Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
A bacteriostatic antibacterial agent that interferes with folic acid synthesis in susceptible bacteria. Its broad spectrum of activity has been limited by the development of resistance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p208)
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to PYRIMETHAMINE. It is potentiated by SULFONAMIDES and the TRIMETHOPRIM, SULFAMETHOXAZOLE DRUG COMBINATION is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. TRIMETHOPRIM RESISTANCE has been reported.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A vegetative stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. It is characteristic of members of the phyla APICOMPLEXA and MICROSPORIDIA.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.
The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An acquired disorder characterized by recurrent symptoms, referable to multiple organ systems, occurring in response to demonstrable exposure to many chemically unrelated compounds at doses below those established in the general population to cause harmful effects. (Cullen MR. The worker with multiple chemical sensitivities: an overview. Occup Med 1987;2(4):655-61)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

Effect of a staphylococcin on Neisseria gonorrhoeae. (1/26286)

Phage group 2 staphylococcal strain UT0002 contains a large 56S virulence plasmid with genes that code for both exfoliative toxin and a specific staphylococcin termed Bac R(1). Four penicillinase-producing strains and three penicillin-susceptible strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were killed by Bac R(1). After 30 min of growth of the penicillin-resistant TR1 strain in 62.5 arbitrary units of Bac R(1) per ml, loss of viability was approximately 90%, and, after 5 h, an approximately 99.99% loss of viability was observed. Lysis did not accompany cell death, and 84% of the Bac R(1) added to the growth medium was adsorbed to the gonococcal cells. The extracellular supernatant fluid from a substrain of staphylococcal strain UT0002 cured of the plasmid for Bac R(1) production had no lethal effect on the gonococcal strains. Bac R(1) was also shown to have bactericidal activity against an L-form of N. meningitidis, indicating that the outer envelope of a neisserial cell is not needed for bacteriocin activity. Ten different normal human sera were unable to neutralize Bac R(1) activity. The bacteriocin lacks adsorption specificity. It binds to but does not kill Escherichia coli cells, indicating that the cell envelope of gram-negative organisms can provide protection against the staphylococcin.  (+info)

UK-18892, a new aminoglycoside: an in vitro study. (2/26286)

UK-18892 is a new aminoglycoside antibiotic, a derivative of kanamycin A structurally related to amikacin. It was found to be active against a wide range of pathogenic bacteria, including many gentamicin-resistant strains. The spectrum and degree of activity of UK-18892 were similar to those of amikacin, and differences were relatively minor. UK-18892 was about twice as active as amikacin against gentamicin-susceptible strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both amikacin and UK-18892 were equally active against gentamicin-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa. There were no appreciable differences in the activity of UK-18892 and amikacin against Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus. Cross-resistance between these two antimicrobials was also apparent.  (+info)

Emergence of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Glycopeptide-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Working Group. (3/26286)

BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, the glycopeptide vancomycin has been the only uniformly effective treatment for staphylococcal infections. In 1997, two infections due to S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin were identified in the United States. METHODS: We investigated the two patients with infections due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides, as defined by a minimal inhibitory concentration of vancomycin of 8 to 16 microg per milliliter. To assess the carriage and transmission of these strains of S. aureus, we cultured samples from the patients and their contacts and evaluated the isolates. RESULTS: The first patient was a 59-year-old man in Michigan with diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure. Peritonitis due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus peritonitis associated with dialysis. The removal of the peritoneal catheter plus treatment with rifampin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole eradicated the infection. The second patient was a 66-year-old man with diabetes in New Jersey. A bloodstream infection due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia. This infection was eradicated with vancomycin, gentamicin, and rifampin. Both patients died. The glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus isolates differed by two bands on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. On electron microscopy, the isolates from the infected patients had thicker extracellular matrixes than control methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates. No carriage was documented among 177 contacts of the two patients. CONCLUSIONS: The emergence of S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides emphasizes the importance of the prudent use of antibiotics, the laboratory capacity to identify resistant strains, and the use of infection-control precautions to prevent transmission.  (+info)

Acinetobacter bacteremia in Hong Kong: prospective study and review. (4/26286)

The epidemiological characteristics of 18 patients with acinetobacter bacteremia were analyzed. Patients (mean age, 55.5 years) developed bacteremia after an average of 14.1 days of hospitalization. Fifteen of 16 patients survived bacteremia caused by Acinetobacter baumannii. Cultures of blood from the remaining two patients yielded Acinetobacter lwoffii. Most patients (78%) resided in the general ward, while four patients (22%) were under intensive care. Genotyping by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction analysis and the temporal sequence of isolation were more useful than phenotyping by antimicrobial susceptibility in the determination of the source of bacteremia, and the intravascular catheter was the leading infection source (39% of cases). The possibility of an association of glucose with the pathogenesis of acinetobacter infection was raised.  (+info)

