Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Peptostreptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Abomasum: The fourth stomach of ruminating animals. It is also called the "true" stomach. It is an elongated pear-shaped sac lying on the floor of the abdomen, on the right-hand side, and roughly between the seventh and twelfth ribs. It leads to the beginning of the small intestine. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Periplasm: The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Peptide Elongation Factor Tu: A protein found in bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria which delivers aminoacyl-tRNA's to the A site of the ribosome. The aminoacyl-tRNA is first bound to a complex of elongation factor Tu containing a molecule of bound GTP. The resulting complex is then bound to the 70S initiation complex. Simultaneously the GTP is hydrolyzed and a Tu-GDP complex is released from the 70S ribosome. The Tu-GTP complex is regenerated from the Tu-GDP complex by the Ts elongation factor and GTP.Legionella pneumophila: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Flagellin: A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protein Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Bacterial Secretion Systems: In GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA, multiprotein complexes that function to translocate pathogen protein effector molecules across the bacterial cell envelope, often directly into the host. These effectors are involved in producing surface structures for adhesion, bacterial motility, manipulation of host functions, modulation of host defense responses, and other functions involved in facilitating survival of the pathogen. Several of the systems have homologous components functioning similarly in GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Thiostrepton: One of the CYCLIC PEPTIDES from Streptomyces that is active against gram-positive bacteria. In veterinary medicine, it has been used in mastitis caused by gram-negative organisms and in dermatologic disorders.Prokaryotic Initiation Factor-2: The largest of the three prokaryotic initiation factors with a molecular size of approximately 80 kD. It functions in the transcription initiation process by promoting the binding of formylmethionine-tRNA to the P-site of the 30S ribosome and by preventing the incorrect binding of elongator tRNA to the translation initiation site.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Yersinia pseudotuberculosis: A human and animal pathogen causing mesenteric lymphadenitis, diarrhea, and bacteremia.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Toll-Like Receptor 5: A pattern recognition receptor that binds FLAGELLIN. It mediates cellular responses to certain bacterial pathogens.Eukaryotic Cells: Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Microbiota: The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Microbiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of microorganisms, including ARCHAEA; BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; and others.Oxazolidinones: Derivatives of oxazolidin-2-one. They represent an important class of synthetic antibiotic agents.Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.Cytotoxins: Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Microbial Interactions: The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Glycosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.Salmonella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Rhizosphere: The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.Metagenomics: The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Acetamides: Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Helicobacter pylori: A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Puromycin: A cinnamamido ADENOSINE found in STREPTOMYCES alboniger. It inhibits protein synthesis by binding to RNA. It is an antineoplastic and antitrypanosomal agent and is used in research as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.ThiazolesMolecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Structural Homology, Protein: The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Mice, Inbred BALB CWater Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Chlamydia trachomatis: Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Ribosomal Proteins: Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Microbial Consortia: A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Receptors, Pattern Recognition: A large family of cell surface receptors that bind conserved molecular structures (PAMPS) present in pathogens. They play important roles in host defense by mediating cellular responses to pathogens.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Protein Interaction Mapping: Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.Mice, Inbred C57BLCatalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Protein PrecursorsProtein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Bacterial Secreted Proteins: Secretory Mechanisms and Role in Pathogenesis. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-42-4.. ... Do Microbes Make Snow? *↑ Buchanan, R. E. (1955). "Taxonomy". Annual Review of Microbiology 9: 1-20. doi:10.1146/annurev.mi. ... Young JM (1970). "Drippy gill: a bacterial disease of cultivated mushrooms caused by Pseudomonas agarici n. sp". NZ J Agric Res ... Brodey CL, Rainey PB, Tester M, Johnstone K (1991). "Bacterial blotch disease of the cultivated mushroom is caused by an ion ...
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interaction. 1 (4): 407-11. doi:10.1094/MPMI-4-407. Young JM (1970). "Drippy gill: a bacterial disease ... Bacterial Secreted Proteins: Secretory Mechanisms and Role in Pathogenesis. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-42-4. ... Like most bacterial genera, the pseudomonad last common ancestor lived hundreds of millions of years ago. They were initially ... Although not strictly a plant pathogen, P. tolaasii can be a major agricultural problem, as it can cause bacterial blotch of ...
Bacterial proteins that need to be secreted pass from the bacterial cytoplasm through the needle directly into the host ... Guttman D, McCann H (2008). "Evolution of the type III secretion system and its effectors in plant-microbe interactions". New ... The secreted effector proteins are secreted directly from the bacterial cell into the eukaryotic (host) cell, where they exert ... Pallen M. J.; Bailey C. M.; Beatson S. A. (2006). "Evolutionary links between Flih/Yscl-like proteins from bacterial type iii ...
