Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Microbial Consortia: A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.Oil and Gas Fields: Areas of the earth where hydrocarbon deposits of PETROLEUM and/or NATURAL GAS are located.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Microbiota: The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.Groundwater: Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.Ammonium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that include a positively charged tetrahedral nitrogen (ammonium ion) as part of their structure. This class of compounds includes a broad variety of simple ammonium salts and derivatives.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Metagenomics: The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Waste Water: Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.Betaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.RNA, Archaeal: Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.DNA, Archaeal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Polyhydroxyalkanoates: Fatty acid biopolymers that are biosynthesized by microbial polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase enzymes. They are being investigated for use as biodegradable polyesters.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Rhizosphere: The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Bacteroidetes: A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Actinobacteria: Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Nitrification: A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Lakes: Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Denitrification: Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.Alphaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Fagus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Uranium: Uranium. A radioactive element of the actinide series of metals. It has an atomic symbol U, atomic number 92, and atomic weight 238.03. U-235 is used as the fissionable fuel in nuclear weapons and as fuel in nuclear power reactors.Pacific OceanHydrocarbonsPolymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Hot Springs: Habitat of hot water naturally heated by underlying geologic processes. Surface hot springs have been used for BALNEOLOGY. Underwater hot springs are called HYDROTHERMAL VENTS.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.North SeaSpecies Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Microbial Interactions: The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.Ice Cover: A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.Nitrosomonas: A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.Deltaproteobacteria: A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Bays: An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Zooplankton: Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Seaweed: Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.Community Networks: Organizations and individuals cooperating together toward a common goal at the local or grassroots level.Bathing Beaches: Beaches, both natural and man-made, used for bathing and other activities.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Hydrothermal Vents: Hot springs on the ocean floor. They are commonly found near volcanically active places such as mid-oceanic ridges.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Hospitals, Community: Institutions with permanent facilities and organized medical staff which provide the full range of hospital services primarily to a neighborhood area.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Hydrology: Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Alveolata: A group of three related eukaryotic phyla whose members possess an alveolar membrane system, consisting of flattened membrane-bound sacs lying beneath the outer cell membrane.Principal Component Analysis: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.Cytophaga: A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.Nitrosomonadaceae: A family of gram-negative nitrifying bacteria, in the order Nitrosomonadales, class BETAPROTEOBACTERIA.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Coral Reefs: Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Calcium Sulfate: A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.Trifolium: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Hares: The genus Lepus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Hares are born above ground, fully furred, and with their eyes and ears open. In contrast with RABBITS, hares have 24 chromosome pairs.Ciliophora: A phylum of EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of cilia at some time during the life cycle. It comprises three classes: KINETOFRAGMINOPHOREA; OLIGOHYMENOPHOREA; and POLYMENOPHOREA.Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.Lolium: Common member of the Gramineae family used as cattle FODDER. It harbors several fungi and other parasites toxic to livestock and people and produces allergenic compounds, especially in its pollen. The most commonly seen varieties are L. perenne, L. multiflorum, and L. rigidum.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Soil Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Community Health Workers: Persons trained to assist professional health personnel in communicating with residents in the community concerning needs and availability of health services.Acidobacteria: A physiologically diverse phylum of acidophilic, gram-negative bacteria found in a wide variety of habitats, but particularly abundant in soils and sediments.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Genes, Archaeal: The functional genetic units of ARCHAEA.Diatoms: The common name for the phylum of microscopic unicellular STRAMENOPILES. Most are aquatic, being found in fresh, brackish, and salt water. Diatoms are noted for the symmetry and sculpturing of their siliceous cell walls. They account for 40% of PHYTOPLANKTON, but not all diatoms are planktonic.Methanomicrobiaceae: A family of anaerobic METHANOMICROBIALES whose cells are coccoid to straight or slightly curved rods. There are six genera.