A new rapidly growing mycobacterial species, Mycobacterium murale sp. nov., isolated from the indoor walls of a children's day care centre. (5/26286)

Scotochromogenic mycobacterial isolates from water-damaged parts of indoor building materials of a children's day care centre represented a phenetically and genetically distinct group of strains. A 16S rDNA dendrogram (1243 bp) showed that the closest species to the new strain MA112/96T was Mycobacterium abscessus. Phylogenetic and phenetic analyses (100 characteristics) grouped the new isolates with M. abscessus, Mycobacterium vaccae, Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium austroafricanum. Ribotyping with Pvull restriction distinguished the 5 isolates from the other 12 most closely related species by the major bands at 6.5-7 kb and 13-15 kb. The cell morphology of the new isolates was typical of mycobacteria, electron microscopy revealed a triple-layered cell wall with an irregular electron-dense outer layer. They grew at 10-37 degrees C, with no growth at 45 degrees C in 5 d. The gene encoding the secreted 32 kDa protein, specific to mycobacteria, was detected by PCR. The main whole-cell fatty acids were characterized by high tuberculostearic acid 10Me-C18:0 (17% at 28 degrees C), which increased with increasing growth temperature (22% at 37 degrees C). The other main fatty acids were C18:1 cis9 and C16:0 (21-20% each), followed by, C17:1 cis9 (14%), C16:1 cis10 (8%) and also a high amount of C20 alcohol (9%). alpha-Mycolic acids, keto-mycolates and wax esters were present (C60-C90), MK-9(H2) (90%) and MK-8(H2) were the main menaquinones. The cellular phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidyl inositolmannosides and diphosphatidylglycerol. Polyamine content was low. G+C content was 72.9 mol%. The new isolates are proposed as a new species, Mycobacterium murale sp. nov. The type strain is MA112/96T (= DSM 44340T).  (+info)

Emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium phage-type DT104 among salmonellae causing enteritis in Israel. (6/26286)

The relative frequency of salmonella strains isolated from hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients in Southern Israel changed during the period, 1994-6. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium definitive phage-type 104 (DT104) appeared in Israel in 1994 and became the most prevalent strain in 1996. An outbreak of enteritis due to Salmonella enterica serotype Agona occurred in Israel, in October 1994 and lasted for 4 months. The relative frequency of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis remained almost constant during these years, with seasonal fluctuations only. The importance of the increase in the prevalence of Typhimurium DT104 has been the epidemic spread of a multiresistant strain of R-type ACT (A, ampicillin; C, chloramphenicol; T, tetracycline) belonging to this phage-type. Since 1995 the frequency of Typhimurium DT104 isolates that possess, in addition to the above R-type, a chromosomally encoded resistance to the quinolone drug, nalidixic acid, increased tenfold. In 1996, 27% of the Typhimurium DT104 isolates were of R-type ACTN. S. Enteritidis exhibited over 95% susceptibility to at least eight of the most commonly used antibiotic drugs, and none of the isolates was resistant to quinolone or fluoroquinoline.  (+info)

Apicularens A and B, new cytostatic macrolides from Chondromyces species (myxobacteria): production, physico-chemical and biological properties. (7/26286)

A novel macrolide, apicularen A, was produced by several species of the genus Chondromyces. Initially it was discovered by bioassay-guided RP-HPLC-fractionation of culture extracts of Chondromyces robustus, strain Cm a13. Apicularen A showed no antimicrobial activity, but was highly cytotoxic for cultivated human and animal cells, with IC50 values ranging between 0.1 and 3 ng/ml. A cometabolite of apicularen A, the N-acetylglucosamine glycoside apicularen B, was distinctly less cytotoxic with IC50 values between 0.2 and 1.2 microg/ml, and showed weak activity against a few Gram-positive bacteria. Apicularen A is chemically closely related to the salicylihalamides A and B from the marine sponge Haliclona sp.  (+info)

BE-31405, a new antifungal antibiotic produced by Penicillium minioluteum. I. Description of producing organism, fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical and biological properties. (8/26286)

A new antifungal antibiotic, BE-31405, was isolated from the culture broth of a fungal strain, Penicillium minioluteum F31405. BE-31405 was isolated by adsorption on high porous polymer resin (Diaion HP-20), followed by solvent extraction, precipitation and crystallization. BE-31405 showed potent growth inhibitory activity against pathogenic fungal strains such as Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Cryptococcus neoformans, but did not show cytotoxic activity against mammalian cells such as P388 mouse leukemia. The mechanism studies indicated that BE-31405 inhibited the protein synthesis of C. albicans but not of mammalian cells.  (+info)

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

Sulfamethoxazole is a type of antibiotic known as a sulfonamide. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to produce folic acid, which is necessary for their growth and survival. Sulfamethoxazole is often combined with trimethoprim (another antibiotic) in a single medication called co-trimoxazole, which is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and skin and soft tissue infections.

