Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Sulfamethoxazole: A bacteriostatic antibacterial agent that interferes with folic acid synthesis in susceptible bacteria. Its broad spectrum of activity has been limited by the development of resistance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p208)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Trimethoprim: A pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to PYRIMETHAMINE. It is potentiated by SULFONAMIDES and the TRIMETHOPRIM, SULFAMETHOXAZOLE DRUG COMBINATION is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. TRIMETHOPRIM RESISTANCE has been reported.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Parasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.Contrast Sensitivity: The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: An acquired disorder characterized by recurrent symptoms, referable to multiple organ systems, occurring in response to demonstrable exposure to many chemically unrelated compounds at doses below those established in the general population to cause harmful effects. (Cullen MR. The worker with multiple chemical sensitivities: an overview. Occup Med 1987;2(4):655-61)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Mercuric Chloride: Mercury chloride (HgCl2). A highly toxic compound that volatizes slightly at ordinary temperature and appreciably at 100 degrees C. It is corrosive to mucous membranes and used as a topical antiseptic and disinfectant.Medicine, Ayurvedic: The traditional Hindu system of medicine which is based on customs, beliefs, and practices of the Hindu culture. Ayurveda means "the science of Life": veda - science, ayur - life.Delirium: A disorder characterized by CONFUSION; inattentiveness; disorientation; ILLUSIONS; HALLUCINATIONS; agitation; and in some instances autonomic nervous system overactivity. It may result from toxic/metabolic conditions or structural brain lesions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp411-2)Computer Peripherals: Various units or machines that operate in combination or in conjunction with a computer but are not physically part of it. Peripheral devices typically display computer data, store data from the computer and return the data to the computer on demand, prepare data for human use, or acquire data from a source and convert it to a form usable by a computer. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Borates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.IndiaAntimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Blood Banks: Centers for collecting, characterizing and storing human blood.Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Laboratory ManualsManuals as Topic: Books designed to give factual information or instructions.Histology: The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.Andrology: A scientific or medical discipline concerning the study of male reproductive biology, diseases of the male genital organs, and male infertility. Major areas of interest include ENDOCRINOLOGY; SPERMATOGENESIS; semen analysis; FERTILIZATION; CONTRACEPTION; and CRYOPRESERVATION.Semen Analysis: The quality of SEMEN, an indicator of male fertility, can be determined by semen volume, pH, sperm concentration (SPERM COUNT), total sperm number, sperm viability, sperm vigor (SPERM MOTILITY), normal sperm morphology, ACROSOME integrity, and the concentration of WHITE BLOOD CELLS.Pasteurellosis, Pneumonic: Bovine respiratory disease found in animals that have been shipped or exposed to CATTLE recently transported. The major agent responsible for the disease is MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA and less commonly, PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA or HAEMOPHILUS SOMNUS. All three agents are normal inhabitants of the bovine nasal pharyngeal mucosa but not the LUNG. They are considered opportunistic pathogens following STRESS, PHYSIOLOGICAL and/or a viral infection. The resulting bacterial fibrinous BRONCHOPNEUMONIA is often fatal.Ships: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Salvage Therapy: A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. Salvage therapy is most often used for neoplastic diseases.

Effect of a staphylococcin on Neisseria gonorrhoeae. (1/26286)

Phage group 2 staphylococcal strain UT0002 contains a large 56S virulence plasmid with genes that code for both exfoliative toxin and a specific staphylococcin termed Bac R(1). Four penicillinase-producing strains and three penicillin-susceptible strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were killed by Bac R(1). After 30 min of growth of the penicillin-resistant TR1 strain in 62.5 arbitrary units of Bac R(1) per ml, loss of viability was approximately 90%, and, after 5 h, an approximately 99.99% loss of viability was observed. Lysis did not accompany cell death, and 84% of the Bac R(1) added to the growth medium was adsorbed to the gonococcal cells. The extracellular supernatant fluid from a substrain of staphylococcal strain UT0002 cured of the plasmid for Bac R(1) production had no lethal effect on the gonococcal strains. Bac R(1) was also shown to have bactericidal activity against an L-form of N. meningitidis, indicating that the outer envelope of a neisserial cell is not needed for bacteriocin activity. Ten different normal human sera were unable to neutralize Bac R(1) activity. The bacteriocin lacks adsorption specificity. It binds to but does not kill Escherichia coli cells, indicating that the cell envelope of gram-negative organisms can provide protection against the staphylococcin.  (+info)

UK-18892, a new aminoglycoside: an in vitro study. (2/26286)

UK-18892 is a new aminoglycoside antibiotic, a derivative of kanamycin A structurally related to amikacin. It was found to be active against a wide range of pathogenic bacteria, including many gentamicin-resistant strains. The spectrum and degree of activity of UK-18892 were similar to those of amikacin, and differences were relatively minor. UK-18892 was about twice as active as amikacin against gentamicin-susceptible strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both amikacin and UK-18892 were equally active against gentamicin-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa. There were no appreciable differences in the activity of UK-18892 and amikacin against Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus. Cross-resistance between these two antimicrobials was also apparent.  (+info)

Emergence of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Glycopeptide-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Working Group. (3/26286)

BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, the glycopeptide vancomycin has been the only uniformly effective treatment for staphylococcal infections. In 1997, two infections due to S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin were identified in the United States. METHODS: We investigated the two patients with infections due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides, as defined by a minimal inhibitory concentration of vancomycin of 8 to 16 microg per milliliter. To assess the carriage and transmission of these strains of S. aureus, we cultured samples from the patients and their contacts and evaluated the isolates. RESULTS: The first patient was a 59-year-old man in Michigan with diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure. Peritonitis due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus peritonitis associated with dialysis. The removal of the peritoneal catheter plus treatment with rifampin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole eradicated the infection. The second patient was a 66-year-old man with diabetes in New Jersey. A bloodstream infection due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia. This infection was eradicated with vancomycin, gentamicin, and rifampin. Both patients died. The glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus isolates differed by two bands on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. On electron microscopy, the isolates from the infected patients had thicker extracellular matrixes than control methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates. No carriage was documented among 177 contacts of the two patients. CONCLUSIONS: The emergence of S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides emphasizes the importance of the prudent use of antibiotics, the laboratory capacity to identify resistant strains, and the use of infection-control precautions to prevent transmission.  (+info)

Acinetobacter bacteremia in Hong Kong: prospective study and review. (4/26286)

The epidemiological characteristics of 18 patients with acinetobacter bacteremia were analyzed. Patients (mean age, 55.5 years) developed bacteremia after an average of 14.1 days of hospitalization. Fifteen of 16 patients survived bacteremia caused by Acinetobacter baumannii. Cultures of blood from the remaining two patients yielded Acinetobacter lwoffii. Most patients (78%) resided in the general ward, while four patients (22%) were under intensive care. Genotyping by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction analysis and the temporal sequence of isolation were more useful than phenotyping by antimicrobial susceptibility in the determination of the source of bacteremia, and the intravascular catheter was the leading infection source (39% of cases). The possibility of an association of glucose with the pathogenesis of acinetobacter infection was raised.  (+info)

A new rapidly growing mycobacterial species, Mycobacterium murale sp. nov., isolated from the indoor walls of a children's day care centre. (5/26286)

Scotochromogenic mycobacterial isolates from water-damaged parts of indoor building materials of a children's day care centre represented a phenetically and genetically distinct group of strains. A 16S rDNA dendrogram (1243 bp) showed that the closest species to the new strain MA112/96T was Mycobacterium abscessus. Phylogenetic and phenetic analyses (100 characteristics) grouped the new isolates with M. abscessus, Mycobacterium vaccae, Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium austroafricanum. Ribotyping with Pvull restriction distinguished the 5 isolates from the other 12 most closely related species by the major bands at 6.5-7 kb and 13-15 kb. The cell morphology of the new isolates was typical of mycobacteria, electron microscopy revealed a triple-layered cell wall with an irregular electron-dense outer layer. They grew at 10-37 degrees C, with no growth at 45 degrees C in 5 d. The gene encoding the secreted 32 kDa protein, specific to mycobacteria, was detected by PCR. The main whole-cell fatty acids were characterized by high tuberculostearic acid 10Me-C18:0 (17% at 28 degrees C), which increased with increasing growth temperature (22% at 37 degrees C). The other main fatty acids were C18:1 cis9 and C16:0 (21-20% each), followed by, C17:1 cis9 (14%), C16:1 cis10 (8%) and also a high amount of C20 alcohol (9%). alpha-Mycolic acids, keto-mycolates and wax esters were present (C60-C90), MK-9(H2) (90%) and MK-8(H2) were the main menaquinones. The cellular phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidyl inositolmannosides and diphosphatidylglycerol. Polyamine content was low. G+C content was 72.9 mol%. The new isolates are proposed as a new species, Mycobacterium murale sp. nov. The type strain is MA112/96T (= DSM 44340T).  (+info)

Emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium phage-type DT104 among salmonellae causing enteritis in Israel. (6/26286)

The relative frequency of salmonella strains isolated from hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients in Southern Israel changed during the period, 1994-6. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium definitive phage-type 104 (DT104) appeared in Israel in 1994 and became the most prevalent strain in 1996. An outbreak of enteritis due to Salmonella enterica serotype Agona occurred in Israel, in October 1994 and lasted for 4 months. The relative frequency of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis remained almost constant during these years, with seasonal fluctuations only. The importance of the increase in the prevalence of Typhimurium DT104 has been the epidemic spread of a multiresistant strain of R-type ACT (A, ampicillin; C, chloramphenicol; T, tetracycline) belonging to this phage-type. Since 1995 the frequency of Typhimurium DT104 isolates that possess, in addition to the above R-type, a chromosomally encoded resistance to the quinolone drug, nalidixic acid, increased tenfold. In 1996, 27% of the Typhimurium DT104 isolates were of R-type ACTN. S. Enteritidis exhibited over 95% susceptibility to at least eight of the most commonly used antibiotic drugs, and none of the isolates was resistant to quinolone or fluoroquinoline.  (+info)

Apicularens A and B, new cytostatic macrolides from Chondromyces species (myxobacteria): production, physico-chemical and biological properties. (7/26286)

A novel macrolide, apicularen A, was produced by several species of the genus Chondromyces. Initially it was discovered by bioassay-guided RP-HPLC-fractionation of culture extracts of Chondromyces robustus, strain Cm a13. Apicularen A showed no antimicrobial activity, but was highly cytotoxic for cultivated human and animal cells, with IC50 values ranging between 0.1 and 3 ng/ml. A cometabolite of apicularen A, the N-acetylglucosamine glycoside apicularen B, was distinctly less cytotoxic with IC50 values between 0.2 and 1.2 microg/ml, and showed weak activity against a few Gram-positive bacteria. Apicularen A is chemically closely related to the salicylihalamides A and B from the marine sponge Haliclona sp.  (+info)

BE-31405, a new antifungal antibiotic produced by Penicillium minioluteum. I. Description of producing organism, fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical and biological properties. (8/26286)

A new antifungal antibiotic, BE-31405, was isolated from the culture broth of a fungal strain, Penicillium minioluteum F31405. BE-31405 was isolated by adsorption on high porous polymer resin (Diaion HP-20), followed by solvent extraction, precipitation and crystallization. BE-31405 showed potent growth inhibitory activity against pathogenic fungal strains such as Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Cryptococcus neoformans, but did not show cytotoxic activity against mammalian cells such as P388 mouse leukemia. The mechanism studies indicated that BE-31405 inhibited the protein synthesis of C. albicans but not of mammalian cells.  (+info)

