Miconazole: An imidazole antifungal agent that is used topically and by intravenous infusion.Ketoconazole: Broad spectrum antifungal agent used for long periods at high doses, especially in immunosuppressed patients.Econazole: An imidazole derivative that is commonly used as a topical antifungal agent.Clotrimazole: An imidazole derivative with a broad spectrum of antimycotic activity. It inhibits biosynthesis of the sterol ergostol, an important component of fungal CELL MEMBRANES. Its action leads to increased membrane permeability and apparent disruption of enzyme systems bound to the membrane.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Azoles: Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.Griseofulvin: An antifungal agent used in the treatment of TINEA infections.Candida: A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)Nitrate Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.Charities: Social welfare organizations with programs designed to assist individuals in need.Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Climatic Processes: Characteristic events occurring in the ATMOSPHERE during the interactions and transformation of various atmospheric components and conditions.Self-Help Groups: Organizations which provide an environment encouraging social interactions through group activities or individual relationships especially for the purpose of rehabilitating or supporting patients, individuals with common health problems, or the elderly. They include therapeutic social clubs.Consultants: Individuals referred to for expert or professional advice or services.Intertrigo: A superficial dermatitis occurring on skin surfaces in contact with each other, such as the axillae, neck creases, intergluteal fold, between the toes, etc. Obesity is a predisposing factor. The condition is caused by moisture and friction and is characterized by erythema, maceration, burning, and exudation.Warfarin: An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.Pessaries: Devices worn in the vagina to provide support to displaced uterus or rectum. Pessaries are used in conditions such as UTERINE PROLAPSE; CYSTOCELE; or RECTOCELE.Isosorbide Dinitrate: A vasodilator used in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS. Its actions are similar to NITROGLYCERIN but with a slower onset of action.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Isosorbide: 1,4:3,6-Dianhydro D-glucitol. Chemically inert osmotic diuretic used mainly to treat hydrocephalus; also used in glaucoma.Nonprescription Drugs: Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal: Infection of the VULVA and VAGINA with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA.Echinocandins: Cyclic hexapeptides of proline-ornithine-threonine-proline-threonine-serine. The cyclization with a single non-peptide bond can lead them to be incorrectly called DEPSIPEPTIDES, but the echinocandins lack ester links. Antifungal activity is via inhibition of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase production of BETA-GLUCANS.Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.Flucytosine: A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.Suppositories: Medicated dosage forms that are designed to be inserted into the rectal, vaginal, or urethral orifice of the body for absorption. Generally, the active ingredients are packaged in dosage forms containing fatty bases such as cocoa butter, hydrogenated oil, or glycerogelatin that are solid at room temperature but melt or dissolve at body temperature.Vulvovaginitis: Inflammation of the VULVA and the VAGINA, characterized by discharge, burning, and PRURITUS.Vaginitis: Inflammation of the vagina characterized by pain and a purulent discharge.Vaginal Discharge: A common gynecologic disorder characterized by an abnormal, nonbloody discharge from the genital tract.Magnesium Chloride: Magnesium chloride. An inorganic compound consisting of one magnesium and two chloride ions. The compound is used in medicine as a source of magnesium ions, which are essential for many cellular activities. It has also been used as a cathartic and in alloys.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Cercaria: The free-swimming larval forms of parasites found in an intermediate host.Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit the transport of neurotransmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. For many transmitters, uptake determines the time course of transmitter action so inhibiting uptake prolongs the activity of the transmitter. Blocking uptake may also deplete available transmitter stores. Many clinically important drugs are uptake inhibitors although the indirect reactions of the brain rather than the acute block of uptake itself is often responsible for the therapeutic effects.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Administration, Rectal: The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.Allergy and Immunology: A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.Nobel PrizeAwards and PrizesButylated Hydroxyanisole: Mixture of 2- and 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenols that is used as an antioxidant in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.Mineral Oil: A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.Butylated Hydroxytoluene: A di-tert-butyl PHENOL with antioxidant properties.Anisoles: A group of compounds that are derivatives of methoxybenzene and contain the general formula R-C7H7O.Stearates: Salts and esters of the 18-carbon saturated, monocarboxylic acid--stearic acid.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Hemorrhoids: Swollen veins in the lower part of the RECTUM or ANUS. Hemorrhoids can be inside the anus (internal), under the skin around the anus (external), or protruding from inside to outside of the anus. People with hemorrhoids may or may not exhibit symptoms which include bleeding, itching, and pain.Blood Pressure Determination: Techniques for measuring blood pressure.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.

