s & ...
  • There has been recent recognition of the evidence that early life dysbiosis of the human intestinal microbiota is associated with different types of immune-inflammatory diseases in children (Arrieta et al. (
  • Peterson CT, Sharma V, Elmén L, Peterson SN (2015) Immune homeostasis, dysbiosis and therapeutic modulation of the gut microbiota. (
  • Additionally, dysbiosis of gut microbiota has been suggested to be induced by oral administration of pathogenic bacteria in an animal model 8 . (
  • Studies that used these technologies indicate that dysbiosis (that is, abnormal microbiota composition) and decreased complexity of the gut microbial ecosystem are common features in patients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. (
  • It also investigates the regulation of the microbiota composition and the mechanisms by which microbiota dysbiosis influences antimicrobial immunity. (
  • Dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota associated with inflammation involved in the progression of acute pancreatitis," Pancreas , vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 868-875, 2015. (
  • Dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota and decrease in paneth cell antimicrobial peptide level during acute necrotizing pancreatitis in rats," PLoS One , vol. 12, no. 4, article e0176583, 2017. (
  • At Baylor College of Medicine, Dr David J. Durgan and his colleagues are dedicated to better understand hypertension, in particular the emerging evidence suggesting that disruption of the gut microbiota, known as gut dysbiosis, can have adverse effects on blood pressure. (
  • Fungal microbiota dysbiosis in IBD. (
  • However, gut dysbiosis - an imbalance of the resident gut microbiota population instigated by a long-term high-fat and high-sugar diet - results in an increased inflammatory tone both locally and systematically which is a factor to bone loss. (
  • Emerging data demonstrate dysbiosis of the gut microbiota to be linked with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). (
  • As the gut microbiota, is essential for the host development and physiological function, a gut microbial community dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes and their relative abundance and dysbiosis influences obese conditions and various disease progression. (
  • The microbiota dysbiosis in the gut contributed mainly by diet as a carbon economy of the colon apart from genetic and environmental variations. (
  • The position will involve working on elucidating the influence of mucosal metabolism on host-microbiota interactions in the gut, with a view to characterising dysbiosis in disease states and promoting restoration of host-microbial symbiosis. (
  • Recent studies on intestinal microbiota have raised the possibility that dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota maybe a nove. (
  • In modern farming, dysbiosis (unbalanced microbiota) may occur at different stages of production . (
  • Commensalism, a concept developed by Pierre-Joseph van Beneden (1809-1894), a Belgian professor at the University of Louvain during the nineteenth century is central to the microbiome, where microbiota colonize a host in a non-harmful coexistence. (
  • The Human Microbiome Project sequenced the genome of the human microbiota, focusing particularly on the microbiota that normally inhabit the skin, mouth, nose, digestive tract, and vagina. (
  • Material from Microbiota was split to Earth Microbiome Project on 02:03, 5 March 2012‎ . (
  • CARLSBAD, Calif. , Aug. 21, 2012 /PRNewswire/ -- MO BIO Laboratories, Inc., the leader in microbial nucleic acid purification, is pleased to announce their sponsorship of Nature's Special: Human Microbiota, enabling free access to four of Nature's recent human microbiome publications. (
  • The microbiota with its microbiome, together with the host genome, can be transmitted from one generation to the next and thus propagate the unique properties of the holobiont. (
  • Microbiome refers to the collective genomes of the micro-organisms in a particular environment, and microbiota is the community of micro-organisms themselves (box 1). (
  • Researchers are now hopeful that a procedure known as fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and other therapies that target human gut microbiome can be used to treat these diseases in the future. (
  • Clinical efficacy and microbiome changes following fecal microbiota transplantation in children with recurrent clostridium difficile infection. (
  • In this Q&A, Darrell S. Pardi, M.D. , discusses the role that the microbiome plays in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and how this knowledge is guiding new approaches to treatment using fecal microbiota transplants and other microbiome replacement therapies. (
  • Further studies are warranted to elucidate the temporal and causal relationships between gut microbiota and depression and to evaluate the suitability of the microbiome as a biomarker. (
  • The presence of microbiota human and other metazoan guts has been critical for understanding the co-evolution between metazoans and bacteria. (
  • The human microbiota includes bacteria, fungi, archaea and viruses. (
  • Other Gram-negative bacteria are not regarded as components of normal microbiota since the skin's high osmotic pressure and low humidity do not favor the growth of these bacteria. (
  • A review of the literature published in 2010 on topics relating to on the subject of ecology of substratum-associated microbiota (algae, bacteria, and fungi). (
  • This colon-cancer associated microbiota was modified by probiotic intervention and characterized by an increase of bacteria known to produce butyrate. (
  • One association between gut microbiota perturbations and liver conditions that physicians have long been aware of is intestinal bacterial overgrowth - an excessive increase in the number of bacteria in small intestine of patients with alcoholic liver disease. (
  • When pathogenic bacteria enter our digestive system - for example via contaminated food - they are confronted with various defenses used by the body, including the bacteria in our intestinal microbiota [all the microorganisms in the intestine]. (
  • Using metagenomics [the study of the genomes of all populations in a given environment, such as the bacterial populations in the intestine], they then compared the contents of the intestinal microbiota of mice that had ingested Listeriolysin S-secreting Listeria to those of mice that had ingested non-toxin-secreting bacteria. (
  • The researchers used a mouse model to identify those bacteria of the microbiota that contribute to the protection against Salmonella infection. (
