Vascular Calcification: Deposition of calcium into the blood vessel structures. Excessive calcification of the vessels are associated with ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES formation particularly after MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION (see MONCKEBERG MEDIAL CALCIFIC SCLEROSIS) and chronic kidney diseases which in turn increase VASCULAR STIFFNESS.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.alpha-2-HS-Glycoprotein: A fetuin subtype that is synthesized by HEPATOCYTES and secreted into the circulation. It plays a major role in preventing CALCIUM precipitation in the BLOOD.Aortic Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.Hyperphosphatemia: A condition of abnormally high level of PHOSPHATES in the blood, usually significantly above the normal range of 0.84-1.58 mmol per liter of serum.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Osteopontin: A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.Osteoprotegerin: A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Uremia: A clinical syndrome associated with the retention of renal waste products or uremic toxins in the blood. It is usually the result of RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. Most uremic toxins are end products of protein or nitrogen CATABOLISM, such as UREA or CREATININE. Severe uremia can lead to multiple organ dysfunctions with a constellation of symptoms.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Phosphorus Metabolism Disorders: Disorders in the processing of phosphorus in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.Monckeberg Medial Calcific Sclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of muscular ARTERIES due to calcification of the TUNICA MEDIA, the concentric layers of helically arranged SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Renal Osteodystrophy: Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Diphosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Renal Insufficiency, Chronic: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary: Abnormally elevated PARATHYROID HORMONE secretion as a response to HYPOCALCEMIA. It is caused by chronic KIDNEY FAILURE or other abnormalities in the controls of bone and mineral metabolism, leading to various BONE DISEASES, such as RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Bone Diseases, Endocrine: Diseases of the bones related to hyperfunction or hypofunction of the endocrine glands.Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Thiosulfates: Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins, Type III: A family of highly conserved and widely expressed sodium-phosphate cotransporter proteins. They are electrogenic sodium-dependent transporters of phosphate that were originally identified as retroviral receptors in HUMANS and have been described in yeast and many other organisms.Heart Valve Diseases: Pathological conditions involving any of the various HEART VALVES and the associated structures (PAPILLARY MUSCLES and CHORDAE TENDINEAE).Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Calciphylaxis: Condition of induced systemic hypersensitivity in which tissues respond to appropriate challenging agents with a sudden local calcification.PolyaminesOsteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Polyethylenes: Synthetic thermoplastics that are tough, flexible, inert, and resistant to chemicals and electrical current. They are often used as biocompatible materials for prostheses and implants.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Etidronic Acid: A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.Aorta, Abdominal: The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.RANK Ligand: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.Ergocalciferols: Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Glycerophosphates: Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Plaque, Atherosclerotic: Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Tomography, Spiral Computed: Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Vitamin K: A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Calcitriol: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.Calcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Cholecalciferol: Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.GlucuronidaseLevamisole: An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)Dental Pulp CalcificationTunica Media: The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Calcimimetic Agents: Small organic molecules that act as allosteric activators of the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in the PARATHYROID GLANDS and other tissues. They lower the threshold for CaSR activation by extracellular calcium ions and diminish PARATHYROID HORMONE (PTH) release from parathyroid cells.Tropoelastin: A salt-soluble precursor of elastin. Lysyl oxidase is instrumental in converting it to elastin in connective tissue.Brachiocephalic Trunk: The first and largest artery branching from the aortic arch. It distributes blood to the right side of the head and neck and to the right arm.Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Vitamin K 1: A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.Aortic Valve: The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B: A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Warfarin: An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.ElastinChelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cell Transdifferentiation: A naturally occurring phenomenon where terminally differentiated cells dedifferentiate to the point where they can switch CELL LINEAGES. The cells then differentiate into other cell types.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Receptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Phosphorus, Dietary: Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Bone Diseases, MetabolicBone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Hyperparathyroidism: A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.Peritoneal Dialysis: Dialysis fluid being introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity as either a continuous or an intermittent procedure.Mice, Inbred C57BLFemoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Receptors, Calcitriol: Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.Basal Ganglia Diseases: Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Receptors, Calcium-Sensing: A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that react to varying extracellular CALCIUM levels. Calcium-sensing receptors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS play an important role in the maintenance of calcium HOMEOSTASIS by regulating the release of PARATHYROID HORMONE. They differ from INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM-SENSING PROTEINS which sense intracellular calcium levels.