Bacterial Secreted Proteins: Secretory Mechanisms and Role in Pathogenesis. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-42-4. .. ... Biello, David (February 28, 2008) Do Microbes Make Snow? Scientific American *^ Hassett D; Cuppoletti J; Trapnell B; Lymar S; ... Like most bacterial genera, the pseudomonad[note 1] last common ancestor lived hundreds of millions of years ago. They were ... Young JM (1970). "Drippy gill: a bacterial disease of cultivated mushrooms caused by Pseudomonas agarici n. sp". NZ J Agric Res ...
Rather than binding to relatively mutable proteins in the bacterial cells, it binds to less mutable fatty molecules that are ... Khatchadourian, Raffi (20 June 2016). "The Unseen: Millions of microbes are yet to be discovered. Will one hold the ultimate ...
Microbes contribute more genes responsible for human survival than humans' own genes. It is estimated that bacterial protein- ... Zhao, Y.; Tang, H.; Ye, Y. (2011). "RAPSearch2: A fast and memory-efficient protein similarity search tool for next-generation ... "NIH Human Microbiome Project defines normal bacterial makeup of the body". NIH News. 13 June 2012. The Human Microbiome Project ... The project also financed deep sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA sequences amplified by polymerase chain reaction from human ...
At least 10 protein components of the bacterial flagellum share homologous proteins with the type-three secretion system (TTSS ... Guttman D, McCann H (2008). "Evolution of the type III secretion system and its effectors in plant-microbe interactions". New ... Given the structural similarities between bacterial flagella and bacterial secretory systems, bacterial flagella may have ... The bacterial flagellum is made up of the protein flagellin. Its shape is a 20-nanometer-thick hollow tube. It is helical and ...
Each bacterial chromosome entry in BacMap now contains graphs and tables on a variety of gene and protein statistics. All of ... the bacterial species listed in BacMap now have bacterial 'biography' cards, with corresponding information on the microbe's ... A database of annotated bacterial genomes and their chromosome/genome maps. Data types. captured. Gene sequence data, protein ... Since it was first introduced, the number of bacterial genomes in BacMap has grown by more than 15X. Essentially BacMap ...
"Microbe-Host Interactions: Structure and Role of Gram-Negative Bacterial Porins". Curr Protein Pept Sci. 8 (13): 843-854. CS1 ... "Microbe-Host Interactions: Structure and Role of Gram-Negative Bacterial Porins". Current Protein and Peptide Science. 13 (8): ... Family This superfamily includes protein that comprise pores in multicomponent protein translocases as follows: 3.A.8 - [Tim17 ... OmpG porin UMich Orientation of Proteins in Membranes families/superfamily-31 - Trimeric porins UMich Orientation of Proteins ...
... and intramolecular cross-linking of the lipopolysaccharide-protein complex, neutralization of the bacterial endotoxins which is ... This mechanism of action is accelerated and maximised when taurolidine is pre-warmed to 37 °C. Microbes are killed and the ... Bacterial resistance against taurolidine has never been observed in various studies. The use of a taurolidine lock solution may ... Side effects and the induction of bacterial resistance is uncommon. It is also being studied as a treatment for cancer. It is ...
"MbtH-Like Proteins as Integral Components of Bacterial Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases". Biochemistry. 49: 8815-8817. doi: ... Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions. 13 (7): 742-753. doi:10.1094/MPMI.2000.13.7.742. PMID 10875335. K. Turgay, M. Krause and ... Some A domains require interaction with MbtH-like proteins for their activity. Sometimes the amino group of the bound amino ... Thiolation and Peptide Carrier Protein with attached 4'-phospho-pantetheine (required in a module) C: Condensation forming the ...
Kerfeld CA, Sawaya MR, Tanaka S, et al. (August 2005). "Protein structures forming the shell of primitive bacterial organelles ... "Microbes and Environments 16 (2): 67-77. doi:10.1264/jsme2.2001.67 . http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jsme2/16/2/67/_pdf. ... Parts of a bacterial cell. *Bacterial Chemotaxis Interactive Simulator - A web-app that uses several simple algorithms to ... Young K (2006). "The selective value of bacterial shape". Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 70 (3): 660-703. doi:10.1128/MMBR.00001-06 . ...
Chemotherapy causes fibroblasts near tumors to produce large amounts of the protein WNT16B. This protein stimulates the growth ... drugs designed to block the mechanisms of bacterial antibiotic resistance are used. For example, bacterial resistance against ... doi:10.1016/B978-008045382-8.00161-1. ISBN 978-0-08-045382-8. "Reading: The Resistance Phenomenon in Microbes and Infectious ... Webber, M.A.; Piddock, L.J.V. (2003). "The importance of efflux pumps in bacterial antibiotic resistance". J. Antimicrob. ...