  • Fecal microbiota transplantation - (bacteriotherapy, stool transplant) - is defined as the transfer of fecal material containing bacteria and natural antibacterials from a healthy individual into a diseased recipient. (
  • Fecal microbiota transplant is the process of transplantation of fecal bacteria from a healthy individual into a recipient. (
  • To rectify this shortcoming, scientists based at the RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Science in Japan tested whether "bystander" IgA (that is, IgA elicited by antigens other than bacterial antigens) can modulate gut microbiota via glycan-glycan interactions among IgA, bacteria, and mucus. (
  • Details of this work appeared July 24 in the Journal of Experimental Medicine , in an article titled, "IgA regulates the composition and metabolic function of gut microbiota by promoting symbiosis between bacteria. (
  • The number of bacteria in the human gut has been estimated to exceed the number of somatic cells in the body by an order of magnitude and that the biomass of the gut microbiota may reach up to 1.5 kg ( 2 ). (
  • For example, the gut microbiota are essential for normal development and homeostasis of the immune system in the gut, modulate epithelial cell proliferation, protect against pathogenic bacteria, and modulate villus architecture and angiogenesis within the intestine ( 5 , 6 ). (
  • Periodontitis is an inflammatory response in a susceptible host caused by complex microbiota, predominantly composed of Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria. (
  • Short-chain fatty acids are metabolites produced by gut bacteria, which was higher in obese children, suggesting a strong link between microbiota and obesity. (
  • Time will tell whether statins affect bacteria in the gut directly or whether these drugs affect both gut and immune cells that, in turn, help modify the microbiota. (
  • This collection of non-pathogenic bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi makes up our intestinal microbiota (or intestinal flora). (
  • The microbiota is a collection of microorganisms - non-pathogenic bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi, known as commensal microorganisms - which live in a specific environment. (
  • Out of the 160 species of bacteria on average found in the microbiota of a healthy individual, half of these species are commonly found in one individual to another. (
  • The gut microbiota have been studied in relation to allergic airway disease, obesity, gastrointestinal diseases and diabetes. (
  • There is growing evidence that any modification in the microbiota composition can lead to several diseases, including metabolic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. (
  • The connection between gut microbiota and energy homeostasis and inflammation and its role in the pathogenesis of obesity-related disorders are increasingly recognized. (
  • Animals models of obesity connect an altered microbiota composition to the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes in the host through several mechanisms: increased energy harvest from the diet, altered fatty acid metabolism and composition in adipose tissue and liver, modulation of gut peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 secretion, activation of the lipopolysaccharide toll-like receptor-4 axis, and modulation of intestinal barrier integrity by GLP-2. (
  • But meanwhile it has become clear that patients with NAFLD or NASH - often associated with obesity - also have imbalances in their gut microbiota. (
  • It is increasingly evident that gut microbiota play a significant role in the development of metabolic disorders including obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. (
  • Alterations in the gut microbiota are associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome in both humans and rodents," study coauthor Gerald Shulman of Yale said in a statement . (
  • Speaking with Science News , Jonathan Schertzer of McMaster University in Canada who was not involved in the research called the paper a "tour-de-force," noting that it builds upon other studies on the microbiota-obesity link. (
  • Bone mineral density could be altered by prebiotics and probiotics, according to a new review that links diet-induced obesity, the gut microbiota and bone health. (
  • Bones which have been damaged by diet-induced obesity could be brought back to health through the use of prebiotics and probiotics to alter the gut microbiota, say researchers from Chiang Mai University in Thailand. (
  • The report's authors looked at all relevant, published, up-to-date findings on the subject of obesity, gut microbiota and jaw bone density, in order to establish a relationship between the three. (
  • They found that the recent data did suggest that diet-induced obesity has a negative impact on bone health possibly via the alteration of gut microbiota and host immune status, and that manipulating gut microbiota could improve bone health. (
  • Over the past decade, the gut microbiota has emerged as an essential mediator in the pathophysiology of obesity and related metabolic disorders. (
  • This review will discuss the recent advances in understanding the mechanisms whereby the gut microbiota modulates the effects of diet and shapes the host metabolism either towards or away from obesity and related metabolic conditions. (
  • An altered gut microbiota has been associated with several diseases, including obesity and diabetes, but the mechanisms involved remain elusive. (
  • Therefore, understanding the mechanisms by which the alteration in the gut microbiota produces different signaling activations and phenotype changes may offer an interesting opportunity for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. (
  • This suggests that targeted modifications to the specific species composing the human microbiota could be developed and could help to prevent or treat early-onset obesity in the future. (
  • According to a study published in the journal Nature , (2009), obesity is associated with phylum-level changes in the microbiota, reduced bacterial diversity and altered representation of bacterial genes and metabolic pathways. (
  • Introduction Intestinal metabolism and microbiota profiles are impaired in obesity and insulin resistance. (
  • 5 Studies are currently underway using sub-therapeutic antibiotic treatment as a tool to disrupt the microbial ecosystem and alter host body composition with the aim of identifying organisms within the microbiota that could either promote or protect against obesity. (
  • It is well established - and perhaps unsurprising - that what we eat affects the microbes that live in our intestine, collectively known as the gut microbiota. (
  • The first study , which investigated the effects of exercise on the gut microbiota of mice, was published in the journal Gut Microbes . (