The medical definition of Sulfamethoxazole can be found in various pharmaceutical and medical resources, here are some examples:

* According to the Merck Manual, Sulfamethoxazole is a "synthetic antibacterial drug that inhibits bacterial synthesis of folic acid by competing with para-aminobenzoic acid for the enzyme dihydropteroate synthetase."
* According to the British National Formulary (BNF), Sulfamethoxazole is a "sulfonamide antibacterial agent, active against many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It is often combined with trimethoprim in a 5:1 ratio as co-trimoxazole."
* According to the National Library of Medicine (NLM), Sulfamethoxazole is a "synthetic antibacterial agent that is used in combination with trimethoprim for the treatment of various bacterial infections. It works by inhibiting the bacterial synthesis of folic acid."

It's important to note that, as any other medication, Sulfamethoxazole should be taken under medical supervision and following the instructions of a healthcare professional, as it can cause side effects and interact with other medications.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Trimethoprim is an antibiotic medication that is primarily used to treat bacterial infections. It works by inhibiting the bacterial enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, which is necessary for the synthesis of DNA and protein. This leads to bacterial cell death. Trimethoprim is often combined with sulfamethoxazole (a sulfonamide antibiotic) to create a more effective antibacterial therapy known as co-trimoxazole or TMP-SMX.

Medical Definition:
Trimethoprim is a synthetic antibacterial drug that selectively inhibits bacterial dihydrofolate reductase, an enzyme required for the synthesis of tetrahydrofolate, a cofactor involved in the biosynthesis of thymidine and purines. By blocking this essential pathway, trimethoprim disrupts bacterial DNA and protein synthesis, leading to bacteriostatic activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Trimethoprim is often combined with sulfamethoxazole (a sulfonamide antibiotic) to create a more effective antibacterial therapy known as co-trimoxazole or TMP-SMX, which inhibits two consecutive steps in the bacterial folate synthesis pathway.

Microbial drug resistance is a significant medical issue that refers to the ability of microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand or survive exposure to drugs or medications designed to kill them or limit their growth. This phenomenon has become a major global health concern, particularly in the context of bacterial infections, where it is also known as antibiotic resistance.

Drug resistance arises due to genetic changes in microorganisms that enable them to modify or bypass the effects of antimicrobial agents. These genetic alterations can be caused by mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer. The resistant microbes then replicate and multiply, forming populations that are increasingly difficult to eradicate with conventional treatments.

The consequences of drug-resistant infections include increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and the potential for widespread outbreaks. Factors contributing to the emergence and spread of microbial drug resistance include the overuse or misuse of antimicrobials, poor infection control practices, and inadequate surveillance systems.

To address this challenge, it is crucial to promote prudent antibiotic use, strengthen infection prevention and control measures, develop new antimicrobial agents, and invest in research to better understand the mechanisms underlying drug resistance.

Antitubercular agents, also known as anti-tuberculosis drugs or simply TB drugs, are a category of medications specifically used for the treatment and prevention of tuberculosis (TB), a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These drugs target various stages of the bacteria's growth and replication process to eradicate it from the body or prevent its spread.

There are several first-line antitubercular agents, including:

1. Isoniazid (INH): This is a bactericidal drug that inhibits the synthesis of mycolic acids, essential components of the mycobacterial cell wall. It is primarily active against actively growing bacilli.
2. Rifampin (RIF) or Rifampicin: A bactericidal drug that inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, preventing the transcription of genetic information into mRNA. This results in the interruption of protein synthesis and ultimately leads to the death of the bacteria.
3. Ethambutol (EMB): A bacteriostatic drug that inhibits the arabinosyl transferase enzyme, which is responsible for the synthesis of arabinan, a crucial component of the mycobacterial cell wall. It is primarily active against actively growing bacilli.
4. Pyrazinamide (PZA): A bactericidal drug that inhibits the synthesis of fatty acids and mycolic acids in the mycobacterial cell wall, particularly under acidic conditions. PZA is most effective during the initial phase of treatment when the bacteria are in a dormant or slow-growing state.

These first-line antitubercular agents are often used together in a combination therapy to ensure complete eradication of the bacteria and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains. Treatment duration typically lasts for at least six months, with the initial phase consisting of daily doses of INH, RIF, EMB, and PZA for two months, followed by a continuation phase of INH and RIF for four months.