Gram negative microbes are also suspected to deploy bacterial outer membrane vesicles to translocate effector proteins and ... "Interactions of bacterial effector proteins with host proteins". Current Opinion in Immunology. 19 (4): 392-401. doi:10.1016/j. ... A database of predicted bacterial effectors. Includes an interactive server to predict effectors. Bacterial Effector Proteins ... Bacterial effectors are proteins secreted by pathogenic bacteria into the cells of their host, usually using a type 3 secretion ...
... bacterial) proteins, lysozyme to break down bacterial cell walls, and myeloperoxidase (used to generate toxic bacteria-killing ... this begins the recovery process and blocks the travel of microbes to other parts of the body). Increased permeability of the ... toxic basic protein and cationic protein (e.g., cathepsin[13]);[17] receptors that bind to IgE are used to help with this task. ... "Neutrophil primary granule proteins HBP and HNP1-3 boost bacterial phagocytosis by human and murine macrophages". Journal of ...
In 'complacent' bacterial colonies, OMVs may be used to carry DNA to 'related' microbes for genetic transformations, and also ... These vesicles are involved in trafficking bacterial cell signaling biochemicals, which may include DNA, RNA, proteins, ... Gram-negative microbes have a double set of covering membranes. A cell membrane encloses the bacterial cytoplasm or cytosol, ... Peptidoglycan layer provides some rigidity for maintaining the bacterial cell shape, besides also protecting the microbe ...
As the microbiome composition changes, so does the composition of bacterial proteins produced in the gut. In adult microbiomes ... While there are a small number of core species of microbes shared by most individuals, populations of microbes can vary widely ... The bacterial flora of the small intestine aid in a wide range of intestinal functions. The bacterial flora provide regulatory ... Microbe. 16 (4): 433-37. doi:10.1016/j.chom.2014.09.013. PMID 25299329. Kenneth Todar (2012). "The Normal Bacterial Flora of ...
... "bacterial products, TLR4-activated platelets, or complement proteins in tandem with TLR2 ligands." Vital NETosis is made ... It has been noted that neutrophils can continue to phagocytose and kill microbes after vital NETosis, highlighting the ... Furthermore, delivering the granule proteins into NETs may keep potentially injurious proteins like proteases from diffusing ... tubulin and various other cytoplasmatic proteins are not present in NETs. NETs disarm pathogens with antimicrobial proteins ...
SecY protein Translocon Saier MH, Tam R, Reizer A, Reizer J (1994). "Two novel families of bacterial membrane proteins ... Baker B, Zambryski P, Staskawicz B, Dinesh-Kumar SP (1997). "Signaling in plant-microbe interactions". Science. 276 (5313): 726 ... In enzymology, a protein-secreting ATPase (EC 3.6.3.50) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + H2O ⇌ {\ ... Martinez A, Ostrovsky P, Nunn DN (1998). "Identification of an additional member of the secretin superfamily of proteins in ...
... gram negative microbes secrete bacterial outer membrane vesicles containing fully conformed signal proteins and virulence ... A secretory protein is any protein, whether it be endocrine or exocrine, which is secreted by a cell. Secretory proteins ... After translation, proteins within the ER make sure that the protein is folded correctly. If after a first attempt the folding ... Secretory proteins are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum. The production of a secretory protein starts like any other ...
... interferes with the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, by binding to penicillin binding proteins. Due to high protein ... This is associated with the development of resistance in microbes. It should not be used in pregnant or lactating animals or in ... The maximum anti-bacterial activity occurs approximately two days after cefovecin has been administered. In the dog, the half- ... In cats, 99% of cefovecin is bound to proteins in the blood plasma. Cefovecin was first authorized for use in the European ...
... an important bacterial protein involved in septum formation that is necessary for bacterial cell division. As a result, Gram- ... They largely affect Gram-positive bacteria and could be of great use to target antibiotic resistant microbes such as ... For folded proteins, unfolded proteins, and long peptides, ClpP must be activated by a protein in the family of ATPase ... especially nascent proteins and the Ftsz protein which is an important protein in cell division. This potentially leads to cell ...
"Structural relationship of bacterial RecA proteins to recombination proteins from bacteriophage T4 and yeast". Science. 259 ( ... Microbes and Infection / Institut Pasteur. 13 (8-9): 731-41. doi:10.1016/j.micinf.2011.03.006. PMC 3130849 . PMID 21458587. ... RecA protein binds to this strand and is either aided by the RecF, RecO, and RecR proteins or stabilized by them. The RecA ... The proteins of the RecA recombinase family of proteins are thought to be descended from a common ancestral recombinase. The ...