  • Evolution by cooperation can occur by amplifying existing microbes, gaining novel microbiota and by acquiring microbial and viral genes. (
  • The effect of microbes on a certain trait can be independent of the host's genotype, or the microbiota composition may be shaped by traits of the host and in turn confer a phenotypic trait. (
  • In some cases, it may be necessary to standardize the microbiota of the experimental animals-for example, by artificially creating a standard microbial mixture (similar to but even more rigorously standardized than the Schaedler flora sometimes used in mice) or by autoclaving or irradiating food and water to prevent the introduction of new microbes. (
  • We have coevolved with microbes in the environment, and each body habitat has a unique set of microorganisms (microbiota) ( 1 ). (
  • The fetal gut is sterile and is colonized at birth with microbes from the mother's vaginal and fecal microbiota as well as with other environmental microbes encountered in the first days of life. (
  • Due to the great interest and importance of gut microbiota study, exploration of gut microbes fascinates the research community to understand their structure and function in the gut environment. (
  • As most of these microbes are not suitable for culturing in the laboratory condition, understanding and characterizing gut microbiota poses a challenge to the research community. (
  • We found a significant difference in diversity between elderly individuals living in a nursing home (EN) and healthy control (HC) subjects, as well as in the microbiota composition at the phyla level. (
  • At the phyla level, the Shannon Diversity index H value for the EN samples was significantly lower than that for the HC samples (Fig. 1A ). (
  • The key finding in the DuPont-backed research study was that the composition and diversity of the microbiota was altered in the tumor tissue and surrounding mucosa in biopsy samples taken from colon cancer patients when compared to non-cancer patients. (
  • Plants are colonized by a great diversity of microorganisms which form a microbiota and perform additional functions for their host. (
  • Microbiota diversity -a measure of how many different species and, dependent on the diversity indices, how evenly distributed they are in the community. (
  • The diversity of these effects means that the microbiota may contribute to unexplained variation either within or between experiments in a number of different, often difficult-to-predict, ways. (
  • Infants with colic showed lower microbiota diversity and stability than did control infants in the first weeks of life. (
  • However, factors such as age, diet consumption, environmental factors and antibiotic treatments also play an important role in altering microbiota diversity in the gut. (
  • Do stool donors represent a wide variety of gluten-free, paleo-eating crossfitters, gap-year world travelers, and organic gentleman farmers with boutique dirt under their fingernails for optimal microbiota diversity? (
  • The study was based on this principle: the human gut microbiota contributes to metabolism, interacts with the immune system and protects against pathogens, so it has the potential to substantially impact overall health and well-being. (
  • The authors also concluded that alterations of gut microbiota by antibiotics seem to affect not only gut microbiota but also metabolism. (
  • In this context, the reciprocal interactions of the gut microbiota structure and their metabolite profiles with host metabolism predisposing to a range of pathological conditions (e.g., insulin resistance) related to energy homeostasis have been increasingly discussed in various animal models and human cohorts. (
  • A healthy, diverse, and stable microbiota have been shown to promote health: they promote absorption of nutrients, support the metabolism and protect from infections. (
  • The overall picture that is emerging from our studies is that microbiota changes in the inflamed gut, in particular the outgrowth of Enterobacteriaceae, is driven by changes in the bacterial metabolism and competitive growth. (
  • A combination of classical microbiology, sequencing, and animal experiments may provide further insights into how the gut microbiota affect host metabolism and physiology. (
  • Furthermore, the gut microbiota affect xenobiotic metabolism, bone mineral density, behavior, and several metabolic functions ( 5 , 6 ), and emerging data from humans and mouse models suggest that the gut microbiota play a role in the development of metabolic diseases. (
  • Increasing attention has been attracted to intestinal microbiota, due to interactions with nutrition, metabolism and immune defence of the host. (
  • The study, "Role of Gut Microbiota and Short Chain Fatty Acids in Modulating Energy Harvest and Fat Partitioning in Youth," is published int the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. (
  • Scientists have previously found an association between gut microbiota and various metabolism-related and cardiovascular diseases. (
  • One of the authors is Fredrik Bäckhed, Professor of Molecular Medicine at Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, who focuses on the role of gut microbiota in metabolism. (
  • To understand whether changes in intestinal metabolism interact with gut microbiota and its release of inflammatory markers, we studied the effects of sprint interval (SIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on intestinal metabolism and microbiota in subjects with insulin resistance. (
  • In animal studies, we are carefully trying to understand how the intestinal microbiota influences body composition and metabolism and what impact antibiotics might have. (
  • This is because alterations in the microbiota composition can cause insulin resistance, inflammation, vascular, and metabolic disorders. (
  • It has been suggested that gut microbiota may be a potential source of this inflammation. (
  • Belkaid Y, Hand TW (2014) Role of the microbiota in immunity and inflammation. (
  • We found that GF mice and mice where the microbiota was reduced one week before EAU induction were protected from severe autoimmune inflammation. (
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiota and Local Inflammation during Oxazolo. (
  • The fecal microbiota before induction of skin inflammation strongly correlated with the levels of some proinflammatory cytokines (IFNγ, IL1β, IL12, and TNFα), the antiinflammatory cytokines IL4 and IL10, and the chemokine KC/GRO that were measured in ear samples at study termination. (
  • For example, infants with colic displayed a less diverse fecal microbiota, which is associated with increased calprotectin levels that are indicative of intestinal inflammation. (
  • Rates and Deadlines listed below are for the 2020-E3 "Inflammation, Microbiota and Cancer" conference only. (