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Water Quality: A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Altitude: A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.Agrostis: A plant genus of the family POACEAE.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Refuse Disposal: The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Petroleum Pollution: Release of oil into the environment usually due to human activity.Crenarchaeota: A kingdom in the domain ARCHAEA comprised of thermoacidophilic, sulfur-dependent organisms. The two orders are SULFOLOBALES and THERMOPROTEALES.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)CaliforniaRNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Microbiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of microorganisms, including ARCHAEA; BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; and others.Autotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Isoptera: An order of insects, restricted mostly to the tropics, containing at least eight families. A few species occur in temperate regions of North America.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.FiresDaphnia: A diverse genus of minute freshwater CRUSTACEA, of the suborder CLADOCERA. They are a major food source for both young and adult freshwater fish.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Community Medicine: A branch of medicine concerned with the total health of the individual within the home environment and in the community, and with the application of comprehensive care to the prevention and treatment of illness in the entire community.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Cyanobacteria: A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Embryophyta: Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Heterotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.MiningOxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Sulfur-Reducing Bacteria: A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.Garbage: Discarded animal and vegetable matter from a kitchen or the refuse from food preparation. (From Random House College Dictionary, 1982)OregonVerrucomicrobia: A phylum of gram-negative bacteria containing seven class-level groups from a wide variety of environments. Most members are chemoheterotrophs.Chloroflexi: Phylum of green nonsulfur bacteria including the family Chloroflexaceae, among others.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Wyoming
Sørensen KB, Canfield DE, Teske AP, Oren A (Nov 2005). "Community composition of a hypersaline endoevaporitic microbial mat". ... Phototrophic biofilms can best be described as surface attached microbial communities (see also Biofilm and Chemistry of ... The 3.4-billion-year fossil record of benthic phototrophic communities, such as microbial mats and stromatolites, indicates ... Hoehler TM, Bebout BM, Des Marais DJ (Jul 2001). "The role of microbial mats in the production of reduced gases on the early ...
"Microbial community composition and function in wastewater treatment plants". Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. 81 (1/4): 665-680. doi: ... "Metagenomic analysis of rapid gravity sand filter microbial communities suggests novel physiology of Nitrospira spp". The ISME ...
After the amplicons are sequenced, molecular phylogenetic methods are used to infer the composition of the microbial community ... a microbial community containing a diversity of bacteria is doing so. Analysis of the microbial population's genome revealed ... Community-Supported Software for Describing and Comparing Microbial Communities". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 75 ( ... Metagenomics is also used extensively for studying microbial communities.[54][55][56] In metagenomic sequencing, DNA is ...
"Top-down effects on the size-biomass distribution of a freshwater bacterioplankton community" (PDF). Aquatic Microbial Ecology ... Jürgens, Klaus; Carsten Matz (2002). "Predation as a shaping force for the phenotypic and genotypic composition of planktonic ... It affects prokaryotic size and the distribution of microbial groups. There are several feeding mechanisms used to seek and ... However, the filamentous members of some communities have vital roles in the population´s continued existence, since the ...
Microbial communities[edit]. Sea spray containing marine microorganisms can be swept high into the atmosphere. These airborne ... The composition of the sea spray depends primarily on the composition of the water from which it is produced, but broadly ... However, the microbial community in sea spray is often distinct from nearby water and sandy beaches, suggesting that some ... Given that sea spray retains the properties of the water from which it was produced, the composition of sea spray experiences ...
The mineral make-up of the rocks affects the composition and abundance of these subseafloor microbial communities present.[6] ... In the oceanic crustal aquifer, the largest aquifer on Earth,[5] microbial communities can impact ocean productivity, sea water ... Microbial degradation of hydrocarbons[edit]. Main article: Microbial biodegradation. Microbes can affect the quality of oil and ... are possible sources of metabolic energy to support chemolithoautotrophic microbial communities on Early Earth and on other ...
"Changes in Microbial Community Composition and Function during a Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon Phytoremediation Field Trial". ... and the nonmetal accumulator Trifolium pratense L. on soil microbial populations". Can. J. Microbiol. 47 (8): 773-6. doi: ...
A diverse microbial community resides around Lōihi's many hydrothermal vents. In the summer of 1996, a swarm of 4,070 ... The composition of the materials was similar to that of black smokers, the hydrothermal vent plumes located along mid-ocean ... A diverse community of microbial mats surround the vents and virtually cover Pele's Pit. The Hawaiʻi Undersea Research ... "A novel lineage of proteobacteria involved in formation of marine Fe-oxidizing microbial mat communities". PLoS ONE. 2 (8): ...