... creating a more hostile environment for pathogens and facilitating protein degradation. The bacterial proteins are denatured in ... The antibody binds to microbes with the variable Fab domain, and the Fc domain binds to Fc receptors (FcR) to induce ... They need to retain protein fragments of a suitable size for specific bacterial recognition, so the peptides are only partially ... used to denature the bacterial proteins. The exact properties of phagolysosomes vary depending on the type of phagocyte. Those ...
Recent research in human cells suggests that septins build cages around bacterial pathogens, immobilizing the harmful microbes ... Mascarelli A (December 2011). "Septin proteins take bacterial prisoners: A cellular defence against microbial pathogens holds ... Septins form cage-like structures around bacterial pathogens, immobilizing harmful microbes and preventing them from invading ... Assembled as such, septins function in cells by localizing other proteins, either by providing a scaffold to which proteins can ...
Common examples of an aggregated node in a food web might include parasites, microbes, decomposers, saprotrophs, consumers, or ... and proteins. These polymers have a dual role as supplies of energy as well as building blocks; the part that functions as ... "Bacterial biomineralization: new insights from Myxococcus-induced mineral precipitation". Geological Society, London, Special ... of these species consist of microbes and invertebrates, and relatively few have been named or classified by taxonomists.[54][55 ...
Pastor N, Davila S, Perez-Rueda E, Segovia L, Martinez-Anaya C (2014) Electrostatic analysis of bacterial expansins. Proteins. ... Georgelis N, Nikolaidis N, Cosgrove DJ (2014) Biochemical analysis of expansin-like proteins from microbes. Carbohydr Polym 100 ... An oat coleoptile wall protein that induces wall extension in vitro and that is antigenically related to a similar protein from ... Wang WC, Liu C, Ma YY, Liu XW, Zhang K, Zhang MH (2014) Improved production of two expansin-like proteins in Pichia pastoris ...
Bacterial proteins capable of acting like prions could help the microbes to adapt to environmental changes. One of the genes ... Bacterial Protein Acts as Prion in Yeast and E. coli. Bacterial Protein Acts as Prion in Yeast and E. coli. Clostridium ... When they injected Cb--Rho into E. coli to examine the proteins function, they found that the protein misfolded in a prion- ... TS Swag: Turkeys, Trees, and Tiny Microbes. TS Swag: Turkeys, Trees, and Tiny Microbes. Get your hot, fresh, science-themed T- ...
Bacterial Protein Acts as Prion in Yeast and E. coli. By Jef Akst , January 17, 2017 ... Swarm-Stimulating Bacterial Enzyme Drives Choanoflagellate Mating. By Tracy Vence , December 8, 2016 ...
Bacterial detection by Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition proteins.. Charroux B, Rival T, Narbonne-Reveau K, Royet J. ... Microbes Infect. 2009 May-Jun;11(6-7):631-6. doi: 10.1016/j.micinf.2009.03.004. Epub 2009 Apr 1. Review. ... Inner-membrane proteins PMI/TMEM11 regulate mitochondrial morphogenesis independently of the DRP1/MFN fission/fusion pathways. ... The Drosophila inner-membrane protein PMI controls crista biogenesis and mitochondrial diameter. ...
Structure of bacterial nanowire protein hints at secrets of conduction. Tiny electrical wires protrude from some bacteria and ... Lignin-feasting microbe holds promise for biofuels. Nature designed lignin the tough woody polymer in the walls of plant cells ... Evidence of 3.5-billion-year-old bacterial ecosystems found in Australia. Reconstructing the rise of life during the period of ... Fast-Cooking Dry Beans Provide More Protein, Iron Than Slower Varieties *Controversial Drug Approval Stirs Deep Concerns -- ...
2009) Bacterial detection by Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition proteins. Microbes Infect, 2009 Apr 1. [Epub ahead of print]. ... 2008) Bombyx mori protein disulfide isomerase enhances the production of nuecin, an antibacterial protein. BMB Rep 41:400-403. ... Production of Recombinant ModSP Protein.. ModSP was expressed in Sf9 cells as a fusion partner with the Bombyx mori protein ... 3-glucan recognition protein 2 (βGRP2, a protein related to GNBP3) (23, 24). Binding of β-1,3-glucan and βGRP2 triggers the ...
... used as a model eukaryotic cell that mimics a mammalian macrophage in aspects of its cell biology and interaction with microbes ... Identification of a conserved bacterial protein secretion system in Vibrio cholerae using the Dictyostelium host model system. ... A large number of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens carry genes homologous to vas genes and potential effector proteins ... Identification of a conserved bacterial protein secretion system in Vibrio cholerae using the Dictyostelium host model system ...