  • Anthocyanin-rich blueberries may change the composition of our gut microbiota and produce improvements in systemic inflammation, suggests a new study with rats. (
  • W]e show for the first time, to our knowledge, that blueberry-induced reductions in inflammation and insulin resistance in [high fat]-diet-fed rats were found in conjunction with compositional changes in the gut microbiota and improved gut integrity. (
  • And] although we showed that metabolic improvements with blueberry supplementation were found in association with compositional changes in the gut microbiota, the use of germ-free models would be needed to conclusively show that the gut microbiota is responsible for changes in inflammation and insulin sensitivity. (
  • Both studies show that microbiota-derived signals induce the expression of RORγt in T reg cells that control intestinal inflammation (see the figure). (
  • Moreover, because gut microbiota imbalance after Covid-19 resolution may lead to persistent symptoms, it is important to understand how gut microorganisms are involved in inflammation and COVID-19. (
  • Moreover, dysbiotic gut microbiota has been suggested to promote systemic low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance through the release of endotoxins particularly lipopolysaccharides. (
  • The host-microbiota interaction is considered to be strongly linked to the development, maturation, and function of the immune system in the host, not only locally, but also systemically through local colonization, metabolites, and signaling. (
  • Les modificacions en aquest punt de vista mostren que el sistema immune ha evolucionat per controlar microbis, ja que en certs casos s'ha vist que els microbis controlen el sistema immune humà. (
  • Statovci D, Aguilera M, MacSharry J, Melgar S (2017) The impact of western diet and nutrients on the microbiota and immune response at mucosal interfaces. (
  • Wu HJ, Wu E (2012) The role of gut microbiota in immune homeostasis and autoimmunity. (
  • The microbiota is a crucial modulator of the immune system. (
  • These data suggest that the presence of microbiota during autoantigen recognition regulates the inflammatory response by influencing the adaptive immune response. (
  • Scientists studying infections used to focus mainly on the direct interaction of the immune system with pathogens, but have since moved on to look more closely at the interactions that go on between microbiota, immune system and pathogen. (
  • Published in Cell Host & Microbe, the results of the study of the HZI scientists are an important step towards a better understanding of the interactions of the triad of microbiota, immune system and pathogen. (
  • Beneficial microbiota protects against pathogens, provides essential nutrients, catabolizes complex polysaccharides, renders harmful chemicals inert, and contributes to the performance of the immune system. (
  • The role of gut microbiota has been extensively researched in recent years and it has been demonstrated that healthy gut microbiota can stimulate proper development of the immune system, provide humans with extra energy and protect against invading pathogens. (
  • This effort will require elucidation of the interrelationships between breast milk composition and the development of the microbiota and immune system in the context of the maternal-infant dyad. (
  • In particular, the focus will be on the recent progress in understanding the composition and behavior of commensal microbiota, their ability to induce and become controlled by host innate and adaptive immunity, bacterial mechanisms to circumvent host immune responses and the pathological consequences of disrupting this finely tuned immunological balance. (
  • Human immune function and intestinal microbiota are suggested to be altered within long-duration stay in space. (
  • The intestinal commensal microbiota are important in shaping immune cell repertoire and are influenced by host genetics. (
  • Background: Although immune responses directed against antigens from the intestinal microbiota are observed in certain diseases, the normal human adaptive immune response to intestinal microbiota is poorly defined. (
  • Objective: Our goal was to assess the adaptive immune response to the intestinal microbiota present in 143 healthy adults and compare this response with the response observed in 52 children and their mothers at risk of having allergic disease. (
  • These perturbations are observable even in childhood, suggesting that optimal stimulation of the adaptive immune system by the microbiota might be needed to prevent certain immune-mediated diseases. (
  • The connections between gut microbiota composition, levels of cytokines and inflammatory markers in patients with COVID-19 suggest that gut microbiota composition reflects disease severity and weakened immune responses. (
  • More fundamentally, we propose a series of conceptual clarifications in support of the idea of a "co-immunity," where an organism is protected by both its own immune system and components of its microbiota. (
  • The intestinal microbiota, composed of trillions of microbial cells, undertakes many vital immune, hormonal and metabolic functions. (
  • Clinically, new microbiota can be acquired through fecal microbiota transplant to treat infections such as chronic C. difficile infection. (
  • An Alberta-led clinical trial has shown Fecal Microbiota Transplant (FMT) is as effective in treating clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infections whether delivered by colonoscopy or by swallowing capsules. (
  • Based on their findings, the researchers concluded that 'exercise-induced modifications in the gut microbiota can mediate host-microbial interactions with potentially beneficial outcomes for the host. (
  • Future research is needed to unravel the hormonal, immunomodulatory, and metabolic mechanisms underlying microbe-microbe and microbiota-host interactions and the specific genes that determine the health benefit derived from probiotics. (
  • A series of provocative preclinical studies have suggested a prominent role for the gut microbiota in these gut-brain interactions. (
  • To configure mock communities composed of various combinations of known cultivable species present during conditions of either general oral health or known pathological states together with newly identified uncultivable species in order to understand metabolic and molecular interactions (metabolic cooperation, cell-cell signaling, etc.) required for maintenance of the uncultivable species and to determine their overall role in the composition and resilience of the oral microbiota. (
  • This project aims to develop a gut-on-a-chip allowing the co-culture of human gut microbiota with intestinal epithelium cells to study host-microbe interactions. (