Changes in Microbial Community Composition and Function during a Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon Phytoremediation Field Trial. Applied ... and the nonmetal accumulator Trifolium pratense L. on soil microbial populations. Conseil National de Recherches du Canada [4] ...
Papineau, Dominic; Walker, Jeffrey J.; Mojzsis, Stephen J.; Pace, Norman R. "Composition and Structure of Microbial Communities ... Hamelin Pool contains the most diverse range of stromatolites and microbial diversity in the world.[5][6] ... The cyanobacteria live in communities on the sea bed at densities of 3 billion individuals per square metre. They are the ... Western Australia & Bancroft, K & Davidson, J (2002). In Field survey of marine ecological communities in Shark Bay Marine Park ...
Batten, KM; Skow KM; Davies KF; Harrison SP (2006). "Two invasive plants alter soil microbial community composition in ... composition, and structure of microbial communities". Front. Environ. Sci. Eng. China. 5 (1): 1-20. doi:10.1007/s11783-011-0301 ... inferences can be made about the connection between fungal community composition and microbial functionality. Specific ... All the recent advances in molecular genetics clearly permit the analysis of microbial communities at much finer and functional ...
These differences in the structure and composition of microbial communities may underlie well-known differences in the ... "Differences in the composition of vaginal microbial communities found in healthy Caucasian and black women". ISME J. 1: 121-133 ... This implies that not all communities may be equally resilient, so that if the resilience of a vaginal community is low then ... "Characterization of vaginal microbial communities in adult healthy women using cultivation-independent methods". Microbiology. ...
"Links between plant community composition, soil organic matter quality and microbial communities in contrasting tundra habitats ... Sylvie Impact of reclamation of surface-mined boreal forest soils on microbial community composition and function. Soil Biology ... Subalpine communities; located below the alpine communities (6,500-8,200 feet) support the presence of lodgepole pine, ... Dry vegetative communities will outnumber hydric vegetative communities in this particular area. Furthermore, a one degree ...
2014). "Visual Analysis of the Quantitative Composition of Metagenomic Communities: the AmphoraVizu Webserver". Microbial ... therefore AMPHORA2 is suitable for inferring the accurate taxonomic composition of bacterial and archaeal communities from ...
Marschner, Petra; Grierson, Pauline F.; Rengel, Zed (2006). "Microbial community composition and functioning in the rhizosphere ...
After the amplicons are sequenced, molecular phylogenetic methods are used to infer the composition of the microbial community ... a microbial community containing a diversity of bacteria is doing so. Analysis of the microbial population's genome revealed ... Community-Supported Software for Describing and Comparing Microbial Communities". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 75 ( ... One drawback of this approach is that many members of microbial communities do not have a representative sequenced genome. ...
Marschner, Petra; Grierson, Pauline F.; Rengel, Zed (2006). "Microbial community composition and functioning in the rhizosphere ... Species and Communities Branch (13 April 2012). "Priority Threatened Ecological Communities for Western Australia: Version 17 ... community type 22'), a possibly threatened ecological community found in the Bassendean and Spearwood systems in the central ... Bishop, C.L.; Wardell-Johnson, G.W.; Williams, M.R. (2010). "Community-level changes in Banksia woodland following plant ...
"Effects of ocean acidification on microbial community composition of, and oxygen fluxes through, biofilms from the Great ...
... secreted by the microbial community, and affects crystal morphology and composition. Examples of this type of mineralization ... "Processes of carbonate precipitation in modern microbial mats". Earth-Science Reviews. Microbial Mats in Earth's Fossil Record ... Vermeij, Geerat J. (2013-09-27). "The oyster enigma variations: a hypothesis of microbial calcification". Paleobiology. 40 (1 ... Biomineralization, biologically-controlled mineralization, occurs when crystal morphology, growth, composition, and location is ...