Recent studies have revealed that viruses and bacterial pathogens exploit the host ubiquitination pathways to gain entry and to ... Recent studies have revealed that viruses and bacterial pathogens exploit the host ubiquitination pathways to gain entry and to ... Ubiquitination is the main pathway for protein degradation that governs a variety of eukaryotic cellular processes, including ... Ubiquitination is the main pathway for protein degradation that governs a variety of eukaryotic cellular processes, including ...
The proteins that are delivered-effector proteins-alter the function of host proteins in ways that promote bacterial infection ... Caging targets for destruction. Cell Host Microbe. 2010: 8: 391-393.. Baxt LA, Goldberg MB. Anaerobic environment of the ... Host and bacterial proteins that repress recruitment of LC3 to Shigella early during infection. PLoS One. 2014;9(4):e94653. ... When the tip of the needle contacts with the plasma membrane, two bacterial proteins are secreted through the needle that form ...
UK Scientists Open Bacterial Genome Up to Making Artificial Proteins. May 16, 2019. ... This Biotech Makes Dyes from Agricultural Waste Using Microbes. June 28, 2019. ...
Role of complement in host defense against bacterial infection. Carolyn Mold. Microbes and Infection 1999 1 8 ... Staphylococcal Ecb Protein and Host Complement Regulator Factor H Enhance Functions of Each Other in Bacterial Immune Evasion ... Protein GRAB ofStreptococcus pyogenesRegulates Proteolysis at the Bacterial Surface by Binding α2-Macroglobulin ... Cooperative Plasminogen Recruitment to the Surface of Streptococcus canis via M Protein and Enolase Enhances Bacterial Survival ...
We found S. putrefaciens had 12 different proteins differentially expressed in freshwater culture than when grown in wastewater ... We found S. putrefaciens had 12 different proteins differentially expressed in freshwater culture than when grown in wastewater ... Because understanding S. putrefacienss biological mechanism of colonization (protein, gene express and metabolites) in ... The sequences of these 12 differentially expressed proteins were aligned with sequences downloaded from NCBI. There are also 27 ...
Mol Plant Microbe Interact 24:1289-1295. doi: 10.1094/MPMI-05-11-0114 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Tamura H, Hotta Y, Sato H (2013) Novel accurate bacterial discrimination by MALDI-time-of-flight MS based on ribosomal proteins ... Ribosomal protein biomarkers provide root nodule bacterial identification by MALDI-TOF MS. ... Ribosomal proteins as biomarkers for bacterial identification by mass spectrometry in the clinical microbiology laboratory. J ...
Plant Microbe Interact. 15, 1108 (2002).. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedWeb of Science ... A Putative Ca2+ and Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Required for Bacterial and Fungal Symbioses ... A Putative Ca2+ and Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Required for Bacterial and Fungal Symbioses ... A Putative Ca2+ and Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Required for Bacterial and Fungal Symbioses ...
... to explore the microbial strategies of iron acquisition in the oceans bacterial community. We estimate iron metabolism ... 8. Tong Y, Guo M (2009) Bacterial heme-transport proteins and their heme-coordination modes. Arch Biochem Biophys 481: 1-15.Y. ... Chiancone E, Ceci P (2010) The multifaceted capacity of Dps proteins to combat bacterial stress conditions: Detoxification of ... Ceci2010The multifaceted capacity of Dps proteins to combat bacterial stress conditions: Detoxification of iron and hydrogen ...
Aligning antimicrobial drug discovery with complex and redundant host-pathogen interactions. Cell Host Microbe 5: 114-122. ... Group II activators of G-protein signalling and proteins containing a G-protein regulatory motif. Acta Physiol. (Oxf.) 204: 202 ... Activator of G-Protein Signaling 3-Induced Lysosomal Biogenesis Limits Macrophage Intracellular Bacterial Infection. Ali Vural ... Activator of G-Protein Signaling 3-Induced Lysosomal Biogenesis Limits Macrophage Intracellular Bacterial Infection ...
Bacteria are also very competitive, and bacterial proteins kill rival bacteria to maintain the upper hand.11 ... Some of the microbes in your gut specialize in fermenting soluble fiber found in legumes, fruits and vegetables, and the ... Gut Microbes Influence Your Genetic Expression. Gut bacteria influence your health through a variety of different ways. One ... Protein Clumps Implicated in Parkinsons Originate in the Gut. In this study, synthetic alpha-synuclein was injected into ...
Bacterial pathogens secrete proteins into the host that target crucial biological processes. Identifying the host pathways ... Cell Host and Microbe. 18, (1), 109-121 (2015). ... or the bacterial protein may not physically bind host proteins ... Identification of putative bacterial effector proteins has become more manageable due to advances in bacterial genome ... suppress the toxicity of the bacterial effector protein and thus identify proteins in the pathway that the effector protein ...