Blood stream infections (BSIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The time from taking blood cultures to obtain results of antibiotic sensitivity can be up to five days which impacts patient care. The Alfred 60 AST™ can reduce laboratory time from positive culture bottle to susceptibility results from 16 to 25 h to 5-6 h, transforming patient care. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility system, the Alfred 60 AST™, in clinical isolates from patients with BSIs and confirm time to results. 301 Gram-negative and 86 Gram-positive isolates were analysed directly from positive blood culture bottles following Gram staining. Antimicrobial susceptibility results and time-to-results obtained by rapid Alfred 60 AST system and BD Phoenix were compared . A total of 2196 antimicrobial susceptibility test results (AST) were performed: 1863 Gram-negative and 333 Gram-positive. AST categorical agreement (CA) for Alfred 60 AST™ was 95% (1772/1863) for Gram-negative and
article{5cf566a8-21ef-4c37-927c-b4548bf4fe7f, abstract = {Objectives: The aim of this study was to establish wild-type MIC distributions of first-line drugs for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as well as to explore the usefulness of such distributions when setting clinical breakpoints. Methods: We determined the MICs of rifampicin, isonlazid and ethambutol for M. tuberculosis using a Middlebrook 7H10 dilution method for 90 consecutive clinical isolates, 8 resistant strains and 16 isolates from the WHO proficiency test panel. M. tuberculosis H37Rv was used for quality control and susceptibility results using 7H10 were compared with the results obtained with BACTEC460. Results: The agreement with BACTEC460 was very high for isonlazid (99.1%) and rifampicin (99.1%) but lower for ethambutol (94.7%). Intra- and inter-assay variation was below one MIC dilution. The MIC distributions for isoniazid and rifampicin provided a clear separation between susceptible and resistant strains. Regarding ethambutol, ...
BioAssay record AID 447039 submitted by ChEMBL: Antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 11230 after 24 hrs by agar disk diffusion assay.
BioAssay record AID 572901 submitted by ChEMBL: Antibacterial activity against blaVIM-2-positive Pseudomonas aeruginosa by CLSI broth microdilution method.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of the e test system versus a microtitre broth method for antifungal susceptibility testing of yeasts against fluconazole and itraconazole. AU - Colombo, Arnaldo L.. AU - Barchiesi, Francesco. AU - Mcgough, Deanna A.. AU - Fothergill, Annette W.. AU - Rinaldi, Michael G.. PY - 1995/7/1. Y1 - 1995/7/1. N2 - The E test strip (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) as an antimicrobial susceptibility testing method is a new and promising tool with broad application in microbiology. This method is less labour intensive than broth dilution methods and may be useful for testing individual clinical isolates.In contrast to several publications comparing E test antibacterial strips with NCCLS reference methods, there is littleinformation about the performance of E test antifungal strips. This study compared fluconazole and itraconazole MICs obtained by E test with a microbroth dilution method performed to NCCLS guidelines.Fluconazole and itraconazole E test results exhibited good ...
The Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance performs regular period-prevalence studies to monitor changes in antimicrobial resistance in selected enteric Gram-negative pathogens. The 2013 survey focussed for the first time on blood stream infections. Four thousand nine hundred and fifty-eight Enterobacteriaceae species were tested using commercial automated methods (Vitek® 2, BioMérieux; Phoenix™, BD). The results were analysed using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints (January 2014). Of the key resistances, non-susceptibility to the third-generation cephalosporin, ceftriaxone, was found in 7.5%/7.5% (CLSI/EUCAST criteria respectively) of Escherichia coli; 6.3%/6.3% of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 7.4%/7.4% of K. oxytoca. Non-susceptibility rates to ciprofloxacin were 10.3%/11.3% for E. coli, 4.6%/7.5% for K. pneumoniae, 0.6%/0.6% for K. oxytoca, and 3.6%/6.1% in Enterobacter cloacae. ...
Mueller and Hinton developed Mueller Hinton Agar in 1941 to be a protein free medium for isolating pathogenic strains of Neisseria . (3) It was found that Mueller Hinton Agar was useful in identifying sulfonimide-resistant and responsive strains of gonococci. (3) Additionally, in recent times this media has been used in standardized antimicrobial disk susceptibility testing, as described by Bauer, Kirby, et al. (1) Barry and Fay investigated the effects of altering the depth of plated Mueller Hinton Agar on disk diffusion testing, and determined a standardized depth of approximately four millimeters to be sufficient. (2) In 1970 Dewees, et al., studied the effect of storage on Mueller Hinton Agar plates used for antimicrobial disk diffusion zone sizes. Their findings indicated commercially manufactured Mueller Hinton Agar plates were suitable for use in routine susceptibility testing. (6) Mueller Hinton Agar with Lysed Horse Blood is a modification to the traditional Mueller Hinton Agar ...
Biofilm production and antibiotic susceptibility profile of Escherichia coli isolates from HIV and AIDS patients in the Limpopo Province
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
... was performed on 2 different Mueller-Hinton Agar plates. One plate had Escherichia Coli spread on it and the other plate has Staphylococcus Epidermidis spread on it. Both plates had.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of usefulness and PK-PD analysis of meropenem in children with various infections. AU - Sato, Yoshitake. AU - Sandoh, Mitsuru. AU - Hanaki, Hideaki. AU - Suzuki, Yumiko. AU - Yoshida, Mikinobu. AU - Kizu, Junko. PY - 2012/5. Y1 - 2012/5. N2 - We conducted a study of meropenem(MEPM) in a total of 29 children with various infections (moderate to severe pneumonia in 25, upper respiratory infection in 3, and urinary tract infection in 1) to demonstrate the efficacy and safety and assess the relationship between the time above the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) (T , MIC), calculated based on the pharmacokinetic simulation analysis using blood concentration data from subjects, and the clinical response. In accordance with the package insert in Japan, MEPM was administered at a dose of 20 mg/kg three times daily, the highest dose in the usual dosage range. Each dose was administered by infusion over 30 minutes. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of MEPM ...
Summary. This Health Advisory describes the identification of emerging Shigella strains with elevated minimum inhibitory concentration values for ciprofloxacin and outlines new recommendations for clinical diagnosis, management, and reporting, as well as new recommendations for laboratories and public health officials. Current interpretive criteria provided by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) categorize these strains as susceptible to ciprofloxacin, which is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic and a key agent in the management of Shigella infections.. However, recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and state and local public health partners show that these strains often have a quinolone resistance gene that may lead to clinically significant reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolone antibiotics. Clinicians treating patients with multidrug-resistant shigellosis for whom antibiotic treatment is indicated should avoid prescribing fluoroquinolones if the ...
Video articles in JoVE about microbiology include Unraveling the Unseen Players in the Ocean - A Field Guide to Water Chemistry and Marine Microbiology, The WinCF Model - An Inexpensive and Tractable Microcosm of a Mucus Plugged Bronchiole to Study the Microbiology of Lung Infections, Aseptic Laboratory Techniques: Plating Methods, Whole Genome Sequencing of Candida Glabrata for Detection of Markers of Antifungal Drug Resistance, Novel Diagnostics in Revision Arthroplasty: Implant Sonication and Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction, Identification of Rare Bacterial Pathogens by 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing and MALDI-TOF MS, Subtyping of Campylobacter jejuni ssp. doylei Isolates Using Mass Spectrometry-based PhyloProteomics (MSPP), A Robust Pneumonia Model in Immunocompetent Rodents to Evaluate Antibacterial Efficacy against S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa or A. baumannii, A Reference Broth Microdilution Method for Dalbavancin In Vitro Susceptibility Testing of
PURPOSE: Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC β-lactamase are important mechanisms of betalactam resistance among Enterobacteriaceae . The ESBL confirmation test described by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) is in routine use. This method fails to detect ESBL in the presence of AmpC. Therefore, we compared two different ESBL detection methods against the CLSI confirmatory test. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total 200 consecutive clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from various clinical samples were tested for ESBL production using (i) CLSI described phenotypic confirmatory test (PCT), (ii) boronic acid disk potentiation test and (iii) cefepime-CA disk potentiation method ...
and : Susceptibility Testing of 120 Isolates to Six Antimicrobial Agents Using Disk Diffusion (EUCAST), Etest, and Broth Microdilution Techniques
Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2008) Performance standards for antimicrobial disk and dilution susceptibility test for bacteria isolated from animals; approved standard, 3rd edn. In CLSI Document M31-A3. ed. Watts, J.L., Shryock, T.R., Apley, M., Bade, D.J., Brown, S.D., Gray, J.T., Heine, H., Hunter, R.P. et al. , pp. 32-35. Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute ...
Purpose: The Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring in Ocular micRoorganisms (ARMOR) study was initiated in 2009 to survey resistance levels among ocular pathogens on a nationwide scale. Here we report the complete study results for 2013 compared to preliminary 2014 data.. Methods: Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Haemophilus influenzae were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing. In 2013, 543 isolates were collected from 22 sites; 140 isolates have been collected from 7 sites to date in 2014. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by broth microdilution for up to 16 representative antibiotics per CLSI methods. Systemic breakpoints (where available) were used to categorize isolates as susceptible or non-susceptible (intermediate and resistant).. Results: With the exception of a fluoroquinolone-resistant isolate and an azithromycin-resistant isolate observed in 2014, all H. influenzae ...
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Next Generation PHENOTYPIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING Assays. ​FASTinov is a R&D intensive Startup with a patented disruptive technology to perform fast and reliable antimicrobial susceptibility tests in acute care settings. Context : The global emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance is a major medical and economic problem . When an infection is diagnosed, the physician is required to start an empiric larg e spectrum therapy, since current comprehensive and proven susceptibility profile methods require, at least, 48h. FASTinov approach : In order to support clinical decisions with a fast turnaround time, FASTinov offers a unique time-saving and comprehensive solution starting directly from positive blood cultures. FASTinov innovative approach allows for the determination of the susceptibility phenotype in 2 hours, compared with +48 hours needed for current standard methods. Disruptive Technology : "FAST " patented methodology (Flow Cytometry Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test) fills a gap ...
Florin Anghelina, Ovidiu Zlatian, Mircea Sorin Ciolofan, Daniela Calina, Anca Oana Docea, Razvan Hainarosie, Octavian Dragos Palade, Liliana Anghelina, Cristian Dragos Stefanescu, Laura Mazilu, Andra Iulia Suceveanu, Catalina Pietrosanu, Andrei Osman - Bacteriological Profiles and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns in Complicated Bacterial Infections of the Ears, Nose and Throat
Innovative Grade US Origin Horse Whole Blood Lysed from Innovative Research was used in the following study: Mathematical modeling of the "inoculum effect": six applicable models and the MIC advancement point concept Jessica R. Salas, Majid Jaberi-Douraki, Xuesong Wen, Victoriya V. Volkova FEMS Microbiology Letters 21 January 2020 "…Antimicrobial treatment regimens against bacterial pathogens are designed using the drugs minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measured at the bacterial density of 5.7 log10(colonyforming units (CFU)/mL) in vitro. However, MIC changes with pathogen density, which varies among infectious diseases and during treatment. Incorporating this into treatment design requires realistic mathematical models of.... ...
Scattergram #2 -- Correlation of TMP/SMX MIC and zone diameters for S. pneumoniae. Horizontal and vertical lines represent MIC and zone diameter breakpoints. In this case, the isolates form a continuum, with the breakpoint for resistant and susceptible not being obvious. In this case one can not predict how the isolates which fall into the intermediate zone will behave in vivo. The breakpoints are set to maximize the predictive value of the test while minimizing errors (ie. it is preferable to call an isolate intermediate, than to incorrectly call it sensitive or resistant ...
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the major threats to human and animal health worldwide, yet few high-throughput tools exist to analyse and predict the resistance of a bacterial isolate from sequencing data. Here we present a new tool, ARIBA, that identifies AMR-associated genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms directly from short reads, and generates detailed and customizable output. The accuracy and advantages of ARIBA over other tools are demonstrated on three datasets from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with ARIBA outperforming existing methods.
Ashraf Mohamadkhani, Sima Besharat, Golnosh Gol-Jah Rad, Akbar Pour Dadash Asiabar, Gholamreza Roshandel, Akram Pourshams, Hossein Poustchi ...