Differential inhibitory effects of protoberberines on sterol and chitin biosyntheses in Candida albicans. (1/280)

The anti-Candida potentials of 12 Korean medicinal plants were explored: methanol extracts from Coptis rhizoma and Phellodendron amurense caused significant inhibition of growth of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis. The predominant active components of the extracts were the protoberberines berberine and palmatine; the most potent inhibition of growth was exhibited by berberine on C. krusei (MIC <4 mg/L) and palmatine on C. parapsilosis (MIC 16 mg/L). Both berberine and palmatine inhibited the in-vivo rate of incorporation of L-[methyl-14C]methionine into C-24 of ergosterol in C. albicans (50% inhibition concentration (IC50 values), 25 microM and 300 microM, respectively); this result suggests that sterol 24-methyl transferase (24-SMT) is one of the cellular targets for the antifungal activity of the protoberberines. In-vitro 24-SMT activity in microsomes from the yeast growth form of C. albicans was inhibited by both berberine (inhibition constant (Ki) 232 microM) and palmatine (Ki 257 microM) in a non-competitive manner; inhibition of 24-SMT was more marked for the mycelial form than for the yeast growth form of this organism. Palmatine inhibited chitin synthase from both the yeast and mycelial growth phases of C. albicans in a non-competitive manner (Ki 780 microM). The effects of protoberberines, extracted from established medicinal plants, on both sterol and cell wall biosyntheses in pathogenic fungi indicate that the potential of these compounds, or their semi-synthetic derivatives, as a novel class of antifungal agents should be investigated more fully.  (+info)

Comparison of the toxicity of fluconazole and other azole antifungal drugs to murine and human granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells in vitro. (2/280)

We studied the inhibitory effects on colony formation by granulocyte-macrophage colony forming units (cfu-gm) of eight azole antifungal agents in vitro. All agents, except fluconazole, inhibited colony formation dose-dependently with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) in the range of 0.78-49 micromol/L in cultures of murine and human bone marrow. For human cells, the IC50 values were 0.553 mg/L for itraconazole, 1.24 mg/L for saperconazole, 2.58 mg/L for clotrimazole, 5.33 mg/L for miconazole, 6.17 mg/L for econazole, 6.27 mg/L for ketoconazole and 8.38 mg/L for oxiconazole. The IC50 of itraconazole for human cfu-gm in vitro was similar to the plasma level of this drug recommended for systemic antifungal therapy (>0.5 mg/L) thus indicating the potential clinical relevance of our data. The IC50 of ketoconazole for human cfu-gm in vitro may be exceeded by plasma levels produced in vivo by high (> or =400 mg) doses, whereas fluconazole failed to reduce colony formation by 50% even at 100 mg/L, a concentration not reached in vivo even after extremely high doses (2000 mg/day). To most of the drugs studied, murine progenitor cells seemed to be less sensitive than the human ones. There was, however, a close correlation between the murine and human log IC50 values of the drugs (r2 = 0.964, P< 0.001), suggesting that cultures of murine bone marrow may be suitable to predict the in-vitro toxicity of azole antifungals to human cfu-gm.  (+info)

In-vitro resistance to azoles associated with mitochondrial DNA deficiency in Candida glabrata. (3/280)

A commercially available disk diffusion procedure was used in a large-scale study to evaluate the susceptibility of a wide range of Candida isolates to polyenes and azoles. With almost all isolates of C. glabrata resistant colonies were present within the inhibition zones for the azole compounds fluconazole, ketoconazole and miconazole, and less frequently for isoconazole, econazole and clotrimazole. Ten randomly selected isolates were cloned by limiting dilution and the susceptibility of the resulting strains to polyenes and azoles was determined. All strains presented a similar susceptibility pattern with sensitivity to polyenes and the presence of resistant colonies for all azole compounds except tioconazole. For each strain and each antifungal agent, one of these resistant colonies was subcultured and studied for antifungal susceptibility. All these colonies showed similar properties regardless of which antifungal agent allowed their selection, with increased sensitivity to polyenes and cross-resistance to the azole compounds except tioconazole. Similar results were obtained on Shadomy's modified medium and on synthetic medium. Likewise, determination of MICs by the Etest method confirmed the resistance to fluconazole. Comparative growth studies revealed a respiratory deficiency in the mutants caused by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions. In addition, 'petite' mutants were obtained from a wild-type strain by exposure to ethidium bromide, and these respiratory mutants were shown to be resistant to azoles. These results demonstrate the relationship between mtDNA deficiency and resistance to azoles, and provide an interesting model to study the mechanisms of action of these antifungal agents.  (+info)

