Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
A bacteriostatic antibacterial agent that interferes with folic acid synthesis in susceptible bacteria. Its broad spectrum of activity has been limited by the development of resistance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p208)
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to PYRIMETHAMINE. It is potentiated by SULFONAMIDES and the TRIMETHOPRIM, SULFAMETHOXAZOLE DRUG COMBINATION is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. TRIMETHOPRIM RESISTANCE has been reported.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.
Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An acquired disorder characterized by recurrent symptoms, referable to multiple organ systems, occurring in response to demonstrable exposure to many chemically unrelated compounds at doses below those established in the general population to cause harmful effects. (Cullen MR. The worker with multiple chemical sensitivities: an overview. Occup Med 1987;2(4):655-61)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Mercury chloride (HgCl2). A highly toxic compound that volatizes slightly at ordinary temperature and appreciably at 100 degrees C. It is corrosive to mucous membranes and used as a topical antiseptic and disinfectant.
The traditional Hindu system of medicine which is based on customs, beliefs, and practices of the Hindu culture. Ayurveda means "the science of Life": veda - science, ayur - life.
A disorder characterized by CONFUSION; inattentiveness; disorientation; ILLUSIONS; HALLUCINATIONS; agitation; and in some instances autonomic nervous system overactivity. It may result from toxic/metabolic conditions or structural brain lesions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp411-2)
Various units or machines that operate in combination or in conjunction with a computer but are not physically part of it. Peripheral devices typically display computer data, store data from the computer and return the data to the computer on demand, prepare data for human use, or acquire data from a source and convert it to a form usable by a computer. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
The application of engineering principles and methods to living organisms or biological systems.
Chemically synthesized structures which functionally resemble natural cells.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Centers for collecting, characterizing and storing human blood.
Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The genetic complement of a microorganism as represented in its DNA or in some microorganisms its RNA.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.

Effect of a staphylococcin on Neisseria gonorrhoeae. (1/26286)

Phage group 2 staphylococcal strain UT0002 contains a large 56S virulence plasmid with genes that code for both exfoliative toxin and a specific staphylococcin termed Bac R(1). Four penicillinase-producing strains and three penicillin-susceptible strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were killed by Bac R(1). After 30 min of growth of the penicillin-resistant TR1 strain in 62.5 arbitrary units of Bac R(1) per ml, loss of viability was approximately 90%, and, after 5 h, an approximately 99.99% loss of viability was observed. Lysis did not accompany cell death, and 84% of the Bac R(1) added to the growth medium was adsorbed to the gonococcal cells. The extracellular supernatant fluid from a substrain of staphylococcal strain UT0002 cured of the plasmid for Bac R(1) production had no lethal effect on the gonococcal strains. Bac R(1) was also shown to have bactericidal activity against an L-form of N. meningitidis, indicating that the outer envelope of a neisserial cell is not needed for bacteriocin activity. Ten different normal human sera were unable to neutralize Bac R(1) activity. The bacteriocin lacks adsorption specificity. It binds to but does not kill Escherichia coli cells, indicating that the cell envelope of gram-negative organisms can provide protection against the staphylococcin.  (+info)

UK-18892, a new aminoglycoside: an in vitro study. (2/26286)

UK-18892 is a new aminoglycoside antibiotic, a derivative of kanamycin A structurally related to amikacin. It was found to be active against a wide range of pathogenic bacteria, including many gentamicin-resistant strains. The spectrum and degree of activity of UK-18892 were similar to those of amikacin, and differences were relatively minor. UK-18892 was about twice as active as amikacin against gentamicin-susceptible strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both amikacin and UK-18892 were equally active against gentamicin-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa. There were no appreciable differences in the activity of UK-18892 and amikacin against Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus. Cross-resistance between these two antimicrobials was also apparent.  (+info)

Emergence of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Glycopeptide-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Working Group. (3/26286)

BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, the glycopeptide vancomycin has been the only uniformly effective treatment for staphylococcal infections. In 1997, two infections due to S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin were identified in the United States. METHODS: We investigated the two patients with infections due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides, as defined by a minimal inhibitory concentration of vancomycin of 8 to 16 microg per milliliter. To assess the carriage and transmission of these strains of S. aureus, we cultured samples from the patients and their contacts and evaluated the isolates. RESULTS: The first patient was a 59-year-old man in Michigan with diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure. Peritonitis due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus peritonitis associated with dialysis. The removal of the peritoneal catheter plus treatment with rifampin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole eradicated the infection. The second patient was a 66-year-old man with diabetes in New Jersey. A bloodstream infection due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia. This infection was eradicated with vancomycin, gentamicin, and rifampin. Both patients died. The glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus isolates differed by two bands on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. On electron microscopy, the isolates from the infected patients had thicker extracellular matrixes than control methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates. No carriage was documented among 177 contacts of the two patients. CONCLUSIONS: The emergence of S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides emphasizes the importance of the prudent use of antibiotics, the laboratory capacity to identify resistant strains, and the use of infection-control precautions to prevent transmission.  (+info)

Acinetobacter bacteremia in Hong Kong: prospective study and review. (4/26286)

The epidemiological characteristics of 18 patients with acinetobacter bacteremia were analyzed. Patients (mean age, 55.5 years) developed bacteremia after an average of 14.1 days of hospitalization. Fifteen of 16 patients survived bacteremia caused by Acinetobacter baumannii. Cultures of blood from the remaining two patients yielded Acinetobacter lwoffii. Most patients (78%) resided in the general ward, while four patients (22%) were under intensive care. Genotyping by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction analysis and the temporal sequence of isolation were more useful than phenotyping by antimicrobial susceptibility in the determination of the source of bacteremia, and the intravascular catheter was the leading infection source (39% of cases). The possibility of an association of glucose with the pathogenesis of acinetobacter infection was raised.  (+info)

A new rapidly growing mycobacterial species, Mycobacterium murale sp. nov., isolated from the indoor walls of a children's day care centre. (5/26286)

Scotochromogenic mycobacterial isolates from water-damaged parts of indoor building materials of a children's day care centre represented a phenetically and genetically distinct group of strains. A 16S rDNA dendrogram (1243 bp) showed that the closest species to the new strain MA112/96T was Mycobacterium abscessus. Phylogenetic and phenetic analyses (100 characteristics) grouped the new isolates with M. abscessus, Mycobacterium vaccae, Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium austroafricanum. Ribotyping with Pvull restriction distinguished the 5 isolates from the other 12 most closely related species by the major bands at 6.5-7 kb and 13-15 kb. The cell morphology of the new isolates was typical of mycobacteria, electron microscopy revealed a triple-layered cell wall with an irregular electron-dense outer layer. They grew at 10-37 degrees C, with no growth at 45 degrees C in 5 d. The gene encoding the secreted 32 kDa protein, specific to mycobacteria, was detected by PCR. The main whole-cell fatty acids were characterized by high tuberculostearic acid 10Me-C18:0 (17% at 28 degrees C), which increased with increasing growth temperature (22% at 37 degrees C). The other main fatty acids were C18:1 cis9 and C16:0 (21-20% each), followed by, C17:1 cis9 (14%), C16:1 cis10 (8%) and also a high amount of C20 alcohol (9%). alpha-Mycolic acids, keto-mycolates and wax esters were present (C60-C90), MK-9(H2) (90%) and MK-8(H2) were the main menaquinones. The cellular phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidyl inositolmannosides and diphosphatidylglycerol. Polyamine content was low. G+C content was 72.9 mol%. The new isolates are proposed as a new species, Mycobacterium murale sp. nov. The type strain is MA112/96T (= DSM 44340T).  (+info)

Emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium phage-type DT104 among salmonellae causing enteritis in Israel. (6/26286)

The relative frequency of salmonella strains isolated from hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients in Southern Israel changed during the period, 1994-6. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium definitive phage-type 104 (DT104) appeared in Israel in 1994 and became the most prevalent strain in 1996. An outbreak of enteritis due to Salmonella enterica serotype Agona occurred in Israel, in October 1994 and lasted for 4 months. The relative frequency of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis remained almost constant during these years, with seasonal fluctuations only. The importance of the increase in the prevalence of Typhimurium DT104 has been the epidemic spread of a multiresistant strain of R-type ACT (A, ampicillin; C, chloramphenicol; T, tetracycline) belonging to this phage-type. Since 1995 the frequency of Typhimurium DT104 isolates that possess, in addition to the above R-type, a chromosomally encoded resistance to the quinolone drug, nalidixic acid, increased tenfold. In 1996, 27% of the Typhimurium DT104 isolates were of R-type ACTN. S. Enteritidis exhibited over 95% susceptibility to at least eight of the most commonly used antibiotic drugs, and none of the isolates was resistant to quinolone or fluoroquinoline.  (+info)

Apicularens A and B, new cytostatic macrolides from Chondromyces species (myxobacteria): production, physico-chemical and biological properties. (7/26286)

A novel macrolide, apicularen A, was produced by several species of the genus Chondromyces. Initially it was discovered by bioassay-guided RP-HPLC-fractionation of culture extracts of Chondromyces robustus, strain Cm a13. Apicularen A showed no antimicrobial activity, but was highly cytotoxic for cultivated human and animal cells, with IC50 values ranging between 0.1 and 3 ng/ml. A cometabolite of apicularen A, the N-acetylglucosamine glycoside apicularen B, was distinctly less cytotoxic with IC50 values between 0.2 and 1.2 microg/ml, and showed weak activity against a few Gram-positive bacteria. Apicularen A is chemically closely related to the salicylihalamides A and B from the marine sponge Haliclona sp.  (+info)

BE-31405, a new antifungal antibiotic produced by Penicillium minioluteum. I. Description of producing organism, fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical and biological properties. (8/26286)

A new antifungal antibiotic, BE-31405, was isolated from the culture broth of a fungal strain, Penicillium minioluteum F31405. BE-31405 was isolated by adsorption on high porous polymer resin (Diaion HP-20), followed by solvent extraction, precipitation and crystallization. BE-31405 showed potent growth inhibitory activity against pathogenic fungal strains such as Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Cryptococcus neoformans, but did not show cytotoxic activity against mammalian cells such as P388 mouse leukemia. The mechanism studies indicated that BE-31405 inhibited the protein synthesis of C. albicans but not of mammalian cells.  (+info)