Second-line antitubercular agents are used when patients have drug-resistant TB or cannot tolerate first-line drugs. These include drugs like aminoglycosides (e.g., streptomycin, amikacin), fluoroquinolones (e.g., ofloxacin, moxifloxacin), and injectable bacteriostatic agents (e.g., capreomycin, ethionamide).

It is essential to closely monitor patients undergoing antitubercular therapy for potential side effects and ensure adherence to the treatment regimen to achieve optimal outcomes and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Bacteriological techniques refer to the various methods and procedures used in the laboratory for the cultivation, identification, and study of bacteria. These techniques are essential in fields such as medicine, biotechnology, and research. Here are some common bacteriological techniques:

1. **Sterilization**: This is a process that eliminates or kills all forms of life, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. Common sterilization methods include autoclaving (using steam under pressure), dry heat (in an oven), chemical sterilants, and radiation.

2. **Aseptic Technique**: This refers to practices used to prevent contamination of sterile materials or environments with microorganisms. It includes the use of sterile equipment, gloves, and lab coats, as well as techniques such as flaming, alcohol swabbing, and using aseptic transfer devices.

3. **Media Preparation**: This involves the preparation of nutrient-rich substances that support bacterial growth. There are various types of media, including solid (agar), liquid (broth), and semi-solid (e.g., stab agar). The choice of medium depends on the type of bacteria being cultured and the purpose of the investigation.

4. **Inoculation**: This is the process of introducing a bacterial culture into a medium. It can be done using a loop, swab, or needle. The inoculum should be taken from a pure culture to avoid contamination.

5. **Incubation**: After inoculation, the bacteria are allowed to grow under controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, and atmospheric composition. This process is called incubation.

6. **Staining and Microscopy**: Bacteria are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Therefore, they need to be stained and observed under a microscope. Gram staining is a common method used to differentiate between two major groups of bacteria based on their cell wall composition.

7. **Biochemical Tests**: These are tests used to identify specific bacterial species based on their biochemical characteristics, such as their ability to ferment certain sugars, produce particular enzymes, or resist certain antibiotics.

8. **Molecular Techniques**: Advanced techniques like PCR and DNA sequencing can provide more precise identification of bacteria. They can also be used for genetic analysis and epidemiological studies.

Remember, handling microorganisms requires careful attention to biosafety procedures to prevent accidental infection or environmental contamination.

Medical definitions for "spores" and "protozoan" are as follows:

1. Spores: These are typically single-celled reproductive units that are resistant to heat, drying, and chemicals. They are produced by certain bacteria, fungi, algae, and plants. In the context of infectious diseases, spores are particularly relevant in relation to certain types of bacteria such as Clostridium tetani (causes tetanus) and Bacillus anthracis (causes anthrax). These bacterial spores can survive for long periods in harsh environments and can cause illness if they germinate and multiply in a host.
2. Protozoan: This term refers to a diverse group of single-celled eukaryotic organisms, which are typically classified as animals rather than plants or fungi. Some protozoa can exist as free-living organisms, while others are parasites that require a host to complete their life cycle. Protozoa can cause various diseases in humans, such as malaria (caused by Plasmodium spp.), giardiasis (caused by Giardia lamblia), and amoebic dysentery (caused by Entamoeba histolytica).

Therefore, there isn't a specific medical definition for "spores, protozoan" as spores are produced by various organisms, including bacteria and fungi, while protozoa are single-celled organisms that can be free-living or parasitic. However, some protozoa do produce spores as part of their life cycle in certain species.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Parasitic sensitivity tests, also known as parasite drug susceptibility tests, refer to laboratory methods used to determine the effectiveness of specific antiparasitic medications against a particular parasitic infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which drugs are most likely to be effective in treating an individual's infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance or increased risk of side effects.

There are several types of parasitic sensitivity tests, including:

1. In vitro susceptibility testing: This involves culturing the parasite in a laboratory setting and exposing it to different concentrations of antiparasitic drugs. The growth or survival of the parasite is then observed and compared to a control group that was not exposed to the drug. This helps identify the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the drug, which is the lowest concentration required to prevent the growth of the parasite.
2. Molecular testing: This involves analyzing the genetic material of the parasite to detect specific mutations or gene variations that are associated with resistance to certain antiparasitic drugs. This type of testing can be performed using a variety of methods, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing.
3. Phenotypic testing: This involves observing the effects of antiparasitic drugs on the growth or survival of the parasite in a laboratory setting. For example, a parasite may be grown in a culture medium and then exposed to different concentrations of a drug. The growth of the parasite is then monitored over time to determine the drug's effectiveness.