Appropriate medium(a blood agar plate)and incubated overnight at 35C Inoculate a tube that contains 2 ml of saline or Mueller-hinton broth With five or more colonies from the agar plate and adjust turbidity to Match a McFarland standard(approximately 10 CFU/ml) Transfer 0.1 ml of the turbid broth into 10 ml of Mueller-Hinton Broth,inoculate in shaking water bath or equivalent at 35C until Turbid(5 to 6 hours for rapid growth).The relevant control organism Should be inoculated into 3 ml of broth and incubated without shaking Until turbid.This represents a midexponential phase of growth. Prepare twofold serial dilutions of the antibiotic in 2 ml of Mueller-Hinton broth.Use acid washed borosilicated glass tubes. Standardise the inoculum of the patients organism and the ...
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Fully integrated within BD Phoenix panels, the new BD Phoenix CPO detect test enables laboratories to offer a more comprehensive antimicrobial susceptibility test profile while improving laboratory process efficiency.
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The first of the studies is RAPIDS-GN (ClinicalTrials.gov # NCT03218397), a randomized controlled trial conducted at Mayo Clinic and UCLA. RAPIDS-GN focused on Gram-negative bacteremia and randomized patients to be tested by the BC kit or legacy methods. The study met the primary endpoint of therapy optimization, reporting time to first Gram-negative antibiotic change a full 24 hours sooner than legacy methods (17.4 hours vs. 42.1 hours, p,0.01) and time to any antibiotic change 6 hours sooner (8.6 hours vs. 14.9 hours, p=0.02). ...
Stella-Jones, Inc., wholly-owned subsidiary McFarland Cascade Holdings, Inc., has signed a non-binding letter of intent to acquire the shares of Lufkin Creosoting Co., Inc.
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Development of a superior cleaning cloth with constant and continuous antibacterial effect, ensuring that no bacteria is left in the cloth and making bacterial re-growth impossible, without need for special and time-consuming hygiene procedures. This will be accomplished by a unique technology with antibacterial agent integrated into the microfiber of the cloth. The advances in this technology will allow significant reduction of cross-contamination and bacterial regrowth. Infectious diseases arising in the home setting are a significant concern. ...
Optimal use of antimicrobials begins by selecting the most potent agent as the first choice for therapy. Pharmacodynamic data from experimental models and
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Tzavaras I., Siarkou V. I Zdragas A., Kotzamanidis C., Vafeas G., Bourtzi-Hatzopoulou E., Pournaras S and.. Sofianou. J Antimicrob Chemother. , 67(8):1811-8, 2012. ...
I am a currently licensed RN who has been inactive for 8 years. During that time I was raising 3 children and remained very active in my community. Recently I have taken C.E.U. courses in physical
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Effects of various antimicrobial agents on multi-directional differentiation potential of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells
Abstract:. To compare conventional phenotypic methods for the detection of methicillin in Staphylococci aureus in routine laboratory practice with reference to an established molecular method. This study was conducted on a selection of 30 isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococci aureus (MRSA) from clinical specimens. The Kirby- Bauer disc diffusion tests and oxacillin screen ager method were performed on all isolates using the presence of penicillin binding protein (PBP2a) as the reference standard. A commercial latex agglutination test (Oxoid, UK) was assessed for the detection of penicillin binding protein 2a (PBP2a), the Mec A gene product. Twenty of 30 isolates were positive to PBP2a and concomitant manifest resistance to (oxacillin) was confirmed using Kirby-Bauer diffusion test. All the thirty isolates were resistant using disk diffusion method. The specificity and sensitivity of this method, in comparison with PBP2a was 100% in our examined strains, whereas the specificity and ...
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic pathogen, responsible for approximately 10% of all gram-negative nosocomial infection. The aim of this study was to determine aminoglycoside and quinolone resistance genes and their antimicrobial susceptibility profile in the clinically A. baumannii. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 100 nonduplicative A. baumannii isolates were collected from different clinical samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by disk diffusion method. QnrA, anrB, qnrS, aac(3)-IIa, and aac(6′)-Ib genes were identified using PCR method. The results of antibiotic susceptibility test showed that polymyxin B was the most effective antimicrobial against A. baumannii. 97%, 95% and 82% of isolates were resistant to cefepime, ceftriaxone, and amikacin, respectively. The molecular distribution of aac(3)-IIa, aac(6′)-Ib, and qnrA genes were 45%, 50%, and 50% of isolates, respectively. However, qnrB and qnrS genes could not be detected in any strain. ...
Define antibiotic sensitivity test. antibiotic sensitivity test synonyms, antibiotic sensitivity test pronunciation, antibiotic sensitivity test translation, English dictionary definition of antibiotic sensitivity test. n. A substance, such as penicillin or erythromycin, produced by or derived from certain microorganisms, including fungi and bacteria, that can destroy or...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Invasive Candida guilliermondii infection. T2 - In vitro susceptibility studies and molecular analysis. AU - Vazquez, J. A.. AU - Lundstrom, T.. AU - Dembry, L.. AU - Chandrasekar, P.. AU - Boikov, D.. AU - Perri, M. B.. AU - Zervos, M. J.. PY - 1995/12/1. Y1 - 1995/12/1. N2 - Candida guilliermondii is rarely isolated from humans. We describe a case of disseminated C. guilliermondii with associated purulent pericarditis, despite high-dose amphotericin B (AmB), in a 19-year-old female with aplastic anemia who underwent BMT. In vitro susceptibility studies of the 13 clinical isolates, two control strains and one environmental isolate revealed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of (0.19-1.56 μg/ml) for AmB and (1.25-10 μg/ml) for fluconazole. Pulsed-field gradient gel electrophoresis was performed to evaluate possible similarities between strains. This case is significant for several reasons, the high degree and prolonged duration of fungemia despite high-dose AmB and ...
Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infections among pregnant women and if untreated could lead to serious complications.. Objective: This work was carried out to determine the prevalence rate of Enterobacteriaceae uropathogens and their antibiotics susceptibility profile among pregnant women attending two ante-natal clinics in Ilorin, Nigeria.. Materials and Methods: A total of 111 pregnant women between the ages of 18-50 attending ante-natal clinic at University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital and Civil Service Hospital, Ilorin participated in the study. Mid-stream urine samples were collected and cultured on Cysteine-Lactose-Electrolyte Deficient agar. Presence of significant bacteriuria (, 105 cfu/mL) was determined using the plate count method. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion technique.. Results: Of the 111 urine samples collected, 27.9% of them were found positive on culture. Among the isolated organisms, Klebsiella ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vitro activity of gemifloxacin against recent clinical isolates of bacteria in Korea.. AU - Yong, Dong Eun. AU - Cheong, Hee Jin. AU - Kim, Yang Soo. AU - Park, Yeon Joon. AU - Kim, Woo Joo. AU - Woo, Jun Hee. AU - Lee, Kyung Won. AU - Kang, Moon Won. AU - Choo, Youn Sung. PY - 2002/12. Y1 - 2002/12. N2 - Gemifloxacin is an enhanced-affinity fluoroquinolone with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. In Korea, resistant bacteria are relatively more prevalent than in other industrialized countries. In this study, we studied the in vitro activities of gemifloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and other commonly used antimicrobial agents against 1,689 bacterial strains isolated at four Korean university hospitals during 1999-2000. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using the agar dilution method of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Gemifloxacin had the lowest MICs for the respiratory pathogens: 90% of ...
Here, we used semi-quantitative radial diffusion assay and broth microdilution assay to evaluate susceptibility of a number of multi-drug resistant (MDR) clinical isolates to the MRJP1-contaning honey glycoproteins. The MDR bacterial strains comprised three methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), four Pseudomonas aeruginosa, two Klebsiella pneumoniae, two vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), and five ESBL identified as one Proteus mirabilis, three E. coli, and one E. coli NDM. Their resistance to different classes of antibiotics was confirmed using automated system Vitek 2. MDR isolates differed in their susceptibility to glps with MIC90 values ranging from 4.8 μg/ml against B. subtilis to 14.4 μg/ml against ESBL K. pneumoniae, Klebsiella spp. ESBL and E. coli and up to 33 μg/ml against highly resistant strains of P. aeruginosa ...
Recent years have seen a dramatic rise in the incidence and severity of cases of human salmonellosis, in addition, multidrug resistant strains have arisen. the objective of this study as to characterize the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Salmonella spp. clinical isolates collected from Latin American medical centers as part of the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance System. A total of 144 bloodstream Salmonella spp. isolates were collected between 1997 and 2000. the susceptibility to diverse antimicrobial agents was tested by broth microdilution techniques according to the NCCLS recommendations. the Salmonella spp. strains were more frequently collected from adult patients (67.0%; 21-60 years) and isolated from Chile (28.5%) , Brazil (25.0%) , Mexico , Colombia ( 11,8%). Ampicillin (MIC50, 1 mug/ml) showed good in vitro activity (92.4% susceptibility). Meropenem (MIC50. 0.06 mug/ml) and gatifloxacin (MIC50, 0.03 mug/ml) were the most Potent compounds against the Salmonella spp. isolates ( ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients with hepatobiliary infections in Taiwan. T2 - Results from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART), 2006-2010. AU - Toh, Han Siong. AU - Chuang, Yin Ching. AU - Huang, Chi Chang. AU - Lee, Yu Lin. AU - Liu, Yuag Meng. AU - Ho, Cheng Mao. AU - Lu, Po Liang. AU - Liu, Chun Eng. AU - Chen, Yen Hsu. AU - Wang, Jen Hsien. AU - Ko, Wen Chien. AU - Yu, Kwok Woon. AU - Liu, Yung Ching. AU - Chen, Yao Shen. AU - Tang, Hung Jen. AU - Hsueh, Po Ren. PY - 2012/6. Y1 - 2012/6. N2 - We investigated the trends in antimicrobial resistance among species of Gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients with hepatobiliary tract infections in Taiwan during the period 2006-2010 as part of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART). During the study period, 1032 isolates of Gram-negative bacilli that had been collected from patients with hepatobiliary infections were ...
The in vitro activity of tigecycline (former GAR-936), a new semisynthetic tetracycline, was evaluated in comparison with tetracycline and other antimicrobial agents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 1,326 contemporary clinical isolates collected from the Latin American region were collected in 2000-2002 period and tested with microdilution broth according to the CLSI guidelines. The bacterial pathogens evaluated included Staphylococcus aureus (505), Streptococcus pneumoniae (269), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS; 227), Haemophilus influenzae (129), Enterococcus spp. (80), Moraxella catarrhalis (54), beta-haemolytic streptococci (28), viridans group streptococci (26), and Neisseria meningitidis (8) RESULTS:Tigecycline demonstrated excellent activity against all Gram-positive cocci, with 90% of penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae strains being inhibited at 0.12 µg/mL, while the same isolates had an MIC90 of , 16 µg/mL for tetracycline. All Enterococcus spp. were inhibited at 0.25 µg/mL ...
Basically, antibiotic compounds play an important role of effector molecules in their natural environments, then their mechanism of action could be seen as using their specific targets as signal relays. For example, tetracyclines binding to the ribosome cause a breakdown in translation that ultimately lead to cell death at high concentrations; but at sub-inhibitory concentrations, the binding to the ribosomes causes a temporary stall in translation that leads to an mRNA build up thereby stabilizing mRNA transcript concentrations in target cells. (Fajardo et al., 2008). Therefore, the action of antibiotic is actually an interesting way of using ribosomes, DNA, RNA, carbohydrates (peptidoglycan) as signal effector receptors and transducers .If antibiotic compounds play the role of effector molecules in their natural environments, then their mechanism of action could be seen as using their specific targets as signal relays. An example, is when tetracyclines binding to the ribosome cause a breakdown ...
Abstract : Study background: Staphylococci are widespread in nature, mainly found on the skin and mucous membranes. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the key organism for food poisoning due to massive production of heat stable exotoxins. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and biochemical characteristics of S. aureus (ATCC 25923). Methods: S. aureus cells were procured from MicroBioLogics in sealed packs bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 25923) number and stored according to the recommended storage protocols until needed for experiments. Revived and lyophilized state of ATCC strains of S. aureus were selected for the study. Both revived (Group; Gr. II) and lyophilized (Gr. III) strain of S. aureus were subjected to Mr. Trivedis biofield treatment. Revived treated cells were assessed on day 5 and day 10 while lyophilized treated cells on day 10 only. After biofield treatment both treated cells ...
Abstract : Study background: Staphylococci are widespread in nature, mainly found on the skin and mucous membranes. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the key organism for food poisoning due to massive production of heat stable exotoxins. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and biochemical characteristics of S. aureus (ATCC 25923). Methods: S. aureus cells were procured from MicroBioLogics in sealed packs bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 25923) number and stored according to the recommended storage protocols until needed for experiments. Revived and lyophilized state of ATCC strains of S. aureus were selected for the study. Both revived (Group; Gr. II) and lyophilized (Gr. III) strain of S. aureus were subjected to Mr. Trivedis biofield treatment. Revived treated cells were assessed on day 5 and day 10 while lyophilized treated cells on day 10 only. After biofield treatment both treated cells ...