Blood stream infections (BSIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The time from taking blood cultures to obtain results of antibiotic sensitivity can be up to five days which impacts patient care. The Alfred 60 AST™ can reduce laboratory time from positive culture bottle to susceptibility results from 16 to 25 h to 5-6 h, transforming patient care. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility system, the Alfred 60 AST™, in clinical isolates from patients with BSIs and confirm time to results. 301 Gram-negative and 86 Gram-positive isolates were analysed directly from positive blood culture bottles following Gram staining. Antimicrobial susceptibility results and time-to-results obtained by rapid Alfred 60 AST system and BD Phoenix were compared . A total of 2196 antimicrobial susceptibility test results (AST) were performed: 1863 Gram-negative and 333 Gram-positive. AST categorical agreement (CA) for Alfred 60 AST™ was 95% (1772/1863) for Gram-negative and
article{5cf566a8-21ef-4c37-927c-b4548bf4fe7f, abstract = {Objectives: The aim of this study was to establish wild-type MIC distributions of first-line drugs for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as well as to explore the usefulness of such distributions when setting clinical breakpoints. Methods: We determined the MICs of rifampicin, isonlazid and ethambutol for M. tuberculosis using a Middlebrook 7H10 dilution method for 90 consecutive clinical isolates, 8 resistant strains and 16 isolates from the WHO proficiency test panel. M. tuberculosis H37Rv was used for quality control and susceptibility results using 7H10 were compared with the results obtained with BACTEC460. Results: The agreement with BACTEC460 was very high for isonlazid (99.1%) and rifampicin (99.1%) but lower for ethambutol (94.7%). Intra- and inter-assay variation was below one MIC dilution. The MIC distributions for isoniazid and rifampicin provided a clear separation between susceptible and resistant strains. Regarding ethambutol, ...
Both the CLSI agar dilution method and Trek Sensititre broth microdilution panel for Streptococcus pneumoniae antimicrobial susceptibility testing were evaluated against the reference CLSI broth microdilution method using the most recently published CLSI breakpoints. While agar dilution was not an optimal method, the commercial panel appeared to be an acceptable method, with minor errors encountered for ceftriaxone, penicillin, and meropenem. ...
BioAssay record AID 447039 submitted by ChEMBL: Antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 11230 after 24 hrs by agar disk diffusion assay.
BioAssay record AID 572901 submitted by ChEMBL: Antibacterial activity against blaVIM-2-positive Pseudomonas aeruginosa by CLSI broth microdilution method.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of the e test system versus a microtitre broth method for antifungal susceptibility testing of yeasts against fluconazole and itraconazole. AU - Colombo, Arnaldo L.. AU - Barchiesi, Francesco. AU - Mcgough, Deanna A.. AU - Fothergill, Annette W.. AU - Rinaldi, Michael G.. PY - 1995/7/1. Y1 - 1995/7/1. N2 - The E test strip (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) as an antimicrobial susceptibility testing method is a new and promising tool with broad application in microbiology. This method is less labour intensive than broth dilution methods and may be useful for testing individual clinical isolates.In contrast to several publications comparing E test antibacterial strips with NCCLS reference methods, there is littleinformation about the performance of E test antifungal strips. This study compared fluconazole and itraconazole MICs obtained by E test with a microbroth dilution method performed to NCCLS guidelines.Fluconazole and itraconazole E test results exhibited good ...
The Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance performs regular period-prevalence studies to monitor changes in antimicrobial resistance in selected enteric Gram-negative pathogens. The 2013 survey focussed for the first time on blood stream infections. Four thousand nine hundred and fifty-eight Enterobacteriaceae species were tested using commercial automated methods (Vitek® 2, BioMérieux; Phoenix™, BD). The results were analysed using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints (January 2014). Of the key resistances, non-susceptibility to the third-generation cephalosporin, ceftriaxone, was found in 7.5%/7.5% (CLSI/EUCAST criteria respectively) of Escherichia coli; 6.3%/6.3% of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 7.4%/7.4% of K. oxytoca. Non-susceptibility rates to ciprofloxacin were 10.3%/11.3% for E. coli, 4.6%/7.5% for K. pneumoniae, 0.6%/0.6% for K. oxytoca, and 3.6%/6.1% in Enterobacter cloacae. ...
Mueller and Hinton developed Mueller Hinton Agar in 1941 to be a protein free medium for isolating pathogenic strains of Neisseria . (3) It was found that Mueller Hinton Agar was useful in identifying sulfonimide-resistant and responsive strains of gonococci. (3) Additionally, in recent times this media has been used in standardized antimicrobial disk susceptibility testing, as described by Bauer, Kirby, et al. (1) Barry and Fay investigated the effects of altering the depth of plated Mueller Hinton Agar on disk diffusion testing, and determined a standardized depth of approximately four millimeters to be sufficient. (2) In 1970 Dewees, et al., studied the effect of storage on Mueller Hinton Agar plates used for antimicrobial disk diffusion zone sizes. Their findings indicated commercially manufactured Mueller Hinton Agar plates were suitable for use in routine susceptibility testing. (6) Mueller Hinton Agar with Lysed Horse Blood is a modification to the traditional Mueller Hinton Agar ...
Here, we present a protocol for determination of dalbavancin susceptibility of clinically relevant Gram-positive bacteria using a broth ...
Screening and enumeration of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli directly from samples is needed to identify emerging resistant clones and obtain quantitative data for risk assessment. Aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of 3M™ Petrifilm™ Select E. coli Count Plate (SEC plate) supplemented with antimicrobials to discriminate antimicrobial-resistant and non-resistant E. coli. A range of E. coli isolates were tested by agar dilution method comparing the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) for eight antimicrobials obtained by Mueller-Hinton II agar, MacConkey agar and SEC plates. Kappa statistics was used to assess the levels of agreement when classifying strains as resistant, intermediate or susceptible. SEC plate showed that 74% of all strains agreed within ± 1 log2 dilution when comparing MICs with Mueller-Hinton II media. High agreement levels were found for gentamicin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and cefotaxime, resulting in a kappa value of 0.9 and 100% agreement within ±
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of systemic administration of sitafloxacin on subgingival microflora and antimicrobial susceptibility profile in acute periodontal lesions. AU - Tomita, Sachiyo. AU - Kasai, Shunsuke. AU - Ihara, Yuichiro. AU - Imamura, Kentaro. AU - Kita, Daichi. AU - Ota, Koki. AU - Kinumatsu, Takashi. AU - Nakagawa, Taneaki. AU - Saito, Atsushi. PY - 2014/6. Y1 - 2014/6. N2 - The aim of this study was to assess the effect(s) of systemic administration of sitafloxacin on subgingival microbial profiles of acute periodontal lesions. Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates was also investigated. Patients with acute phases of chronic periodontitis were subjected to clinical examination and microbiological assessment of their subgingival plaque samples by culture technique. Sitafloxacin was then administered (100mg/day for 5 days) systemically. The clinical and microbiological examinations were repeated 6-8 days after administration. Susceptibilities of clinical isolates to various ...
Biofilm production and antibiotic susceptibility profile of Escherichia coli isolates from HIV and AIDS patients in the Limpopo Province
A four-center study in which a total of 1,082 recent clinical isolates of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were examined versus 11 antimicrobial agents with the bioMérieux Vitek susceptibility test system (Hazelwood, Mo.) and the GNS-F6 card was conducted. In addition, a challenge set consisting of the same 200 organisms was examined in each of the four participating laboratories. Results obtained with the Vitek system were compared to MICs determined by a standardized broth microdilution method. For purposes of comparison, susceptibility categories (susceptible, intermediate, or resistant) were assigned on the basis of the results of both methods. The result of the broth microdilution test was considered definitive. The total category error rate with the Vitek system and the recent clinical isolates (11,902 organism-antimicrobial comparisons) was 4.5%, i.e., 1.7% very major errors, 0.9% major errors, and 1.9% minor errors. The total category error rate calculated
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The Kirb-Bauer Disk Diffusion Technique was performed on 2 different Mueller-Hinton Agar plates. One plate had Escherichia Coli spread on it and the other plate has Staphylococcus Epidermidis spread on it. Both plates had.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of usefulness and PK-PD analysis of meropenem in children with various infections. AU - Sato, Yoshitake. AU - Sandoh, Mitsuru. AU - Hanaki, Hideaki. AU - Suzuki, Yumiko. AU - Yoshida, Mikinobu. AU - Kizu, Junko. PY - 2012/5. Y1 - 2012/5. N2 - We conducted a study of meropenem(MEPM) in a total of 29 children with various infections (moderate to severe pneumonia in 25, upper respiratory infection in 3, and urinary tract infection in 1) to demonstrate the efficacy and safety and assess the relationship between the time above the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) (T , MIC), calculated based on the pharmacokinetic simulation analysis using blood concentration data from subjects, and the clinical response. In accordance with the package insert in Japan, MEPM was administered at a dose of 20 mg/kg three times daily, the highest dose in the usual dosage range. Each dose was administered by infusion over 30 minutes. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of MEPM ...
Summary. This Health Advisory describes the identification of emerging Shigella strains with elevated minimum inhibitory concentration values for ciprofloxacin and outlines new recommendations for clinical diagnosis, management, and reporting, as well as new recommendations for laboratories and public health officials. Current interpretive criteria provided by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) categorize these strains as susceptible to ciprofloxacin, which is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic and a key agent in the management of Shigella infections.. However, recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and state and local public health partners show that these strains often have a quinolone resistance gene that may lead to clinically significant reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolone antibiotics. Clinicians treating patients with multidrug-resistant shigellosis for whom antibiotic treatment is indicated should avoid prescribing fluoroquinolones if the ...
Video articles in JoVE about microbiology include Unraveling the Unseen Players in the Ocean - A Field Guide to Water Chemistry and Marine Microbiology, The WinCF Model - An Inexpensive and Tractable Microcosm of a Mucus Plugged Bronchiole to Study the Microbiology of Lung Infections, Aseptic Laboratory Techniques: Plating Methods, Whole Genome Sequencing of Candida Glabrata for Detection of Markers of Antifungal Drug Resistance, Novel Diagnostics in Revision Arthroplasty: Implant Sonication and Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction, Identification of Rare Bacterial Pathogens by 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing and MALDI-TOF MS, Subtyping of Campylobacter jejuni ssp. doylei Isolates Using Mass Spectrometry-based PhyloProteomics (MSPP), A Robust Pneumonia Model in Immunocompetent Rodents to Evaluate Antibacterial Efficacy against S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa or A. baumannii, A Reference Broth Microdilution Method for Dalbavancin In Vitro Susceptibility Testing of
In the last 10 to 20 years, we have witnessed a dramatic increase in the proportion of bacterial pathogens resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents. Indeed, the driving force behind the increasing rates of resistance is ultimately the abuse and misuse of antimicrobial agents, whether inadequately administered to patients and livestock or unintentionally released into the environment. This issue is very important regarding the resistance towards quinolones, carbapenems, and third-generation cephalosporins. The latter relates to the increased prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases among Enterobacterales. Surveillance studies of antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic consumption have drawn attention to this phenomenon and should be used to drive political campaigns to contain resistance [18, 19]. Ceftolozane/tazobactam (C/T) has been approved few years ago and represents a therapy option in particular infections associated with Gram-negative bacteria, including ESBL-producing isolates. ...
PURPOSE: Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC β-lactamase are important mechanisms of betalactam resistance among Enterobacteriaceae . The ESBL confirmation test described by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) is in routine use. This method fails to detect ESBL in the presence of AmpC. Therefore, we compared two different ESBL detection methods against the CLSI confirmatory test. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total 200 consecutive clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from various clinical samples were tested for ESBL production using (i) CLSI described phenotypic confirmatory test (PCT), (ii) boronic acid disk potentiation test and (iii) cefepime-CA disk potentiation method ...
and : Susceptibility Testing of 120 Isolates to Six Antimicrobial Agents Using Disk Diffusion (EUCAST), Etest, and Broth Microdilution Techniques
This project builds on an initial pump-priming project funded by EPSRC BristolBridge and subsequent funding (via the EBI, the Longitude Prize and many others) to develop a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility test to inform antibiotic prescribing. This new work will scope the parameters for the constraints for end-users, particularly GPs and other community health workers working in primary care and urgent care. A Knowledge Mobilisation approach will be taken to co-produce a stakeholder informed plan to outline the challenges of designing, prototyping and economically evaluating a novel SCFI antimicrobial resistance device to help combat AMR in community healthcare settings. The projects industry partner is Vitamica Ltd - a University of Bristol spin out company formed after the development of the SCFI technology. ...
Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2008) Performance standards for antimicrobial disk and dilution susceptibility test for bacteria isolated from animals; approved standard, 3rd edn. In CLSI Document M31-A3. ed. Watts, J.L., Shryock, T.R., Apley, M., Bade, D.J., Brown, S.D., Gray, J.T., Heine, H., Hunter, R.P. et al. , pp. 32-35. Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute ...
The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize psychrotrophic bacteria resistant to antibiotic and metals from cold samples of refrigerated spoiled food and ice. Two isolates named H and F were successfully isolated from samples incubated at 10°C and 4°C, respectively. Both isolates were able to grow at 4°C, 10°C, 20°C and 30°C and exhibited multidrug resistance to antibiotics (chloramphenicol, ampicillin, tetracycline and kanamycin). Bacteria H and F were then further tested for their resistance to metal ions such as Cd2+, Zn2+, Cr 6+ and As 3+ at concentrations ranging from 0-10 mM. The results of the test revealed that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for isolate H was determined at 2 mM for all the metal ions. By comparison, isolate F was highly resistant to Cr6+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ with MIC of 10 mM for these cations, while MIC for As3+ was 4 mM. The results of comparing 16S rRNA gens demonstrated that isolate F has 98% identity match with Bacillus sp. This strain could be ...
Purpose: The Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring in Ocular micRoorganisms (ARMOR) study was initiated in 2009 to survey resistance levels among ocular pathogens on a nationwide scale. Here we report the complete study results for 2013 compared to preliminary 2014 data.. Methods: Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Haemophilus influenzae were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing. In 2013, 543 isolates were collected from 22 sites; 140 isolates have been collected from 7 sites to date in 2014. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by broth microdilution for up to 16 representative antibiotics per CLSI methods. Systemic breakpoints (where available) were used to categorize isolates as susceptible or non-susceptible (intermediate and resistant).. Results: With the exception of a fluoroquinolone-resistant isolate and an azithromycin-resistant isolate observed in 2014, all H. influenzae ...
Read the latest articles on clinical and laboratory standards from the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Find great content from CLSI.
Read the latest articles on clinical and laboratory standards from the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Find great content from CLSI.
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Next Generation PHENOTYPIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING Assays. ​FASTinov is a R&D intensive Startup with a patented disruptive technology to perform fast and reliable antimicrobial susceptibility tests in acute care settings. Context : The global emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance is a major medical and economic problem . When an infection is diagnosed, the physician is required to start an empiric larg e spectrum therapy, since current comprehensive and proven susceptibility profile methods require, at least, 48h. FASTinov approach : In order to support clinical decisions with a fast turnaround time, FASTinov offers a unique time-saving and comprehensive solution starting directly from positive blood cultures. FASTinov innovative approach allows for the determination of the susceptibility phenotype in 2 hours, compared with +48 hours needed for current standard methods. Disruptive Technology : FAST patented methodology (Flow Cytometry Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test) fills a gap ...
Florin Anghelina, Ovidiu Zlatian, Mircea Sorin Ciolofan, Daniela Calina, Anca Oana Docea, Razvan Hainarosie, Octavian Dragos Palade, Liliana Anghelina, Cristian Dragos Stefanescu, Laura Mazilu, Andra Iulia Suceveanu, Catalina Pietrosanu, Andrei Osman - Bacteriological Profiles and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns in Complicated Bacterial Infections of the Ears, Nose and Throat
The Antimicrobial Index is comprised of literature-based minimum inhibitory concentration values collected from hundreds of scientific papers as well as other relevant antimicrobial potency data.