Parasitic sensitivity tests are important for guiding the treatment of many parasitic infections, including malaria, tuberculosis, and leishmaniasis. These tests can help healthcare providers choose the most effective antiparasitic drugs for their patients, reduce the risk of drug resistance, and improve treatment outcomes.

Contrast sensitivity is a measure of the ability to distinguish between an object and its background based on differences in contrast, rather than differences in luminance. Contrast refers to the difference in light intensity between an object and its immediate surroundings. Contrast sensitivity is typically measured using specially designed charts that have patterns of parallel lines with varying widths and contrast levels.

In clinical settings, contrast sensitivity is often assessed as part of a comprehensive visual examination. Poor contrast sensitivity can affect a person's ability to perform tasks such as reading, driving, or distinguishing objects from their background, especially in low-light conditions. Reduced contrast sensitivity is a common symptom of various eye conditions, including cataracts, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

Insulin resistance is a condition in which the body's cells become less responsive to insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates blood sugar levels. In response to this decreased sensitivity, the pancreas produces more insulin to help glucose enter the cells. However, over time, the pancreas may not be able to keep up with the increased demand for insulin, leading to high levels of glucose in the blood and potentially resulting in type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, or other health issues such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Insulin resistance is often associated with obesity, physical inactivity, and genetic factors.

A Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve is a graphical representation used in medical decision-making and statistical analysis to illustrate the performance of a binary classifier system, such as a diagnostic test or a machine learning algorithm. It's a plot that shows the tradeoff between the true positive rate (sensitivity) and the false positive rate (1 - specificity) for different threshold settings.

The x-axis of an ROC curve represents the false positive rate (the proportion of negative cases incorrectly classified as positive), while the y-axis represents the true positive rate (the proportion of positive cases correctly classified as positive). Each point on the curve corresponds to a specific decision threshold, with higher points indicating better performance.

The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a commonly used summary measure that reflects the overall performance of the classifier. An AUC value of 1 indicates perfect discrimination between positive and negative cases, while an AUC value of 0.5 suggests that the classifier performs no better than chance.

ROC curves are widely used in healthcare to evaluate diagnostic tests, predictive models, and screening tools for various medical conditions, helping clinicians make informed decisions about patient care based on the balance between sensitivity and specificity.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS), also known as Idiosyncratic Intolerance, is a chronic condition characterized by symptoms that the affected person attributes to low-level exposure to chemicals in the environment. These reactions are not part of a recognized allergic response and are often delayed in onset.

The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) defines MCS as: "A heightened sensitivity to chemicals that most people tolerate well... Symptoms can include headache, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, confusion, joint pain, and digestive disturbances."

However, it's important to note that the medical community has not reached a consensus on the definition, cause, or diagnosis of MCS. Some healthcare providers question its validity as a distinct medical entity due to lack of consistent scientific evidence supporting the relationship between exposure levels and symptoms.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Sensory thresholds are the minimum levels of stimulation that are required to produce a sensation in an individual, as determined through psychophysical testing. These tests measure the point at which a person can just barely detect the presence of a stimulus, such as a sound, light, touch, or smell.

There are two types of sensory thresholds: absolute and difference. Absolute threshold is the minimum level of intensity required to detect a stimulus 50% of the time. Difference threshold, also known as just noticeable difference (JND), is the smallest change in intensity that can be detected between two stimuli.

Sensory thresholds can vary between individuals and are influenced by factors such as age, attention, motivation, and expectations. They are often used in clinical settings to assess sensory function and diagnose conditions such as hearing or vision loss.

Reagent kits, diagnostic are prepackaged sets of chemical reagents and other components designed for performing specific diagnostic tests or assays. These kits are often used in clinical laboratories to detect and measure the presence or absence of various biomarkers, such as proteins, antibodies, antigens, nucleic acids, or small molecules, in biological samples like blood, urine, or tissues.

Diagnostic reagent kits typically contain detailed instructions for their use, along with the necessary reagents, controls, and sometimes specialized equipment or supplies. They are designed to simplify the testing process, reduce human error, and increase standardization, ensuring accurate and reliable results. Examples of diagnostic reagent kits include those used for pregnancy tests, infectious disease screening, drug testing, genetic testing, and cancer biomarker detection.

Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets, primarily in response to elevated levels of glucose in the circulating blood. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood glucose levels and facilitating the uptake and utilization of glucose by peripheral tissues, such as muscle and adipose tissue, for energy production and storage. Insulin also inhibits glucose production in the liver and promotes the storage of excess glucose as glycogen or triglycerides.