In addition, data collected in the participating Brazilian centers were analyzed separately from the data of the entire Latin American region (including Brazil). Minimum antimicrobial concentrations that inhibits 50% and 90% of the organism collection (MIC50 and MIC90, respectively) were presented only for the data of the entire region. Isolates collected from bloodstream infections and from lower respiratory tract infections (mainly pneumonia) in hospitalized patients were also analyzed separately (Tables 3, 5, 7 and 9). Two groups of pathogens, streptococci and extended-spectrum (ESBL)-producing strains, were analyzed separately due to their importance in community-acquired and nosocomial-acquired infections, respectively. Table 10 presents the antimicrobial susceptibility of streptococcal species, while Table 11 presents the antimicrobial susceptibility of ESBL-producing E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Discussion. We made a comprehensive analysis of the Latin American SENTRY Program data ...
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from different animal species with septic ocular surface disease. Sixteen strains of P. aeruginosa were isolated from different species of animals (dog, cat, horse, penguin and brown bear) with ocular surface diseases such as conjunctivitis, keratocojnuctivits sicca and ulcerative keratitis. These isolates were tested against 11 different antimicrobials agents using the Kirby-Bauer disk-diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using E-tests for two antibiotics (tobramycin and ciprofloxacin) commonly used in veterinary ophthalmology practice. Imipenem was the most effective antibiotic, with 100% of the strains being susceptible, followed by amikacin (87.5%), gentamicin, norfloxacin, gatifloxacin and polymyxin (both with 81.5%of susceptibility). MIC90 of ciprofloxacin was 2 µg/ml and the values found ranged from 0.094 µg/ml to 32 µg/ml. For tobramycin,
Objective To study antimicrobial resistance of Brucella melitenesis and instruct rational use of antimicrobial agents for clinic.Methods Bacteria were cultured and identified by Bact/Alert 3D and VITEK Ⅱ automicrobic system.Drug susceptibility was detected by E-test method.Results Four strains Brucella melitenesis were isolated from blood of 4 patients with fever and MIC of gentamicin,ampicillin and ciprofloxacin was(0.5)~(0.75 mg/L),(1.5)~(2.0 mg/L) and (4.0)~(8.0 mg/L) respectively.MIC of ceftazidime,amikacin and doxycycline were all above(8.0 mg/L).Conclusion The preferred drug for treating brucellosis is gentamicin or plus ampicillin or ciprofloxacin,or choosing antimicrobial agents according to antimicrobial susceptibility test results.
Pharmacodynamic and mutant prevention properties of the fluoroquinolone pradofloxacin (PRA) were measured against a set of 17 Escherichia coli strains carrying no, one or two known mutations conferring reduced fluoroquinolone susceptibility. The strains included susceptible wild-types, isogenic constructed mutants, isogenic selected mutants and clinical isolates. The effectiveness of PRA was determined with regard to preventing the selection of resistant mutants, using static and changing concentrations of drug. Ciprofloxacin was used as a reference drug. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and mutant prevention concentrations (MPCs) of PRA for the susceptible wild-type strains were in the range 0.012-0.016 mg/L and 0.2-0.3 mg/L, respectively, giving a mean +/- standard deviation mutant prevention index (MPI=MPC/MIC) of 17.7 +/- 1.1. The mean MPI PRA of the 14 mutant strains was 19.2 +/- 12, and the mean MPI across all 17 strains was 18.9 +/- 10.8. In an in vitro kinetic model in which PRA ...
Against streptococci other than pneumococci, the intrinsic potency of GAR-936, based on a comparison of MIC50s, was equivalent or slightly superior to that of minocycline. Median (modal) MICs for GAR-936 and minocycline were 0.06 (0.06) and 0.12 (0.12) μg/ml, respectively. However, all streptococcal isolates, including strains resistant to doxycycline or minocycline, were inhibited by GAR-936 at ≤0.25 μg/ml.. For pneumococci, the results shown in Table 1 were obtained by agar dilution. The activity of GAR-936 against 60 strains ofStreptococcus pneumoniae, half of which were not susceptible to penicillin, was also evaluated by microdilution. The MIC50 and MIC90 were 0.03 and 0.06 μg/ml. These were within 1 dilution of agar dilution results. Individually, microdilution results were 2 dilutions lower than the agar dilution results for 11 strains, 1 dilution lower for 27, equivalent for 13, and 1 dilution greater for 4. For S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619, the broth microdilution result was 1 dilution ...
New macrolide expands treatment options for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in cattle.. The new antimicrobial tildipirosin is now available on veterinary microbroth dilution susceptibility plates, enabling veterinary microbiology laboratories to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing on organisms that cause bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef and non-lactating dairy cattle.. The Thermo Scientific Sensititre System, recognized for including one of the largest and most up-to-date selections of antimicrobials for susceptibility testing, with more than 40 veterinary-specific antimicrobials, is now the first to offer tildipirosin on microbroth dilution susceptibility plates. Tildipirosin is available globally on Sensititre veterinary custom plates, and it will be featured on additional standard plates in the future. A variety of other species-specific, standard diagnostic formats are also available for applications related to avian and poultry, bovine and porcine, companion animals, ...
Purpose. Rhodomyrtustomentosa is a Thai medicinal plant that has been attracting attention for its remarkable antibacterial properties against Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of R. tomentosa leaf extract against Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus iniae isolated from infected tilapia. Methodology. The anti-streptococcal activity of R. tomentosa was determined using broth microdilution assays. Results. The extract demonstrated strong antibacterial activity against the fish pathogens, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 7.8‒62.5 µg ml−1. It was found to possess a dose-dependent bacteriostatic effect on this organism. Scanning electron microscopy revealed irregular and long chains of swollen cells, as well as corkscrew shapes andincomplete separation of cell division of S. agalactiae cells following the treatment at sub-MIC. Moreover, S. agalactiae cells pre-treated with the extract became more
LOWMAN, Warren et al. Comparative MIC evaluation of a generic ceftriaxone by broth microdilution on clinically relevant isolates from an academic hospital complex in South Africa. SAMJ, S. Afr. med. j. [online]. 2012, vol.102, n.2, pp.102-103. ISSN 2078-5135.. We evaluated the in vitro microbiological efficacy of a generic ceftriaxone product against several clinically significant organisms collected from sterile sites. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each was determined simultaneously with the reference and the generic ceftriaxone product. Comparative analysis of MICs between the two products for each isolate was performed using both categorical (interpretive) agreement and essential (actual MIC value) agreement. A total of 260 isolates were tested. Overall, there was categorical agreement of 98.9% and essential agreement of 95.8%. The categorical agreement for all isolates (96.7 - 100%) accorded with international standards, as no very major errors were seen and the major error ...
Understanding local susceptibility patterns is important when selecting antimicrobials for initial empirical antibiotic-therapy of bloodstream infections. Because the determination of susceptibility is dependent on the breakpoints used, the aim of the study was to compare the antimicrobial susceptibility results to different classes of antibiotics of 512 strains of Enterobacteriaceae (200 ESβL positive) isolated from bloodstream using CLSI 2013 and current EUCAST 2013 guidelines to evaluate the impact of break-point discrepancies. The results of the study showed that statistically significant discrepancies (p ≤ 0.001) were found for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin alone or with tazobac-tam, imipenem, meropenem, cefepime (only ESβL negative isolates), amikacin and gentamicin using current CLSI or EUCAST interpretive criteria. Further harmonization of CLSI and EUCAST breakpoints is warranted. This study could give useful information to physicians for managing bloodstream
Understanding local susceptibility patterns is important when selecting antimicrobials for initial empirical antibiotic-therapy of bloodstream infections. Because the determination of susceptibility is dependent on the breakpoints used, the aim of the study was to compare the antimicrobial susceptibility results to different classes of antibiotics of 512 strains of Enterobacteriaceae (200 ESβL positive) isolated from bloodstream using CLSI 2013 and current EUCAST 2013 guidelines to evaluate the impact of break-point discrepancies. The results of the study showed that statistically significant discrepancies (p ≤ 0.001) were found for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin alone or with tazobac-tam, imipenem, meropenem, cefepime (only ESβL negative isolates), amikacin and gentamicin using current CLSI or EUCAST interpretive criteria. Further harmonization of CLSI and EUCAST breakpoints is warranted. This study could give useful information to physicians for managing bloodstream
BACKGROUND: S.aureus is a major pathogen in skin and soft tissue infections. Methicillin resistant S.aureus (MRSA) is prevalent in most of the countries wherever it is sought for. MRSA is one of the important pathogens implicated in hospital acquired infection. The main objectives of this study was to find out the antimicrobial
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to describe the rates of antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus from skin and wound infections reported from nine regions of the USA during 2005-07 and to identify the regional variation in patterns of resistance. METHODS The Surveillance Network (TSN) comprises 296 laboratories across the nine census regions of the USA. TSN laboratories reported the susceptibility data for six antimicrobials by isolate with source and other relevant data. Antimicrobial susceptibility data were analysed by individual drug resistance, multidrug resistance and geographical distribution of resistance phenotypes. RESULTS There were over 380 000 isolates of S. aureus tested and reported for the period 2005-07. Methicillin resistance was observed in 57.8% in 2007, with little change from 2005. There was little difference in rates of methicillin resistance between community and hospital strains, although strains from intensive care units (ICUs) tended to be slightly more
The practice of medicine changed dramatically with the availability of effective antimicrobial agents. Fatal diseases such as bacterial meningitis and endocarditis became treatable; much minor community infectious morbidity became readily controlled; many surgical procedures became much safer, and developments in solid organ and bone marrow transplantation became possible. However, the very success of antimicrobial chemotherapy has led to overuse, misuse and inappropriate pressures from the public to prescribe. In many countries, antibiotics are freely available to the public for purchase over the counter, with few controls or guidance to ensure their safe and effective use. The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance worldwide and the decline in development and licensing of new antimicrobials threaten the future successful treatment of bacterial infections....
Molecular hybridization has a wide application in medicinal chemistry to obtain new biologically active compounds. New isatin-indole molecular hybrids 5a-n have been synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic tools. The in vitro antimicrobial potential of the prepared compounds 5a-n was assessed using diameter of the inhibition zone (DIZ) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays against a panel of Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. Most of the synthesized compounds 5a-n showed weak activities against Gram-negative bacteria while compounds 5b and 5c exhibited good activities against Gram-positive bacteria. On the other hand, compound 5j emerged as the most active compound towards Candida albicans (C. albicans), with an MIC value of 3.9 µg/mL, and compound 5g as the most active congener towards Asperagillus niger (A. niger), with an MIC value of 15.6 µg/mL. Moreover, compound 5h manifested the best anti-P. notatum effect, with an MIC value of 7.8 µg/mL,
Trailing endpoints occasionally complicate the interpretation of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of both bacteria and fungi. Early studies in bacterial susceptibility testing made note of the phenomenon, especially in the testing of sulfonamide compounds (2). Both broth and agar methods have been associated with trailing endpoints (2, 4, 5). The effect was attributed to the bacteriostatic action of the sulfonamides, with several generations being required before significant growth inhibition occurs. In addition, these isolates were not felt to be clinically resistant, despite high MICs. In one study, in vivo testing in mice showed no difference between susceptible isolates and those for which trailing endpoints were observed (6).. Antifungal susceptibility testing has made considerable progress in recent years. Specifically, the NCCLS methods (broth macro- and microdilution) have been shown to be reproducible and clinically useful, with good in vitro-in vivo correlation in the setting of ...
MMLRG : The method employed in this assay is broth microtiter dilution using a commercially available plate from Trek Diagnostics, Inc. Antimicrobials included in the assay are tested according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines.(CLSI. Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacteria, Nocardiae, and Other Actinomycetes; Approved Standard. CLSI document M24-A2. CLSI, Wayne, PA, 2011; Woods GL, Lin S-Y G, Desmond EP: Susceptibility test methods: Mycobacteria, Nocardia, and Other Actinomycetes. In Manual of Clinical Microbiology. Vol 1. Eleventh edition. Edited by JH Jorgensen, MA Pfaller, KC Carroll, et al. Washington, DC, ASM Press, 2015, pp 1356-1378)