  • Nevertheless, the knowledge of the structure, interactions and functions of the intestinal microbiota is still limited and fragmented ( Oakley and Kogut, 2016 ). (
  • The development of high-throughput sequencing techniques for genetic material has given new impetus to this research, and there is a real trend today in research aiming to describe the nature of host-microbiota interactions, interactions between the microorganisms, and their impact in terms of health. (
  • In 2017, epidemiological studies in humans and experiments in mouse models showed that the intestinal microbiota determines the effectiveness of anticancer immunotherapies. (
  • Evidence is also mounting that microbiota resilience decreases with each subsequent course of antibiotics 2 and that, once disrupted, the normal microbiota may never recover completely or it may be replaced by resistant organisms. (
  • Sokol H, Jegou S, McQuitty C et al (2017) Specificities of the intestinal microbiota in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and Clostridium difficile infection. (
  • Altered intestinal microbiota in patients with chronic pancreatitis: implications in diabetes and metabolic abnormalities," Scientific Reports , vol. 7, article 43640, 2017. (
  • The honey bee gut microbiota is dominated by eight bacterial species that promote weight gain and reduce pathogen susceptibility. (
  • We demonstrated that the relative and absolute abundances of dominant gut microbiota species are decreased in bees exposed to glyphosate at concentrations documented in the environment. (
  • To increase our knowledge of the role that uncultivable bacterial species play in the microbial ecology of the human oral microbiota. (
  • It is estimated that the human oral microbiota consists of over 600 individual taxa with ~200 being formally named species and only ~100 representing laboratory-cultivable strains. (
  • that the overall bal-ance in composition of the microbiota, together with the influence of pivotal species that induce specific responses, can influence the CNS leading to the modulation of brain function and consequently mood and behavior. (
  • Microbiota is a monotypic] genus of evergreen coniferous shrub in the cypress family Cupressaceae, containing only one species, Microbiota decussata . (
  • Each species has its own gut microbiota. (
  • However, until recently, limited technical resources were available to study this interaction in detail: only a minority of the bacterial species constituting the microbiota could be cultured in vitro . (
  • Furthermore, a common foundation of 15 to 20 species is said to exist, responsible for essential microbiota functions. (
  • Microbiota may refer to: Microbiota (plant), a genus of coniferous plants in the family Cupressaceae Microbiota, the microflora and microfauna in an ecosystem Gut microbiota Human microbiota Lung microbiota Skin microbiota Vaginal microbiota This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Microbiota. (
  • The effect of probiotic strains on the microbiota of the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME). (
  • Microbiota transfer therapy alters gut ecosystem and improves gastrointestinal and autism symptoms. (
  • The present book focuses on the latest research approaches and updates from the microbiota ecosystem and their applications in agriculture industry. (
  • Perinatal shifting of microbiota through low dose antibiotics can have long-lasting effects on future susceptibility to allergic airway disease. (
  • 2018). In articles by Arvonen and colleagues (2016) and Stiemsma and colleagues (2016), an increased susceptibility to inflammatory health conditions by the negative impact of antibiotics use on intestinal microbiota compositions during this specific critical window was considered. (
  • A new biobank known as the Microbiota Vault recently received the go ahead to move on to the pilot stage: The ultimate goal is to gather beneficial microorganisms from human populations whose microbiomes are uncompromised by antibiotics, processed diets. (
  • As a result, much of our understanding about the effects of antibiotics is skewed toward mechanisms of killing and specific resistance genotypes and phenotypes in the context of a narrow subset of the gut microbiota in isolation from the rest of the community. (
  • Over the past decade or so, the study of antibiotics and the gut microbiota has taken a decidedly more ecological and system-wide perspective. (
  • Additionally, microbiota perturbations by probiotics and antibiotics exert modulatory effects on some of these measures in adult animals. (
  • Infancy is an important time in the development of the human microbiota and these studies provide evidence that early exposure to antibiotics may disrupt the early-life microbiota and lead to changes in growth and metabolic development," says Dr. Laura Cox. (
  • We are just beginning to understand the roles that the intestinal microbiota plays in normal growth and development," says Dr. Cox, "and further studies in both humans and experimental animal models are needed to characterize the potential impact of antibiotics on the microbiota and host physiology. (
  • The spotlight has recently fallen on the role of the gut microbiota in normal growth and development, with scientists now concerned that altering the microbial balance in the gut with antibiotics may lead to weight gain. (
  • Together, the various study findings open up for new forms of treatment in the future, in which drugs can be used to alter the gut microbiota. (
  • This study included three groups of mice: one group of mice was sedentary, the other group had access to a running wheel (the exercise group), while the remaining group was sedentary and germ-free, meaning that they did not possess any gut microbiota due to being bred in a sterile environment. (
  • As a result of fecal transplantation, the previously germ-free mice developed gut microbiota that had comparable composition to their donor groups. (
  • Based on studies using rodents raised in a germ-free environment, the gut microbiota appears to influence the development of emotional behavior, stress- and pain-modulation systems, and brain neurotransmitter systems. (
  • The researchers transplanted the microbiota of the rats that had either fasted or fed without restrictions into germ-free rats, which have no microbiota of their own. (
  • Durgan and his colleagues were excited to see that the germ-free rats that received the microbiota of normally fed SHRSP rats had higher blood pressure than the germ-free rats receiving microbiota from normal control rats, just like their corresponding microbiota donors. (