By altering its microbial composition, the "holobiont" can adapt to changing environmental conditions far more rapidly than by ... They found that coral species do not inherit microbial communities, and are instead colonized by a core group of microbes that ... This hypothesis proposes that a dynamic relationship exists between corals and their symbiotic microbial communities. ... "The association between a host organism and its microbial community affect both the host and its microbiota." "The genetic ...
Examples of recent publications: With I. Djukic, F. Zehetner und A. Mentler: Microbial community composition and activity in ... Organic soil composition and humus chemistry: Characterization of humic substance systems via physical and chemical methods. ...
This technique shows to what extent microbial communities are the same or different in taxonomic composition. Each band in a ... These properties make community fingerprinting especially useful for monitoring changes in microbial communities over time. ... and human microbial communities) to measure biodiversity or track changes in community structure over time. The method analyzes ... Community fingerprinting is used by microbiologists studying a variety of microbial systems (e.g. marine, freshwater, soil, ...
... of their microbial community with wild frogs. These results demonstrate that host-associated microbial communities can be ... but most of the community composition can be preserved. Reintroduction efforts from captive assurance colonies are unlikely to ... The skin of amphibians is host to a diverse resident bacterial community, which acts as a defense mechanism in some amphibians ... Researchers characterized the bacterial community from wild and captive Panamanian golden frogs originating from the same ...
Changes in Microbial Community Composition and Function during a Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon Phytoremediation Field Trial. Applied ... and the nonmetal accumulator Trifolium pratense L. on soil microbial populations. Conseil National de Recherches du Canada. ... and the nonmetal accumulator Trifolium pratense L. on soil microbial populations. Conseil National de Recherches du Canada. Can ...
They took stool samples of 76 children looking at the early development of microbial communities from 4-6 months of age until ... Also, GATC methylation demonstrates important microbial functions such as DNA repair, replication, and LPS composition. ... In 2014, researchers looked at the early development of bacterial composition in high genetic risk children looking at early ... This difference in bacteria composition in the gut system is increasingly believed to be highly important in understanding ...
how community structure, function and stability is determined.[36][37]. Ecological pyramids[edit]. See also: Ecological pyramid ... Warren, L. A.; Kauffman, M. E. (2003). "Microbial geoengineers". Science. 299 (5609): 1027-1029. doi:10.1126/science.1072076. ... species composition (type of species), richness (number of species), biomass (the dry weight of plants and animals), ... Top Left: A four level trophic pyramid sitting on a layer of soil and its community of decomposers. Top right: A three layer ...
Microbial Community Composition and Metabolism in Cystic Fibrosis. This study is currently recruiting participants. See ... Scientist have begun to realize that many types of bacteria often live together as a complex community, and the investigators ... To detect all the bacteria in that community, the investigators will use new methods that use bacterial genetic information and ... chemicals by the respiratory bacteria and to examine the effect of those chemicals on the makeup of the entire community of ...
Shifts in microbial community composition and function in the acidification of a lead/zinc mine tailings (pages 2431-2444). Lin ... Microbial communities along biogeochemical gradients in a hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer (pages 2603-2615). Karolin Tischer, ... Structure and function of the methanogenic microbial communities in Uruguayan soils shifted between pasture and irrigated rice ... Community structure of soil phototrophs along environmental gradients in arid Himalaya (pages 2505-2516). Kateřina Janatková, ...
Microbial community composition and diversity in rice straw digestion bioreactors with and without dairy manure. ... Mei R, Narihiro T, Nobu MK, Liu WT (2016) Effects of heat shocks on microbial community structure and microbial activity of a ... Effect of the organic loading rate increase and the presence of zeolite on microbial community composition and process ... suggesting major microbial community shifts occur with DM additions. However, community richness was lowest with 100% RS ( ...
The composition and degradation capacity of the bulk soil microbial community during the phytoremediation of soil contaminated ... Changes in microbial community composition and function during a polyaromatic hydrocarbon phytoremediation field trial.. ... Changes in Microbial Community Composition and Function during a Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon Phytoremediation Field Trial ... Changes in Microbial Community Composition and Function during a Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon Phytoremediation Field Trial ...