Challenging bacteria in spatial gradients of antibiotics leads to large increases in resistance through sequential adaptive steps across competing lineages (Fig. 1 and movie S1). We first set up the MEGA-plate with symmetric four-step gradients of trimethoprim (TMP) or ciprofloxacin (CPR) proceeding inward with order-of-magnitude increases in concentration per step [Fig. 1A; TMP: 0, 3, 30, 300, and 3000 × wild-type minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC); CPR: 0, 20, 200, 2000, and 20,000 × MIC] and inoculated the drug-free regions with Escherichia coli. Bacteria swim and spread until they reach a concentration in which they can no longer grow (TMP, Fig. 1C and movies S1 and S2; CPR, movie S3). As resistant mutants arise in the population, their descendants migrate into the next step of drug concentration and fan out (Fig. 1C, 88 hours). Adjacent mutant lineages exclude each other and compete for limited space, resulting in some lineages entirely blocking off growth of others (Fig. 1C). When ...
Innovative Grade US Origin Horse Whole Blood Lysed from Innovative Research was used in the following study: Mathematical modeling of the inoculum effect: six applicable models and the MIC advancement point concept Jessica R. Salas, Majid Jaberi-Douraki, Xuesong Wen, Victoriya V. Volkova FEMS Microbiology Letters 21 January 2020 …Antimicrobial treatment regimens against bacterial pathogens are designed using the drugs minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measured at the bacterial density of 5.7 log10(colonyforming units (CFU)/mL) in vitro. However, MIC changes with pathogen density, which varies among infectious diseases and during treatment. Incorporating this into treatment design requires realistic mathematical models of.... ...
Scattergram #2 -- Correlation of TMP/SMX MIC and zone diameters for S. pneumoniae. Horizontal and vertical lines represent MIC and zone diameter breakpoints. In this case, the isolates form a continuum, with the breakpoint for resistant and susceptible not being obvious. In this case one can not predict how the isolates which fall into the intermediate zone will behave in vivo. The breakpoints are set to maximize the predictive value of the test while minimizing errors (ie. it is preferable to call an isolate intermediate, than to incorrectly call it sensitive or resistant ...
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the major threats to human and animal health worldwide, yet few high-throughput tools exist to analyse and predict the resistance of a bacterial isolate from sequencing data. Here we present a new tool, ARIBA, that identifies AMR-associated genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms directly from short reads, and generates detailed and customizable output. The accuracy and advantages of ARIBA over other tools are demonstrated on three datasets from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with ARIBA outperforming existing methods.
Ashraf Mohamadkhani, Sima Besharat, Golnosh Gol-Jah Rad, Akbar Pour Dadash Asiabar, Gholamreza Roshandel, Akram Pourshams, Hossein Poustchi ...
The Antibiotics susceptibility plugin in BIONUMERICS automatically converts inhibition zone diameters and MIC values into SIR categories for antibiotic resistance typing.
Appropriate medium(a blood agar plate)and incubated overnight at 35C Inoculate a tube that contains 2 ml of saline or Mueller-hinton broth With five or more colonies from the agar plate and adjust turbidity to Match a McFarland standard(approximately 10 CFU/ml) Transfer 0.1 ml of the turbid broth into 10 ml of Mueller-Hinton Broth,inoculate in shaking water bath or equivalent at 35C until Turbid(5 to 6 hours for rapid growth).The relevant control organism Should be inoculated into 3 ml of broth and incubated without shaking Until turbid.This represents a midexponential phase of growth. Prepare twofold serial dilutions of the antibiotic in 2 ml of Mueller-Hinton broth.Use acid washed borosilicated glass tubes. Standardise the inoculum of the patients organism and the ...
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Fully integrated within BD Phoenix panels, the new BD Phoenix CPO detect test enables laboratories to offer a more comprehensive antimicrobial susceptibility test profile while improving laboratory process efficiency.
HayrehSS,PeвerJ,ZimmermanMBMorphologicchangesinchronichigh-pressureexperi- mental glaucoma in rhesus monkeys. Prostate Cancer Trialistsв Collaborative Group. Fig. 4 In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Therapy keflx active pertussis keflex sibo prophylaxis of close contacts is considered to minimize transmission (6).
The first of the studies is RAPIDS-GN ( # NCT03218397), a randomized controlled trial conducted at Mayo Clinic and UCLA. RAPIDS-GN focused on Gram-negative bacteremia and randomized patients to be tested by the BC kit or legacy methods. The study met the primary endpoint of therapy optimization, reporting time to first Gram-negative antibiotic change a full 24 hours sooner than legacy methods (17.4 hours vs. 42.1 hours, p,0.01) and time to any antibiotic change 6 hours sooner (8.6 hours vs. 14.9 hours, p=0.02). ...
Stella-Jones, Inc., wholly-owned subsidiary McFarland Cascade Holdings, Inc., has signed a non-binding letter of intent to acquire the shares of Lufkin Creosoting Co., Inc.
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
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Development of a superior cleaning cloth with constant and continuous antibacterial effect, ensuring that no bacteria is left in the cloth and making bacterial re-growth impossible, without need for special and time-consuming hygiene procedures. This will be accomplished by a unique technology with antibacterial agent integrated into the microfiber of the cloth. The advances in this technology will allow significant reduction of cross-contamination and bacterial regrowth. Infectious diseases arising in the home setting are a significant concern. ...
Optimal use of antimicrobials begins by selecting the most potent agent as the first choice for therapy. Pharmacodynamic data from experimental models and
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Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a major pathogen associated with serious community and hospital-acquired infections. Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is now endemic in India. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has recently emerged as a major nosocomial pathogen worldwide with a significant morbidity and mortality. Early detection of emerging trends in antimicrobial resistance may facilitate implementation of effective control measures. The present study thus attempts to characterize the MRSA isolates and explore the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of MRSA isolated from wound samples at a tertiary care hospital, Central India. The present study was conducted to characterize 120 MRSA isolates, isolated from wound samples and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. MRSA was identified by oxacillin disc diffusion test, cefoxitin disc diffusion test and resistance to oxacillin by the Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. Study also detected inducible clindamycin
Effects of various antimicrobial agents on multi-directional differentiation potential of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells
Abstract:. To compare conventional phenotypic methods for the detection of methicillin in Staphylococci aureus in routine laboratory practice with reference to an established molecular method. This study was conducted on a selection of 30 isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococci aureus (MRSA) from clinical specimens. The Kirby- Bauer disc diffusion tests and oxacillin screen ager method were performed on all isolates using the presence of penicillin binding protein (PBP2a) as the reference standard. A commercial latex agglutination test (Oxoid, UK) was assessed for the detection of penicillin binding protein 2a (PBP2a), the Mec A gene product. Twenty of 30 isolates were positive to PBP2a and concomitant manifest resistance to (oxacillin) was confirmed using Kirby-Bauer diffusion test. All the thirty isolates were resistant using disk diffusion method. The specificity and sensitivity of this method, in comparison with PBP2a was 100% in our examined strains, whereas the specificity and ...
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic pathogen, responsible for approximately 10% of all gram-negative nosocomial infection. The aim of this study was to determine aminoglycoside and quinolone resistance genes and their antimicrobial susceptibility profile in the clinically A. baumannii. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 100 nonduplicative A. baumannii isolates were collected from different clinical samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by disk diffusion method. QnrA, anrB, qnrS, aac(3)-IIa, and aac(6′)-Ib genes were identified using PCR method. The results of antibiotic susceptibility test showed that polymyxin B was the most effective antimicrobial against A. baumannii. 97%, 95% and 82% of isolates were resistant to cefepime, ceftriaxone, and amikacin, respectively. The molecular distribution of aac(3)-IIa, aac(6′)-Ib, and qnrA genes were 45%, 50%, and 50% of isolates, respectively. However, qnrB and qnrS genes could not be detected in any strain. ...
Define antibiotic sensitivity test. antibiotic sensitivity test synonyms, antibiotic sensitivity test pronunciation, antibiotic sensitivity test translation, English dictionary definition of antibiotic sensitivity test. n. A substance, such as penicillin or erythromycin, produced by or derived from certain microorganisms, including fungi and bacteria, that can destroy or...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Invasive Candida guilliermondii infection. T2 - In vitro susceptibility studies and molecular analysis. AU - Vazquez, J. A.. AU - Lundstrom, T.. AU - Dembry, L.. AU - Chandrasekar, P.. AU - Boikov, D.. AU - Perri, M. B.. AU - Zervos, M. J.. PY - 1995/12/1. Y1 - 1995/12/1. N2 - Candida guilliermondii is rarely isolated from humans. We describe a case of disseminated C. guilliermondii with associated purulent pericarditis, despite high-dose amphotericin B (AmB), in a 19-year-old female with aplastic anemia who underwent BMT. In vitro susceptibility studies of the 13 clinical isolates, two control strains and one environmental isolate revealed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of (0.19-1.56 μg/ml) for AmB and (1.25-10 μg/ml) for fluconazole. Pulsed-field gradient gel electrophoresis was performed to evaluate possible similarities between strains. This case is significant for several reasons, the high degree and prolonged duration of fungemia despite high-dose AmB and ...
The continuous spread of penicillin-resistant pneumococci represents a permanent threat in the treatment of pneumococcal infections, especially when strains show additional resistance to quinolones. The main objective of this study was to determine a treatment modality impeding the emergence of quinolone resistance. Exposure of a penicillin-resistant pneumococcus to increasing concentrations of trovafloxacin or ciprofloxacin selected for mutants resistant to these drugs. In the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin, development of trovafloxacin-resistance and high-level ciprofloxacin-resistance were prevented. Considering the risk of quinolone-resistance in pneumococci, the observation might be of clinical importance.
Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infections among pregnant women and if untreated could lead to serious complications.. Objective: This work was carried out to determine the prevalence rate of Enterobacteriaceae uropathogens and their antibiotics susceptibility profile among pregnant women attending two ante-natal clinics in Ilorin, Nigeria.. Materials and Methods: A total of 111 pregnant women between the ages of 18-50 attending ante-natal clinic at University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital and Civil Service Hospital, Ilorin participated in the study. Mid-stream urine samples were collected and cultured on Cysteine-Lactose-Electrolyte Deficient agar. Presence of significant bacteriuria (, 105 cfu/mL) was determined using the plate count method. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion technique.. Results: Of the 111 urine samples collected, 27.9% of them were found positive on culture. Among the isolated organisms, Klebsiella ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vitro activity of gemifloxacin against recent clinical isolates of bacteria in Korea.. AU - Yong, Dong Eun. AU - Cheong, Hee Jin. AU - Kim, Yang Soo. AU - Park, Yeon Joon. AU - Kim, Woo Joo. AU - Woo, Jun Hee. AU - Lee, Kyung Won. AU - Kang, Moon Won. AU - Choo, Youn Sung. PY - 2002/12. Y1 - 2002/12. N2 - Gemifloxacin is an enhanced-affinity fluoroquinolone with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. In Korea, resistant bacteria are relatively more prevalent than in other industrialized countries. In this study, we studied the in vitro activities of gemifloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and other commonly used antimicrobial agents against 1,689 bacterial strains isolated at four Korean university hospitals during 1999-2000. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using the agar dilution method of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Gemifloxacin had the lowest MICs for the respiratory pathogens: 90% of ...
GISP is a CDC-supported sentinel surveillance system that has monitored N. gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibilities since 1986, and is the only source in the United States of national and regional N. gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility data. During September-December 2011, CDC and five external GISP principal investigators, each with N. gonorrhoeae-specific expertise in surveillance, antimicrobial resistance, treatment, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, reviewed antimicrobial susceptibility trends in GISP through August 2011 to determine whether to update CDCs current recommendations (2) for treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea. Each month, the first 25 gonococcal urethral isolates collected from men attending participating STD clinics (approximately 6,000 isolates each year) were submitted for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the lowest antimicrobial concentration that inhibits visible bacterial growth in the laboratory, is used ...
This research work investigated the influence of biofield treatment on Enterobacter cloacae (ATCC 13047) against antimicrobial susceptibility. Two sets of ATCC samples were taken in this experiment and denoted as A and B. ATCC A sample was revived and divided into two parts Gr. I (control) and Gr. II (revived); likewise, ATCC B was labeled as Gr. III (lyophilized). Group II and III were given with biofield treatment. The control and treatment groups of E. cloacae cells were tested with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, biochemical reactions pattern and biotype number. The result showed significant decrease in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of aztreonam and ceftazidime (≤ 8 μg/mL), as compared to control group (≥ 16 μg/mL). It was observed that 9% reaction was altered in the treated groups with respect to control out of the 33 biochemical reactions. Moreover, biotype number of this organism was substantially changed in group II (7731 7376) and group III (7710 3176) ...
Here, we used semi-quantitative radial diffusion assay and broth microdilution assay to evaluate susceptibility of a number of multi-drug resistant (MDR) clinical isolates to the MRJP1-contaning honey glycoproteins. The MDR bacterial strains comprised three methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), four Pseudomonas aeruginosa, two Klebsiella pneumoniae, two vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), and five ESBL identified as one Proteus mirabilis, three E. coli, and one E. coli NDM. Their resistance to different classes of antibiotics was confirmed using automated system Vitek 2. MDR isolates differed in their susceptibility to glps with MIC90 values ranging from 4.8 μg/ml against B. subtilis to 14.4 μg/ml against ESBL K. pneumoniae, Klebsiella spp. ESBL and E. coli and up to 33 μg/ml against highly resistant strains of P. aeruginosa ...
Recent years have seen a dramatic rise in the incidence and severity of cases of human salmonellosis, in addition, multidrug resistant strains have arisen. the objective of this study as to characterize the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Salmonella spp. clinical isolates collected from Latin American medical centers as part of the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance System. A total of 144 bloodstream Salmonella spp. isolates were collected between 1997 and 2000. the susceptibility to diverse antimicrobial agents was tested by broth microdilution techniques according to the NCCLS recommendations. the Salmonella spp. strains were more frequently collected from adult patients (67.0%; 21-60 years) and isolated from Chile (28.5%) , Brazil (25.0%) , Mexico , Colombia ( 11,8%). Ampicillin (MIC50, 1 mug/ml) showed good in vitro activity (92.4% susceptibility). Meropenem (MIC50. 0.06 mug/ml) and gatifloxacin (MIC50, 0.03 mug/ml) were the most Potent compounds against the Salmonella spp. isolates ( ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients with hepatobiliary infections in Taiwan. T2 - Results from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART), 2006-2010. AU - Toh, Han Siong. AU - Chuang, Yin Ching. AU - Huang, Chi Chang. AU - Lee, Yu Lin. AU - Liu, Yuag Meng. AU - Ho, Cheng Mao. AU - Lu, Po Liang. AU - Liu, Chun Eng. AU - Chen, Yen Hsu. AU - Wang, Jen Hsien. AU - Ko, Wen Chien. AU - Yu, Kwok Woon. AU - Liu, Yung Ching. AU - Chen, Yao Shen. AU - Tang, Hung Jen. AU - Hsueh, Po Ren. PY - 2012/6. Y1 - 2012/6. N2 - We investigated the trends in antimicrobial resistance among species of Gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients with hepatobiliary tract infections in Taiwan during the period 2006-2010 as part of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART). During the study period, 1032 isolates of Gram-negative bacilli that had been collected from patients with hepatobiliary infections were ...
The in vitro activity of tigecycline (former GAR-936), a new semisynthetic tetracycline, was evaluated in comparison with tetracycline and other antimicrobial agents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 1,326 contemporary clinical isolates collected from the Latin American region were collected in 2000-2002 period and tested with microdilution broth according to the CLSI guidelines. The bacterial pathogens evaluated included Staphylococcus aureus (505), Streptococcus pneumoniae (269), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS; 227), Haemophilus influenzae (129), Enterococcus spp. (80), Moraxella catarrhalis (54), beta-haemolytic streptococci (28), viridans group streptococci (26), and Neisseria meningitidis (8) RESULTS:Tigecycline demonstrated excellent activity against all Gram-positive cocci, with 90% of penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae strains being inhibited at 0.12 µg/mL, while the same isolates had an MIC90 of , 16 µg/mL for tetracycline. All Enterococcus spp. were inhibited at 0.25 µg/mL ...
Background & Objectives: Due to increase in  bacterial drug resistance, discovering new antibacterial compounds is really important. The objective of this study is to evaluate the phenol compounds effect on antibacterial activity of herbal extracts of Fasa-Fars province in vitro. Materials & Methods: The antibacterial activity of 26 plants was ...
Pyogenic infections are one of the most common clinical complications following surgery and trauma. Prompt antimicrobial therapy is needed to reduce the morbidity of these infections. Rationale use of antibiotics is the need of the hour to curb the rising antimicrobial resistance. A retrospective study was undertaken to identify the microbial profile with their antibiogram among the pus culture isolates in a teaching tertiary care hospital from January 2017 to June 2017.504 pus culture samples processed at the microbiology lab were analyzed. The isolates from positive pus culture were identified by standard protocols and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were identified by CLSI guidelines. Positive pus cultures were obtained in 59.92% (302/504). Gram positive bacteria accounted for 31.9 % (97), Gram negative bacteria 67.12% (204) and Candida spp 0.99% (3) with predominance of S. aureus 26.32% (80) followed by E. coli 13.82% (42) and K. pneumoniae 13.49% (41). 17.5% of S. aureus was MRSA and 100%