Here, we offer a rationale for charged S-layer proteins in the context of the structural evolution of S-layers. Using the ... Despite exceptional sequence diversity, S-layer proteins (SLPs) share important characteristics such as their ability to form ... Microbe-host interactions: structure and role of gram-negative bacterial porins. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2012;13:843-54. ... A bacterial surface layer protein exploits multistep crystallization for rapid self-assembly *Jonathan Herrmann ...
1987) The role of iron-binding proteins in bacterial infection. in Iron transport in microbes, plants, and animals. eds ... The evolution of bacterial outer membrane proteins occurs most rapidly in their surface loops (22, 48), and the FeEnt binding ... 1992) Formation of a gatted channel by a ligand-specific transport protein in the bacterial outer membrane. Science 258:471-475 ... 1987) Iron transport in microbes, plants, and animals. in Iron transport in microbes, plants, and animals. eds Winkelmann G., ...
Gram negative microbes are also suspected to deploy bacterial outer membrane vesicles to translocate effector proteins and ... "Interactions of bacterial effector proteins with host proteins". Current Opinion in Immunology. 19 (4): 392-401. doi:10.1016/j. ... A database of predicted bacterial effectors. Includes an interactive server to predict effectors. Bacterial Effector Proteins ... Bacterial effectors are proteins secreted by pathogenic bacteria into the cells of their host, usually using a type 3 secretion ...
8.3.1 Plasmid-mediated bacterial heavy metal resistance.- 8.3.2 Metal-binding proteins of fungi.- 8.4 Biotechnological aspects ... 8.2 Physiology of metal-microbe interactions.- 8.3 Molecular biology of heavy metal tolerance.- ... 6.3.4 Bacterial communities on inert surfaces and bacterial mats.- 6.4.5 Main features of mesophilic bacteria isolated from sea ... 7.4.2 Proteins and protein synthesis.- 7.5 Biotechnological uses and potential of psychrophiles.- References.- 8 Molecular ...
Cleaning up polluted soil and growing crops for biofuels benefit from a deeper understanding of how microbes alter subsurface ... Mother nature as a wire manufacturer: Scientists see how microbe directs electrons. July 25, 2012 (Phys.org) -- For the first ... Bacterial proteins that transform iron and other minerals for energy and growth. December 15, 2014, Pacific Northwest National ... chains of proteins called multi-heme cytochromes. The proteins perform a variety of tasks, primarily acting as electron ...
Bacterial type two secretion system secreted proteins: double-edged swords for plant pathogens. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 18 ... Plant-Microbe Interact. 21:1309-1315.. 8. Chen, J., Groves, E. L., Civerolo, M., Viveres, M., Freeman, M., and Zheng, Y. 2005. ... Bacterial cells attach to the xylem vessel and multiply, forming biofilm-like colonies that occlude the xylem, disrupting water ... Pierces disease bacterial strains currently are limited to the warmer climates in the United States. Climatic differences ...
Identification of In Vivo-Induced Bacterial Proteins during Human Infection with Salmonella enterica Serotype Paratyphi A. ... Identification of in vivo-induced bacterial protein antigens during human infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. ... Paratyphi A and identified 20 immunogenic proteins expressed uniquely in vivo. IVIAT is a technique that identifies bacterial ... Identification of In Vivo-Induced Bacterial Proteins during Human Infection with Salmonella enterica Serotype Paratyphi A ...