Soil was analyzed for bioavailable nutrients via Mehlich-1 extractions, as well as microbial community composition using ... but also on soil microbial community composition and activity. Previous reports have demonstrated significant impacts on soil ... Our results demonstrated significant shifts in microbial community composition in response to biochar amendment, the effects of ... microbial community structure. These impacts are modulated not only by the biochar composition, but also on the soils ...
The changes in microbial community structure cannot be fully captured with traditional methods that are limited only to ... Therefore, the main goal of this review is to discuss how common farming practices influence microbial activity in the soil, ... influence the composition, abundance and function of bacteria and fungi in the soil ecosystems. Some of these practices have ... and perspectives of developing efficient molecular tools in order to assess soil condition in the context of microbial ...
Effect of different heterotrophic plate count methods on the estimation of the composition of the culturable microbial ... community in DOAJ. DOAJ is an online directory that indexes and provides access to quality open access, peer-reviewed journals ... on the culturable microbial community composition was investigated by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and statistical ... The culturable community composition revealed significant effects assigned to temperature (p , 0.01), while for media type no ...
Microbial community composition varies based on seasonal dynamics (summer: strongly stratified water column; autumn: weakly ... The microbial community composition was analyzed from June to December 2016 using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The community was ... First Investigation of Microbial Community Composition in the Bridge (Gadeok Channel) between the Jinhae-Masan Bay and the ... The composition of the microbial communities was found to vary vertically and seasonally. The orders Flavobacteriales and ...
Gastrointestinal Microbial Community Composition and Habitat Structure in Howler Monkeys (Alouatta pigra). ... Gastrointestinal Microbial Community Composition and Habitat Structure in Howler Monkeys (Alouatta pigra). ... To investigate variation in gut microbial community composition within a species, we collected fecal samples from five groups ... Preliminary analyses indicate that differences in gut microbial community composition are related to the environment each group ...
Microbial Community Composition and Organic Carbon Cycling Processes of Permanently Cold Marine Sediments. EPA Grant Number: ... Title: Microbial Community Composition and Organic Carbon Cycling Processes of Permanently Cold Marine Sediments. Investigators ... 13C-labeled salicylate and PAHs (naphthalene and phenanthrene) are offered as growth substrates to a microbial community ... structure and function in microbial communities. Growth on a 13C-labeled compound results in the labeling of cell biomass, ...
However, no difference between DOM types was detected in these functions despite different community compositions. Extensive ... However, no difference between DOM types was detected in these functions despite different community compositions. Extensive ... This will have consequences for bacterioplankton and phytoplankton community composition and function, and significantly affect ... The shifts in bacterioplankton community composition, was especially driven by the proliferation of Bacteroidetes, ...
The maintenance of a low pH in the vagina through the microbial production of lactic acid is known to be an important defense ... Differences in the composition of vaginal microbial communities found in healthy Caucasian and black women ISME J. 2007 Jun;1(2 ... In this study, we defined and compared the species composition of vaginal bacterial communities in 144 Caucasian and black ... We postulate that because of these differences in composition, not all vaginal communities are equally resilient, and that ...
Pyrosequencing of the Chaperonin-60 Universal Target as a Tool for Determining Microbial Community Composition. John ... We also compared the taxonomic composition of a vaginal microbial community determined by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons ... Pyrosequencing of the Chaperonin-60 Universal Target as a Tool for Determining Microbial Community Composition ... Pyrosequencing of the Chaperonin-60 Universal Target as a Tool for Determining Microbial Community Composition ...
Microbial Community Humic Acid Microbial Community Structure Biogeochemical Process Microbial Community Composition These ... 2006) Linkages Between Microbial Community Composition and Biogeochemical Processes Across Scales. In: Verhoeven J.T.A., ... Roberts MS, Garland JL, Mills AL (2004) Microbial astronauts: assembling microbial communities for advanced life support ... Ogram A, Sharma K (2001) Analysis of soil microbial community structure. In: Hurst CJ, Crawford RL, Knudsen GR, McInerney MJ, ...