Basically, antibiotic compounds play an important role of effector molecules in their natural environments, then their mechanism of action could be seen as using their specific targets as signal relays. For example, tetracyclines binding to the ribosome cause a breakdown in translation that ultimately lead to cell death at high concentrations; but at sub-inhibitory concentrations, the binding to the ribosomes causes a temporary stall in translation that leads to an mRNA build up thereby stabilizing mRNA transcript concentrations in target cells. (Fajardo et al., 2008). Therefore, the action of antibiotic is actually an interesting way of using ribosomes, DNA, RNA, carbohydrates (peptidoglycan) as signal effector receptors and transducers .If antibiotic compounds play the role of effector molecules in their natural environments, then their mechanism of action could be seen as using their specific targets as signal relays. An example, is when tetracyclines binding to the ribosome cause a breakdown ...
Target modification and reduced drug accumulation are the main resistance mechanisms against fluoroquinolone antibiotics in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We performed a genotypic characterization of three major Mex multidrug efflux pumps (MexAB-OprM, MexXY-OprM and MexCD-OprJ) in ciprofloxacin resistant clinical isolates of P. aeru-ginosa, collected from Tehran, Iran this was followed by sequencing and ...
Abstract : Study background: Staphylococci are widespread in nature, mainly found on the skin and mucous membranes. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the key organism for food poisoning due to massive production of heat stable exotoxins. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and biochemical characteristics of S. aureus (ATCC 25923). Methods: S. aureus cells were procured from MicroBioLogics in sealed packs bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 25923) number and stored according to the recommended storage protocols until needed for experiments. Revived and lyophilized state of ATCC strains of S. aureus were selected for the study. Both revived (Group; Gr. II) and lyophilized (Gr. III) strain of S. aureus were subjected to Mr. Trivedis biofield treatment. Revived treated cells were assessed on day 5 and day 10 while lyophilized treated cells on day 10 only. After biofield treatment both treated cells ...
Abstract : Study background: Staphylococci are widespread in nature, mainly found on the skin and mucous membranes. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the key organism for food poisoning due to massive production of heat stable exotoxins. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and biochemical characteristics of S. aureus (ATCC 25923). Methods: S. aureus cells were procured from MicroBioLogics in sealed packs bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 25923) number and stored according to the recommended storage protocols until needed for experiments. Revived and lyophilized state of ATCC strains of S. aureus were selected for the study. Both revived (Group; Gr. II) and lyophilized (Gr. III) strain of S. aureus were subjected to Mr. Trivedis biofield treatment. Revived treated cells were assessed on day 5 and day 10 while lyophilized treated cells on day 10 only. After biofield treatment both treated cells ...
In addition, data collected in the participating Brazilian centers were analyzed separately from the data of the entire Latin American region (including Brazil). Minimum antimicrobial concentrations that inhibits 50% and 90% of the organism collection (MIC50 and MIC90, respectively) were presented only for the data of the entire region. Isolates collected from bloodstream infections and from lower respiratory tract infections (mainly pneumonia) in hospitalized patients were also analyzed separately (Tables 3, 5, 7 and 9). Two groups of pathogens, streptococci and extended-spectrum (ESBL)-producing strains, were analyzed separately due to their importance in community-acquired and nosocomial-acquired infections, respectively. Table 10 presents the antimicrobial susceptibility of streptococcal species, while Table 11 presents the antimicrobial susceptibility of ESBL-producing E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Discussion. We made a comprehensive analysis of the Latin American SENTRY Program data ...
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of nosocomial infections with high mortality rates. The organism is highly resistant to most classes of drugs used and can develop resistance during treatment. One of the resistance mechanisms of P. aeruginosais is Metallo-β-Lactamase (MBL) production. MBL producing P. aeruginosa is a major health concern given its resistance to almost all available drugs. The prevalence of this resistant strain is unknown since there is no standardized method for testing MBL production. This was a laboratory based cross-sectional prospective study that was carried out from September 2015 to March 2016 at Kenyatta National Hospital. Ninety-nine isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected during the period and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and isolates found to be resistant to imipenem tested for MBL production. The results indicated high resistance of P. aeruginosa to commonly used drugs. Of the isolates tested 69.7% were resistant to piperacillin, 63.6% were resistant to
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from different animal species with septic ocular surface disease. Sixteen strains of P. aeruginosa were isolated from different species of animals (dog, cat, horse, penguin and brown bear) with ocular surface diseases such as conjunctivitis, keratocojnuctivits sicca and ulcerative keratitis. These isolates were tested against 11 different antimicrobials agents using the Kirby-Bauer disk-diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using E-tests for two antibiotics (tobramycin and ciprofloxacin) commonly used in veterinary ophthalmology practice. Imipenem was the most effective antibiotic, with 100% of the strains being susceptible, followed by amikacin (87.5%), gentamicin, norfloxacin, gatifloxacin and polymyxin (both with 81.5%of susceptibility). MIC90 of ciprofloxacin was 2 µg/ml and the values found ranged from 0.094 µg/ml to 32 µg/ml. For tobramycin,
Objective To study antimicrobial resistance of Brucella melitenesis and instruct rational use of antimicrobial agents for clinic.Methods Bacteria were cultured and identified by Bact/Alert 3D and VITEK Ⅱ automicrobic system.Drug susceptibility was detected by E-test method.Results Four strains Brucella melitenesis were isolated from blood of 4 patients with fever and MIC of gentamicin,ampicillin and ciprofloxacin was(0.5)~(0.75 mg/L),(1.5)~(2.0 mg/L) and (4.0)~(8.0 mg/L) respectively.MIC of ceftazidime,amikacin and doxycycline were all above(8.0 mg/L).Conclusion The preferred drug for treating brucellosis is gentamicin or plus ampicillin or ciprofloxacin,or choosing antimicrobial agents according to antimicrobial susceptibility test results.
Active efflux of antibiotics preventing their accumulation to toxic intracellular concentrations contributes to clinically relevant multidrug resistance. Inhibition of active efflux potentiates antibiotic activity, indicating that efflux inhibitors could be used in combination with antibiotics to reverse drug resistance. Expression of ramA by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium increases in response to efflux inhibition, irrespective of the mode of inhibition. We hypothesized that measuring ramA promoter activity could act as a reporter of efflux inhibition. A rapid, inexpensive, and high-throughput green fluorescent protein (GFP) screen to identify efflux inhibitors was developed, validated, and implemented. Two chemical compound libraries were screened for compounds that increased GFP production. Fifty of the compounds in the 1,200-compound Prestwick chemical library were identified as potential efflux inhibitors, including the previously characterized efflux inhibitors mefloquine and ...
Pharmacodynamic and mutant prevention properties of the fluoroquinolone pradofloxacin (PRA) were measured against a set of 17 Escherichia coli strains carrying no, one or two known mutations conferring reduced fluoroquinolone susceptibility. The strains included susceptible wild-types, isogenic constructed mutants, isogenic selected mutants and clinical isolates. The effectiveness of PRA was determined with regard to preventing the selection of resistant mutants, using static and changing concentrations of drug. Ciprofloxacin was used as a reference drug. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and mutant prevention concentrations (MPCs) of PRA for the susceptible wild-type strains were in the range 0.012-0.016 mg/L and 0.2-0.3 mg/L, respectively, giving a mean +/- standard deviation mutant prevention index (MPI=MPC/MIC) of 17.7 +/- 1.1. The mean MPI PRA of the 14 mutant strains was 19.2 +/- 12, and the mean MPI across all 17 strains was 18.9 +/- 10.8. In an in vitro kinetic model in which PRA ...
Against streptococci other than pneumococci, the intrinsic potency of GAR-936, based on a comparison of MIC50s, was equivalent or slightly superior to that of minocycline. Median (modal) MICs for GAR-936 and minocycline were 0.06 (0.06) and 0.12 (0.12) μg/ml, respectively. However, all streptococcal isolates, including strains resistant to doxycycline or minocycline, were inhibited by GAR-936 at ≤0.25 μg/ml.. For pneumococci, the results shown in Table 1 were obtained by agar dilution. The activity of GAR-936 against 60 strains ofStreptococcus pneumoniae, half of which were not susceptible to penicillin, was also evaluated by microdilution. The MIC50 and MIC90 were 0.03 and 0.06 μg/ml. These were within 1 dilution of agar dilution results. Individually, microdilution results were 2 dilutions lower than the agar dilution results for 11 strains, 1 dilution lower for 27, equivalent for 13, and 1 dilution greater for 4. For S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619, the broth microdilution result was 1 dilution ...
New macrolide expands treatment options for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in cattle.. The new antimicrobial tildipirosin is now available on veterinary microbroth dilution susceptibility plates, enabling veterinary microbiology laboratories to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing on organisms that cause bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef and non-lactating dairy cattle.. The Thermo Scientific Sensititre System, recognized for including one of the largest and most up-to-date selections of antimicrobials for susceptibility testing, with more than 40 veterinary-specific antimicrobials, is now the first to offer tildipirosin on microbroth dilution susceptibility plates. Tildipirosin is available globally on Sensititre veterinary custom plates, and it will be featured on additional standard plates in the future. A variety of other species-specific, standard diagnostic formats are also available for applications related to avian and poultry, bovine and porcine, companion animals, ...
Clinical antimicrobial susceptibility breakpoints are used to predict the clinical outcome of antimicrobial treatment. In contrast, microbiologic breakpoints are used to identify isolates that may be categorized as susceptible when applying clinical breakpoints but harbor resistance mechanisms that result in their reduced susceptibility to the agent being tested. Currently, the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) guidelines utilize clinical breakpoints to characterize the activity of the fluoroquinolones against Streptococcus pneumoniae. To determine whether levofloxacin breakpoints can identify isolates that harbor recognized resistance mechanisms, we examined 115 S. pneumoniae isolates with a levofloxacin MIC of >2 mg/mL for first-step parC mutations. A total of 48 (59%) of 82 isolates with a levofloxacin MIC of 2 mg/mL, a level considered susceptible by NCCLS criteria, had a first-step mutation in parC. Whether surveillance programs that use levofloxacin data can ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Yeast-like filamentous fungi. T2 - Molecular identification and in vitro susceptibility study. AU - Esposto, Maria Carmela. AU - Prigitano, Anna. AU - Lo Cascio, Giuliana. AU - Ossi, Cristina. AU - Grancini, Anna. AU - Cavanna, Caterina. AU - Lallitto, Fabiola. AU - Tejada, Milvana. AU - Bandettini, Roberto. AU - Mularoni, Alessandra. AU - Tortorano, Anna Maria. PY - 2019/10/1. Y1 - 2019/10/1. N2 - Yeast-like filamentous fungi, collected in Italy from 1985 to 2018, were submitted to molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility testings. Clinical isolates were identified as Magnusiomyces capitatus (28), M. clavatus (18), and Geotrichum candidum (2). M. clavatus was prevalent among blood isolates (18/24), M. capitatus among isolates from other biological materials. The intrinsic echinocandin resistance was confirmed. Both species had low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole, while M. clavatus had lower MIC of flucytosine ...
ABSTRACT Ceftaroline (CPT) is a broad-spectrum agent with potent activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The sequence type 5 (ST5) Chilean-Cordobés clone, associated with CPT nonsusceptibility, is dominant in Chile, a region with high rates of MRSA infections. Here, we assessed the in vitro activity of CPT against a collection of MRSA isolates collected between 1999 and 2018 from nine hospitals (n 320) and community settings (n 41) in Santiago, Chile, and evaluated performance across testing methodologies. We found that our hospitalassociated isolates exhibited higher CPT MIC distributions (MIC50 and MIC90 of 2 mg/liter) than the community isolates (MIC50 and MIC90 of 0.5 mg/liter), a finding that was consistent across time and independent of the culture source. High proportions (64%) of isolates were CPT nonsusceptible despite the absence of CPT use in Chile. Across methodologies, the Etest underestimated the MIC relative to the gold standard broth microdilution ...
Recommended for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of common, rapidly growing bacteria. Buy low price Mueller Hinton Agar Plate in Malakpet, Hyderabad. See My Price. Mueller Hinton Agar with Blood, 15x100mm plate, order by the package of 10, by Hardy Diagnostics (Mueller Hinton Agar with 5% Sheep Blood) For disk diffusion sensitivity testing of Streptococcus spp. Plate Size. Ambient shipping conditions. If you are viewing this page as a nonregistered user, the price(s) displayed is List Price. Mueller Hinton Medium Culture Plates Agar HARDY DIAGNOSTICS. ... Mueller Hinton II Agar Plates, Pkg of 20, 150 mm #M0026: Download SDS: SDS Request. 1 Product Result , Match Criteria: Product Name, Description 97580 ; for microbiology, NutriSelect ™ Plus; Millipore pricing. Mueller Hinton Agar Plate offered by Labline Trading Company is available with multiple payment options and easy delivery. Micro BCA Protein Assay Kit, 100-mm Mueller-Hinton agar plates, and Mueller-Hinton liquid broth were ...
Surface plasmon biosensing technology for antimicrobial susceptibility test - References | InTechOpen, Published on: 2011-07-19. Authors: How Foo Chen, Chi-Hung Lin, Chun-Yao Su, et
Antimicrobial resistance is one of today’s major public health challenges. Infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria have been responsible for an increasing number of deaths in recent decades. These resistant bacteria are also a concern in the food chain, as bacteria can resist common biocides used in the food industry and reach consumers. As a consequence, the search for alternatives to common antimicrobials by the scientific community has intensified. Substances obtained from nature have shown great potential as new sources of antimicrobial activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of five bee venoms, also called apitoxins, against two common foodborne pathogens. A total of 50 strains of the Gram-negative pathogen Salmonella enterica and 8 strains of the Gram-positive pathogen Listeria monocytogenes were tested. The results show that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were highly influenced by the bacterial genus. The MIC values ranged from
Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBLs) encoding genes (TEM, SHV and OXA) were amplified from multidrug resistance E. coli. The multidrug resistance E. coli isolates from different clinical sources were documented to be plasmid encoded and resistance against β-lactam and cephalosporin. Conventional laboratory analysis showed that seventy percent (70%) of the selected multidrug resistant clinical isolates were ESBLs positive, showing a ≥5 mm increase in zone diameter for either antibiotics compared to its zone when tested alone. The antibiotic susceptibility result showed that 100% of the isolates were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, amoxicillin, cefuroxime and ampicillin-sulbactam while 90% of the isolates were resistant to ceftazidine and tetracycline, 80% to ofloxacin, 70% to ceftriazon, nalidixic acid, cefalexin, 60% to ciprofloxacin, 50% to nitrofurantoin, 40% to chloramphenicol and 20% to gentamicine. The multiplex PCR with primers TEM (931bp), SHV (868), OXA-2 (478), aac(3)-IIa (900
Purpose. Rhodomyrtustomentosa is a Thai medicinal plant that has been attracting attention for its remarkable antibacterial properties against Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of R. tomentosa leaf extract against Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus iniae isolated from infected tilapia. Methodology. The anti-streptococcal activity of R. tomentosa was determined using broth microdilution assays. Results. The extract demonstrated strong antibacterial activity against the fish pathogens, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 7.8‒62.5 µg ml−1. It was found to possess a dose-dependent bacteriostatic effect on this organism. Scanning electron microscopy revealed irregular and long chains of swollen cells, as well as corkscrew shapes andincomplete separation of cell division of S. agalactiae cells following the treatment at sub-MIC. Moreover, S. agalactiae cells pre-treated with the extract became more
LOWMAN, Warren et al. Comparative MIC evaluation of a generic ceftriaxone by broth microdilution on clinically relevant isolates from an academic hospital complex in South Africa. SAMJ, S. Afr. med. j. [online]. 2012, vol.102, n.2, pp.102-103. ISSN 2078-5135.. We evaluated the in vitro microbiological efficacy of a generic ceftriaxone product against several clinically significant organisms collected from sterile sites. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each was determined simultaneously with the reference and the generic ceftriaxone product. Comparative analysis of MICs between the two products for each isolate was performed using both categorical (interpretive) agreement and essential (actual MIC value) agreement. A total of 260 isolates were tested. Overall, there was categorical agreement of 98.9% and essential agreement of 95.8%. The categorical agreement for all isolates (96.7 - 100%) accorded with international standards, as no very major errors were seen and the major error ...