  • It was particularly interesting to see that the germ-free rats that received microbiota from the fasting SHRSP rats had significantly lowered the blood pressure than the rats that had received microbiota from SHRSP control rats," Durgan said. (
  • But as soon as the microbiota, i.e. all the microorganisms in the intestine, were transplanted back into germ-free animals, tumours developed in the colon of the mice. (
  • Exposure of germ-free adult mice to a pathogen-free gut microbiota decreased BBB permeability and up-regulated the expression of tight junction proteins. (
  • This experiment confirmed that the bacterial composition of the intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the protection from Salmonella infections. (
  • The bacterial intestinal microbiota plays major roles in human physiology and IBDs. (
  • Faecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) was the subject of an Australian study, which showed the procedure's effectiveness in addressing the inflammatory gut-related condition ulcerative colitis (UC). (
  • The gut microbiota is increasingly regarded as an 'invisible organ' of the human body and considered an important factor for host health. (
  • In fact, these are so small that there are around 100 trillion microbiota on the human body, which is higher than the amount of people on Earth. (
  • In mouse and human experiments, researchers found that physical activity - independent of diet - alters the composition of gut microbiota in a way that increases the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that are beneficial for health. (
  • Mining the human gut microbiota for immunomodulatory organisms. (
  • These drugs have been found to alter the taxonomic, genomic, and functional capacity of the human gut microbiota, with effects that are rapid and sometimes persistent. (
  • Developments in gene-sequencing technologies, as well as increased availability of powerful bioinformatic tools, have enabled novel insights into the microbial composition of the human gut microbiota and the effect of microbial communities on human physiology and disease. (
  • The human gut microbiota is increasingly recognized for its important or even decisive role in health. (
  • SAN DIEGO , May 22, 2012 /PRNewswire/ -- Groundbreaking efforts to study and map human gut microbiota and to explore how probiotics can promote gut health were presented during the Symposium ' The New Microbiota & Probiotics Paradigm ' organized by Dr. Allan Walker , MD of Harvard Medical School 's Division of Nutrition. (
  • We should know how host genes determine microbial populations in the human gut and how to better define a healthy microbiota,' said Dr. Walker. (
  • Today our responsibilities extend beyond basic health to embrace global social and environmental challenges.Yakult's Central Institute works to elucidate the relationship between human health and intestinal microbiota, focusing on basic research into the structures and functions of microbiota. (
  • Through lectures and interactive workshops, the summit will explore the role of the human gut microbiota in digestive and overall health. (
  • The Gut Microbiota & Health Section was set up to increase recognition of the links between the gut microbiota and human health, to spread knowledge and to raise interest in the subject. (
  • Danone's conviction is that food plays an essential role in human health namely through the impact that the gut microbiota may have on health. (
  • The Human Microbiota offers a comprehensive review of all human-associated microbial niches in a single volume, focusing on what modern tools in molecular microbiology are revealing about human microbiota, and how specific microbial communities can be associated with either beneficial effects or diseases. (
  • Dietary fi ber from coffee beverage: Degradation by human fecal microbiota. (
  • Microbiota source impact in vitro metabolite colonic production and anti-proliferative effect of spent coffee grounds on human colon cancer cells (HT-29). (
  • Impact of coffee consumption on the gut microbiota: a human volunteer study. (
  • In the last few years a number of studies have shown that gut microbiota plays an important role in several human diseases, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), Parkinson's disease (PD), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). (
  • Although recent data suggests that gut microbiota plays an important role in bone health, the majority of studies have focused on rats and mice, rather than human participants. (
  • In this Perspective, we call for the application of tools and concepts emerging from studies of the human gut microbiota to better understand the nutritional needs of infants and children and the role of the microbiota in the pathogenesis and treatment of undernutrition. (
  • The most abundant and well-studied microbiota are found in the gut, where the bacterial density reaches 10 11 -10 12 cells/g in the distal human colon ( 2 ). (
  • Methods: Human serum was collected from adults and children followed from birth to 7 years of age, and the serum IgG response to a panel of intestinal microbiota antigens was assessed by using a novel protein microarray. (
  • Microbiota have been found to be crucial for immunologic, hormonal and metabolic homeostasis of their host. (
  • The microbiota plays a major role in many metabolic functions, including modulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis, regulation of satiety, production of energy and vitamins. (
  • Presently, gut microbiota is recognized as a key factor for support of intestinal homeostasis and health. (
  • Remarkably, as the role of gut microbial metabolites as critical signaling molecules that function through the complementary host receptors has come to be appreciated, tremendous attention has been focused on the proposed diet-gut microbiota-host homeostasis axis, entailing extensive cross-disciplinary efforts in medical, pharmaceutical, and agricultural sciences. (
  • Therefore, he added, anything that threatens the microbiota homeostasis could potentially threaten the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. (
  • Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has demonstrated efficacy and is increasingly being used in the treatment of patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. (
  • The hypothesis is that alterations in the gut microbiota may cause the intestinal barrier to become more permeable, allowing bacterial components such as gram-negative bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to enter the circulation and cross the blood-brain barrier. (
  • Taken together, these experiments demonstrate a causal link between alterations in the gut microbiota in response to changes in the diet and increased acetate production," Shulman said in the statement. (