Dear Mike,. KWIK-STIK is the perfect product for performing QC on new lots of ETEST® strips. You made a smart first step, now follow these five tips for setting up and reading ETEST® strips to ensure a successful QC process:. 1. Subculture at least once before using the growth for QC. I recommend not testing the first plate you grow from the KWIK-STIK. Subculture at least once to ensure the strain is fully resuscitated.. 2. Be sure to use the correct fluid when making your 0.5 McFarland. Most ETEST® strips require 0.85% NaCI, but you should always consult the Etest product insert.. 3. Remember the ETEST® generates MIC values from a continuous scale and can give results between the conventional two-fold (i.e. half dilutions). MIC results for a QC strain that fall a half dilution below the lower QC limit should be rounded up to the next two-fold value before establishing QC compliance. Similarly, MIC results that are a half dilution above the upper limit show non-QC compliance.. 4. Be patient. ...
Resistance rates higher than those in South Africa have been reported from the Asia Pacific region. In the PROTEKT study, 81% of the pneumococcal isolates were macrolide resistant.1 Of these, 11% showed intermediate resistance, whereas 70% were fully resistant to these agents.1. In addition, 21% of the South African pneumococcal isolates demonstrated intermediate resistance and 51% full resistance to co-trimoxazole.. The massive increase in both macrolide and penicillin resistant isolates may reflect bias introduced into our present study because only clinical isolates from specimens submitted to the private laboratories were tested. In the private sector many patients are treated empirically initially, and frequently specimens are only submitted for culture in severely ill patients or patients who do not respond to initial treatment. Such infections are more likely to be caused by a resistant strain. However, it is very important to know the sensitivity patterns of the more resistant organisms ...
Synonyms for sulfisoxazole in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for sulfisoxazole. 1 synonym for sulfisoxazole: Gantrisin. What are synonyms for sulfisoxazole?
Twenty-two MDR A. baumannii isolates from Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients and two reference strains for the European clonal lineages I and II (including 3, 15 and 6 isolates that were resistant, intermediate and susceptible to tigecycline, respectively) were tested. Antimicrobial agents were: tigecycline, levofloxacin, piperacillin-tazobactam, amikacin, imipenem, rifampicin, ampicillin-sulbactam, and colistin. MICs were determined by the broth microdilution method. Antibiotic interactions were determined by chequerboard and time-kill assays. Only antibiotic combinations showing synergism or antagonism in both chequerboard and time-kill assays were accepted as authentic synergistic or antagonistic interactions, respectively ...
n=1) were determined using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar. The findings revealed that all the isolates showed multiple antibiotic resistances ranging from 30% to 100%, intermediate resistance 0%-20% and susceptibility 9.75-60%. Five (18.4%) isolates showed pan-resistance (100%). The highest resistance (100%) was shown to ampicillin, nalidixic acid, augmentin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and cephaplexin. The highest susceptibility was shown to levofloxacin (100%), ofloxaxin (66.7%), ciprofloxacin (60%) and perfloxacin (50%). The findings support the claim that ciprofloxacin is still the most effective second line broad spectrum antibiotic. The implications of drug resistance in health and economy, which include higher mortality rates, longer duration of illness and treatment, increased health-care costs and economic burden, the resort to alternative herbal treatments which further compound health problems and the emergence of pan-resistant bacterial pathogens ...
Etest, (previously known as Epsilometer test) manufactured by bioMérieux, is a manual in vitro diagnostic device used by laboratories to determine the MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) and whether or not a specific strain of bacterium or fungus is susceptible to the action of a specific antimicrobial. This type of test is most commonly used in healthcare settings to help guiding physicians in treatment of patients by indicating what concentration of antimicrobial would successfully treat an infection. The Etest principle was first described in 1988 and was introduced commercially in 1991 by AB BIODISK. AES Chemunex acquired AB BIODISK in 2008 and BioMerieux acquired AES in 2013 continues to manufacture and market this product range under the name Etest. During the 1950s, Hans Ericsson (Professor of microbiology at the Karolinska Hospital and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm), the scientific founder of AB BIODISK, developed a method to standardize the disc diffusion method and to improve its ...
Using molecular modeling approach, potential antibacterial agents with triazole core were proposed. A moderate to weak level of antibacterial activity in most of the compounds have been observed, with best minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 0.003 mg/mL, as shown by the 15 against S. epidermidis. Studied compounds were also submitted to the antifungal assay. The best antifungal activity was detected for 16 with MIC at 0.125 and 0.25 mg/mL against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, respectively.
RANI, Archna; JAIN, Sapna; KUMAR, Rita and KUMAR, Anil. 1,5-bis (2-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1,4-diene-3-one: A lead compound for the development of broad-spectrum antibacterial agents. S.Afr.j.chem. (Online) [online]. 2010, vol.63, pp.31-35. ISSN 1996-840X.. A systematic and comparative study has been made starting from a naturally-occurring chalcone nucleus to design effective antibacterial agents. The present investigation established 1,5-bis(2-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1,4-diene-3-one (lc)asalead compound with potential against a panel of pathogenic bacterial strains, Staphylococcus (coagulase negative), Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acenetobacter sp. and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Gentamycine and tetracycline were used as reference drugs. The mode of antibacterial action of 1c was also studied by scanning electron microscopy, which showed membrane disruption and cell lysis of the organisms during the exposure of the tested compound. In vitro toxicity tests demonstrated that all the bioactive ...
The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of vanillin against Listeria monocytogenes Scott A and Escherichia coli O157:H7 was determined in tripticase soy broth (TSB), pH 7 and 6, incubated at 35 °C/24 h and in semi-skim milk incubated at 35 °C/24 h and 7 °C/14 days. The influence of the fat content of milk on the antimicrobial activity of va ...
Objectives: During 2003, the Health Protection Agencys Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory began to receive isolates of Escherichia coli for confirmation of extended-spectrum β-lactamase production with a phenotype implying a CTX-M-type β-lactamase, i.e. MICs of cefotaxime ≥8-fold higher than MICs of ceftazidime. Many were referred as being from community patients. We examined 291 CTX-M-producing isolates from the UK and investigated the genetic basis of their phenotype.. Methods: PCR was used to detect alleles encoding CTX-M enzymes and to assign these to their blaCTX-M phylogenetic groups. Selected alleles were sequenced. Producers were compared by analysis of banding patterns generated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of XbaI-digested genomic DNA. MICs were determined by an agar dilution method or by Etest.. Results: Of 291 CTX-M-producing E. coli isolates studied from 42 UK centres, 70 (24%) were reportedly from community patients, many of whom had only limited ...
The inhibitory effect of antifungal drugs at the incubation endpoint of the NCCLS M27-A method is based on cell growth, which is measured in terms of culture turbidity. For cell growth to occur, the yeast must first and continually absorb sufficient exogenous nutrients. When yeast cells were exposed to antifungal drug pressure, their ability to absorb substrate (glucose) was inhibited, and this effect occurred in the absence of any cell turbidity change. The magnitude of substrate consumption was dependent on the degree of drug pressure (Fig. 2). These observations suggested that substrate consumption could form the basis of an RSA.. Several factors influence the sensitivity of RSA. These factors are not unique to the RSA but are common to those susceptibility assays that depend on metabolic activity to provide a detectable endpoint. Perhaps the most critical of these factors are inoculum density, organism growth rate, incubation time, and mechanism of drug action (1). Additional important ...
Fifty-one (25.5%) of the 200 specimens were positive for the organism with urine (30%) being the most common source of isolation. Biochemical characterization grouped the isolates into eight biotypes with biotypes B III (25.59%), B II (23.53%) and B I (21.57%) being the most prevalent. Antimicrobial susceptibility results of isolates revealed 13 antibiotype patterns based on resistance to the antimicrobial agents investigated. The resistance pattern, cefotaxime, gentamicin and tetracycline (CTXR GENR TETR) was the most common (21.6%) amongst the isolates. Over 40% of the isolates exhibited multi-drug resistance to five or more antibiotics, especially environmental isolates. However, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the susceptibility of isolates to ciprofloxacin (98%), amikacin (90.2%) and netilmicin (80.4%) compared with other drugs used in the study. Conclusion ...
Reliable CBPs/ECOFFs require species-specific determinations.Inhibition zone diameters and MIC distributions are species specific in terms of ranges, means, and standard deviations (8). Thus, ECOFFs and CBPs, by definition, need to be determined on a species-specific basis, a principle acknowledged by EUCAST and CLSI (10, 11). To avoid increased guideline complexity, group-specific CBPs have been suggested, e.g., the majority of staphylococcal CBPs are defined at the genus level, and Enterobacteriaceae CBPs are applicable at the group level (3, 5). However, there is agreement that CBPs must never split a wild-type population due to biological variation within wild-type isolates (11). A practical solution to reduce the highly complex process of setting CBPs for a large number of drugs is the use of drug class representatives with use of AST extrapolations for other class members (3, 5).. For sufficient statistical power, an analysis should include a minimum of 30 isolates to form a Gaussian ...
Cultures of the earliest isolate, JH1, and surveillance culture JH15 showed heterogeneous oxacillin resistance phenotypes when tested for population analysis profiles (PAPs). For the great majority of bacteria (>99.9%), oxacillin MICs were 0.75 μg/ml. The cultures also contained subpopulations of highly resistant cells for which oxacillin MICs were >400 μg/ml, but these subpopulations were present at a low (10−6) frequency in the cultures. A major increase in the oxacillin MICs for the majority of cells and a less heterogeneous PAP were detected in cultures of the isolates obtained next chronologically, JH2 and JH3; these isolates were recovered from the patient after a therapeutic regimen of imipenem treatment for noscomial pneumonia. Cultures of isolates recovered after this time (JH6 through JH14) showed heterogeneous oxacillin phenotypes; the MICs for the majority of cells were reduced to 1 to 3 μg/ml (Fig. 3).. Similar but much less extensive changes were also apparent with respect to ...
We explored the potential of poly(oxonorbornene)-based synthetic mimics of antimicrobial peptides (SMAMPs), a promising new class of antimicrobial polymers with cell-selectivity and low resistance development potential, for clinical applications. We evaluated their antimicrobial activity against a panel of seven clinical and regulatory relevant bacteria strains, and tested their toxicity with two different kinds of primary human cells. For the antimicrobial activity, we performed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay and determined the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) according to the NCCLS guidelines. The results revealed specific problems that may occur when testing the antimicrobial activity of amphiphilic cationic polymers, and confirmed the working hypothesis that the more hydrophilic SMAMP polymers in our portfolio were doubly selective, i.e. they are not only selective for bacteria over mammalian cells, but also for Gram-positive over Gram-negative bacteria. The data also
General principles of the treatment of infection - General principles of usage of antimicrobial agents - Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - The essence of this book is to describe the basic properties of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents and to discuss the principles underlying the rational use of antimicrobial agents in the management of infection.
Archives issue of International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences which aims to cover the latest outstanding developments in the field of pharmaceutical and biological sciences
There are two international organisations that set up guidelines and interpretive breakpoints for bacteriology and susceptibility testing. The CLSI or Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute is a non-profit organisation with a mission to develop clinical and laboratory practices and promote their use worldwide. Their laboratory testing standards are based on input from and consensus among the industry, governments and healthcare professionals. The CLSI has a Veterinary Subcommittee that approves clinical interpretive breakpoints: this means that the breakpoints of sensitivity discs are related to the actual clinical cure for a certain disease.. ...
Its main uses are in intensive care medicine (pneumonia, peritonitis), somediabetes-related foot infections, and empirical therapy in febrile neutropenia(e.g., after chemotherapy). The drug is administered intravenously every 6 or 8 hr, typically over 30 min. It may also be administered by continuous infusion over 4 hours. Prolonged infusions are thought to maximize the time serum concentrations are above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the bacteria implicated in infection.. ...