Understanding local susceptibility patterns is important when selecting antimicrobials for initial empirical antibiotic-therapy of bloodstream infections. Because the determination of susceptibility is dependent on the breakpoints used, the aim of the study was to compare the antimicrobial susceptibility results to different classes of antibiotics of 512 strains of Enterobacteriaceae (200 ESβL positive) isolated from bloodstream using CLSI 2013 and current EUCAST 2013 guidelines to evaluate the impact of break-point discrepancies. The results of the study showed that statistically significant discrepancies (p ≤ 0.001) were found for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin alone or with tazobac-tam, imipenem, meropenem, cefepime (only ESβL negative isolates), amikacin and gentamicin using current CLSI or EUCAST interpretive criteria. Further harmonization of CLSI and EUCAST breakpoints is warranted. This study could give useful information to physicians for managing bloodstream
Understanding local susceptibility patterns is important when selecting antimicrobials for initial empirical antibiotic-therapy of bloodstream infections. Because the determination of susceptibility is dependent on the breakpoints used, the aim of the study was to compare the antimicrobial susceptibility results to different classes of antibiotics of 512 strains of Enterobacteriaceae (200 ESβL positive) isolated from bloodstream using CLSI 2013 and current EUCAST 2013 guidelines to evaluate the impact of break-point discrepancies. The results of the study showed that statistically significant discrepancies (p ≤ 0.001) were found for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin alone or with tazobac-tam, imipenem, meropenem, cefepime (only ESβL negative isolates), amikacin and gentamicin using current CLSI or EUCAST interpretive criteria. Further harmonization of CLSI and EUCAST breakpoints is warranted. This study could give useful information to physicians for managing bloodstream
BACKGROUND: S.aureus is a major pathogen in skin and soft tissue infections. Methicillin resistant S.aureus (MRSA) is prevalent in most of the countries wherever it is sought for. MRSA is one of the important pathogens implicated in hospital acquired infection. The main objectives of this study was to find out the antimicrobial
... (previously known as the Epsilometer test) is a way of determining antimicrobial sensitivity by placing a strip ... For some microbial and antimicrobial combinations, the results can be used to determine a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC ... The time taken for a plate to be ready depends on the bacterium that is being tested, and the conditions of the agar plate. The ... Etest can be used with many different kinds of AST agar medium as long as the medium supports good growth of the test organism ...
... water microbial analysis, blood parasite examination, antibiotic sensitivity test and the like; (3) Experimental Animal Farm ...
... limulus test MeSH E05.200.875.220 - colony count, microbial MeSH E05.200.875.595 - microbial sensitivity tests MeSH E05.200. ... microbial sensitivity tests MeSH E05.337.550.400.800 - serum bactericidal test MeSH E05.337.550.600 - parasitic sensitivity ... sensitivity and specificity MeSH E05.318.780.800.650 - predictive value of tests MeSH E05.318.780.800.750 - roc curve MeSH ... neutralization tests MeSH E05.196.922.750 - potentiometry MeSH E05.196.922.875 - skin test end-point titration MeSH E05.196. ...
... parasitic sensitivity tests MeSH G01.273.738 - photobiology MeSH G01.273.789 - radiobiology MeSH G01.273.866 - sociobiology ... microbial MeSH G01.273.540.460 - industrial microbiology MeSH G01.273.540.553 - mycology MeSH G01.273.540.859 - virology MeSH ... microbial MeSH G01.273.343.335 - genetics, population MeSH G01.273.343.350 - genomics MeSH G01.273.343.350.700 - proteomics ...
... in vitro chemo sensitivity testing of tumors, and fluorochrome intercellular translocation. It has been applied with plants, ... "Applicability of the fluorescein diacetate method of detecting active bacteria in freshwater." Microbial Ecology 10.2 (1984): ... Eugene A. Woltering, Tumor Chemosensitivity Testing An Evolving Technique. Lab Medicine 21, 82-84, 1990.. ... Fluorochromasia has many applications including histocompatibility testing, measurement of cytotoxic antibodies, ...
Testing the safety and efficacy of new drugs, as with lung on a chip Total analysis system Volpatti, L. R.; Yetisen, A. K. (Jul ... A gold standard for diagnosing bacteriuria (urinary tract infections) is microbial culture. A recent study based on lab-on-a- ... In developed nations, the most highly valued traits for diagnostic tools include speed, sensitivity, and specificity; but in ... One of the most prominent and well known LOC devices to reach the market is the at home pregnancy test kit, a device that ...
... sensitivity and specificity or efficacy; and 3) invalid applications of high, unphysiological test concentrations in the in ... Prevention of microbial infections (phytoalexins). Signaling molecules in ripening and other growth processes. The most ... Other tests measure the antioxidant capacity of a fraction. Some make use of the ABTS radical cation which is reactive towards ... Some tests are relatively specific to polyphenols (for instance the Porter's assay). Total phenols (or antioxidant effect) can ...
Sensitivity to Antibiotics[edit]. While Lactobacillus fermentum has been found to have antibiotic resistant properties, other ... Testing of Lactobacillus fermentum against different pH concentration solutions revealed that it has a strong pH tolerance by ... "Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 An antimicrobial and antioxidative probiotic." Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 21, no. 1 ( ... Tests conducted on the ME-3 strain in different bile concentrations found that it was able to survive without large loss in ...
Some military testing grounds are contaminated with TNT. Wastewater from munitions programs including contamination of surface ... This includes wholly abiotic reactants, like photons, hydrogen sulfide, Fe2+, or microbial communities, both oxic and anoxic. ... Exudation of impurities leads to formation of pores and cracks (which in turn cause increased shock sensitivity). Migration of ... free software website containing a video bank and additionally pages for discussion of nuclear device testing ...
The same review found the sensitivity of the test to be 77% and the specificity to be 79%. The authors suggested that ... Microbial factors[edit]. Bacterial virulence factors, such as glycocalyx and various adhesins, allow colonization, immune ... Neither ACTH stimulation testing[71] nor random cortisol levels are recommended to confirm the diagnosis.[6] The method of ... Upon detection of microbial antigens, the host systemic immune system is activated. Immune cells not only recognise pathogen- ...
In those failing initial treatment, culture should be done to determine sensitivity to antibiotics. Tests that use polymerase ... and gonococci and commensal Neisseria species can coexist for long time periods in the pharynx and share anti-microbial ... Diagnosis is by testing the urine, urethra in males, or cervix in females. Testing all women who are sexually active and less ... All people testing positive for gonorrhea should be tested for other sexually transmitted diseases such as chlamydia, syphilis ...
... combined with either a rapid urease test or microbial culture. Helicobacter pylori is contagious, although the exact route of ... H. pylori mutants that are defective in RuvC have increased sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents and to oxidative stress, exhibit ... Noninvasive tests for H. pylori infection may be suitable and include blood antibody tests, stool antigen tests, or the carbon ... Testing for H. pylori is not routinely recommended. Testing is recommended if peptic ulcer disease or low-grade gastric MALT ...
... and microbial contamination (by bacteria, viruses, mycoplasma). Alternative platforms of production which are being tested ... Due to their heterogeneity and the high process sensitivity, originators and follow-on biosimilars will exhibit variability in ... The filing pathway requires more testing than for small-molecule generics, but less testing than for registering completely new ... in addition to physico-chemical testing, biological testing for full characterisation. The characterisation of a biological ...
Testing was done for Gram stain, carbon source, acid production, growth at minimal salt concentration, and antibiotic ... the integrated microbial genomes database and comparative analysis system. Retrieved 26 April 2016. Sleator, Roy D; Hill, Colin ... sensitivity. Also, PCR was performed with the primers A1F and UA1406R. H. paucihalophilus was named for its ability to grow in ...
In clinical situations the antibiotic sensitivity can be obtained through disk diffusion assays of E-strip test. Treatment of ... Microbial Drug Resistance. 16 (4): 273-7. doi:10.1089/mdr.2010.0032. PMID 20624090. S2CID 31356982. Renom F, Garau M, Rubí M, ... as such specific susceptibility of isolates should be obtained through antibiotic sensitivity testing. ... Early clinical testing of hospital patients found that infection generally only occurred in immunocompromised individuals or ...
However, the antibiotic sensitivities of different strains of E. coli vary widely. As gram-negative organisms, E. coli are ... Susceptibility testing should guide treatment in all infections in which the organism can be isolated for culture. Phage ... Food poisoning can trigger an immune response to microbial gut bacteria. Some researchers suggest that it can lead to ... The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that "all stools submitted for routine testing from patients with ...
... areas where PCR-based tests are not well established in all labs.[33][34] Culture is also useful for antimicrobial sensitivity ... and gonococci and commensal Neisseria species can coexist for long time periods in the pharynx and share anti-microbial ... All people testing positive for gonorrhea should be tested for other sexually transmitted diseases such as chlamydia, syphilis ... Diagnosis is by testing the urine, urethra in males, or cervix in females.[1] Testing all women who are sexually active and ...
In response to the US discovery of chloramphenicol in imported shrimp and subsequent increased testing sensitivity, the use of ... By inhibiting microbial growth, copper alloy aquaculture pens avoid the need for costly net changes that are necessary with ... The FDA has been testing for chemicals in aquaculture products for over two decades. In November 2005, the testing program for ... After more stringent testing and inspection by the governments of Western Countries, the use of malachite green began to wane ...
The filing pathway requires more testing than for small-molecule generics, but less testing than for registering completely new ... They (or their precursors or components) are isolated from living sources-human, animal, plant, fungal, or microbial. They can ... Due to their heterogeneity and the high process sensitivity, originators and follow-on biosimilars will exhibit variability in ... in addition to physico-chemical testing, biological testing for full characterisation. The characterisation of a biological ...
Biochemical tests indicate this microorganism also carries out a weakly positive reaction to the nitrate reductase test. It is ... Normally, sensitivity to desferrioxamine can also be used to distinguish it from most other staphylococci, except in the case ... Exploring the role of acne-associated microbial populations". Dermatologica Sinica. 34 (2): 67-73. doi:10.1016/j.dsi.2015.12. ... Cruz, Thomas Edison E. dela; Torres, Jeremy Martin O. (2012-11-01). "Gelatin Hydrolysis Test Protocol". ...
In Taipei, Taiwan, a 2010 city health survey found one-third of tested dried fruit products failed health standard tests, most ... Fruit acids, such as malic acid and tartaric acid, contribute to flavor enhancement and act as anti-microbial agents (suppress ... of the whole population with potential for sulfite-sensitivity. These individuals make up the subgroup of greatest concern and ...
This was further supported by data showing that reversion to antibiotic sensitivity was relatively common as well. This could ... Most of these showed multidrug resistance (MRAB), with a few isolates resistant to all drugs tested. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is ... "Spatiotemporal microbial evolution on antibiotic landscapes". Science. 353 (6304): 1147-1151. Bibcode:2016Sci...353.1147B. doi: ...
Agglutination is primarily used when the sample is obtained from a vaginal mucous wash, and the test may reach a sensitivity of ... Veterinary Microbiology and Microbial Disease. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-25116-4. "Campylobacter Fetus - an overview , ... multiple samples are to be collected from each animal and multiple tests may be used simultaneously to increase sensitivity and ... Once cultured, molecular tests can be performed to obtain a more accurate diagnosis. Measuring IgA antibodies in vaginal mucus ...
The same review found the sensitivity of the test to be 77% and the specificity to be 79%. The authors suggested that ... Microbial factors[խմբագրել , խմբագրել կոդը]. Bacterial virulence factors, such as glycocalyx and various adhesins, allow ... Neither ACTH stimulation testing[65] nor random cortisol levels are recommended to confirm the diagnosis.[6] The method of ... Upon detection of microbial antigens, the host systemic immune system is activated. Immune cells not only recognise pathogen- ...
13 Test Method for Ignition Sensitivity of Nonmetallic Materials and Components by Gaseous Fluid Impact G75 - 15 Test Method ... Practice for Evaluating Microbial Susceptibility of Nonmetallic Materials By Laboratory Soil Burial G161 - 00(2018) Guide for ... ou [50 mm]) C110 - 20 Test Methods for Physical Testing of Quicklime, Hydrated Lime, and Limestone C113 - 14(2019) Test Method ... Testing G86 - 17 Test Method for Determining Ignition Sensitivity of Materials to Mechanical Impact in Ambient Liquid Oxygen ...
... one team is using yeast as their eukaryotic test organism. A major problem to overcome is the oxygen-sensitivity of the ... The microbial nif genes required for nitrogen fixation are widely distributed in diverse environments.[14][15] ... "The Microbial Nitrogen-Cycling Network". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 1 (1): 1-14. doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2018.9. PMID 29398704 ...
In the last test, 90 percent of samples of natural cork stopper shipments showed values of under 1.0 ppt and only 7 percent had ... an anti-microbial agent used in processing wood. Molds (and some suspect bacteria such as Streptomyces) are able to de-toxify ... this can vary by several orders of magnitude depending on an individual's sensitivity. Detection is also complicated by the ... In 2013, the Cork Quality Council ran over 25 thousand tests. The results, compared with data from eight years ago, show a ...
S. pneumoniae can also be distinguished based on its sensitivity to lysis by bile, the so-called "bile solubility test". The ... "Adaptive value of sex in microbial pathogens" (PDF). Infect. Genet. Evol. 8 (3): 267-85. doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2008.01.002 ... Optochin sensitivity in a culture of Streptococcus pneumoniae ... bacitracin resistant, CAMP test+: S. agalactiae *Group B ... using an optochin test, as S. pneumoniae is optochin-sensitive. ...
Due to the sensitivity of the intestine to ischemic injury, many potential donor intestines are lost to the events following ... Therefore, it is essential that HLA and PRA statuses are tested for and demonstrate low immunoreactivity of the patient to the ... it may also prevent the immune system's ability to keep certain gut microbial populations in line. Despite pre and post- ... The panel reactive antibody (PRA) test measures the proportion of the population to which a recipient will react via pre- ...
The stool guaiac test (or guaiac fecal occult blood test) is conducted to detect the presence of blood in stool that is not ... Excessive sugar consumption or a sensitivity to anise oil may cause loose, green stools. It can also result from consuming ... A stool culture-the controlled growth of microbial organisms in culture media under laboratory conditions-sometimes is ... A quick test for fecal contamination of water sources or soil is a check for the presence of E. coli bacteria performed with ...
"Wal-Mart To Test Hybrid Trucks". Sustainable Business. February 3, 2009.. *^ Rock, Kerry; Maurice Korpelshoek (2007). " ... Microbial gastrointestinal flora in a variety of animals have shown potential for the production of biofuels. Recent research ... This is partly counteracted by the better efficiency when using ethanol (in a long-term test of more than 2.1 million km, the ... no storage stability problems and no susceptibility to microbial attack.[26] ...
Antibiotic sensitivity can also be tested with these cultures, making them useful in the selection of antibiotic treatment. ... Engleberg, N C; DiRita, V; Dermody, T S (2007). Schaechter's Mechanism of Microbial Disease. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & ... Huttner, A; Gambillara, V (24 May 2018). "The development and early clinical testing of the ExPEC4V conjugate vaccine against ... further diagnostic testing may be needed.[3] Phenazopyridine may help with symptoms.[1] In those who have bacteria or white ...
Blood agar (used in strep tests) contains bovine heart blood that becomes transparent in the presence of β-hemolytic organisms ... Birgit Hadeler, Sirkka Scholz, Ralf Reski (1995) Gelrite and agar differently influence cytokinin-sensitivity of a moss. ... Lack of carbon, nitrogen, and organic growth factors so as to prevent microbial multiplication ...
S. pneumoniae can also be distinguished based on its sensitivity to lysis by bile, the so-called "bile solubility test". The ... "Adaptive value of sex in microbial pathogens" (PDF). Infect. Genet. Evol. 8 (3): 267-85. doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2008.01.002 ... Optochin sensitivity in a culture of Streptococcus pneumoniae ... using an optochin test, as S. pneumoniae is optochin-sensitive ...
A patch test is used to identify the causative allergen in allergic conjunctivitis.[24] ... Signs of such conditions include decreased vision, significantly increased sensitivity to light, inability to keep the eye open ... Based on symptoms, microbial culture[1]. Prevention. Handwashing[1]. Treatment. Based on underlying cause[2]. ... sensitivity to light, signs of herpes, or if symptoms do not improve after a week, further diagnosis and treatment may be ...
However, RCA has not been tested with RNA-seq, which typically employs next-generation sequencing. Single-cell RNA-seq for ... Single-cell genomics is a powerful way to obtain microbial genome sequences without cultivation. This approach has been widely ... RNAs with high sensitivity, it has some limitations. The NSR primers were carefully designed according to rRNA sequences in the ... In microbial systems, a population of the same species can appear to be genetically clonal, but single-cell sequencing of RNA ...
Stefanova I.; Dorfman J. R.; Germain R. N. (2002). "Self-recognition promotes the foreign antigen sensitivity of naive T ... A paradoxical observation has been the strong association of certain microbial organisms with autoimmune diseases. For example ... and high index of suspicion against a backdrop of certain abnormalities in routine laboratory tests (example, elevated C- ...
... cells have been used to test human sensitivity to tape, glue, cosmetics, and many other products.[4] ... van Valen, L.M.; Maiorana, V.C. (1991). "HeLa, a new microbial species". Evolutionary Theory & Review. 10: 71-74. ISSN 1528- ... HeLa cells were used by Jonas Salk to test the first polio vaccine in the 1950s. They were observed to be easily infected by ... HeLa cells have been used in testing how parvo virus infects cells of humans, dogs, and cats.[25] These cells have also been ...