Relationship of environmental conditions to the microbial community.To examine the relationship between microbial community ... Dynamics of Microbial Community Composition and Function during In Situ Bioremediation of a Uranium-Contaminated Aquifer Joy D ... Dynamics of Microbial Community Composition and Function during In Situ Bioremediation of a Uranium-Contaminated Aquifer ... Dynamics of Microbial Community Composition and Function during In Situ Bioremediation of a Uranium-Contaminated Aquifer ...
Spatial covariation of microbial community composition and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration in a creosote-polluted ... Little is known about the spatial connection between soil microbial community composition and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ( ... Little is known about the spatial connection between soil microbial community composition and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ( ... and microbial community composition (PLFA fingerprints) were spatially autocorrelated, mostly within a distance of 25 m, and ...
While the microbial community changed from the common diet to the treatments was observed, an alteration in microbial community ... Microbial community analysis via 16S tag sequencing, displayed structuring of microbial communities (Bacteria and Archaea) by ... Th is study demonstrates that the diets tested altered the microbial community from the common diet but had no effect (P , 0.05 ... microbial community, and methane production cattle were esophageally tubed when fed a common diet and again during feeding of ...
Analysis of community composition is only one step in interrogating a microbial community. Isolation of cultures is another ... or the composition or members of a microbial community in a sample as identified by the method; or, a microbial consortium or a ... Compositions and methods for identifying and comparing members of microbial communities using amplicon sequences Abstract. In ... 4; or, a method for identifying a community composition, a microbial consortium, or a group of microbes with correlated ...
Effect of biostimulation on the distribution and composition of the microbial community of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon- ... Effect of biostimulation on the distribution and composition of the microbial community of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon- ... Effect of biostimulation on the distribution and composition of the microbial community of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon- ... The bacterial community composition and diversity of the PAH-contaminated soil were also examined using high throughput ...
Copepod carcasses in the subtropical convergence zone of the Sargasso Sea: implications for microbial community composition, ... Copepod carcasses in the subtropical convergence zone of the Sargasso Sea: implications for microbial community composition, ... Copepod carcasses in the subtropical convergence zone of the Sargasso Sea: implications for microbial community composition, ... Copepod carcasses in the subtropical convergence zone of the Sargasso Sea: implications for microbial community composition, ...
Here, we investigated the impact of nearly 30 years of carefully managed restoration on soil microbial communities at the ... advances in microbial analyses suggest that soil communities could be indicators restoration success. However, current ... Recovery of microbial clades within the Verrucomicrobia and Acidobacteria are an important feature of this convergence, and ... These communities converged toward those in local prairie remnants, suggesting that plant-focussed restoration has yielded soil ...
Microbial diversity varied considerably according to the high throughput sequencing analysis. Specifically, the number of ... This study aimed to investigate the continuous effects of humic acid on the physicochemical properties, microbial diversity, ... and microbial diversity of soil, which is beneficial for alleviating the obstacles of continuous cropping peanut. ... Microbial community composition and rhizodeposit-carbon assimilation in differently managed temperate grassland soils. Soil ...
Winter forest soil respiration controlled by climate and microbial community composition. Russell K. Monson, David L. Lipson, ... Winter forest soil respiration controlled by climate and microbial community composition. / Monson, Russell K.; Lipson, David L ... Winter forest soil respiration controlled by climate and microbial community composition. Nature. 2006 Feb 9;439(7077):711-714 ... title = "Winter forest soil respiration controlled by climate and microbial community composition", ...
Fecal samples were used to profile the microbial composition by 16 s ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. The hematopoietic Npc1 ... Variations in plasma lipid levels correlated with microbial diversity and richness as well as with several bacterial genera. ... mutation shifted the gut microbiota composition and increased microbial richness and diversity. ... influences gut microbiota composition in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (Ldlr−/−) mice fed a high-fat, high- ...
... of soil microbial communities in legacy contaminated soil and the resultant impact of treatment on the soil microbial community ... We observed that the presence of any of the selected plants rather than fertilization shaped the microbial community structure ... We observed that the presence of any of the selected plants rather than fertilization shaped the microbial community structure ... When we compared microbial diversity in root zones versus bulk soil, we observed an increase in the relative abundance of ...