Deficiency in insulin secretion or action leads to impaired glucose regulation and can result in conditions such as diabetes mellitus, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and associated complications. Exogenous insulin is used as a replacement therapy in individuals with diabetes to help manage their blood glucose levels and prevent long-term complications.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

A "false positive reaction" in medical testing refers to a situation where a diagnostic test incorrectly indicates the presence of a specific condition or disease in an individual who does not actually have it. This occurs when the test results give a positive outcome, while the true health status of the person is negative or free from the condition being tested for.

False positive reactions can be caused by various factors including:

1. Presence of unrelated substances that interfere with the test result (e.g., cross-reactivity between similar molecules).
2. Low specificity of the test, which means it may detect other conditions or irrelevant factors as positive.
3. Contamination during sample collection, storage, or analysis.
4. Human errors in performing or interpreting the test results.

False positive reactions can have significant consequences, such as unnecessary treatments, anxiety, and increased healthcare costs. Therefore, it is essential to confirm any positive test result with additional tests or clinical evaluations before making a definitive diagnosis.

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Sensitivity-testing; Aerosol-particles; Aerosol-sampling; Genes; Genetic-engineering; Cell-growth; Cellular-reactions; Samplers ... Sample-preparation; Microbial-test-systems; Microscopic-analysis; Disease-transmission; Cell-cultures; Quantitative-analysis; ... To increase the sensitivity for detecting infectious influenza virus in an aerosol sample, the viral replication assay was ... Current screening methodologies for detecting infectious airborne influenza virus are limited and lack sensitivity. ...
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data). MIC testing should be performed to confirm the sensitivity of any such isolates. We can speculate about possible ... Further clinical and microbial investigations are necessary to understand the epidemiology and the pathogenicity of B. hinzii. ... The interpretation of antimicrobial sensitivity testing is not established and is usually done by inference from other ... According to in vitro sensitivity testing for human isolates described in the literature and pharmacology, piperacillin/ ...
Statistical analyses, comprising log-rank tests and accelerated failure time models, were performed to assess the effect of ... Microbial Sensitivity Tests. , Prevalence. , Prospective Studies. , Salmonella. , Shigella. , Treatment Outcome. , Vietnam. ... Statistical analyses, comprising log-rank tests and accelerated failure time models, were performed to assess the effect of ...
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Microbial Sensitivity Tests, Models, Biological",. author = "Hope, {William W.} and Warn, {Peter A.} and Andrew Sharp and Paul ...
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Microbial Sensitivity Tests, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus, Streptococcus pneumoniae",. author = "Johnson, {Alan P.} and ...
... was used as a positive reference standard to determine the sensitivity of one strain/isolate in each microbial species tested. ... of test extract and 2.9 ml of DPPH (60 μM) in methanol. These reaction mixtures were taken in test tubes and incubated at 37 oC ... Microbial cultures Bacillus subtilis. (MTCC- 441), S. pyogenes. (MTCC- 442), E. coli. (MTCC -443), Salmonella typhi. (MTCC - ... Antimicrobial tests were then carried out by disc-diffusion method [4] using 100 μl of suspension containing 108 CFU/ml of ...
  • Specimen handling varies, but if testing is to be delayed, the specimen should typically be refrigerated or frozen to prevent overgrowth of bacterial contaminants. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The number of clinical microbiology laboratories that have incorporated automatic susceptibility testing devices has increased in recent years. (mssm.edu)
  • If possible, microbial culture and sensitivity testing should be performed, so the most efficacious antibiotic can be chosen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibiotic sensitivity testing or antibiotic susceptibility testing is the measurement of the susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sensitivity testing results can allow a clinician to change the choice of antibiotics from empiric therapy, which is when an antibiotic is selected based on clinical suspicion about the site of an infection and common causative bacteria, to directed therapy, in which the choice of antibiotic is based on knowledge of the organism and its sensitivities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibiotic susceptibility testing has been needed since the discovery of the beta-lactam antibiotic penicillin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Etest, an antibiotic impregnated strip, has been available since the 1980s, and genetic methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing have been available since the early 2000s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibiotic sensitivity testing provides information about which antibiotics are more likely to be successful and should therefore be used to treat the infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibiotic sensitivity testing is also conducted at a population level in some countries as a form of screening. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many factors that can affect the results of antibiotic sensitivity testing, including failure of the instrument, temperature, moisture, and potency of the antimicrobial agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conventional biochemical tests and antibiotic sensitivity patterns supported the previous proposals of synonymy between P. cepacia, P. kingii and P. multivorans. (tamu.edu)