  • Over 70% of the microbiota lives in the gastrointestinal tract in a mutually beneficial relationship with its host. (
  • At present, laboratory animals are not standardized with regard to the gastrointestinal microbiota (GM), but differences in this feature may alter various parameters in animal models. (
  • BALB/cA mice were sensitized with oxazolone over a 28-d period and variation in gastrointestinal microbiota in fecal and cecal samples was assessed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. (
  • Current challenges in gastrointestinal disease prevention and health promotion underscore the importance of mapping the genetic makeup of gut microbiota. (
  • We applied whole-genome shotgun sequence analysis of the microbiota as well as untargeted metabolomics analysis of plasma and gastrointestinal luminal content. (
  • Determine whether a specific pattern of change in the microbiota phylotype with DMF therapy correlates to onset and severity of gastrointestinal disturbances (heartburn, nausea, flatulence, and diarrhea). (
  • Determine whether any instability of microbiota phylotype representation persists following the institution of DMF or whether stabilization relates to resolution of gastrointestinal disturbances. (
  • The risk of developing IBS increases sixfold after acute gastrointestinal infection suggesting a role of microbiota. (
  • Microorganisms living in the gastrointestinal tract are called as gut microbiota or gut microflora. (
  • In a genome-wide association study of nutritional traits of flies, for example, some genetic polymorphisms resulted in phenotypic differences only in the presence of microbiota, whereas others did only in the absence of microbiota ( 1 ). (
  • The researchers also have shown that transplanting dysbiotic gut microbiota from a hypertensive animal into a normotensive (having a healthy blood pressure) one results in the recipient developing high blood pressure. (
  • The microbiomes also significantly develop and establish themselves during a child's first months of life, with the composition of microbiota taking its stable adulthood composition during the child's third year. (
  • The composition of microbiota is maintained by antimicrobial proteins secreted from intestinal cells. (
  • The intestinal microbiota has a significant effect on the development of a child's immunity. (
  • Resident microbiota do not just shape host immunity, they can also contribute to host protection against pathogens and infectious diseases. (
  • Thus, exposure of bees to glyphosate can perturb their beneficial gut microbiota, potentially affecting bee health and their effectiveness as pollinators. (
  • The results of our study show that the risk component from diet may be mediated by the microbiota, and that the specific probiotic strains used in this study have the potential to support the microbiota in a beneficial way. (
  • The Symposium placed this new area of research into context as to how the use of probiotics can be optimized to maintain the stability of beneficial microbiota and disrupt the colonization of the gut by harmful microorganisms. (
  • To answer the first question, Durgan and his colleagues drew on previous research showing that fasting was both one of the major drivers of the composition of the gut microbiota and a promoter of beneficial cardiovascular effects. (
  • Microbiota transfer therapy has long lasting beneficial effects on autism-related symptoms. (
  • These findings enable a better understanding of changes in the fecal microbiota composition in such patients, showing either a predominance of some potentially harmful bacterial groups or a reduction in beneficial bacterial genera. (
  • The program explored real-world applications for managing gut disorders by utilizing the microbiota and probiotics paradigm. (
  • This new knowledge,' Dr. Walker added, 'will enable clinicians, nutritionists, and gastroenterologists to understand the microbiota and how probiotics may be used to optimize intestinal health. (
  • Dr. Walker was joined by a world-class panel of experts who shared insights about the latest research and clinical applications for how probiotics may be used effectively in clinical practice to promote a stable, healthy balance of gut microbiota. (
  • Previous studies were found to have demonstrated that gut microbiota can regulate bone mass in mice and that the administration of probiotics and prebiotics can slash the risk of bone loss. (
  • The causes of the microbiota alterations and the mechanisms by which microbiota modifications can act on the development of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases have been reported. (
  • Instrumental for gut microbiota manipulation is the understanding of mechanisms regulating gut microbiota composition. (
  • Current evidence suggests that multiple mechanisms, including endocrine and neurocrine pathways, may be involved in gut microbiota-to-brain signaling and that the brain can in turn alter microbial composition and behavior via the autonomic nervous system. (
  • The mechanisms behind the onset of these diseases are illuminated by the findings of Prof Bernd Schnabl (University of California San Diego/USA) who presented his research results at the Gut Microbiota for Health World Summit that took place in Miami/USA, March 5-6 2016. (
  • A second focus of our research group is to understand what mechanisms contribute to microbiota changes in the inflamed intestine in the absence of a bacterial pathogen. (
  • Mechanisms that facilitate the establishment and stability of the gut microbiota remain poorly described. (
  • Although the precise mechanisms remain to be determined, said Cryan, we know that the microbiota is critical for the developing brain and now we know it is also critical for the blood-brain barrier. (
  • Although the connections between the microbiota and the host in ALD are well established, the underlying mechanisms are still an active area of research. (
  • The list of animal physiological traits known to be affected by host-associated microbial communities, collectively called microbiota, keeps growing. (
  • Changes in microbiota over the course of an experiment may need to be monitored, which involves culturing and sequencing microbial communities. (
  • Until recently, insurance carriers considered fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) a statutorily non-covered service for patients suffering from clostridium difficile infection (CDI). (
  • A recent research study conducted by the Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg in Gothenburg, Sweden, in collaboration with DuPont Nutrition & Health (DuPont), yielded breakthrough results demonstrating that probiotic intervention can alter and modify intestinal microbiota in patients with colon cancer. (