  • Toulza E, Tagliabue A, Blain S, Piganeau G (2012) Analysis of the Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) Project for Trends in Iron Uptake by Surface Ocean Microbes. (plos.org)
  • Because understanding S. putrefaciens 's biological mechanism of colonization (protein, gene express, and metabolites) in terrestrial sewage outlets is so important to administering and improving contaminated river and to predicting and steering performance, we delved into the biological mechanism that sheds light on the effect of environmental conditions on metabolic pathways. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we built a database of 2319 sequences, corresponding to 140 gene families of iron metabolism with a large phylogenetic spread, to explore the microbial strategies of iron acquisition in the ocean's bacterial community. (plos.org)
  • The lmo0135 gene product (designated CtaP, for c ysteine t ransport a ssociated p rotein) was required for bacterial growth in the presence of low concentrations of cysteine in vitro , but was not required for bacterial replication within the host cytosol. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Imaging techniques that rely on light-such as taking pictures of cells tagged with a "reporter gene" that codes for green fluorescent protein-only work in tissue samples removed from the body. (phys.org)
  • Basically, a modified gene in the bacterial genome will activate in response to some stimulus in its surroundings. (labroots.com)
  • That reporter gene modification is irreversible, however, and the researchers can see that etching after the death of the microbe, while the gas can't be detected after the bacterium dies. (labroots.com)
  • In microbes, CRISPR-Cas systems provide a form of adaptive immunity, and these gene-editing tools are the foundation of versatile technologies revolutionizing research. (energy.gov)
  • Fulda M, Heinz E, Wolter F. The fadD gene of Escherichia coli K12 is located close to rnd at 39.6 min of the chromosomal map and is a new member of the AMP-binding protein family. (labome.org)
  • With support from the NASA Astrobiology Program, researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have discovered a new bacterial gene that could provide clues about how life survives in some of Earth's most extreme environments. (astrobiology.com)
  • The gene codes for a protein, named HpnR, that is responsible for producing bacterial lipids known as 3-methylhopanoids. (astrobiology.com)
  • Two non-synonymous mutations in the flagellin-encoding gene fliC allowed identifying a new microbe associated molecular pattern (MAMP) in a region distinct from the known MAMP flg22. (prolekare.cz)
  • Transcriptional analysis and functional characterization of XCC1294 gene encoding a GGDEF domain protein in Xanthomonas campestris pv. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Rv3906c is a conserved hypothetical gene of M. tuberculosis and contains many GTP binding protein motif DXXG which demonstrate that this gene might be processed in a GTP binding or in GTP hydrolyzing manner. (hindawi.com)
  • Siderophores ( 32 ) liberate iron from the sequestering proteins of eucaryotic hosts or solubilize it from precipitates of ferric oxyhydroxide, rendering the metal available for microbial consumption. (asm.org)
  • Growing crops for biofuels and cleaning up polluted soils benefit from a deeper understanding of how a specific microbial protein, known as multi-heme cytochromes, reduces iron, manganese, and other subsurface minerals. (phys.org)
  • At this point I developed an interest in the contribution of uncultured microbes to the maintenance and function of "natural" ecosystems i.e. molecular microbial ecology. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • A CRISPR-Cas system uses Cas proteins to edit the microbial DNA. (energy.gov)
  • 8. On page 69, there are four electron micrographs, one of which probably represents an artifact (an object that was not living microbes or microbial parts). (kenyon.edu)
  • Finally, bacterial peptides are reimported into the endosomal pathway for loading onto recycling MHC I. Thus, we unravel a novel pathway of MHC I-mediated cross-presentation that is initiated with a host cellular attack physically disrupting the parasitophorous vacuole, involves autophagy to collect cytosolic organisms into autophagosomes, and concludes with complex multistep antigenic processing in separate cellular compartments. (jimmunol.org)
  • Dr Tuck Seng Wong is focusing on engineering bio-molecules (proteins, peptides and nucleic acids) using an amalgam of protein engineering and advanced biophysical techniques. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • Accordingly, adaptation to chronic energy stress has been hypothesized to be the primary factor distinguishing archaea from their bacterial counterparts [ 14 ]. (nature.com)
  • This hypothesis partly stems from the presence of multiple eukaryotic signature proteins in Asgard archaea, including homologs of ESCRT proteins that are essential components of the endomembrane system in eukaryotes. (asm.org)
  • The research publications are tracked across five subject areas: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, and Viruses. (usda.gov)
  • In a paper published in this week´s early online issue of the journal Cell Host & Microbe, the researchers discovered that intestinal cells in the roundworm C. elegans, which are similar in structure to those in humans, internalize bacterial toxins that inactivate several host processes. (redorbit.com)
  • In addition to P. aeruginosa Exotoxin A," said Troemel, "there are several other bacterial toxins known to block protein synthesis, such as Diphtheria toxin, Ricin toxin and Shiga toxin. (redorbit.com)
  • Like Exotoxin A, these toxins can be internalized into the host cell to block protein synthesis. (redorbit.com)
  • Here we demonstrate that lmo0135 encodes a multifunctional protein that is associated with cysteine transport, acid resistance, bacterial membrane integrity, and adherence to host cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Just as an MRI produces a detailed image of our internal organs, solid-state NMR spectroscopy is used to construct a detailed image of a peptide or protein and to reveal how it sits in the cell membrane," providing clues for modifications that might make synthetic AMPs even more effective in overcoming ever-increasing bacterial resistance. (medindia.net)
  • This process will enable scientists to gain a deeper understanding of chemical processes on earth and bacterial communication, in which antibiotic resistance and other information are shared. (labroots.com)