Results: This study showed high prevalence of efflux pump genes in our local isolates. The AdeB gene was present in all multidrug resistant isolates (100%) while AdeRS gene was found in 95.2%, AdeC gene in 83.3% and AdeA gene in 77.4%. By comparing the prevalence of these gene in carbapenem-susceptible isolates, it was demonstrated that the gene AdeB was absent in all susceptible isolates, also the regulatory gene AdeRS was not found in most of these isolates, while the other genes (AdeA and AdeC) were detected in most carbapenem- susceptible isolates. Susceptibility of isolates to Amikacin, Gentamicin, Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin, Tetracycline and Tigecycline was highly increased in the presence of efflux pump inhibitor, so that, PAβN reduced the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) by 4 to 32 folds. Also, MICs of carbapenems were reduced in the presence of the inhibitor by two to eight folds, while the MICs of colistin were not affected. ...
This McFarland Standard 0.5 is used for the Kirby-Bauer Turbidity Standards Set (item #805748). Use this 8 mL of standard in conjunction with a Wickerham card (item #805746) to facilitate preparation of bacterial and yeast suspensions that require a specified McFarland turbidity.
This report published in Communicable Diseases Intelligence Volume 27, No 4, December 2003 contains Australias surveillance strategy for antimicrobial resistance.
ATCC provides top-quality microbial strains needed to maintain outstanding Quality Control programs. Commercial firms specify ATCC strains as controls for rapid identification, minimum inhibitory concentration of antibiotics and antibiotic susceptibility panels.
Infections due to Mycobacterium abscessus carry a poor prognosis since this rapidly growing mycobacterium is intrinsically resistant to most antibiotics. Here, we evaluate the in vitro activity of the new oxazolidinone tedizolid against a collection of 44M. abscessus clinical isolates. The MIC50s and MIC90s of tedizolid (2 and 8μg/mL, respectively) were 2- to 16-fold lower than those of linezolid. There was no difference between the 3M. abscessus subspecies. Time-kill assays did not show any bactericidal activity at 4- and 8-fold the MIC ...
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... - Dr. Edward G. McFarland is a professor of orthopaedic surgery at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. He is the Wa...
The aim of this study was to determine the resistance rates of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) to various antimicrobial agents. The agar disk diffusion method (Kirby Bauer) was used to determine the sensitivity of H. pylori isolates to various antimicrobials. Of the 61 H. pylori isolatestested, no isolates was resistant to amoxycillin and tetracycline. The resistance rates were 42.6% for metronidazole, 21.3% for clarithromycin, and 3.3% for levofloxacin. Compared to clarithromycin and metronidazole, levofloxacin showed the lowest resistance. This is the first report on the resistance rates of H. pylori to antibiotics in Elazig Province, East of Turkey. This study suggests that the large scale studies is needed to help us to understand better the effect of resistance on the H. pylori eradication.
Listeriosis, mostly caused by Listeria monocytogenes species, has become a major concern to public health authorities due to its clinical severity and high mortality rate, particularly in high risk groups. Currently, there is limited information regarding the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of listeria species in ready-to-eat foods of animal origin in Gondar town, Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Listeria species isolated from ready-to-eat food of animal origin from public dinning places in Gondar town, Ethiopia. A cross sectional study on ready-toeat foods of animal origin sampled from major supermarkets, butcher shops, pastry shops, restaurants and hotels was carried out. Culture, biochemical and sugar tests were conducted for listeria species identification and disc diffusion test was performed to study the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the isolates. Out of 384 food samples examined, 96 (25%)
The increased vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration values (MICs) for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates are associated with treatment failure and mortality of MRSA infections. In the present study, 553 non-duplicate MRSA isolates from various specimens of patients with infections at a Chinese tertiary hospital from January 2003 to December 2014, were selected randomly for investigating the shift of vancomycin MICs determined by E-test method. The percentages of the MRSA isolates with vancomycin MICs of ≥ 2.0 mg/L, 1.5 mg/L, 1.0 mg/L and ≤0.75 mg/L were 16.3% (90/553), 38.5% (213/553), 35.6% (197/553) and 9.9% (55/553), respectively. The highest geometric mean MIC (GM MIC) value (1.648 mg/L) and the lowest GM MIC (0.960 mg/L) were found in the first year (2003) and the last year (2014) over the study period, with significant difference (p
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The aim of this clinical trial is to determine whether a novel combination antibiotic treatment (vancomycin/daptomycin + beta-lactam) is superior to the standard antibiotic treatment (vancomycin/daptomycin) for hospitalised adults with Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia. The hypothesis is that the addition of beta-lactam antibiotics (these are antibiotics from the penicillin family) to the standard therapy will lead to more efficient bacterial killing and hence lead to faster clearance of bacteria from the blood stream and other areas of infection, thereby reducing the risk of the spread of infection and death.. The study design is an investigator-initiated, multi-centre, open-label, randomised controlled trial. This will include 440 participants diagnosed with Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia recruited over a period of 4 years (July 2015 - June 2019) from within Infectious Diseases inpatient units across 21 hospital sites including 18 from within ...
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This is a phase 4 randomized open label prospective pilot study comparing the use of daptomycin versus vancomycin for peri-operative antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing elective primary knee, hip or shoulder arthroplasty and are at risk for infection with methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The study population will include males and non-pregnant, non-lactating females 18 years of age or older, with history of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection or colonization, and undergoing primary elective hip, knee or shoulder arthroplasty. The target enrollment is 100 patients, who will be randomized to daptomycin or vancomycin in two 50 patient study groups. After signing the informed consent, patients will undergo pre-enrollment nasal screening for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus to identify eligible patients. Patients with positive MRSA nasal screen will proceed with enrollment and get randomized into one of the two study groups. In one group, patients ...
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a frequent cause for patients to present to a physicians office or emergency department. We observed increasing numbers of community-acquired MRSA infections in patients admitted to the hand surgery service at our suburban academic center. It is an important issue as unsuspected community-acquired MRSA hand infections can be admitted to the hospital, inadequately treated, and allowed for nosocomial spread. This study was performed to examine the trend in the incidence of community-acquired MRSA infections in patients admitted to the hand surgery service in order to sensitize practitioners to have a high index of suspicion for this entity and promote early recognition and treatment of this organism. A multihospital retrospective chart review was undertaken to compare the total number of community-acquired MRSA infections in our hospital as well as the number in patients admitted to the hand surgery service with community-acquired MRSA from 2000
... microbial culture and sensitivity testing should be performed, so the most efficacious antibiotic can be chosen. However, ... Aspiration of a fluid sample for microbial culture is worth trying, but is often unrewarding. The mainstays of treatment are ... OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals 2004 Chapter 2.5.13, [1] . RR Pascoe, DC Knottenbelt, ...
... a urine ELISA test with a 96% sensitivity and 79% specificity is available. None of the test methods is completely failsafe. ... combined with either a rapid urease test or microbial culture. H. pylori is a major cause of certain diseases of the upper ... One can test noninvasively for H. pylori infection with a blood antibody test, stool antigen test, or with the carbon urea ... Blood antibody tests, for example, range from 76% to 84% sensitivity. Some drugs can affect H. pylori urease activity and give ...
... water microbial analysis, blood parasite examination, antibiotic sensitivity test and the like; (3) Experimental Animal Farm ...
... parasitic sensitivity tests MeSH G01.273.738 --- photobiology MeSH G01.273.789 --- radiobiology MeSH G01.273.866 --- ... microbial MeSH G01.273.540.460 --- industrial microbiology MeSH G01.273.540.553 --- mycology MeSH G01.273.540.859 --- virology ... microbial MeSH G01.273.343.335 --- genetics, population MeSH G01.273.343.350 --- genomics MeSH G01.273.343.350.700 --- ...
This sensitive and rapid testing analyser has the ability to detect microbial contamination, as well as more than 2,700 ... The sensitivity of the reagent may become altered after the recommended time period. Microtox Osmotic Adjustment Solution (MOAS ... There are five major Microtox tests including the Basic Test, the 100% Test, the Solid Phase Test, the Comparison Test, and the ... Of these five tests, three are used for sediment and soil testing including the Basic Test, the 100% Test and the Solid-Phase ...
... in vitro chemo sensitivity testing of tumors, and fluorochrome intercellular translocation. The number of scientific articles ... "Applicability of the fluorescein diacetate method of detecting active bacteria in freshwater." Microbial Ecology 10.2 (1984): ... Eugene A. Woltering, Tumor Chemosensitivity Testing An Evolving Technique. Lab Medicine 21, 82-84, 1990.. ... Fluorochromasia has many applications including histocompatibility testing, measurement of cytotoxic antibodies, ...
Allergic sensitivity to quaternium-15 can be detected using a patch test. It is the single most often found cause of allergic ... It is an anti-microbial agent by virtue of being a formaldehyde releaser, however this can also cause contact dermatitis, a ... The American Cancer Society states that although quaternium-15 releases formaldehyde, a known carcinogen in laboratory test ... Patch-test results of the North American Contact Dermatitis Group 2005-2006. Dermatitis. 2009 May-Jun;20(3):149-60. " ...
The same review found the sensitivity of the test to be 77% and the specificity to be 79%. The authors suggested that ... Upon detection of microbial antigens, the host systemic immune system is activated. Immune cells not only recognize PAMP, but ... Neither ACTH stimulation testing nor random cortisol levels are recommended to confirm the diagnosis. The method of stopping ... There are a number of microbial factors that may cause the typical septic inflammatory cascade. An invading pathogen is ...
Additional tests examined sensitivity to errors in phylogenetic inference, lack of genomic data, and the accuracy of the ... The tool serves in the field of metagenomic analysis where it allows inference of the functional profile of a microbial ... Langille et al tested the accuracy of this genome prediction step using leave-one-out cross validation on the input set of ... Test datasets included human microbiome samples from the Human Microbiome Project, soil samples, diverse mammalian samples, and ...
Sensitivity to Antibiotics[edit]. While Lactobacillus fermentum has been found to have antibiotic resistant properties, other ... Testing of Lactobacillus fermentum against different pH concentration solutions revealed that it has a strong pH tolerance by ... "Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 An antimicrobial and antioxidative probiotic." Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 21, no. 1 ( ... Tests conducted on the ME-3 strain in different bile concentrations found that it was able to survive without large loss in ...
... s[which?] were tested as AIDS drugs around 1990, but did not progress beyond in-vitro tests on cell lines. ... There are many ways to demonstrate bacteriocin production, depending on the sensitivity and labor intensiveness desired. To ... 93: 1040-2. Gratia JP (October 2000). "André Gratia: a forerunner in microbial and viral genetics". Genetics. 156 (2): 471-6. ... Applications of bacteriocins are being tested to assess their application as narrow-spectrum antibiotics. Bacteriocins were ...
Some military testing grounds are contaminated with TNT. Wastewater from munitions programs including contamination of surface ... This includes wholly abiotic reactants, like photons, hydrogen sulfide, Fe2+, or microbial communities, both oxic and anoxic. ... Exudation of impurities leads to formation of pores and cracks (which in turn cause increased shock sensitivity). Migration of ... free software website sonicbomb.com containing a video bank and additionally pages for discussion of nuclear device testing ...
Antibiotic sensitivity and resistance was determined using the agar diffusion test in which paper discs saturated with ... "Simplified protocols for the preparation of genomic DNA from bacterial cultures." Molecular microbial ecology manual 1.1 (1999 ... Tests revealed this organism is oxidase positive and catalase negative. Halostagnicola larsenii is a halophilic, neutrophilic, ... Growth substrates were determined through the use of the isolation medium, which contained the substrate being tested along ...
Microbial fuel cells, test for redox reactions directly by measuring electrons and protons they liberate. Sensitive to small ... Detection sensitivities are at levels of 100 parts per trillion, improved to 10 parts per trillion or better by averaging ... Others are exposed to vacuum, e.g. to test panspermia hypotheses. Test samples include bacteria and biofilms, cyanobactera, ... Microbial life from depths of kilometers below the surface on the Earth that rely on geochemical energy sources - relying on ...
The same review found the sensitivity of the test to be 77% and the specificity to be 79%. The authors suggested that ... Microbial factorsEdit. Bacterial virulence factors, such as glycocalyx and various adhesins, allow colonization, immune evasion ... Neither ACTH stimulation testing[65] nor random cortisol levels are recommended to confirm the diagnosis.[5] The method of ... Upon detection of microbial antigens, the host systemic immune system is activated. Immune cells not only recognise pathogen- ...