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Lanthanum: Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.Naphthalenes: Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.Diabetic Angiopathies: VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Progeria: An abnormal congenital condition, associated with defects in the LAMIN TYPE A gene, which is characterized by premature aging in children, where all the changes of cell senescence occur. It is manifested by premature greying; hair loss; hearing loss (DEAFNESS); cataracts (CATARACT); ARTHRITIS; OSTEOPOROSIS; DIABETES MELLITUS; atrophy of subcutaneous fat; skeletal hypoplasia; elevated urinary HYALURONIC ACID; and accelerated ATHEROSCLEROSIS. Many affected individuals develop malignant tumors, especially SARCOMA.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Peripheral Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.Drug Antagonism: Phenomena and pharmaceutics of compounds that inhibit the function of agonists (DRUG AGONISM) and inverse agonists (DRUG INVERSE AGONISM) for a specific receptor. On their own, antagonists produce no effect by themselves to a receptor, and are said to have neither intrinsic activity nor efficacy.Aortic Valve Stenosis: A pathological constriction that can occur above (supravalvular stenosis), below (subvalvular stenosis), or at the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Activating Transcription Factor 4: An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Bone Density Conservation Agents: Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Vitamin D Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)Diphosphonates: Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Bioprosthesis: Prosthesis, usually heart valve, composed of biological material and whose durability depends upon the stability of the material after pretreatment, rather than regeneration by host cell ingrowth. Durability is achieved 1, mechanically by the interposition of a cloth, usually polytetrafluoroethylene, between the host and the graft, and 2, chemically by stabilization of the tissue by intermolecular linking, usually with glutaraldehyde, after removal of antigenic components, or the use of reconstituted and restructured biopolymers.Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum: An inherited disorder of connective tissue with extensive degeneration and calcification of ELASTIC TISSUE primarily in the skin, eye, and vasculature. At least two forms exist, autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant. This disorder is caused by mutations of one of the ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. Patients are predisposed to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION and GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Mitral Valve: The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.S100 Proteins: A family of highly acidic calcium-binding proteins found in large concentration in the brain and believed to be glial in origin. They are also found in other organs in the body. They have in common the EF-hand motif (EF HAND MOTIFS) found on a number of calcium binding proteins. The name of this family derives from the property of being soluble in a 100% saturated ammonium sulfate solution.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Glutaral: One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Nephrocalcinosis: A condition characterized by calcification of the renal tissue itself. It is usually seen in distal RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS with calcium deposition in the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES and the surrounding interstitium. Nephrocalcinosis causes RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Tooth Calcification: The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Pyrophosphatases: A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Scleral Diseases: General disorders of the sclera or white of the eye. They may include anatomic, embryologic, degenerative, or pigmentation defects.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Transcription Factor CHOP: A CCAAT-enhancer binding protein that is induced by DNA DAMAGE and growth arrest. It serves as a dominant negative inhibitor of other CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Kidney Function Tests: Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.Chondrocalcinosis: Presence of calcium salts, especially calcium pyrophosphate, in the cartilaginous structures of one or more joints. When accompanied by attacks of goutlike symptoms, it is called pseudogout. (Dorland, 27th ed)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Apatites: A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Mice that lack MGP develop to term but die within two months as a result of arterial calcification which leads to blood-vessel ... "A role for the endothelium in vascular calcification". Circ. Res. 113 (5): 495-504. doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.113.301792. PMC ... "Spontaneous calcification of arteries and cartilage in mice lacking matrix GLA protein". Nature. 386 (6620): 78-81. doi:10.1038 ... The protein acts as an inhibitor of vascular mineralization and plays a role in bone organization. MGP is found in number body ...
... "dystrophic calcification". Fetuin-A deficiency dramatically increased the calcification proneness of these mice in that all ... Fetuin-A was originally discovered to be an inhibitor of vascular calcification in early 1990s. Since then the biologic roles ... Feeding a mineral-rich diet to fetuin-A-deficient mice resulted in widespread calcification (ectopic mineralization) of lung, ... heart, and kidneys in these mice. The calcification became drastically exacerbated when the fetuin-A knockout was combined with ...
"Increased dietary intake of vitamin A promotes aortic valve calcification in vivo". Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular ... Hypervitaminosis A causes hypothyroidism in mice. These treatments have been used to help treat or manage toxicity in animals. ... Sharma RL, Sharma N (February 2016). "Hypervitaminosis-A, Causes Hypothyroidism in Mouse". The International Journal of Science ... "Polyenephosphatidylcholine prevents alcoholic liver disease in PPARalpha-null mice through attenuation of increases in ...
... parathyroid hormone and vascular calcification in uremia". Blood Purification. 20 (5): 494-7. doi:10.1159/000065203. PMID ... Gerdin AK (2010). "The Sanger Mouse Genetics Programme: high throughput characterisation of knockout mice". Acta ... A conditional knockout mouse line called Pthtm1a(EUCOMM)Wtsi was generated at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. Male and ... Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (Jan 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID ...
... which enhance vascular reactivity and reduce vascular calcification in a mouse model of atherosclerosis, as well as improving ... "Chronic senolytic treatment alleviates established vasomotor dysfunction in aged or atherosclerotic mice". Aging Cell. doi: ... cardiovascular function in old mice. There are a variety of types of surgery: Angioplasty and stent placement: A catheter is ...