Sensitivity to sulfonamides (acetazolamide in this table) KI (nM)[10]. CA-I. CA1. 29 kDa. cytosol. red blood cell and GI tract ... In all species tested, CDCA-like proteins showed high levels of expression even in high concentrations of zinc and in the ... Park H, McGinn PJ, More FM (19 May 2008). "Expression of cadmium carbonic anhydrase of diatoms in seawater". Aquatic Microbial ... Other phytoplankton from different water sources have been tested for the presence of CDCA. It was found that many of them ...
... appears to cause very few side effects as tested in the short term, up to three months, at low doses. Two systematic ... Chen HJ (July 1981). "Spontaneous and melatonin-induced testicular regression in male golden hamsters: augmented sensitivity of ... "Shikimic acid: review of its analytical, isolation, and purification techniques from plant and microbial sources". Journal of ...
Bernstein H, Bernstein C, Michod RE (2018). "Sex in microbial pathogens". Infect Genet Evol. 57: 8-25. doi:10.1016/j.meegid. ... But these dark hair-producing proteins are sensitive to temperature (i.e. have a mutation causing temperature-sensitivity) and ... such tests cannot separate genetic factors from environmental factors affecting fetal development. ... Meiotic recombination, particularly in microbial eukaryotes, appears to serve the adaptive function of repair of DNA damages.[ ...
Global Environmental Change - Microbial Contributions, Microbial Solutions (PDF), American Society For Microbiology, May 2006. ... p21-22) Some scientific conclusions or theories have been so thoroughly examined and tested, and supported by so many ...
Raj, Baldev; Jayakumar, T.; Thavasimuthu, M. (2002). Practical Non-destructive Testing. Woodhead Publishing. p. 10. ISBN ... This suggested that it was evolutionarily more difficult to increase the UV-sensitivity of the eyes of the males than to ... "Far-UVC light: A new tool to control the spread of airborne-mediated microbial diseases". Scientific Reports. 8 (1): 2752. ... In some types of nondestructive testing UV stimulates fluorescent dyes to highlight defects in a broad range of materials. ...
However, a field test showed that lettuce, carrots, and barley contained glyphosate residues up to one year after the soil was ... Nguyen DB, Rose MT, Rose TJ, Morris SG, van Zwieten L (2016). "Impact of glyphosate on soil microbial biomass and respiration: ... Schulz A, Krüper A, Amrhein N (1985). "Differential sensitivity of bacterial 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthases to ... According to the National Pesticide Information Center fact sheet, glyphosate is not included in compounds tested for by the ...
... glucose is oxidised in oxidation/fermentation test using Hugh and Leifson O/F test, beta hemolytic (on blood agar), indole ... Sensitivity to galliumEdit. Although gallium has no natural function in biology, gallium ions interact with cellular processes ... Electronic nose technology allows fast and continuous measurement of microbial food spoilage by sensing odours produced by ... Pseudomonas species also typically give a positive result to the oxidase test, the absence of gas formation from glucose, ...
Whipworm ova (Trichuris suis) and Hookworm (Necator americanus) have been tested for immunological diseases and allergies. ... immunotherapy can reduce sensitivity to allergens, lessening its severity. ... including less potential for creating resistance when treating microbial disease.[3] ... The cells are then reinfused and produce an immune response against the tumour cells.[16] The technique has been tested on ...
The sensitivity of the molecule to a broad range of excitations and the ease with which it can be observed in a number of ... Despite this, several tests have been done. In 1981, a Canadian company converted a 1981 Chevrolet Impala to operate using ... Anhydrous ammonia is currently used commercially to reduce or eliminate microbial contamination of beef.[58][59] Lean finely ... Ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) is a measure commonly used for testing the quantity of ammonium ions, derived naturally from ...
On sensitivity testing, the organism appears highly resistant (it is innately resistant to a large number of antibiotics ... Microbial Pathogenesis. 36 (5): 287-9. doi:10.1016/j.micpath.2004.01.001. PMID 15043863. Nandi T, Ong C, Singh AP, Boddey J, ... Disc diffusion tests are unreliable when looking for co-trimoxazole resistance in B. pseudomallei (they greatly overestimate ... For environmental specimens only, differentiation from the nonpathogenic B. thailandensis using an arabinose test is necessary ...
1977). "Differential sensitivity for smell: "noise" at the nose". Science. 195 (4280): 796-98. Bibcode:1977Sci...195..796C. doi ... Although less is known about how odor is influenced by MHC genes, possible explanations have been that microbial flora[66] or ... The panelists are asked to repeat the test. This continues until the panelists respond with certainty and correctly twice in a ... The sensitivity and ability to discriminate odors diminishes with exposure, and the brain tends to ignore continuous stimulus ...
T]he interpretation of preserved organic remains as microbial biofilm [is] highly unlikely. ... specifically because Schweitzer was hoping to test it for soft tissue.[92] Designated as the Museum of the Rockies specimen ... "Biomechanical Modeling and Sensitivity Analysis of Bipedal Running Ability. II. Extinct Taxa" (PDF). Journal of Morphology ... "Influence of Microbial Biofilms on the Preservation of Primary Soft Tissue in Fossil and Extant Archosaurs". PLoS ONE. 5 (10 ...
The mother puts feces on the egg sacs to establish the same microbial composition in the larvae's guts that has worked ... A 2016 study concluded that food supplementation with 10-mM alpha-ketoglutarate decreased Drosophila alcohol sensitivity over ... "The use of drosophila melanogaster in tests for environmental mutagens". Mutation Research/Environmental Mutagenesis and ... Although the fly's transcriptional response to microbial challenge is highly specific to individual pathogens, Drosophila ...
Microbial Life in a Liquid Asphalt Desert. *^ Ahmed I, Yokota A, Fujiwara T (March 2007). "A novel highly boron tolerant ... "Transformation in Micrococcus radiodurans and the ultraviolet sensitivity of its transforming DNA". Proceedings of the ... List of microorganisms tested in outer space. *Tardigrade. ReferencesEdit. *^ Rampelotto PH (2010). "Resistance of ... For example, microbial life lives in the liquid asphalt lake, Pitch Lake. Research indicates that extremophiles inhabit the ...
Metallated cationic porphyrazines (PZ), including PdPZ+, CuPZ+, CdPZ+, MgPZ+, AlPZ+ and GaPZ+, have been tested in vitro on V- ... Photosensitizers can target viral and microbial species, including HIV and MRSA.[16] Using PDT, pathogens present in samples of ... After injecting himself with haematoporphyrin (Hp, a photosensitiser), he swiftly experienced a general skin sensitivity upon ... The technology has also been tested for treatment of prostate cancer, both in a dog model[3] and in human prostate cancer ...
... or microbial biofilm is present in the wound, these factors may cause a prolonged inflammatory phase and prevent the wound from ... where the sensitivity to single parameters such as initial collagen alignment, cytokine properties, and cell proliferation ... rates can be tested.[95]. Wound closure intentionsEdit. Successful wound healing is dependent on various cell types, molecular ... extravasated platelets in trauma perform a similar function to tissue macrophages and mast cells exposed to microbial molecular ...
Laboratory tests" (PDF). Bulletin of Insectology. 56 (1): 59-62.. *^ Thompson H. (2003). "Behavior effects of pesticides in ... In 2010, a sequencing of the honey bee genome provided a possible explanation for the sensitivity of bees to pesticides. Its ... of Texas in Austin found that commonly used antibiotics found in beekeeping to prevent disease lower the gut microbial levels ... the virus was found in 25 of the 30 tested CCD colonies, and only in one of the 21 tested non-CCD colonies.[139][146] ...
Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Microbial Sensitivity Tests. *Susceptibility to metronidazole was tested in ... Biological context of Microbial Sensitivity Tests. *The pmrA-pmrB operon was also found to be activated by a number of cationic ... Associations of Microbial Sensitivity Tests with chemical compounds. *There was no significant correlation between the minimum ... Anatomical context of Microbial Sensitivity Tests. *The levels of lomefloxacin in serum and prostatic tissue were found to be ...
"Microbial Sensitivity Tests" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Microbial Sensitivity Tests" was a ... "Microbial Sensitivity Tests" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Microbial Sensitivity Tests*Microbial Sensitivity Tests. *Microbial Sensitivity Test. *Sensitivity Test, Microbial ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Microbial Sensitivity Tests" by people in Profiles. ...
A Rapid Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test for Bacillus anthracis Linda M. Weigel, David Sue, Pierre A. Michel, Brandon Kitchel ... From Etest to Vitek 2: Impact of Enterococcal Linezolid Susceptibility Testing Methodology on Time to Active Therapy Different ... In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Candida Isolates with the EUCAST Methodology, a New Method for ECOFF ... Intra- and Interlaboratory Performances of Two Commercial Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Methods for Bifidobacteria and ...
Drug testing, Culture & Sensitivity, Anti-microbial testing, Traditional Indian Medicine, Siddha medicine, New drugs, Mercuric ... Anti-Microbial Sensitivity Testing of a Traditional Indian Medicine. In this study, a Siddha drug, "Saveera Chendooram" which ... ANTI-MICROBIAL SENSITIVITY TESTING. In this study, a Siddha drug, "Saveera Chendooram" which was prepared as per the procedure ... Muller-Hilton agar is used for the drug sensitivity testing because it is a non nutrient media which gives better results.. ...
"Microbial Sensitivity Tests". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X. Y. Z. * 0-9 ...
Aqueous, hexane and alcoholic extracts of each plant were tested for their antibacterial activity using agar well diffusion ... Of these, 40 plant extracts showed varied levels of antimicrobial activity against one or more test bacteria. Anticandidal ... The results indicated that out of 82 plants, 56 exhibited antibacterial activity against one or more test pathogens. ... Delonix regia and Emblica officinalis were found to be detrimental to test dermatophytes. ...
wp-content/uploads/2016/03/[email protected] 0 0 syn-admin /wp-content/uploads/2016/03/[email protected] syn-admin2009-03-24 00:00:032016-02-08 18:24:41Engineered bacteriophage targeting gene networks as adjuvants for antibiotic therapy. ...
The API test system Rapid ID 32 Strep and Rapid ID 32 E showed the highest proportion of identifications to the species level, ... corresponding to 422 samples.16S rRNA sequence analysis and identification with API test system were used to identify the ... formed 29 OTUs that could be identified to the species level and 9 OTUs that could be identified to the genus level by API test ... were screened for microbial contamination under routine conditions. The antibiotic resistance profile for all isolates was also ...
Results of search for su:{Microbial sensitivity tests} Refine your search. *Availability * Limit to currently available items ... Standardization of methods for conducting microbic sensitivity tests : second report of the Expert Committee on Antibiotics [ ... Field application of in vitro assays for the sensitivity of human malaria parasites to antimalarial drugs / Léonardo K. Basco. ... A rapid method for isolation cultivation and testing drug susceptiblity of M. tuberculosis / N. Veeraraghavan.. by ...
Board Subjects: Microbial Sensitivity Tests Citation: Mamdouh Z. Atta ,Samira A. Shoeb ,Ahlam M. Zaitoun , Study on microbial ... Study on microbial causes of corneal ulcer and antibiotic sensitivity tests Atta Mamdouh Z.; Shoeb, Samira A.;Zaitoun, Ahlam M. ... Antibiotic sensitivity tests revealed that most gram positive isolates were sensitive to bacitracin, clindamycin and fucidin. ... causes of corneal ulcer and antibiotic sensitivity tests, J. Egypt. Med. Assoc. 1989; 72 (Supp.): 121-30 Abstract English ...
Results of search for su:{Microbial sensitivity tests} and su-to:Manuals. ... A Practical handbook for antimalarial drug therapeutic efficacy testing for the district health worker. by World Health ...
... The Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) is a genome browsing and annotation system developed ... Daily Sensitivity Test. How to Quickly Check Pipettes?. What is the Correct Way to Check Repeatability in Balances?. ... The Integrated Microbial Genomes with Microbiome Samples (IMG/M) system is an extension of the IMG system providing a ... The Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) is a genome browsing and annotation system developed by the DOE-Joint Genome Institute. ...
31 Antimicrobic Sensitivity Testing: The Kirby-Bauer Method. 32 Evaluation of Antiseptics: The Filter Paper Disk Method. 33 ... 47 Reductase Test. 48 Temperature: Lethal Effects. 49 Microbial Spoilage of Canned Food. 50 Microbiology of Alcohol ... 56 Slide Agglutination Test for S. aureus. 57 Slide Agglutination Test for Streptococcus. 58 The Heterophile Antibody Test. 59 ... 26 pH and Microbial Growth. 27 Water Activity and Osmotic Pressure. 28 Ultraviolet Light: Lethal Effects. 29 The Effects of ...
Microbial Sensitivity Tests * Moxifloxacin * Penicillanic Acid / analogs & derivatives * Penicillanic Acid / pharmacology * ... All fluoroquinolones tested were effective against most gram-negative facultative anaerobes including Escherichia coli. ... Comparative in vitro antimicrobial activity of a novel quinolone, garenoxacin, against aerobic and anaerobic microbial isolates ... levofloxacin and other antimicrobials when tested against selected gram-positive organisms. The in vitro aerobic and anaerobic ...
Microbial Sensitivity Tests * Muramoylpentapeptide Carboxypeptidase / metabolism * Penicillin-Binding Proteins * Peptidyl ...
Drug Resistance, Microbial. Microbial Sensitivity Tests. Salvage Therapy. Anti-HIV Agents. Viral Load. Treatment Experienced. ... Other studies suggest a benefit if drug-resistance tests are used in selecting a new anti-HIV drug treatment. This study tests ... Salvage Treatment, Resistance Testing, and Withdrawal of Anti-HIV Drugs for HIV Patients Failing Current Anti-HIV Treatment. ... This study tests the hypothesis that salvage regimens selected on the basis of HIV-1 resistance genotype, phenotype [AS PER ...
Drug Resistance, Microbial. Sequence Analysis, DNA. Microbial Sensitivity Tests. Genotype. Phenotype. Anti-HIV Agents. ... and both tests predict virologic response to salvage therapy in patients who have failed a previous regimen. Resistance testing ... Two types of tests can detect resistance to drugs: 1) genotyping (sequencing), which looks at the DNA sequence of a virus to ... The test results are available between Weeks 1 and 4, inclusive. There are weekly visits for the first 4 weeks after entry to ...
Microbial Sensitivity Tests. *Outpatients. *Patients. *Penicillins. *Polymorphism,Restriction Fragment Length. *RESISTANCE. * ...
The objective of this study was to evaluate the analytical sensitivity of legislation-described tests and nonspecific microbial ... Preservatives and neutralizing substances in milk: analytical sensitivity of official specific and nonspecific tests, microbial ... The analytical sensitivity of the official tests was 0.005%, 0.003%, and 0.013% for formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and ... The yogurt culture test gave results similar to those obtained by official tests for the detection of specific substances. ...
Macrophages :: microbiology; Mice; Microbial Sensitivity Tests;. Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet; Support, Non-U.S. Govt; ... They tested one of the drugs which is very good in malaria and found. almost ALL of its efficacy was due TO .. ? .. the ... Sili (#18) "I think it makes sense to start giving exclusive rights to drugs from the point when the testing is done and ...
Physico-chemical Analysis, Microbial Isolation, Sensitivity Test of the Isolates and Solar Disinfection of Water Running in ... microbial ecology, molecular biology, microbial physiology, biochemistry, microbial pathogenesis, host-microbe interaction, ... microbial ecology, molecular biology, microbial physiology, biochemistry, microbial pathogenesis, host-microbe interaction, ... microbial ecology, molecular biology, microbial physiology, biochemistry, microbial pathogenesis, host-microbe interaction, ...
Microbial Sensitivity Tests. Oils, Volatile / pharmacology*. Phytotherapy. Plant Oils / pharmacology. Terpenes / pharmacology. ...
Microbial Sensitivity Tests. Molecular Sequence Data. Mycological Typing Techniques. Phylogeny. Saccharomycetales / isolation ...
Keywords : gonorrhea; Neisseria gonorrhoeae; drug resistance; microbial sensitivity tests. · abstract in Portuguese · text in ... it was necessary to carry out a program of epidemiologic surveillance evaluating the sensitivity behavior of the etiologic ...
Anti-microbial sensitivity test and testing stratum. US4838876 *. Feb 11, 1988. Jun 13, 1989. The Kendall Company. Silicone ... After this test is completed, the completed catheters 5 that have passed all tests, are then packaged, preferably in a material ... After this test is completed, the completed sleeved Foley catheters 4 that have passed all tests, are then packaged, ... is tested to see if it is functional and if it has any leaks. This testing can be done before or after the fluid conduit access ...
47 Reductase Test 48 Temperature: Lethal Effects 49 Microbial Spoilage of Canned Food 50 Microbiology of Alcohol Fermentation ... 31 Antimicrobic Sensitivity Testing: The Kirby-Bauer Method 32 Evaluation of Antiseptics: The Filter Paper Disk Method 33 ... 56 Slide Agglutination Test for S. aureus 57 Slide Agglutination Test for Streptococcus 58 The Heterophile Antibody Test 59 ... 56 Slide Agglutination Test for S. aureus 57 Slide Agglutination Test for Streptococcus 58 The Heterophile Antibody Test 59 ...
... of food. *Advances in microbial sensitivity test. Related Conference of Microbial Testing. September 10-11, ... Microbial Testing. Microbial Testing. A microbial test is a laboratory test that checks for the presence of microorganisms in a ... Microbial test rely on traditional microbiological techniques, where bacteria in a sample are allowed to grow in nutrients, ... Food products, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and water are common sources of samples for a microbial test. There are strict ...
antibiotic sensitivity test synonyms, antibiotic sensitivity test pronunciation, antibiotic sensitivity test translation, ... English dictionary definition of antibiotic sensitivity test. n. A substance, such as penicillin or erythromycin, produced by ... The PetScreen Directed Chemotherapy Assay (DCA) works in a very similar manner to the microbial antibiotic sensitivity test.. ... 5 turbidity standard for use in antibiotic sensitivity test.. Investigations into the microbial contamination of toothbrushes ...
... is the industry standard and easy-to-use testing kit that helps farmers, dairies and milk control labs keep contamination at ... Unique microbial test with high sensitivity on tetracyclines. *Detection of antibiotic residues close to international ... Microbial and fast tests which can be used complementary, throughout the whole milk supply chain ... Antibiotic residue tests *Delvotest® *Delvotest® for Farmers *Delvotest® for Dairies *Delvotest® for Milk Control Laboratories ...
  • Antibiotic sensitivity tests revealed that most gram positive isolates were sensitive to bacitracin, clindamycin and fucidin. (