  • Surviving patients are otherwise healthy, with normal resistance to other microbes, and their clinical status improved with age. (abcam.com)
  • A rise in cytosolic calcium concentration is one of the first plant responses after exposure to microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Besides flg22, the mutants respond with a reduced calcium elevation to several other MAMPs and a plant endogenous peptide that is proteolytically processed from pre-pro-proteins during wounding. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis is a major cause of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases in the United States ( 1 ), which, if untreated, can lead to long-term complications such as pelvic inflammatory diseases, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • The gram-negative bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of trachoma, the leading cause of infectious blindness worldwide, and the major cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STI) in the developed world . (prolekare.cz)
  • Using Dictyostelium discoideum as a model host, we have identified a virulence mechanism in a non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae strain that involves extracellular translocation of proteins that lack N-terminal hydrophobic leader sequences. (pnas.org)
  • The oceans cover over two-thirds of the Earth's surface and contain an abundance of life including diverse populations of marine microbes. (jcvi.org)
  • Sixteen years ago, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation launched a Marine Microbiology Initiative to help expand this knowledge and advance research related to the evolution and genomics of marine microbes. (jcvi.org)
  • Protists are a polyphyletic group of organisms, meaning they derived from more than one common evolutionary ancestor, making them some of the most diverse marine microbes. (jcvi.org)
  • Researchers have found that, in mice, bacterial proteins could trigger the aggregation of the alpha-synuclein in the gut and the brain. (scientificamerican.com)
  • While the movie may be still be fiction, researchers at Caltech are making strides in this direction: they have, for the first time, created bacterial cells with the ability to reflect sound waves, reminiscent of how submarines reflect sonar to reveal their locations. (phys.org)
  • To identify the protein composition of the aphid saliva, the researchers collected saliva from more than 100,000 aphids. (redorbit.com)
  • Now scientists have identified the thousands of proteins the bacterium produces, shedding light on how it interacts with healthy cells in order to thrive, according to dental researchers from the University of Florida and the University of Washington. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Ultimately, the researchers were able to fill hundreds of gaps in the organism's sequence of roughly 2,000 proteins. (bio-medicine.org)
  • However, a team of researchers headed by Stefan Klumpp, who leads a Research Group at the Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, and Berenike Maier, who conducts research with her team at the University of Cologne, have now found that the microbes do not wander about as randomly as one might expect. (mpg.de)
  • At the University of Oregon, researchers identified a novel anti-inflammatory protein that is secreted by the common gut bacterium in zebrafish. (labroots.com)
  • Researchers know that something must limit bacterial growth. (sciencenews.org)
  • Characterizing microbes helps researchers work toward solutions for energy and environmental challenges. (energy.gov)
  • Researchers studying the protein that makes up one such wire have determined the protein's structure. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The researchers first spliced DNA encoding for small pieces of CVF and the human complement protein C3. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Microorganisms do not have brains, and they aren't capable of conscious thought, but scientists have developed a technique that imprints a kind of memory in microbes on the genetic level. (labroots.com)
  • They then cloned the genetic material and eventually used fruit fly cells to produce the protein in bulk. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Estudio de interacción proteína-proteína in vitro mediante técnicas biofísicas y display en fagos. (leloir.org.ar)
  • Estudios in vitro en cultivos primarios y líneas celulares. (leloir.org.ar)
  • Helicobacter cysteine-rich protein C (HcpC) and the chaperonin GroEL were identified as new independent virulence factors, and in combination with the established virulence factors, CagA and VacA, were strongly associated with CAG. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In 2017, WHO ( http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global report/en/ ) has developed TB-Sustainable Development Goals [SDG] monitoring framework of 14 indicators that are covered under seven SDGs associated with TB incidence [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Cleaning up polluted soil and growing crops for biofuels benefit from a deeper understanding of how microbes alter subsurface minerals. (phys.org)
  • We demonstrate that TepP is translocated early during bacterial entry into epithelial cells and is phosphorylated at tyrosine residues by host kinases. (prolekare.cz)
  • After transmission of avian strains of C. psittaci from birds to human, life-threatening pneumonia with systemic bacterial spread, including myocarditis, hepatitis, and encephalitis, occurs ( 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Two proteins encoded on the FPI, IglA and IglB, are interacting cytoplasmic proteins that have similarity to a recently described type VI secretion system ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • After graduating from Cardiff University I started work on looking at the impact of genetically modified microbes on natural ecosystems. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Studying the genetics, biochemistry and metabolism of these microbes has been one of JCVI's long standing research initiatives and is crucial in better understanding how they function as the base of all marine ecosystems. (jcvi.org)
  • Transmission electron micrograph (TEM) image of a single commensal bacterium, E. coli Nissle 1917, which has been genetically engineered to express gas-filled protein nanostructures known as gas vesicles. (phys.org)
  • This image illustrates a bacterium (in the foreground) containing gas-filled protein nanostructures known as gas vesicles. (phys.org)
  • The biologists also found that a specific toxin in the bacterium-"Exotoxin A"-blocks protein synthesis in the worm´s intestine. (redorbit.com)