5-Fluorocytosine antagonizes the action of sterol biosynthesis inhibitors in Candida glabrata. (4/280)

The concentration-dependent antagonistic interaction between 5-fluorocytosine and a sterol biosynthesis inhibitor (SBI) was studied using intact cells and cell-free extracts of Candida glabrata. 5-Fluorocytosine promoted incorporation of radioactivity into 4-desmethylsterols (P < 0.01), and enhanced the relative and absolute increases of ergosterol (P < 0.05) in C. glabrata incubated aerobically with an SBI (miconazole or amorolfine). Further aerobic incubation of C. glabrata with combinations of a nucleic acid or protein synthesis inhibitor (rifampicin or chlortetracycline) and an SBI (miconazole) promoted a similar increase in ergosterol biosynthesis. In contrast, 5-fluorocytosine reduced the incorporation of radioactivity into 4,4-dimethylsterols (P < 0.01), but had no obvious effect on the absolute ergosterol level in C. glabrata incubated statically with miconazole. In cell-free extracts of cultures previously incubated with 5-fluorocytosine, ergosterol synthesis was less sensitive to the action of miconazole. Antagonism between 5-fluorocytosine and the SBI is thus mediated by a reversal of inhibition of intracellular ergosterol synthesis. The possible mechanisms underlying antagonism between 5-fluorocytosine and SBIs that inhibit different sites of the sterol biosynthesis pathway, as well as its clinical relevance to combination therapy, are discussed.  (+info)

Pharmacological characterisation of endothelium-dependent relaxation in human radial artery: comparison with internal thoracic artery. (5/280)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of nitric oxide/prostanoid-independent pathways to endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in human conduit arteries. METHODS: Rings of internal thoracic artery (ITA) and radial artery (RA) taken from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery were suspended in 10-ml organ baths and relaxation to carbachol and bradykinin studied in the presence and absence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors and potassium channel blockers. RESULTS: No significant relaxation to carbachol or bradykinin was observed in ITA after NOS inhibition. In contrast, in RA less than 40% attenuation of relaxation to carbachol or bradykinin was achieved with any of the NOS inhibitors. In the presence of 20 mM K+ relaxation to carbachol and bradykinin was inhibited by 28 +/- 9% and 42 +/- 9% while in the presence of L-NAME 200 microM + 20 mM K+ relaxation was inhibited by 66 +/- 6% and 70 +/- 4% respectively in this artery. Tetraethylammonium, glibenclamide, apamin and iberiotoxin had little effect on relaxation to carbachol but charybdotoxin alone and charybdotoxin plus apamin attenuated relaxation to carbachol by 23 +/- 4% and 49 +/- 9% in RA. In the presence of L-NAME 200 microM attenuation of these relaxations were increased to 60 +/- 4% and 78 +/- 4%. CONCLUSION: In ITA relaxations to carbachol and bradykinin were mediated via nitric oxide. In contrast in RA, a conduit vessel of similar diameter, both nitric oxide-dependent and independent pathways appeared to contribute to vascular relaxation. This nitric oxide-independent relaxation involved opening of Ca2+ activated potassium channel(s). The existence of alternative pathways mediating endothelium-independent relaxation could be important under pathological conditions and may contribute to the long term survival of radial artery grafts.  (+info)

Antifungal agents: mode of action, mechanisms of resistance, and correlation of these mechanisms with bacterial resistance. (6/280)

The increased use of antibacterial and antifungal agents in recent years has resulted in the development of resistance to these drugs. The significant clinical implication of resistance has led to heightened interest in the study of antimicrobial resistance from different angles. Areas addressed include mechanisms underlying this resistance, improved methods to detect resistance when it occurs, alternate options for the treatment of infections caused by resistant organisms, and strategies to prevent and control the emergence and spread of resistance. In this review, the mode of action of antifungals and their mechanisms of resistance are discussed. Additionally, an attempt is made to discuss the correlation between fungal and bacterial resistance. Antifungals can be grouped into three classes based on their site of action: azoles, which inhibit the synthesis of ergosterol (the main fungal sterol); polyenes, which interact with fungal membrane sterols physicochemically; and 5-fluorocytosine, which inhibits macromolecular synthesis. Many different types of mechanisms contribute to the development of resistance to antifungals. These mechanisms include alteration in drug target, alteration in sterol biosynthesis, reduction in the intercellular concentration of target enzyme, and overexpression of the antifungal drug target. Although the comparison between the mechanisms of resistance to antifungals and antibacterials is necessarily limited by several factors defined in the review, a correlation between the two exists. For example, modification of enzymes which serve as targets for antimicrobial action and the involvement of membrane pumps in the extrusion of drugs are well characterized in both the eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.  (+info)