  • Eleven hundred and eighty-five aerobic and anaerobic isolates from general, vascular, cardiothoracic and otolaryngologic surgical patients were tested for susceptibility to garenoxacin and seven other antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, imipenem, clindamycin and metronidazole) using the referenced microbroth and agar-dilution method. (
  • C) DNase activity was assessed by measuring the size (in millimeters) of the halo around the test isolates indicating hydrolyzed DNA. (
  • The iTRAQ-LC-MS analysis identified 214 and 178 individual proteins in each biological repeat across the full set of isolates tested, and mean relative protein values were calculated. (
  • MRSA isolates were detected by four different methods including cefoxitin disc diffusion test, oxacillin disc diffusion test, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of oxacillin as determined by MIC test strip, and mecA detection by PCR. (
  • Results: Out of 120 S. aureus isolates, cefoxitin disc diffusion test, oxacillin disc diffusion test and MIC test strip identified 60 (50%), 48 (40%), 55 (45.83%) isolates as MRSA, respectively. (
  • Using the LRP NAP test, 47 (94%) out of 50 isolates were correctly identified as tuberculosis complex. (
  • In total, 50 MTC isolates were tested. (
  • Phage resistance was not detected in any of the 243 MTC isolates tested. (
  • The microbiologist should confer with the clinicians related to antimicrobial susceptibility testing to make sure the right antibiotics are being tested on the right microbial isolates. (
  • One hundred eighty-eight M. tuberculosis isolates were tested for susceptibility to ofloxacin, kanamycin, ethionamide, and capreomycin by the manual MGIT, and results were compared to those obtained with the proportion method on 7H11 agar, considered a reference method. (
  • Because of the strong association between the presence of mutations in the RRDR and rifampin resistance, several molecular genetic tests to detect RRDR mutations have been developed and evaluated for their ability to detect resistance in clinical isolates. (
  • Compared to culture-based DS tests, the MTBDR( plus ) line probe assay displays a pooled sensitivity of 0.98 and a pooled specificity of 0.99 for detecting rifampin resistance in isolates or directly from clinical specimens (10-12). (
  • With the exception of 2 isolates, Enterococcus faecium and Nocardia exalbida, all the other 725 (99.7%) gram-positive bacteria tested were susceptible to vancomycin. (
  • Resistance of isolates from pasteurized milk was determined using the antibiotic sensitivity test (zones of inhibition). (
  • The sensitivity and specificity for oxacillin disc diffusion, cefoxitin disc diffusion and MIC of oxacillin were 80% and 100%, 100% and 100%, and 91.6% and 100%, respectively. (
  • Mycobacteriophage-based approaches to tuberculosis diagnostics can be implemented in clinical laboratories with sensitivity, specificity, and rapidity that compare favorably with those of the MGIT 960 and BACTEC 460 methods. (
  • Routine end-product tests have insufficient sensitivity/specificity to verify the desired safety and efficacy of the finished product. (
  • A meta-analysis of the performance of the Hain MTBDR (plus) assay for detecting isoniazid resistance revealed a pooled sensitivity of 0.85 (95%CI 0.77- 0.90) and a pooled specificity of 0.99 (95%CI 0.98-1.00) (11,12). (
  • Validation studies conducted in the California Microbial Diseases Laboratory using archived cultures revealed that the molecular beacon test displayed 82.7% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, and 98.1% negative predictive value for detecting isoniazid resistance (16, E. Desmond, personal communication). (
  • The industrial microbiology market is large and growing, the second largest diagnostics market after clinical diagnostics in test volume and market value. (
  • The utility of luciferase reporter mycobacteriophages (LRPs) for detection, identification, and antibiotic susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was prospectively evaluated in a clinical microbiology laboratory in Mexico City, Mexico. (
  • The ASM's Public and Scientific Affairs Board Committee on Professional Affairs reviewed the "2003 New Laboratory Tests" document which was posted on the CMS website and sent to the ASM via e-mail on June 14, 2002.We also solicited input from ASM's practicing clinical microbiology members regarding the proposed codes via ASM discussion listserves. (
  • The disk diffusion test (also known as the agar diffusion test, Kirby-Bauer test, disc-diffusion antibiotic susceptibility test, disc-diffusion antibiotic sensitivity test and KB test) is a culture-based microbiology assay used in diagnostic and drug discovery laboratories. (
  • The Siemens clinical microbiology business is an established leader in microbial identification and antibiotic sensitivity testing (ID/AST). (
  • Analyze the complex relationship between microbiology and environmental toxicology using microbial strains provided by ATCC. (
  • It also covers methods that allow the safe movement or transfer of microbial cells from one type of growth environment, classification and identification of microbes, microbial biochemistry, medical, food and environmental microbiology. (
  • In the Microbiology Test, a culture is grown and the stool sample is examined under the microscope. (
  • The results indicated that out of 82 plants, 56 exhibited antibacterial activity against one or more test pathogens. (
  • 2011. Pathogens in water: value and limits of correlation with microbial indicators. (
  • establish an astounding 85% probability for multiple microbial infections in LD patients that include tick-borne pathogens and non-tick-borne opportunistic microbes. (
  • 1. Powell M, Ebel E, Schlosser W. Considering uncertainty in comparing the burden of illness due to foodborne microbial pathogens. (
  • 1998) A number of recently recognized and newly described microbial pathogens have been cultivated successfully in the laboratory, including spirochetes, rickettsia, actinomycetes, and a variety of viruses. (
  • To be sure, there is no dearth of known, cultivated microbial pathogens. (
  • On the other hand, we should not be so complacent about the completeness of our inventory of microbial pathogens, or about the sensitivity of detection methods for cultivation-amenable microorganisms. (
  • To identify the spectrum and susceptibility pattern of pathogens responsible for culture-positive endophthalmitis referred to a single institution and investigate possible trends in both pathogens and antibiotic sensitivities over the past 25 years. (
  • Studies on resistance to chloroquine by Plasmodium falciparum with potential application to the development of a modified in vitro susceptibility test / by Michael Davis Rogers. (
  • Other studies suggest a benefit if drug-resistance tests are used in selecting a new anti-HIV drug treatment. (
  • This study tests the effect of stopping anti-HIV drugs for a time before switching to anti-HIV drugs selected using drug-resistance test results. (
  • Other studies suggest there is a virologic benefit derived from using genotypic or phenotypic resistance testing in selecting salvage therapy regimens for patients failing antiretroviral therapy. (
  • This study tests the hypothesis that salvage regimens selected on the basis of HIV-1 resistance genotype, phenotype [AS PER AMENDMENT 02/19/02: virtual phenotype], and treatment history will be more effective if there is a period of treatment interruption before initiating that regimen. (
  • Results from genotypic and phenotypic testing are helpful in excluding from the subsequent regimen drugs to which the resistance is identified, and both tests predict virologic response to salvage therapy in patients who have failed a previous regimen. (
  • Resistance testing is likely to be beneficial as an aid in selecting a salvage regimen. (
  • At entry, patients are randomized to Arm A (sequencing) or Arm B (phenotyping) and have a resistance test drawn while still receiving the current regimen even though regimen failure is suspected. (
  • If virologic failure is confirmed, a new regimen is chosen and prescribed at the first visit after resistance test results are available. (
  • Each panel is comprised of ATCC Genuine Cultures grouped together based on their utility in research related to infectious disease, antibiotic-resistance mechanisms, food and environmental testing, and population studies. (
  • Both reagents are buffered to provide significant interference-resistance properties and are FDA-licensed for use in product release testing. (
  • Our second-generation reagent KTA 2 offers one of the fastest turbidimetric LAL reaction times on the market, and our optimized formulations offer an unrivaled combination of sensitivity, linearity, and interference resistance properties with minimal assay times. (
  • Charles River has developed and optimized a range of quantitative and qualitative kinetic turbidimetric LAL reagents and other bacterial endotoxin testing solutions that provide increased sensitivity, greater linearity, and superior interference resistance. (
  • We used Epsilometer test (E-test) to determine H. pylori sensitivity and resistance to antibiotics as clarithromycin, amoxicillin, metronidazole, tetracyclin, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. (
  • ATCC offers microbial strains for use in antibiotic resistance/sensitivity assays, instrument validation, and inclusivity/exclusivity testing. (
  • A detailed analysis was performed of the resistance of the drug to the strains and their sensitivity to the tested oils. (
  • Recently identified associations between variants of cancer genes and drug resistance increase the value for comprehensive drug sensitivity and resistance testing in combination with molecular profiling of cancer cells. (
  • This application note discusses the implementation of miniaturized drug sensitivity and resistance testing, at the Institute of Molecular Medicine in Finland (FIMM), with assay-ready plates produced by the Echo liquid handler. (
  • In response to the ACET resolution, CDC convened an expert panel to examine the current status of rapid drug resistance testing in the United States, published evidence, and current guidelines and to provide guidance and make recommendations to CDC for developing a system to provide access to rapid drug-susceptibility testing to all TB Control programs in the United States. (
  • To ensure access to state-of-the-art testing, the panel recommends that CDC establish regional laboratories to provide molecular drug-resistance testing services to state and local TB programs. (
  • A phased approach to developing and implementing a molecular drug-resistance testing service would be prudent. (
  • As an initial step, the expert panel strongly recommends that CDC immediately establish a service to provide molecular drug resistance testing for TB suspects and patients at high-risk of having MDR TB and those deemed high priority by the state or local TB program(estimate testing 2,500 samples per year). (
  • CDC is encouraged to explore using supplements to existing cooperative agreements to provide sufficient new funds to existing, proficient molecular drug-resistance testing laboratories to allow them to expand their capacities to meet this need. (
  • Recent advances in the understanding of the molecular basis or genetics of drug resistance have enabled development of rapid, DNA-based, molecular tests to detect mutations associated with drug resistance. (
  • If a mutation thought to be associated with resistance is detected in such a rapid test, the bacteria are considered to be drug resistant. (
  • These tests have been referred to in various publications as genetic or molecular drug-susceptibility tests, genetic or molecular detection of drug resistance tests, molecular tests to detect drug (or antimicrobial or antibiotic)-resistance mutations, or tests to detect molecular or genetic markers of drug resistance. (
  • In this report, the tests will be referred to simply as molecular drug-resistance (DR) tests. (
  • Molecular DR tests for other anti-TB drugs are much less developed than the tests for rifampin resistance. (
  • The critical contribution of molecular DR tests for TB treatment and control is earlier detection of resistance: they can reliably detect mutations associated with drug resistance in 1 to 2 days. (
  • The MIC testing surveillance programme complemented susceptibility data from wider laboratory-based surveillance, and has revealed emerging mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. (
  • Although a statistically significant trend toward increasing microbial resistance against a variety of antibiotics, including cephalosporins and methicillin, was observed, a significant trend toward decreasing microbial resistance against aminoglycosides and imipenem also was detected. (
  • and resistance testing should be critically considered before the use of recommended antibiotics.of yoghurt samples. (
  • and resistance testing should be critically considered before the use of recommended antibiotics. (
  • thus, it is important to know the effect of most frequently used preservatives and neutralizing substances as well as the detection capability of official tests. (
  • The yogurt culture test gave results similar to those obtained by official tests for the detection of specific substances. (
  • This article also describes the source, methods of detection, and methods of elimination of microbial contamination. (
  • Conclusion: Cefoxitin disc diffusion test is a reliable substitute for detection of MRSA in clinical laboratory where MIC detection and molecular methods are not accessible. (
  • Viral culture is often performed in concert with other diagnostic methods such as antigen detection, molecular testing, and/or serology. (
  • The presence of endogenous amplification inhibitors in urine may produce false-negative results for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis nucleic acids by tests such as PCR, ligase chain reaction (LCR), and transcription-mediated amplification (TMA). (
  • In 2007, the European Pharmacopeia accepted nucleic acid tests, such as real-time PCR, as an alternative method for traditional Mycoplasma detection after validation. (
  • Seamless integration from detection to identification using the MicroSEQ® Microbial Identification System . (
  • Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses). (
  • Of these, 40 plant extracts showed varied levels of antimicrobial activity against one or more test bacteria. (
  • IMG contains all the draft and complete microbial genomes sequenced by the DOE-JGI integrated with other publicly available genomes (including Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya, Viruses and Plasmids). (
  • Microbial test rely on traditional microbiological techniques, where bacteria in a sample are allowed to grow in nutrients, until they are present in high enough numbers for the analyst to identify them as specific species. (
  • Rapid microbiological tests use newer technology, and do not need to allow time for the initial amount of bacteria in the sample to reproduce. (
  • For example, testing for MRSA infections can be done via a nostril swab, now an effective option in detecting bacteria. (
  • In diagnostic laboratories, the test is performed by inoculating the surface of an agar plate with bacteria isolated from a patient's infection. (
  • This is achieved by testing each extract against paired strains of bacteria (eg. (
  • They assayed your gut bacteria by doing a urine test? (
  • The results showed that both tested essential oils are active against all of the clinical strains from Escherichia coli including extended-spectrum β-lactamase positive bacteria, but basil oil possesses a higher ability to inhibit growth. (
  • Presence of yeast was found to increase the microbial load of bacteria groups and decrease the load of live and active cultures which was absent in 33of yoghurt samples. (
  • Susceptibility testing to antibiotics was carried out using disc diffusion. (
  • Modulation of antibiotic sensitivity and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by interspecies signal analogues. (
  • Over a period of ten months a total of 5618 cord blood units (CBU) were screened for microbial contamination under routine conditions. (
  • To increase the sensitivity for detecting infectious influenza virus in an aerosol sample, the viral replication assay was developed. (
  • The phages currently provide the fastest phenotypic assay for susceptibility testing. (
  • Charles River's kinetic turbidimetric assay reagents (KTA and KTA2) allow optimized testing with a single FDA-licensed product that performs both kinetic and gel-clot analysis. (
  • ATCC offers a wide assortment of cell cultures, microbial strains, and molecular tools to support your research in a variety of focus areas, such as disease mechanisms, quality control testing, product development, and environmental research. (
  • For all in vitro diagnostic studies, use ATCC as your trusted source for cell cultures and microbial control strains. (
  • ATCC offers fully characterized strains for quality control testing, including strains that have been recommended as controls for rapid identification, tests on food and water, and use with commercial kits and instrumentation. (
  • The antibacterial activity of the oils was tested against standard strain Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as well as 60 other clinical strains of Escherichia coli . (
  • In vitro , 16 oral bacterial strains were tested using agar diffusion susceptibility, minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentration tests. (
  • The tested Prevotella strains and Fusobacterium nucleatum showed the highest sensitivity, while streptococci and Lactobacillus acidophilus were most resistant to AX. (
  • A microbial test is a laboratory test that checks for the presence of microorganisms in a sample provided to the laboratory. (
  • Only healthcare providers licensed in their state may order laboratory testing. (
  • The micro lab of the past has significantly changed due to the constantly evolving new tests and evolving technology in laboratory science. (
  • Together with the laboratory staff they identify the best test to order to provide a diagnosis. (
  • 17 Specific Laboratory Tests. (
  • Recovery of sequence-based signatures of life directly from these environments confirmed revolutionary proposals for three aboriginal lines of descent (Woese and Fox, 1977), and led to the realization that nearly all microbial life is resistant to cultivation in the laboratory. (
  • Because the internal environmental conditions of the human body are viewed as more hospitable to life and are more easily replicated in the laboratory than are many external environmental conditions, we often assume that microbial cultivation efforts have been relatively successful. (
  • In the California Microbial Diseases Laboratory, molecular beacon assays were designed to detect mutations in the rpoB gene directly from clinical specimens and from cultures. (
  • Reception division receives orders for laboratory tests performed in all laboratories of CLM from the customers, then manages information, and forwards orders to the appropriate laboratory and test results to the customer site. (
  • Consultation concerning results is included with each test at The Great Plains Laboratory, Inc. (
  • Because of this, in order to establish a program to combat and control a determined bacterial morbidity, it was necessary to carry out a program of epidemiologic surveillance evaluating the sensitivity behavior of the etiologic agents against the various therapeutic agents. (
  • Many other products, especially liquid preparations and creams for topical application to severely injured skin, large open wounds or mucus membrane which are liable to bacterial, mould and fungal contamination from the atmosphere ( or less frequently from the contaminated equipments during manufacture) should be controlled for microbial contamination. (