  • Saad, M.J.A. The Role of Gut Microbiota on Insulin Resistance. (
  • The skin microbiota is the term used to describe the collection of microorganisms that live on our skin. (
  • Generally, the skin microbiota is similar between different individuals, although it is never exactly the same. (
  • Retrieved on August 20, 2019 from (
  • Restoring a Healthy Microbiota: What Tools Do We Have? (
  • The associations between Blastocystis and the bacterial microbiota found in this study could imply a link between Blastocystis and a healthy microbiota as well as with diets high in vegetables. (
  • The complex microbiota of raw milk. (
  • Aiming to characterize the subgingival bacterial microbiota associated with ovine periodontitis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed in subgingival periodontal pocket samples of 14 sheep with severe periodontitis and in subgingival sulcus biofilm of 14 periodontally healthy sheep in search mainly of Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms considered important periodontopathogens. (
  • We aimed at assessing the impact of travel on Blastocystis carriage and seek associations between Blastocystis and the bacterial microbiota. (
  • Full-term (FT), spontaneous vaginally delivered (SVD) infants' microbiota remained stable at both phylum and genus levels during the 24-week period examined. (
  • Comparing the results with the samples taken during follow-up showed that the gut microbiota at both the phylum and genus levels was stable over time. (
  • Totes les plantes i animals, des dels protistes fins als humans, viuen en estreta associació amb organismes microbians. (
  • [5] En humans sans la microbiota proporciona un ampli rang de funcions metabòliques. (
  • The composition of the so-called microbiota, i.e. the entirety of microorganisms colonising humans and animals, varies very strongly between individuals. (
  • The variability of the microbiota has been correlated for some years to the difference in the susceptibility of humans to intestinal infections. (
  • In humans and animals, the microbiota also plays a role in behavior. (
  • "Despite being traditionally thought to be proinflammatory, increases in ​Proteobacteria , especially ​Gammaproteobacteria , have been reported in association with metabolic improvements, notably after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in humans and animals," ​explained the researchers. (
  • "[W]e used a rodent model to test our hypothesis and the results cannot be directly extrapolated to humans due to differences in gut microbiota and physiology," ​they noted. (
  • General information regarding Fecal microbiota transplants (FMT), the taking of feces from a person and and placing it inside the colon of someone else. (
  • Fecal microbiota transplants (FMT) are just what they sound like. (
  • All animals and plants harbor abundant and diverse microbiota, including viruses. (
  • Hence, the role of the intestinal microbiota is becoming increasingly clear. (
  • Of these volunteers, 15 will receive autologous transplantation of fecal microbiota, 10 will receive both autologous and heterologous transplantation and 10 volunteers form a placebo-controlled group. (
  • If the establishment of the stable adult microbiota is programmed in infancy, it may lead to a lifelong signature with significant effects on health. (
  • We speculated that the composition of the oral microbiota is associated with general frailty, as well as a relationship between gut microbiota and general health condition. (
  • The relationship between gut microbiota and aging has been suggested to have effects on the health of older adults 6 , while Jackson et al . (
  • We speculated that oral microbiota composition is associated with general frailty, in addition to the relationship between gut microbiota and general health condition. (
  • To address the most recent advances in this rapidly developing field, scientists and health-care professionals from all over the world will come together at the Gut Microbiota for Health World Summit in Miami, Florida, on March 8 and 9, 2014. (
  • The meeting is hosted by the Gut Microbiota & Health Section of the European Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility (ESNM) and the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) Institute, with the support of Danone. (
  • Experts Exchange, provided by the Gut Microbiota & Health Section of ESNM, is an online platform for health-care professionals, scientists, and other people interested in the field. (
  • The Gut Microbiota & Health Section is open to professionals, researchers, and practitioners from all fields related to gut microbiota and health. (
  • That is why Danone supports the Gut Microbiota for Health World Summit and Experts Exchange web platform with the aim to encourage research and increase knowledge in this promising area, in line with its mission to "bring health through food to as many people as possible. (
  • However, it is not cell stress alone that leads to tumour growth, but the combination of stress and microbiota that favours cancer growth," says Haller, head of ZIEL - the Institute for Food & Health at TUM. (
  • Can bone health be improved through microbiota manipulation? (
  • Using these methods I discovered a number of ecological rules governing the intestinal microbiota and the role of the intestinl microbiota in health and disease. (
  • Two studies provide new information on how gut microbiota may contribute to the overall health of infants and why a melamine contaminant in pet food, milk, and formula has proved so deadly to some. (
  • The gut microbiota may contribute to this devastating health disorder. (
  • Her talk was one of the topics presented at the Gut Microbiota for Health World Summit in Miami, FL. (
  • On March 8 and 9, 2014, internationally leading experts discussed the latest advances in gut microbiota research and its impact on health. (
  • While awaiting further randomized trials assessing long-term safety and benefits on clinical end points, a healthy lifestyle-including breast lactation, appropriate antibiotic use, and the avoidance of excessive dietary fat intake-may ensure a friendly gut microbiota and positively affect prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders. (
  • Alterations in gut microbiota composition are associated with metabolic syndrome and chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. (
  • The stability of the rhizosphere microbiota over generations depends upon the plant type but even more on the soil composition, i.e. living and non living environment. (
  • Studies using animal models have shown that depression affects the stability of the microbiota, but the actual structure and composition in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) are not well understood. (