  • The metabolic potential of the four microbial assemblages also displayed significant differences, with the open water and sandy substrate niches dominated by genes associated with core house-keeping processes such as amino acid, carbohydrate and protein metabolism as well as DNA and RNA synthesis and metabolism. (edu.au)
  • Furthermore, compared to other more recalcitrant and chemically heterogeneous DOM sources, the highly labile supraglacial DOM was unable to sustain the same magnitude of microbial metabolism. (montana.edu)
  • Although microbial metabolism in the sediment surface is recognized as key in regulating bulk chemical fluxes, it remains unknown how the microbial community and its metabolic processes are influenced by shifts in oxygen availability. (lu.se)
  • The COG annotation demonstrated that the predominant category was the microbial metabolism cluster in both soil samples, while the relative abundance of metabolic genes was increased in the Cd-contaminated soil. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The limitations of reductionism forced scientists to begin adopting new strategies using emerging concepts such as interspecies interaction, microbial community, biofilms, polymicrobial disease, etc. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The study of microbial biofilms has received significant attention and achieved significant popularity in the last decade. (asm.org)
  • The behavior of microbial biofilms in relationship to electrodes has been a fascinating field of study for the past decade. (caltech.edu)
  • Today, the main application of such biofilms (or in extension planktonic communities interacting with the electrode) appears bioproduction from CO 2 or organic substrates. (caltech.edu)
  • Phototrophic biofilms can best be described as surface attached microbial communities (see also Biofilm and Chemistry of Biofilm Prevention) mainly driven by light as the energy source with phototrophic organisms clearly present. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thick laminated multilayered phototrophic biofilms are usually referred to as microbial mats or phototrophic mats (see also biofilm). (wikipedia.org)
  • Phototrophic biofilms and microbial mats have been described in extreme environments like thermal springs, hyper saline ponds, desert soil crusts, and in lake ice covers in Antarctica. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, co-digesting RS with manure has benefits, but the impact of manure on AD microbial communities related to specific methane yields and also pathogens in AD digestates is not known. (springer.com)
  • To understand the relationships between diet, microbial community, and methane production cattle were esophageally tubed when fed a common diet and again during feeding of six treatment diets. (unl.edu)
  • While the microbial community changed from the common diet to the treatments was observed, an alteration in microbial community or methane production was not observed due to fat source. (unl.edu)
  • This included a microbial community composition with more habitat generalists, lower amounts of RNA transcripts attributed to methane oxidation, and a reduced rate of organic matter degradation. (lu.se)
  • Furthermore, it was shown that re-oxygenation efforts to remediate dead zones could ultimately be facilitated by in situ microbial molecular mechanisms involved in removal of toxic H2S and the potent greenhouse gas methane. (lu.se)
  • Mechanisms for electron transfer within microbial aggregates derived from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor converting brewery waste to methane were investigated in order to better understand the function of methanogenic consortia. (asm.org)
  • However, the importance of hydrogen and formate as intermediates in the conversion of organic matter to methane in natural communities is less clear. (asm.org)
  • This involves work with model organisms in laboratory systems, domestication of wild microbes for model studies, and sequencing based profiling of microbial communities in a variety of environments, including organismal microbiomes. (jcvi.org)
  • The researchers also periodically swabbed the surface of the kelp to grab DNA to identify which microbes were consorting with the kelp and how the composition of that community changed over time. (the-scientist.com)
  • About the possibility that microbes drive the disease, "the results are suggestive, but by no means conclusive," says Laura Parfrey , a microbial ecologist and evolutionary biologist at the University of British Columbia who was not part of the work. (the-scientist.com)
  • There was no detectable shift in the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) composition of the bulk soil community between treatments, but there were plant-specific and -selective effects on specific catabolic gene prevalence. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore the effect of different HPC methods, according to DIN EN ISO 6222 and EPA, on the culturable microbial community composition was investigated by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and statistical evaluation was performed. (doaj.org)
  • The microbial community composition was analyzed from June to December 2016 using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. (springer.com)