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This test is slower and has a lower sensitivity than digoxin immunoassay (Digoxin III). A direct analytic technique like liquid ... Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 41 (3): 331-66. doi:10.1016/j.enzmictec.2007.02.015. Timbrell, J. A. (2009). Principles of ... However, there are no results from clinical testing on humans that support any use as a cancer treatment. Symptoms of oleandrin ...
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... areas where PCR-based tests are not well established in all labs.[33][34] Culture is also useful for antimicrobial sensitivity ... and gonococci and commensal Neisseria species can coexist for long time periods in the pharynx and share anti-microbial ... All people testing positive for gonorrhea should be tested for other sexually transmitted diseases such as chlamydia, syphilis ... Diagnosis is by testing the urine, urethra in males, or cervix in females.[1] Testing all women who are sexually active and ...
Testing was done for Gram stain, carbon source, acid production, growth at minimal salt concentration, and antibiotic ... the integrated microbial genomes database and comparative analysis system. Retrieved 26 April 2016. Sleator, Roy D; Hill, Colin ... sensitivity. Also, PCR was performed with the primers A1F and UA1406R. H. paucihalophilus was named for its ability to grow in ...
Home tests that use a chemical reaction to test for the presence of polyamines and sulfur compounds on tongue swabs are now ... This part of the tongue is relatively dry and poorly cleansed, and the convoluted microbial structure of the tongue dorsum ... This analog machine loses sensitivity over time and requires periodic recalibration to remain accurate. Gas chromatography: ... BANA test: this test is directed to find the salivary levels of an enzyme indicating the presence of certain halitosis-related ...
Cell-free use of microbial exoenzymes as agents of bioremediation is also possible although their activity is often not as ... McGuffie EM, Fraylick JE, Hazen-Martin DJ, Vincent TS, Olson JC (July 1999). "Differential sensitivity of human epithelial ... "LAB 8: IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA THROUGH BIOCHEMICAL TESTING". Biol 230 Lab Manual. Retrieved 9 December 2013. Pakshir, Keyvan ... Pandey A, Nigam P, Soccol CR, Soccol VT, Singh D, Mohan R (2000). "Advances in microbial amylases". Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem. ...
In Taipei, Taiwan, a 2010 city health survey found one-third of tested dried fruit products failed health standard tests, most ... Fruit acids, such as malic acid and tartaric acid, contribute to flavor enhancement and act as anti-microbial agents (suppress ... of the whole population with potential for sulfite-sensitivity. These individuals make up the subgroup of greatest concern and ...
... the study reported an exon detection sensitivity averaging to 69% and transcript detection sensitivity had an average of mere ... A straightforward Mann-Whitney U test can detect modified portions of the E. coli sequence, as well as further split the ... For example, in one study, it was demonstrated that de novo assembly of a microbial genome using PacBio sequencing alone ... This approach has been previously tested and reported to reduce the error rate by more than 3 folds. Metagenomics is the ...
The influence of temperature on microbial diversity in wounds in white and black spruces was investigated by Dumas and ... In the US, protocols for tree management prior to, during and after construction activities are well established, tested and ... have long recognised the sensitivity of tree health to construction activities. The effects are important because they can ...
S. pneumoniae can also be distinguished based on its sensitivity to lysis by bile, the so-called "bile solubility test". The ... "Adaptive value of sex in microbial pathogens" (PDF). Infect. Genet. Evol. 8 (3): 267-85. doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2008.01.002 ... Optochin sensitivity in a culture of Streptococcus pneumoniae ... bacitracin resistant, CAMP test+: S. agalactiae *Group B ... using an optochin test, as S. pneumoniae is optochin-sensitive. ...
The filing pathway requires more testing than for small-molecule generics, but less testing than for registering completely new ... Due to their heterogeneity and the high process sensitivity, originators and follow-on biosimilars will exhibit variability in ... Biopharmaceuticals may be produced from microbial cells (e.g., recombinant E. coli or yeast cultures), mammalian cell lines ( ... in addition to physico-chemical testing, biological testing for full characterisation. The characterisation of a biological ...
There are inherent difficulties in testing for allergic-type reactions that manifest after a delay. This alone does not mean ... There also exists a chronically activated immune system, which may result from the initial insult or co-existent microbial, or ... The following is a personal account of Multiple Chemical Sensitivity by a member of South London Solidarity Federation. The ... Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (posted 19. February) Call for Soldarity for the Woolwich Free Ferry Strikes (posted 3. February ...
MULTIPLE CHEMICAL SENSITIVITIES, CANCER,HANDCRAFTED,TEXAS SOAPERS ASSOCIATION, ABSOLUTELY ORGANIC,HANDMADE BEAUTY NETWORK, ... MULTIPLE CHEMICAL SENSITIVITIES, FRAGRANCE FREE,TOXICFREE,NATURAL SKINCARE,ORGANIC SKIN CARE,ORGANIC BODY CARE, ORGANIC ACNE ... anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti-aging ingredient that also assists in boosting the immune system to create optimal health ... The Canadian Willowherb lotion was especially effective during the first three measured points of the test, the time that is ...
Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Microbial Sensitivity Tests. *Susceptibility to metronidazole was tested in ... Biological context of Microbial Sensitivity Tests. *The pmrA-pmrB operon was also found to be activated by a number of cationic ... Associations of Microbial Sensitivity Tests with chemical compounds. *There was no significant correlation between the minimum ... Anatomical context of Microbial Sensitivity Tests. *The levels of lomefloxacin in serum and prostatic tissue were found to be ...
"Microbial Sensitivity Tests" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Microbial Sensitivity Tests" was a ... "Microbial Sensitivity Tests" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Microbial Sensitivity Tests*Microbial Sensitivity Tests. *Microbial Sensitivity Test. *Sensitivity Test, Microbial ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Microbial Sensitivity Tests" by people in Profiles. ...
Drug testing, Culture & Sensitivity, Anti-microbial testing, Traditional Indian Medicine, Siddha medicine, New drugs, Mercuric ... Anti-Microbial Sensitivity Testing of a Traditional Indian Medicine. In this study, a Siddha drug, "Saveera Chendooram" which ... ANTI-MICROBIAL SENSITIVITY TESTING. In this study, a Siddha drug, "Saveera Chendooram" which was prepared as per the procedure ... Muller-Hilton agar is used for the drug sensitivity testing because it is a non nutrient media which gives better results.. ...
"Microbial Sensitivity Tests". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X. Y. Z. * 0-9 ...
Aqueous, hexane and alcoholic extracts of each plant were tested for their antibacterial activity using agar well diffusion ... Of these, 40 plant extracts showed varied levels of antimicrobial activity against one or more test bacteria. Anticandidal ... The results indicated that out of 82 plants, 56 exhibited antibacterial activity against one or more test pathogens. ... Delonix regia and Emblica officinalis were found to be detrimental to test dermatophytes. ...
The API test system Rapid ID 32 Strep and Rapid ID 32 E showed the highest proportion of identifications to the species level, ... corresponding to 422 samples.16S rRNA sequence analysis and identification with API test system were used to identify the ... formed 29 OTUs that could be identified to the species level and 9 OTUs that could be identified to the genus level by API test ... were screened for microbial contamination under routine conditions. The antibiotic resistance profile for all isolates was also ...
Results of search for su:{Microbial sensitivity tests} Refine your search. *Availability * Limit to currently available items ... Standardization of methods for conducting microbic sensitivity tests : second report of the Expert Committee on Antibiotics [ ... Field application of in vitro assays for the sensitivity of human malaria parasites to antimalarial drugs / Léonardo K. Basco. ... A rapid method for isolation cultivation and testing drug susceptiblity of M. tuberculosis / N. Veeraraghavan.. by ...
Results of search for su:{Microbial sensitivity tests} and su-to:Manuals. ... A Practical handbook for antimalarial drug therapeutic efficacy testing for the district health worker. by World Health ...
31 Antimicrobic Sensitivity Testing: The Kirby-Bauer Method. 32 Evaluation of Antiseptics: The Filter Paper Disk Method. 33 ... 47 Reductase Test. 48 Temperature: Lethal Effects. 49 Microbial Spoilage of Canned Food. 50 Microbiology of Alcohol ... 56 Slide Agglutination Test for S. aureus. 57 Slide Agglutination Test for Streptococcus. 58 The Heterophile Antibody Test. 59 ... 26 pH and Microbial Growth. 27 Water Activity and Osmotic Pressure. 28 Ultraviolet Light: Lethal Effects. 29 The Effects of ...
Drug Resistance, Microbial. Microbial Sensitivity Tests. Salvage Therapy. Anti-HIV Agents. Viral Load. Treatment Experienced. ... Other studies suggest a benefit if drug-resistance tests are used in selecting a new anti-HIV drug treatment. This study tests ... Salvage Treatment, Resistance Testing, and Withdrawal of Anti-HIV Drugs for HIV Patients Failing Current Anti-HIV Treatment. ... This study tests the hypothesis that salvage regimens selected on the basis of HIV-1 resistance genotype, phenotype [AS PER ...
Drug Resistance, Microbial. Sequence Analysis, DNA. Microbial Sensitivity Tests. Genotype. Phenotype. Anti-HIV Agents. ... and both tests predict virologic response to salvage therapy in patients who have failed a previous regimen. Resistance testing ... Two types of tests can detect resistance to drugs: 1) genotyping (sequencing), which looks at the DNA sequence of a virus to ... The test results are available between Weeks 1 and 4, inclusive. There are weekly visits for the first 4 weeks after entry to ...
Microbial Sensitivity Tests. *Outpatients. *Patients. *Penicillins. *Polymorphism,Restriction Fragment Length. *RESISTANCE. * ...
Macrophages :: microbiology; Mice; Microbial Sensitivity Tests;. Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet; Support, Non-U.S. Govt; ... They tested one of the drugs which is very good in malaria and found. almost ALL of its efficacy was due TO .. ? .. the ... Sili (#18) "I think it makes sense to start giving exclusive rights to drugs from the point when the testing is done and ...
Microbial Sensitivity Tests. Oils, Volatile / pharmacology*. Phytotherapy. Plant Oils / pharmacology. Terpenes / pharmacology. ...
Microbial Sensitivity Tests. Molecular Sequence Data. Mycological Typing Techniques. Phylogeny. Saccharomycetales / isolation ...
Keywords : gonorrhea; Neisseria gonorrhoeae; drug resistance; microbial sensitivity tests. · abstract in Portuguese · text in ... it was necessary to carry out a program of epidemiologic surveillance evaluating the sensitivity behavior of the etiologic ...
Anti-microbial sensitivity test and testing stratum. US4838876 *. Feb 11, 1988. Jun 13, 1989. The Kendall Company. Silicone ... After this test is completed, the completed catheters 5 that have passed all tests, are then packaged, preferably in a material ... After this test is completed, the completed sleeved Foley catheters 4 that have passed all tests, are then packaged, ... is tested to see if it is functional and if it has any leaks. This testing can be done before or after the fluid conduit access ...
47 Reductase Test 48 Temperature: Lethal Effects 49 Microbial Spoilage of Canned Food 50 Microbiology of Alcohol Fermentation ... 31 Antimicrobic Sensitivity Testing: The Kirby-Bauer Method 32 Evaluation of Antiseptics: The Filter Paper Disk Method 33 ... 56 Slide Agglutination Test for S. aureus 57 Slide Agglutination Test for Streptococcus 58 The Heterophile Antibody Test 59 ... 56 Slide Agglutination Test for S. aureus 57 Slide Agglutination Test for Streptococcus 58 The Heterophile Antibody Test 59 ...
... of food. *Advances in microbial sensitivity test. Related Conference of Microbial Testing. September 10-11, ... Microbial Testing. Microbial Testing. A microbial test is a laboratory test that checks for the presence of microorganisms in a ... Microbial test rely on traditional microbiological techniques, where bacteria in a sample are allowed to grow in nutrients, ... Food products, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and water are common sources of samples for a microbial test. There are strict ...
antibiotic sensitivity test synonyms, antibiotic sensitivity test pronunciation, antibiotic sensitivity test translation, ... English dictionary definition of antibiotic sensitivity test. n. A substance, such as penicillin or erythromycin, produced by ... The PetScreen Directed Chemotherapy Assay (DCA) works in a very similar manner to the microbial antibiotic sensitivity test.. ... 5 turbidity standard for use in antibiotic sensitivity test.. Investigations into the microbial contamination of toothbrushes ...
Microbial Sensitivity Tests * Molecular Epidemiology* * Risk Factors * Salmonella Food Poisoning / epidemiology* * Salmonella ...
Microbial Sensitivity Tests * Mutation * Myanmar * Mycobacterium tuberculosis / genetics* * Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant ... All 14 isolates were MDR-TB, consistent with the results of phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST), and the Beijing ...
... is the industry standard and easy-to-use testing kit that helps farmers, dairies and milk control labs keep contamination at ... Unique microbial test with high sensitivity on tetracyclines. *Detection of antibiotic residues close to international ... Microbial and fast tests which can be used complementary, throughout the whole milk supply chain ... Antibiotic residue tests *Delvotest® *Delvotest® for Farmers *Delvotest® for Dairies *Delvotest® for Milk Control Laboratories ...