  • Based on in vitro tests, the strains selected for the study prevent the growth of bacteria associated with genitourinary tract infections, and their antibiotic sensitivity profile meets the requirements of the European Food Safety Authority. (who.int)
  • This article also provides access to three free On-Line calculators that enable the probability of detecting a pathogen in a food, the number of samples required to test to meet a food standard and how to calculate the prevalence of a pathogen when all the samples taken for testing return negative results. (dairyscience.info)
  • Statistical Analysis: Mann-Whitney U test and analysis of variance were used to find prevalence and severity of OHIP-14 with tooth loss and logistic regression analysis to evaluate the association between OHIP-14 prevalence and severity based on variables. (bvsalud.org)
  • Studies on resistance to chloroquine by Plasmodium falciparum with potential application to the development of a modified in vitro susceptibility test / by Michael Davis Rogers. (who.int)
  • Extracellular susceptibility was determined by microdilution susceptibility testing in BYEalpha broth after 48 h of incubation. (nih.gov)
  • Once a bacterium has been identified following microbiological culture, antibiotics are selected for susceptibility testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Susceptibility testing methods are based on exposing bacteria to antibiotics and observing the effect on the growth of the bacteria (phenotypic testing), or identifying specific genetic markers (genetic testing). (wikipedia.org)
  • Rapid drug-susceptibility tests are a pressing public health and diagnostic need because of the rise in multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/XDR TB) globally (1). (cdc.gov)
  • In response to the ACET resolution, CDC convened an expert panel to examine the current status of rapid drug resistance testing in the United States, published evidence, and current guidelines and to provide guidance and make recommendations to CDC for developing a system to provide access to rapid drug-susceptibility testing to all TB Control programs in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Whenever possible, drug susceptibility testing should be performed for secondary cases to optimize regimen composition. (duke.edu)
  • This approach will lead to more accurate susceptibility testing results with better detection of resistance mechanisms, and allowing to reach the clinical goal of the antibiogram. (mssm.edu)
  • All hwp1 PCR positive C. africana were subjected to antifungal susceptibility testing, ITS and D1/D2 region sequencing and were typed by using MLST approach. (mcmaster.ca)
  • Furthermore, though the Indian C. africana isolates were susceptible to most of the 14 tested antifungal drugs, differences in susceptibility were observed among the four strains. (mcmaster.ca)
  • Sensitivity testing usually occurs in a medical laboratory, and uses culture methods that expose bacteria to antibiotics, or genetic methods that test to see if bacteria have genes that confer resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Testing based on exposing bacteria to antibiotics uses agar plates or dilution in agar or broth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water samples were taken from pools and fountains throughout the Spa and tested for bacteria, fungi, mycobacteria, and endotoxin. (cdc.gov)
  • Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses). (bvsalud.org)
  • At 10 mg/ml concentration the aqueous extract had activity against 29% of the test isolates while the other three crude extracts namely dichloromethane, n-hexane and the methanol extracts had activity against 45% of the test bacteria. (ufh.ac.za)
  • All the three extracts showed a general trend of being concentration and time dependent in their rate of kill profiles such that most bacteria cells were killed at the highest test concentration of 4× MIC value after the maximum exposure time of 2 h. (ufh.ac.za)
  • In agglutination tests (eg, latex agglutination, coaggregation), very small particles (latex beads, gelatin particles, bacteria) are coupled to a reagent antigen or antibody. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Bronchial aspiration and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were collected for microbial investigations 2 days later and showed 10 7 CFU/mL B. hinzii and 3 × 10 5 CFU/mL Staphylococcus epidermidis , respectively. (cdc.gov)
  • Regarding the research test we performed, four persons had detectable concentrations of Stachylysin in their serum. (cdc.gov)
  • This bio-accumulation, driven by microbial transformation to methyl-mercury, leads to elevated concentrations in top-level predators. (preprints.org)
  • To each well were placed 100mL of BHI doubly concentrated, 100μL of the tinctures in concentrations that ranged from 100 to 0.78 mg/mL and 10 mL of microbial inoculum (1.5x108 UFC/mL). (bvsalud.org)
  • This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of a T solium cysticercosis antibody-detecting lateral-flow point-of-care assay (TS POC test) for the neuroimaging-based diagnosis of neurocysticercosis. (cdc.gov)
  • 3M Petrifilm High-Sensitivity Coliform Count plates may be especially well-suited for use in facilities producing dairy products, where regulations and strict internal quality standards demand a high-sensitivity test that can deliver results quickly and accurately. (neogen.com)
  • Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed. (lookformedical.com)
  • Antimicrobial therapy should be based on culture and sensitivity results and should be pathogen-specific. (medscape.com)