Miconazole represses CO(2)-induced pial arteriolar dilation only under selected circumstances. (7/280)

Previous experimental findings have led to the suggestion that guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) plays a permissive role in hypercapnic cerebral vasodilation. However, we recently reported that the technique used to reveal a permissive role for cGMP [cGMP repletion in the presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition] created a situation where CO(2) reactivity was normalized but where different mechanisms (i.e., K(+) channels) participated in the response. In the present study, we examined whether that nascent K(+)-channel dependence is related in any way to an increase in the influence of the miconazole-inhibitable cytochrome P-450 epoxygenase pathway. Using intravital microscopy and a closed cranial window system in adult rats, we measured pial arteriolar diameters during normo- and hypercapnia, first in the absence and then in the presence of a neuronal NOS (nNOS) inhibitor [7-nitroindazole (7-NI)]. This was followed by suffusion of a cGMP analog and then cGMP plus miconazole. Separate groups of rats were used to evaluate whether miconazole either alone or in the presence of 8-bromoguanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-BrcGMP) or its vehicle (0.1% ethanol) had any effect on CO(2) reactivity and whether miconazole affected K(+)-channel opener-induced dilations. Hypercapnic (arterial PCO(2), congruent with65 mmHg) pial arteriolar dilations, as expected, were reduced by 70-80% with 7-NI and restored with cGMP repletion. CO(2) reactivity was again attenuated after miconazole introduction. Miconazole, with and without 8-BrcGMP, and its vehicle had no influence on pial arteriolar CO(2) reactivity in the absence of nNOS inhibition combined with cGMP repletion. Miconazole alone also did not affect vasodilatory responses to K(+)-channel openers. Thus present results suggest that the nascent K(+)-channel dependence of the hypercapnic response found in our earlier study may be related to increased epoxygenase activity. The specific reasons why the pial arteriolar CO(2) reactivity gains a K(+)-channel and epoxygenase dependence only under conditions of nNOS inhibition and cGMP restoration remain to be identified. These findings again call into question the interpretations applied to data collected in studies evaluating potential permissive actions of cGMP or NO.  (+info)

Down-regulation of mammalian 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity with highly purified liposomal cholesterol. (8/280)

Chinese hamster ovary-215 cells (CHO-215) cannot synthesize C27 and C28 sterols because of a defect in the reaction that decarboxylates 4-carboxysterols [Plemenitas, A., Havel, C.M. & Watson, J.A. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 17012-17017]. Thus, CHO-215 cell growth is dependent on an exogenous metabolically functional source of cholesterol. We used CHO-215 cells to (a) determine whether highly purified (> 99.5%) cholesterol, in egg lecithin liposomes, could down-regulate derepressed 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity and if so (b) determine whether the loss in reductase catalytic activity correlated kinetically with the synthesis and accumulation of detectable oxycholesterol derivatives. Liposomal cholesterol (26-39 microM) supported maximum CHO-215 growth and initiated suppression of HMG-CoA reductase activity at concentrations greater than 50 microM. Maximum suppression (50-60%) of reductase activity was achieved with 181.3 microM liposomal cholesterol in 6 h. Also, regulatory concentrations of highly purified liposomal [3H]cholesterol were not converted (biologically or chemically) to detectable levels of oxy[3H]cholesterol derivatives during 3-6 h incubations. Lastly, a broad-spectrum cytochrome P450 inhibitor (miconazole) had no effect on liposomal cholesterol-mediated suppression of HMG-CoA reductase activity. These observations established that (a) highly purified cholesterol, incorporated into egg lecithin liposomes, can signal the down-regulation of derepressed mammalian cell HMG-CoA reductase activity and (b) if oxycholesterol synthesis was required for liposomal cholesterol-mediated down-regulation, the products had to be more potent than 24-, 25-, or 26-/27-hydroxycholesterol.  (+info)