  • This was carried out based on the profiles of terminal restriction fragments of 16S rRNA genes, and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences of the numerically dominant microbial populations. (nih.gov)
  • Fecal samples were used to profile the microbial composition by 16 s ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. (nature.com)
  • In the present study, we characterised the bacterial community composition inside the digestive tract of a laboratory-reared clonal culture of Daphnia magna using 16S rRNA gene libraries and terminal-restriction length polymorphism fingerprint analyses. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • Here, we determined the composition of the oropharyngeal microbial community by means of deep sequencing of the amplified 16S rRNA gene in oropharyngeal swabs from patients with exacerbation-prone severe asthma, at baseline and during and after 6 months treatment with azithromycin or placebo. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Membrane distillation bioreactors (MDBR) have potential for industrial applications where wastewater is hot or waste heat is available, but the role of micro-organisms in MDBRs has never been determined, and thus was the purpose of this study.Microbial communities were characterized by bacterial and archaeal 16S and eukaryotic 18S rRNA gene tag-encoded pyrosequencing of DNA obtained from sludge. (edu.au)
  • The microbial population of female and male R. haemaphysaloides ticks was analyzed using Illumina Miseq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The total community DNA was extracted from the rhizosphere and analyzed by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), based on the alkaline phosphatase coding gene ( alp gene) and on the nitrogenase coding gene ( nifH gene). (mdpi.com)
  • The bacterial community of IPB-137 rhizosphere analyzed by alp gene also showed significant differences when compared to IPB-149 in both sampling times ( p ≤ 0.05). (mdpi.com)
  • Genomes and gene expression across light and productivity gradients in eastern subtropical Pacific microbial communities. (jcvi.org)
  • However, little is known about how in situ microbial communities may be impacted by CO 2 flooding, or if any permanent microbiological changes occur after flooding has ceased. (elsevier.com)
  • Bacterial strains isolated using a spray-plate technique and with the same PLFA composition as that in contaminated soil samples were capable of degrading phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene, indicating that the main PAH degraders could be isolated. (lu.se)
  • In alternative embodiments, the invention provides methods for identification of consortia, optionally followed by construction of artificial microbial consortia from pure strains or enrichment cultures. (patents.com)
  • However, important contextual information may be lost when interpreting genomic variation between strains isolated from different communities. (pnas.org)
  • ZymoBIOMICS Microbial Community DNA Standard II (Log Distribution) is a mixture of genomic DNA of eight bacterial and two fungal strains. (zymoresearch.com)
  • It was constructed by pooling DNA extracted from pure cultures of the ten microbial strains. (zymoresearch.com)
  • This study is aimed at characterizing the microbial communities of pilot-scale CWs with Salicornia bigelovii for treatment of saline wastewater from a land-based Atlantic salmon RAS plant located in Northern China. (hindawi.com)
  • The possibility that microorganisms within some natural methanogenic aggregates may directly exchange electrons, rather than producing hydrogen or formate as an intermediary electron carrier, is a significant paradigm shift with implications for the modeling and design of anaerobic wastewater reactors and for understanding how methanogenic communities will respond to environmental perturbations. (asm.org)
  • There is an urgent need for better understanding of the distribution and behavior of microbial communities and their functions in the soil as well as their response to agricultural treatments. (scirp.org)
  • These results suggest that assays used to assess the total biolability of aquatic DOM should last long enough to remove filtration artefacts in the microbial population. (biogeosciences.net)
  • OPUS at UTS: Variability in microbial community composition and function between different niches within a coral reef. (edu.au)
  • OPUS at UTS: Analysis of microbial community composition in a lab-scale membrane distillation bioreactor. (edu.au)
  • The total number of OTUs showed a negative relationship with increasing salinity, thus the sediment microbial OTUs in this study area do not follow Remane's concept. (peerj.com)
  • For a very long time, oral microbiologists endeavored to use reductionism to identify the key genes or key pathogens responsible for oral microbial pathogenesis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • As a result, changes to the surface environments will alter the underground communities. (publish.csiro.au)
  • however, the finding that exposure to microbial products in early life, particularly in farming environments, seems to be protective against asthma offers hope that surrogates of such exposure could be used to prevent the disease. (scribd.com)