  • While detecting bacterial contaminants or measuring levels of regulated chemicals is relatively easy and routinely done, current test indicators do not detect viruses or parasites, and these continue to be the source of numerous waterborne outbreaks. (
  • In this setting, it is not the bacterial strain that must be characterized, but a test extract (eg. (
  • The agar plate is therefore inoculated with a bacterial strain of known phenotype (often an ATCC or NCTC strain), and disks containing the test extract are applied to the surface. (
  • Differences in the temperature sensitivities of taxa and the taxonomic composition of communities determined community-assembled bacterial growth Q 10 , which was strongly predictive of soil respiration Q 10 within and across biomes. (
  • Fig. 4: Temperature sensitivity of microbial growth in relation to bacterial phylogeny. (
  • A significant microbial shift in composition was observed: genus Streptococcus and Veillonella increased while Corynebacterium, Haemophilus, Leptotrichia, Cardiobacterium and Capnocytophaga decreased ( p ≤ 0.001). (
  • Factors affecting microbial contamination rate of cord blood collected for transplantation. (
  • The project data provide insight into the actions required to reduce the impacts of microbial contaminants in groundwater on the population, thereby significantly reducing risks to public health. (
  • Field application of in vitro assays for the sensitivity of human malaria parasites to antimalarial drugs / Léonardo K. Basco. (
  • Aliquots were spiked with the equivalent of one C. trachomatis elementary body and were tested by three commercial assays: AMPLICOR CT/NG, Chlamydia LCX, and Chlamydia TMA. (
  • Miniaturization of traditional immunoassay and molecular test technologies has finally matured to the point where they may be ready for scale-up and then commercialization into products. (
  • This report takes a look at both prevention procedures such as sterilization and surface area disinfection and testing such as molecular tests and immunoassays. (
  • Beginning in the late 1970s and early 1980s, explorations of the natural microbial world focused on extreme environments and exploited the use of newly described molecular approaches for phylogenetic analysis and classification. (
  • The key advantage of the molecular tests is that they can provide results within 24 to 48 hours, because they take advantage of the speed of nucleic acid amplification. (
  • Genetic or molecular tests for detecting mutations are, in general, variations of nucleic acid amplification (NAA) tests. (
  • The results of rpoB molecular beacons tests showed 96% to 97% agreement with culture-based results in a series of ~1,000 clinical specimens and cultures (E. Desmond, personal communication). (
  • ATCC Microbial Panels enable faster, more intelligent choices when selecting cultures for microbial-based disease research. (
  • The major difficulty of the microbial investigation is to obtain the sample from the lower respiratory tract, mainly because of the potential contamination with upper airways flora, which may result in a misinterpretation of the cultures. (
  • biochemical tests results and criteria for disregarding negative cultures. (
  • The role of smears, cultures, and antibiotic sensitivity testing in the management of suspected infectious keratitis. (
  • An initial aim of all microbiologists is the reproducible growth of their microbial cultures, no matter whether the microorganisms are of natural origin or have been genetically engineered by man. (
  • The result is the entry of companies such as Caliper Life Sciences, Illumina, Affymetrix and Life Technologies to the diagnostics market with products and test services. (
  • As the leading brand of China clinical microbial diagnostics product manufacturer and service provider, our products are used in over 45 countries and regions at domestic and overseas, covering nearly 5,000 clinical medical institutions. (
  • Genova Diagnostics offers tests that combine standard and innovative biomarkers designed to provide a more complete understanding of specific biological systems that can help physicians diagnose and treat or prevent chronic disease. (
  • provide rapid and accurate identification of the agent for appropriate treatment and finally to provide epidemiological trending of the microbial organisms that are associated with infections especially healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). (
  • 23 Identification and Quantitation of Microbial Numbers in a Water Sample. (
  • 24 Identification of Microbes in Beef and Poultry and the Quantitation of Microbial. (
  • Confirmatory identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing were performed at Changi General Hospital. (
  • Due to the increasing rate of MRSA infections, implementing of reliable, accurate and rapid testing for diagnosis of MRSA is necessary. (
  • What is the size of the market for healthcare infections testing and prevention? (
  • The testing market includes the use of diagnostic equipment and consumables to detect infections and determine the best treatment plan. (
  • As a consequence, the authors have demonstrated that microbial infections in individuals suffering from Lyme disease do not follow the 'one microbe, one disease' status-quo. (
  • Researchers have observed a remarkable 65% Lyme disease (LD) patients at different disease stages, respond to various microbes signifying that microbial infections in LD patients do not follow the 'one microbe, one disease' Germ Theory. (
  • In eight best-selling editions, Shara Rosen has detailed the market for in vitro diagnostic (IVD) testing, throughout the world, in one complete volume. (
  • The report, The Worldwide Market for In Vitro Diagnostic Tests , is a testament to the Kalorama methodology. (
  • In drug discovery labs, the disk diffusion test is performed slightly differently than in diagnostic labs. (
  • Furthermore, the authors have indicated a novel Borrelia biomarker, 'Borrelia persistent form,' that can enhance the sensitivity of any existing LD diagnostic tests. (
  • In the United States alone, 83% of all commercial TBD diagnostic tests are LD focused in spite of the known possibility of infection by more than one pathogenic agent. (
  • Rapid drug-susceptibility tests are a pressing public health and diagnostic need because of the rise in multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/XDR TB) globally (1). (
  • Panels of experienced clinicians and academicians have produced documents with consensus recommendations for diagnostic testing and therapy. (
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the analytical sensitivity of legislation-described tests and nonspecific microbial inhibition tests, and to investigate the effect of such substances on microbial growth inhibition and the persistence of detectable residues after 24/48h of refrigeration . (
  • The inhibition of microbial growth by both essential oils, presented as MIC values, were determined by agar dilution. (
  • AX showed high inter-species variation in microbial growth inhibition. (
  • A rapid method for isolation cultivation and testing drug susceptiblity of M. tuberculosis / N. Veeraraghavan. (
  • Although available, conventional mycobacteriological techniques for culture isolation and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) are slow, and the more recently developed rapid methods such as the BACTEC and MGIT systems are expensive and require elaborate technology ( 3 , 13 , 15 ). (
  • Different linezolid antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) methodologies yield various results. (
  • This article describes the performance of culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) in patients registered as previously treated TB patients in the Dominican Republic in 2014, based on operational research that followed a retrospective cohort design and used routine program data. (
  • Aspiration of a fluid sample for microbial culture is worth trying, but is often unrewarding. (
  • If possible, microbial culture and sensitivity testing should be performed, so the most efficacious antibiotic can be chosen. (
  • Microbial investigation in VAP is based on the culture of samples obtained from lower respiratory tract by noninvasive or invasive methods. (
  • NAA testing of first-void urine specimens has usually detected as many positive patients as testing of urethral or endocervical swabs by cell culture or antigen testing ( 1-3 , 5 , 6 , 8 , 10 , 12 , 15 ), but most of these studies have also revealed that none of the amplification tests is 100% sensitive. (
  • Regulatory guidance requires that all products derived from mammalian cell culture be tested for the presence of Mycoplasma. (
  • The current Mycoplasma test is a 28-day culture test. (
  • NAA-positive respiratory specimen or one M. tuberculosis culture from each TB patient or TB suspect (estimate testing 15,000 to 20,000 samples per year). (
  • Empirical or culture-guided therapy for microbial keratitis? (
  • If the yeast grows in culture, sensitivity of that yeast to prescription antifungals and to natural antimicrobials is determined. (
  • Such testing is used for product safety, to look for signs of contamination in products that will be sold to the public, and for lab control, to confirm that the products and equipment being used in a lab are not contaminated with microorganisms. (
  • Microbial Contamination-A Regulatory Perspective. (
  • The concern of FDA and compendia towods microbial contamination described in this article. (
  • Certain materials, which are particularly prone to microbial contamination, may constitute a health hazard unless they are carefully controlled. (
  • The most satisfactory control therefore is one which set a requirement for freedom from specified microbial contamination. (
  • This enables you to test at multiple points in cell lines, cell banks, and harvest media, increasing your productivity and reducing risk of downstream contamination. (
  • Incoming raw materials from pharmaceutical ingredients, chemical compounds, vitamins, minerals, herbs and even food ingredients are tested for the presence of undesirable microbes according to the current USP (United States Pharmacopeias) methods. (
  • In recent years, there have been improved methods for testing infected patients. (
  • Although the disk diffusion test cannot be used to differentiate bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity, it is less cumbersome than other susceptibility test methods such as broth dilution. (
  • Our exceptional kinetic turbidimetric endotoxin test formulations are licensed for kinetic and gel-clot analyses and allow for a direct correlation between the methods. (
  • Tests are performed with multiparametric flow cytometry methods of cell sorting for later in vitro examination capability. (
  • Epidemiology and antimicrobial sensitivities of 536 multi-drug-resistant gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients treated on surgical wards. (
  • at the other, patients may refuse to begin or continue a course of medication because of aromas, off-flavors, or discolorations of microbial origin. (
  • Out of 102 patients, E-test of H. pylori was positive in 47.1% (n=48) of patients. (
  • The CDSA 2.0 stool test provides immediate, actionable clinical information for patients presenting with GI complaints. (
  • However, in the best interest of global public health and to curb the growing epidemic of TBD, it is essential that clinicians, patients, and scientists in general learn and identify TBD as multiple microbial in nature. (
  • Consequently, it takes over 11 different visits, 11 different doctors, and 11 different tests to get a proper diagnosis and this amplifies the financial burden on the patients and ultimately the society. (
  • Few materials are self sterilizing but many products capable of supporting microbial growth requires the addition of suitable antibacterial or antifungal agents, if microbiological spoilage of the product is to be completely avoided. (
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the manual mycobacterium growth indicator tube (MGIT) system for the testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis susceptibility to second-line drugs compared to the proportion method. (
  • Fig. 1: Soil respiration, microbial growth, and their temperature sensitivity. (
  • Fig. 3: Temperature sensitivity of respiration and growth. (
  • Nottingham AT, Baath E, Reischke S, Salinas N, Meir P. Adaptation of soil microbial growth to temperature: using a tropical elevation gradient to predict future changes. (
  • Reproducible growth requires defined environmental conditions with respect to energy source, temperature, pH and nutrients (see Microbial Growth Requirements ). (
  • Microbial growth requires suitable environmental conditions, a source of energy, and nourishment. (
  • Table of the elements required for microbial growth as found in nature compared to the chemical forms supplied to microbiological media. (
  • Sensitivity was tested against the following organisms. (
  • The study revealed that the drug Mercuric chloride was active against all the micro organisms tested i.e. (
  • Garenoxacin exhibited greater antimicrobial activity than comparator quinolones such as ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and other antimicrobials when tested against selected gram-positive organisms. (
  • The Voges-Proskauer test is designed to detect organisms that are able to ferment glucose yes are able to convert their acid products to acetone 2-3 butanediol quickly. (
  • Of the 94 gram-negative organisms tested against ceftazidime, 2 were of intermediate sensitivity and 6 were resistant. (
  • La tuberculosis multirresistente (MR) constituye un importante problema de salud pública que amenaza el progreso hacia un control eficaz de la tuberculosis en el mundo. (
  • Los pacientes con antecedentes de tratamiento antituberculoso presentan un mayor riesgo de padecer tuberculosis MR. En la presente investigación operativa se describe el rendimiento diagnóstico del cultivo y el antibiograma (prueba de sensibilidad a drogas) en los pacientes registrados como casos de tuberculosis previamente tratados en la República Dominicana en el 2014, mediante un estudio retrospectivo de cohortes, a partir de los datos recolectados rutinariamente por el programa. (
  • La falta de antibiograma y la demora en la recepción de sus resultados ocasionan una subestimación del número de casos de tuberculosis MR y obstaculizan el inicio oportuno del tratamiento de este tipo de tuberculosis. (
  • Our results show that the manual MGIT is an accurate method for the rapid susceptibility testing of M. tuberculosis to second-line drugs. (
  • Drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis against second-line drugs using the Bactec MGIT 960 System. (
  • The analytical sensitivity of the official tests was 0.005%, 0.003%, and 0.013% for formaldehyde , hydrogen peroxide , and hypochlorite , respectively. (
  • DSM understands the importance of the Milk Control Laboratories in the dairy value chain and our global team of experts will help them reach maximum throughput in milk testing for antibiotic residues. (
  • This step may create antibiotic-microbial resistant species, or reduce patient immunity. (
  • Microbiological spectrum and antibiotic sensitivity in endophthalmitis: a 25-year review. (
  • In vitro studies of water extracts of plants such as Terminalia chebula, Punica granatum, Delonix regia and Emblica officinalis were found to be detrimental to test dermatophytes. (
  • Variation in microbial biodiversity and the temperature sensitivities ( Q 10 ) of individual taxa may explain differences in the Q 10 of soil respiration, a possibility not previously examined due to methodological limitations. (
  • Microbial temperature sensitivity and biomass change explain soil carbon loss with warming. (
  • Li JQ, Pei JM, Pendall E, Fang CM, Nie M. Spatial heterogeneity of temperature sensitivity of soil respiration: a global analysis of field observations. (
  • Global synthesis of temperature sensitivity of soil organic carbon decomposition: latitudinal patterns and mechanisms. (
  • The Integrated Microbial Genomes with Microbiome Samples (IMG/M) system is an extension of the IMG system providing a comparative analysis context of metagenomic data with the publicly available isolate genomes. (
  • It is also possible to conduct some basic testing in the field without having to send samples to a lab. (
  • Food products, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and water are common sources of samples for a microbial test. (
  • cases reported, samples tested for Salmonella , and physician-obtained samples, provided negative influence on overall estimate of annual cases, means the higher these proportions are, the lower the multipliers, as well as the lower the uncertainty of the annual cases estimate. (
  • Because the demand for consumer products is growing as the world's population grows, increases in product quality and safety testing appear to continue undaunted by current worldwide economic problems. (
  • Muller-Hilton agar is used for the drug sensitivity testing because it is a non nutrient media which gives better results. (
  • Aqueous, hexane and alcoholic extracts of each plant were tested for their antibacterial activity using agar well diffusion method at sample concentration of 200 mg/ml. (
  • The media used in Kirby-Bauer testing must be Mueller-Hinton agar at only 4 mm deep, poured into either 100 mm or 150 mm Petri dishes. (
  • WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{Microbial sensitivity tests} and su-to:Manuals. (
  • Based on the results of the pre-entry genotype and phenotype [AS PER AMENDMENT 02/19/02: virtual phenotype] tests and treatment history, an individualized salvage therapy regimen (not provided by the study) is selected by the site investigator(s). (
  • The test results are available between Weeks 1 and 4, inclusive. (
  • Delvo ® Scan provides a fully automated option for reading and documenting tests results of Delvotest ® plates as well as ampoules. (
  • The accuracy and speed of LRP antibiotic susceptibility testing with rifampin, streptomycin, isoniazid, and ethambutol were compared to those of the BACTEC 460 method, and discrepant results were checked by the conventional proportion method. (
  • Results also found that total coliforms were the best parameter for microbial groundwater quality, as their presence was indicative of viruses. (
  • Based in Brea, Calif., Beckman Coulter's instruments, systems and tests help streamline processes to enhance efficiency, reduce costs and speed the delivery of results. (
  • The kinetic turbidimetric endotoxin test is designed to provide accurate and reliable results on even your most difficult products. (
  • With KTA and KTA 2 , you will receive accurate endotoxin results on even your most difficult products in the same amount of time it takes to run a gel-clot LAL test. (
  • Our results suggest community-assembled traits of microbial taxa may enable enhanced prediction of carbon cycling feedbacks to climate change in ecosystems across the globe. (
  • Results: Seven hundred and forty-six gram-negative bacilli were received for testing. (
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • A Practical handbook for antimalarial drug therapeutic efficacy testing for the district health worker. (
  • While genetic testing holds potential for clinical application in the future, clinical measurements remain the best approach to assessment of caries and periodontal disease at this time. (
  • This has created market for three types of products, products to prevent, products to test for disease and then treatment products. (
  • Users can employee a set of powerful tools for comparative analysis and explore the microbial genomes along its 3 main dimensions (genomes, genes and functions), select them and transfer them in the comparative analysis carts. (

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