  • Imidazole, 1-phenylimidazole, clotrimazole, and miconazole all bound to the iNOSox monomer heme iron. (scripps.edu)
  • Imidazole and 1-phenylimidazole promoted iNOSox dimerization, whereas clotrimazole (30 microM) and miconazole (15 microM) did not, and instead inhibited dimerization normally promoted by L-Arg and H4B. (scripps.edu)
  • For assays of the combined treatment in amastigotes, the concentration of imipramine was fixed at 12.5 μM and various concentrations of miconazole were used up to 16 μM. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study is designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of intra-arterial miconazole in inhibiting BK-mediated forearm vasodilation in normal volunteers. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Although the utility of azole therapy has been demonstrated in several observations, little is known about the efficacy of one of azoles, miconazole (MCZ). (scirp.org)
  • In this context, we investigated whether imipramine alters the biosynthesis of sterols in L. amazonensis and evaluated the efficacy of imipramine alone and in combination with miconazole, a classical inhibitor of another step in this pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This issue also reminds clinicians of the potential for miconazole containing medications to have serious interactions with warfarin . (prescriber.org.uk)
  • Peritoneal macrophages with and without L. amazonensis infection were treated with miconazole (0 - 16 μM) or imipramine (0 to 50 μM) for 72 hours. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A radial diffusion bioassay for miconazole, which employs Candida stellatoidea as the indicator organism, is described. (elsevier.com)
  • Fosphenytoin: Miconazole (Oral) may increase the serum concentration of Fosphenytoin. (drugs.com)
  • Sulfonylureas: Miconazole (Oral) may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Sulfonylureas. (drugs.com)
  • There have been reports of serious bleeding events in patients taking the combination and the risk extends to miconazole oral gel . (prescriber.org.uk)
  • Small doses of four drugs-bradykinin, sodium nitroprusside, miconazole, and LNMMA-will be given through the arterial catheter. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • There is no information regarding cross-reactivity between miconazole and other azole antifungals. (drugs.com)
  • A formulation for preparing Miconazole 1% Nasal Irrigation/Spray. (ijpc.com)
  • Furthermore, the formulation of MN-SLNs enhanced the antifungal activity compared with miconazole capsules. (dovepress.com)
  • Improved vaginal retention and enhanced antifungal activity of miconazole microsponges gel: Formulation development and in vivo therapeutic efficacy in rats. (annals.org)
  • This study has shown that the developed microstructured lipid-based formulation could be employed for improved physicochemical performance and safe intravaginal delivery of miconazole nitrate. (ajol.info)
  • For dermatological conditions associated with bacteria and when a deodorizing formulation may be of benefit, use Davis Chlorhexidine Shampoo with 2% Chlorhexidine Gluconate in conjunction with Davis Miconazole Shampoo. (petstruly.com)
  • such as terbinafine (Lamisil) or miconazole (Micatin), which can be purchased over the counter. (britannica.com)
  • Miconazole (Daktarin, Daktacort) is an antifungal indicated for prevention and treatment of various infections of the mouth, throat, skin, nails, or genitals. (www.gov.uk)
  • The aim of this research was to develop and validate a discriminatory IVRT system using vertical diffusion cells (VDCs) to assess generic topical products containing miconazole nitrate (MCZ). (mdpi.com)
  • 1 Trace amounts of miconazole have been detected systemically after topical administration. (bmj.com)
  • However, because only small amounts of miconazole or clotrimazole could pass into breastmilk when used topically or intravaginally, breastfeeding is not thought to be a concern. (mothertobaby.org)
  • This study was designed to investigate an intravaginal drug delivery system based on biocompatible phytolipids [Softisan ® 154 (SF) (hydrogenated palm oil) and super-refined sunseed oil (SO)] and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-4000 for improved physicochemical performance and safe delivery of miconazole nitrate (MN). (ajol.info)
  • 1. NAME 1.1 Substance Miconazole (INN) (WHO, 1992) 1.2 Group ATC classification index Antimycotics for systemic use (J02)/Imidazole derivatives (J02AB). (intox.org)
  • 3. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES 3.1 Origin of the substance Miconazole is a synthetic antifungal agent belonging to the imidazole group. (intox.org)
  • 3.2 Chemical structure Structural formula Molecular formula Miconazole C 18 H 14 Cl 4 N 2 0 Miconazole C 18 H 14 Cl 4 N 2 C.HNO 3 nitrate Molecular weight Miconazole 416.12 Miconazole 479.15 nitrate Structural Chemical names 1-[2,4-Dichloro-beta-(2,4- dichlorobenzyloxy)phenylethyl]imidazole. (intox.org)
  • Stability-indicating analytical method validation was completed for the simultaneous determination of miconazole and fluconazole in RECURA base using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector prior to the study. (ijpc.com)
  • Another theory is that miconazole might be mistakenly credited with increasing hair growth by eliminating tinea capitis. (wisegeek.com)
  • Prescribing information for products that contain miconazole warns that because miconazole inhibits CYP2C9, caution should be exercised for patients on oral anticoagulants such as warfarin, and the anticoagulant effect monitored (warfarin dose reduction may be needed). (www.gov.uk)