  • Because of this, in order to establish a program to combat and control a determined bacterial morbidity, it was necessary to carry out a program of epidemiologic surveillance evaluating the sensitivity behavior of the etiologic agents against the various therapeutic agents. (scielo.br)
  • Many other products, especially liquid preparations and creams for topical application to severely injured skin, large open wounds or mucus membrane which are liable to bacterial, mould and fungal contamination from the atmosphere ( or less frequently from the contaminated equipments during manufacture) should be controlled for microbial contamination. (scribd.com)
  • While detecting bacterial contaminants or measuring levels of regulated chemicals is relatively easy and routinely done, current test indicators do not detect viruses or parasites, and these continue to be the source of numerous waterborne outbreaks. (cwn-rce.ca)
  • Charles River has developed and optimized a range of quantitative and qualitative kinetic turbidimetric LAL reagents and other bacterial endotoxin testing solutions that provide increased sensitivity, greater linearity, and superior interference resistance. (criver.com)
  • Our bacterial endotoxin testing services laboratory can support you with performing your critical tests to help streamline the process to final product release. (criver.com)
  • Bacterial dysbiosis is a common finding among environmental illness sufferers going by results from stool analysis, organic acid testing, hydrogen breath tests and gut fermentation profiles reported in lay literature. (ei-resource.org)
  • Given these findings it's a good idea to have one or more of the lab tests mentioned above to determine if you have a bacterial overgrowth problem as treating this may improve your overall condition considerably. (ei-resource.org)
  • The use of antibiotics should be based on bacterial culture and antibiotic sensitivity testing ( Capello 2008 ). (bmj.com)
  • The model could be scaled to include data from larger consortia, or be applied to microbial communities where sharing metabolic resources is important in shaping bacterial abundance. (frontiersin.org)
  • The results indicated that out of 82 plants, 56 exhibited antibacterial activity against one or more test pathogens. (isharonline.org)
  • 2011. Pathogens in water: value and limits of correlation with microbial indicators. (cwn-rce.ca)
  • establish an astounding 85% probability for multiple microbial infections in LD patients that include tick-borne pathogens and non-tick-borne opportunistic microbes. (news-medical.net)
  • 1. Powell M, Ebel E, Schlosser W. Considering uncertainty in comparing the burden of illness due to foodborne microbial pathogens. (cdc.gov)
  • This last use of testing finished products for pathogens has emerged in light of recent outbreaks as a condition of sale to protect against product liability for some customers. (pma.com)
  • A rapid method for isolation cultivation and testing drug susceptiblity of M. tuberculosis / N. Veeraraghavan. (who.int)
  • La tuberculosis multirresistente (MR) constituye un importante problema de salud pública que amenaza el progreso hacia un control eficaz de la tuberculosis en el mundo. (scielosp.org)
  • Los pacientes con antecedentes de tratamiento antituberculoso presentan un mayor riesgo de padecer tuberculosis MR. En la presente investigación operativa se describe el rendimiento diagnóstico del cultivo y el antibiograma (prueba de sensibilidad a drogas) en los pacientes registrados como casos de tuberculosis previamente tratados en la República Dominicana en el 2014, mediante un estudio retrospectivo de cohortes, a partir de los datos recolectados rutinariamente por el programa. (scielosp.org)
  • La falta de antibiograma y la demora en la recepción de sus resultados ocasionan una subestimación del número de casos de tuberculosis MR y obstaculizan el inicio oportuno del tratamiento de este tipo de tuberculosis. (scielosp.org)
  • Using the LRP NAP test, 47 (94%) out of 50 isolates were correctly identified as tuberculosis complex. (asm.org)
  • NAA-positive respiratory specimen or one M. tuberculosis culture from each TB patient or TB suspect (estimate testing 15,000 to 20,000 samples per year). (cdc.gov)
  • A significant microbial shift in composition was observed: genus Streptococcus and Veillonella increased while Corynebacterium, Haemophilus, Leptotrichia, Cardiobacterium and Capnocytophaga decreased ( p ≤ 0.001). (frontiersin.org)
  • To investigate three tropical plant materials - clove seeds [Syzygium aromaticum (S. aromaticum)], bitter kola fruits [Garcinia kola (G. kola)] and tobacco leaves (Nicotiana species) as potential targeted killers of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), a cavity-causing bacterium (gram-positive, facultative anaerobe) that resides in a multispecies microbial community (dental plaque) for the treatment of dental caries (tooth decay). (nih.gov)
  • Field application of in vitro assays for the sensitivity of human malaria parasites to antimalarial drugs / Léonardo K. Basco. (who.int)
  • Aliquots were spiked with the equivalent of one C. trachomatis elementary body and were tested by three commercial assays: AMPLICOR CT/NG, Chlamydia LCX, and Chlamydia TMA. (asm.org)
  • Miniaturization of traditional immunoassay and molecular test technologies has finally matured to the point where they may be ready for scale-up and then commercialization into products. (marketpublishers.com)
  • This report takes a look at both prevention procedures such as sterilization and surface area disinfection and testing such as molecular tests and immunoassays. (kaloramainformation.com)
  • The key advantage of the molecular tests is that they can provide results within 24 to 48 hours, because they take advantage of the speed of nucleic acid amplification. (cdc.gov)
  • Genetic or molecular tests for detecting mutations are, in general, variations of nucleic acid amplification (NAA) tests. (cdc.gov)
  • These results suggest that variations in microbial abundance and activities in the infant gut were mainly explained by metabolic interactions, and could be properly modeled using Monod kinetics with metabolic interactions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Such testing is used for product safety, to look for signs of contamination in products that will be sold to the public, and for lab control, to confirm that the products and equipment being used in a lab are not contaminated with microorganisms. (omicsonline.org)
  • Microbial Contamination-A Regulatory Perspective. (scribd.com)
  • The concern of FDA and compendia towods microbial contamination described in this article. (scribd.com)
  • Certain materials, which are particularly prone to microbial contamination, may constitute a health hazard unless they are carefully controlled. (scribd.com)
  • The most satisfactory control therefore is one which set a requirement for freedom from specified microbial contamination. (scribd.com)
  • The major difficulty of the microbial investigation is to obtain the sample from the lower respiratory tract, mainly because of the potential contamination with upper airways flora, which may result in a misinterpretation of the cultures. (ersjournals.com)
  • This enables you to test at multiple points in cell lines, cell banks, and harvest media, increasing your productivity and reducing risk of downstream contamination. (thermofisher.com)
  • Incoming raw materials from pharmaceutical ingredients, chemical compounds, vitamins, minerals, herbs and even food ingredients are tested for the presence of undesirable microbes according to the current USP (United States Pharmacopeias) methods. (scribd.com)
  • In recent years, there have been improved methods for testing infected patients. (kaloramainformation.com)
  • Our exceptional kinetic turbidimetric endotoxin test formulations are licensed for kinetic and gel-clot analyses and allow for a direct correlation between the methods. (criver.com)
  • Tests are performed with multiparametric flow cytometry methods of cell sorting for later in vitro examination capability. (santa.lt)
  • In tests of adaptive hypotheses, examining interspecific correlations between traits and environmental conditions, independent contrasts and related methods address the statistical nonindependence among species due to common ancestry. (els.net)
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among subjects who visited the Care Hospital, Nampally Hyderabad for CIMT test. (bvsalud.org)
  • The methods employ a testing system wherein an aqueous suspension of microorganisms is introduced to one or more test substrates comprising redox purple (8-hydroxy-11-methyldibenz- b,e! (google.com)
  • The methods detect the response of the microorganisms to the test substrates. (google.com)
  • The endotoxin testing performed by Charles River uses customer-requested methods for submitted samples. (criver.com)
  • When selecting test methods, be sure that the test has been validated to find the target organism in the commodity you produce. (pma.com)
  • It is becoming increasingly apparent that in-situ testing methods will be required to fully understand microbial processes occurring in the deep subsurface, especially in contaminated environments, which typically display steep geochemical gradients. (epa.gov)
  • ATCC Microbial Panels enable faster, more intelligent choices when selecting cultures for microbial-based disease research. (atcc.org)
  • DSM understands the importance of the Milk Control Laboratories in the dairy value chain and our global team of experts will help them reach maximum throughput in milk testing for antibiotic residues. (dsm.com)
  • There are service laboratories available that can assist producers in setting up various types of testing programs. (pma.com)
  • An initial aim of all microbiologists is the reproducible growth of their microbial cultures, no matter whether the microorganisms are of natural origin or have been genetically engineered by man. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Few materials are self sterilizing but many products capable of supporting microbial growth requires the addition of suitable antibacterial or antifungal agents, if microbiological spoilage of the product is to be completely avoided. (scribd.com)
  • The inhibition of microbial growth by both essential oils, presented as MIC values, were determined by agar dilution. (mdpi.com)
  • AX showed high inter-species variation in microbial growth inhibition. (frontiersin.org)
  • Reproducible growth requires defined environmental conditions with respect to energy source, temperature, pH and nutrients (see Microbial Growth Requirements ). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Microbial growth requires suitable environmental conditions, a source of energy, and nourishment. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Table of the elements required for microbial growth as found in nature compared to the chemical forms supplied to microbiological media. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In this study, a bottom-up approach was followed to develop a mathematical model based on microbial growth equations that incorporate metabolic sharing and inhibition. (frontiersin.org)
  • C) DNase activity was assessed by measuring the size (in millimeters) of the halo around the test isolates indicating hydrolyzed DNA. (nih.gov)
  • The iTRAQ-LC-MS analysis identified 214 and 178 individual proteins in each biological repeat across the full set of isolates tested, and mean relative protein values were calculated. (nih.gov)
  • In total, 50 MTC isolates were tested. (asm.org)
  • With the exception of 2 isolates, Enterococcus faecium and Nocardia exalbida, all the other 725 (99.7%) gram-positive bacteria tested were susceptible to vancomycin. (nih.gov)
  • The isolates were characterized by gram staining and catalase test. (nih.gov)
  • Microbial interactions in the gut are mediated by dietary substrates, especially complex polysaccharides. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recently, modeling approaches such as genome-scale models and time-series analyses have been useful to predict microbial interactions. (frontiersin.org)
  • A Practical handbook for antimalarial drug therapeutic efficacy testing for the district health worker. (who.int)
  • Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses). (harvard.edu)
  • The approach greatly enhanced the sensitivity and applicability of FISH with seawater samples, allowing confident identification and enumeration of planktonic cells to ocean depths of 3,400 m. (asm.org)
  • Because the demand for consumer products is growing as the world's population grows, increases in product quality and safety testing appear to continue undaunted by current worldwide economic problems. (omicsonline.org)
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • The kinetic turbidimetric endotoxin test is designed to provide accurate and reliable results on even your most difficult products. (criver.com)
  • With KTA and KTA 2 , you will receive accurate endotoxin results on even your most difficult products in the same amount of time it takes to run a gel-clot LAL test. (criver.com)
  • Charles River offers depyrogenation validation testing from oven validation to stopper washing endotoxin reduction using specifically contaminated articles to verify a 3-log reduction in endotoxin content. (criver.com)
  • This step may create antibiotic-microbial resistant species, or reduce patient immunity. (scirp.org)
  • Comparative biology focuses on similarities and differences among species to test hypotheses in ecology, evolutionary biology and related fields. (els.net)
  • This similarity must be considered in tests of adaptive correlations between organismal traits and environmental conditions, as it can create statistical nonindependence among species. (els.net)
  • In vitro studies of water extracts of plants such as Terminalia chebula, Punica granatum, Delonix regia and Emblica officinalis were found to be detrimental to test dermatophytes. (isharonline.org)
  • d) detecting the response of said microorganisms to said one or more test substrates. (google.com)
  • d) detecting the response of said microorganisms to said testing substrate. (google.com)
  • cases reported, samples tested for Salmonella , and physician-obtained samples, provided negative influence on overall estimate of annual cases, means the higher these proportions are, the lower the multipliers, as well as the lower the uncertainty of the annual cases estimate. (cdc.gov)
  • Gel-clot - Specific sensitivity requests can be met with ranges that include 0.015 to 0.25 EU/mL for gel-clot. (criver.com)
  • Liquid medium method LiquiPrep (USA) is used for gynecologic and non-gynecologic specimen preparation, which enables a broad spectrum of tests from the same sample. (santa.lt)
  • The antibiotic sensitivity test credited ciprofloxacin the best because it exhibited broad spectrum of action. (nih.gov)