  • The Western blot test detects antimicrobial antibodies in the patient's sample (eg, serum, other body fluid) by their reaction with target antigens (eg, viral components) that have been immobilized onto a membrane by blotting. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A rapid method for isolation cultivation and testing drug susceptiblity of M. tuberculosis / N. Veeraraghavan. (who.int)
  • NAA-positive respiratory specimen or one M. tuberculosis culture from each TB patient or TB suspect (estimate testing 15,000 to 20,000 samples per year). (cdc.gov)
  • To ensure access to state-of-the-art testing, the panel recommends that CDC establish regional laboratories to provide molecular drug-resistance testing services to state and local TB programs. (cdc.gov)
  • A phased approach to developing and implementing a molecular drug-resistance testing service would be prudent. (cdc.gov)
  • As an initial step, the expert panel strongly recommends that CDC immediately establish a service to provide molecular drug resistance testing for TB suspects and patients at high-risk of having MDR TB and those deemed high priority by the state or local TB program(estimate testing 2,500 samples per year). (cdc.gov)
  • CDC is encouraged to explore using supplements to existing cooperative agreements to provide sufficient new funds to existing, proficient molecular drug-resistance testing laboratories to allow them to expand their capacities to meet this need. (cdc.gov)
  • Biochemical, serologic, and sensitivity characteristics of salmonellae after long survival in soft agar. (cdc.gov)
  • Products for use in the clinical diagnosis of a variety of microbial infections. (fishersci.com)
  • This test could be considered to support policies on screening patients with suspected neurocysticercosis in clinical settings, which would allow appropriate referral for neuroimaging and early treatment. (cdc.gov)
  • Precipitation tests measure an antigen or antibody in body fluids by the degree of visible precipitation of antigen-antibody complexes within a gel (agarose) or in solution. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Usually, a blood specimen is mixed with test antigen to detect patient antibodies, most often in suspected fungal infection or pyogenic meningitis. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Because a positive result requires a large amount of antibody or antigen, sensitivity is low. (msdmanuals.com)
  • All patients positive for cysticercosis on the TS POC test and every tenth patient who was negative for cysticercosis received a brain CT examination and underwent reference testing for T solium cysticercosis (ie, rT24H-EITB, LLGP-EITB, and antigen ELISA). (cdc.gov)
  • Sensitivity was similar to that of the rT24H-EITB (44%, UI 37-51) and the antigen ELISA (50%, 43-56). (cdc.gov)
  • For the subset of neurocysticercosis cases with at least one active (ie, vesicular) lesion, sensitivity was above 98% for the TS POC test, the rT24H-ETIB, and the antigen ELISA. (cdc.gov)
  • Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites. (nih.gov)
  • Aspiration of a fluid sample for microbial culture is worth trying, but is often unrewarding. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary outcome of the study was the sensitivity of the TS POC test for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis. (cdc.gov)
  • INTERPRETATION: The TS POC test showed promising results for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis in patients with vesicular lesions, which need to be confirmed in a larger study. (cdc.gov)
  • The isolates were identified and tested for their sensitivity pattern. (nepjol.info)
  • The n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol extracts were bactericidal against 4, 3 and 1 isolates out of the four test Listeria isolates respectively. (ufh.ac.za)
  • Every effort should be made to obtain a specimen for culture and sensitivity. (medscape.com)
  • Titers can be determined by serially diluting the specimen as for agglutination tests. (msdmanuals.com)
  • While the use of HACCP systems significantly reduces the need for microbiological end point testing of foods, sampling schemes and microbial analysis have important roles in system validation and quality assurance. (dairyscience.info)
  • Based on the results of a blood culture and sensitivity tests, the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid medication was stopped after 3 days. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Quality control (QC) testing helps to ensure the accuracy of test results. (wikipedia.org)
  • The article details the results of tests on the physicochemical properties of four distinct bio-oil samples. (preprints.org)
  • Additionally, it presents preliminary test results on the hydrodeoxygenation of bio-oils in a batch reactor. (preprints.org)
  • If results are positive, the body fluid is serially diluted and tested. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Statistical analyses, comprising log-rank tests and accelerated failure time models, were performed to assess the effect of antimicrobials on disease outcome. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Research is ongoing into improving current methods by making them faster or more accurate, as well as developing new methods for testing, such as microfluidics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually, agglutination tests are rapid but less sensitive than many other methods. (msdmanuals.com)
  • FINDINGS: Of the 601 recruited participants, 102 (17%) tested positive for cysticercosis with the TS POC test. (cdc.gov)
  • The Western blot typically has good sensitivity, although often less than that of screening tests such as ELISA, but generally is highly specific. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A Practical handbook for antimalarial drug therapeutic efficacy testing for the district health worker. (who.int)