Extensive diffuse cartilaginous calcification is present in MGP-knockout mice, manifesting in vascular media replacement with a ... "Spontaneous calcification of arteries and cartilage in mice lacking matrix GLA protein". Nature. 386 (6620): 78-81. Bibcode: ... as a biomarker for cardiovascular calcification". Journal of Vascular Research. 45 (5): 427-436. doi:10.1159/000124863. PMID ... patients develop significant arterial calcification throughout the body. Such calcification is concomitant with various ...
In mice, decrease of B-catenin results in a decrease in the proliferation of CNCCs. Downregulation of the Wnt coreceptor Lrp6 ... In humans, mutations in Notch most often result in bicuspid aortic valve disease and calcification of the aortic valve. Bone ... The CNCCs themselves are the precursors to vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiac neurons. For example, CNCCs are required ... FGF8 mouse mutants have a range of cardiac defects including underdeveloped arch arteries and transposition of the great ...
Sharp J (March 1954). "Heredo-familial vascular and articular calcification". Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 13 (1): 15-27. ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Misumi Y, Ogata S, Ohkubo K, Hirose S, Ikehara Y (August 1990). "Primary structure of human placental ... Rare allelic variants are associated with a syndrome of adult-onset calcification of joints and arteries (CALJA) affecting the ... "NT5E mutations and arterial calcifications". The New England Journal of Medicine. 364 (5): 432-42. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0912923. ...
... as inhibition of the channel causes a decrease in vascular calcification. Over-expression of these channels has quite a ... The knockout mice also experienced intention tremors, shorter stride length, and slower swim speed. All of these are symptoms ... In doing so it was observed that there were changes in the blood vessels of the mice. The animals without the BK channels ... Studies have shown that this treatment causes proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. This finding has sparked further ...
Drüeke TB, Massy ZA (2003). "Advanced oxidation protein products, parathyroid hormone and vascular calcification in uremia". ... Gerdin AK (2010). "The Sanger Mouse Genetics Programme: high throughput characterisation of knockout mice". Acta ... "International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium".. *^ Skarnes WC, Rosen B, West AP, Koutsourakis M, Bushell W, Iyer V, Mujica AO, ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.. ...
2000). "Phosphate regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell calcification". Circ. Res. 87 (7): E10-7. doi:10.1161/01.RES.87.7. ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... in vascular smooth muscle cell calcification". Circ. Res. 98 (7): 905-12. doi:10.1161/01.RES.0000216409.20863.e7. PMID 16527991 ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Kavanaugh MP, Miller DG, Zhang W, Law W, Kozak SL, Kabat D, Miller AD (Aug 1994). "Cell-surface ...
"The good and the bad in the link between insulin resistance and vascular calcification". Atherosclerosis. 193 (2): 241-4. doi: ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Funakoshi I, Kato H, Horie K, Yano T, Hori Y, Kobayashi H, Inoue T, Suzuki H, Fukui S, Tsukahara M ( ... Mutations in this gene have been associated with Idiopathic infantile arterial calcification, ossification of the posterior ... "PC-1 nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase deficiency in idiopathic infantile arterial calcification". Am. J. Pathol. ...
Thus fetuin-A is a potent inhibitor of pathological calcification. Mice deficient in fetuin-A show systemic calcification of ... 2003). "Novel insights into uremic vascular calcification: role of matrix Gla protein and alpha-2-Heremans Schmid glycoprotein/ ... prevents extraosseous calcification induced by uraemia and phosphate challenge in mice". Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 22 (6): ... Ketteler M (2005). "Fetuin-A and extraosseous calcification in uremia". Curr. Opin. Nephrol. Hypertens. 14 (4): 337-42. doi: ...
Calcification forms among vascular smooth muscle cells of the surrounding muscular layer, specifically in the muscle cells ... The sugar, cyclodextrin, removed cholesterol that had built up in the arteries of mice fed a high-fat diet. Aging is the most ... In addition, the calcification deposits between the outer portion of the atheroma and the muscular wall, as they progress, lead ... Vascular bypass surgery can re-establish flow around the diseased segment of artery, and angioplasty with or without stenting ...
The phenotype of knock out mice demonstrates that pdgfrb is essential for vascular development, and that pdgfb is responsible ... Primary familial brain calcification (see Fahr's syndrome) is a rare disease involving bilateral calcifications in the brain, ... Mice harboring a single activated allele of pdgfrb show a number of postnatal phenotypes including reduced differentiation of ... Levéen P, Pekny M, Gebre-Medhin S, Swolin B, Larsson E, Betsholtz C (1994). "Mice deficient for PDGF B show renal, ...
Li X, Giachelli CM (2007). "Sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporters and vascular calcification". Curr. Opin. Nephrol. ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: POU1F1 POU domain, class 1, transcription factor 1 (Pit1, growth hormone factor 1)". ...
In vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC), ADAMTS7 mediates VSMC migration, which plays an essential role during the development of ... Significant associations for coronary artery calcification with SNPs in ADAMTS7 has also been found in Hispanics. Additionally ... Adamts7 deficiency in both the Ldlr−/− and Apoe−/− hyperlipidemic mouse models markedly attenuates formation of atherosclerotic ... "ADAMTS-7 mediates vascular smooth muscle cell migration and neointima formation in balloon-injured rat arteries". Circulation ...
"Increased dietary intake of vitamin A promotes aortic valve calcification in vivo". Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular ... Hypervitaminosis A causes hypothyroidism in mice.[42]. TreatmentEdit. These treatments have been used to help treat or manage ... "Hypervitaminosis-A, Causes Hypothyroidism in Mouse". The International Journal of Science and Technoledge. 4 (2): 62-4. ... "Polyenephosphatidylcholine prevents alcoholic liver disease in PPARalpha-null mice through attenuation of increases in ...
Mouse models where the Jag1 gene is turned off in certain tissues (conditional knockout mouse models) have been used to study ... kidneys and vascular system. The most clinically significant concerns stem from liver, heart, vascular or renal problems. ... "Endothelial deletion of murine Jag1 leads to valve calcification and congenital heart defects associated with Alagille syndrome ... mice haploinsufficient for both Jag1 and Notch2 present with the ALGS phenotype. Conditional gene knockout mouse models with ...
Mice fed a high cholesterol diet showed significantly more vascular damage and hypertension when they had been infected with ... Another 5% later develop cerebral calcification (decreasing IQ levels dramatically and causing sensorineural deafness and ... A study published in 2009 links infection with CMV to high blood pressure in mice, and suggests that the result of CMV ... CMV infection stimulated cytokines - IL6, TNF, and MCP1 - in the infected mice, indicating that the infection led to an ...
The enzyme activity was detected in rabbits, mice and rats, and humans, and it is now believed to be ubiquitous in vertebrates ... The EETs display different properties in different vascular beds. The DHETs are more readily excreted, but they have yet to be ... R287Q was associated with coronary artery calcification in African American population participating in the CARDIA study. The ... The sEH was first identified in the cytosolic fraction of mouse liver through its activity on epoxide containing substrates ...
"Sortilin mediates vascular calcification via its recruitment into extracellular vesicles". The Journal of Clinical ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: SORT1 sortilin 1". "BioGPS - your Gene Portal System". biogps.org. Retrieved 2016-08-16 ...
However recent models in mice show that the dysfunction in the cerebellum may play an equal part in dystonia. . Hemiballismus ... Though there are known causes of dystonia such as metabolic, vascular, and structural abnormalities, there are still patients ... There is physiological intracranial calcification in about 0,3-1,5% of individuals. Fahr's disease is a rare, genetically ... Basal ganglia calcification: clinical manifestations and diagnostic evaluation]". Georgian Med News (in Russian) (140): 39-43. ...
"Accelerated atherosclerosis and calcification in vein grafts: a study in APOE*3 Leiden transgenic mice". Circulation Research. ... A report from the Committee on Vascular Lesions of the Council on Arteriosclerosis, American Heart Association". Circulation. ... Journal of vascular surgery. 51 (2): 429-37. doi:10.1016/j.jvs.2009.09.026. PMID 20036101. Quax, PH; Lamfers, ML; Lardenoye, JH ... and vascular biology. 31 (5): 1033-40. doi:10.1161/ATVBAHA.111.223271. PMID 21330606. Pradhan-Nabzdyk, L; Huang, C; LoGerfo, FW ...
Manev H, Manev R (2006). "5-Lipoxygenase (ALOX5) and FLAP (ALOX5AP) gene polymorphisms as factors in vascular pathology and ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Kennedy BP, Diehl RE, Boie Y, Adam M, Dixon RA (May 1991). "Gene characterization and promoter ... "Integrative predictive model of coronary artery calcification in atherosclerosis". Circulation. 120 (24): 2448-54. doi:10.1161/ ... reduces inflammation in the respiratory syncytial virus-infected mouse eye". Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 16 (11): 1654-9. ...
Studies in mice and rats have found that retinoids, including isotretinoin, bind to dopaminergic receptors in the central ... Other problems include premature epiphyseal closure and calcification of tendons and ligaments.[32] The bones of the spine and ... Vascular *Vasculitis (i.e. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis, allergic vasculitis). Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal ... suppresses hippocampal cell survival in mice". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1021 (1): 436-40. Bibcode: ...
Vascular Biology. Aortic Msx2-Wnt Calcification Cascade Is Regulated by TNF-α-Dependent Signals in Diabetic Ldlr−/− Mice. Ziyad ... Figure 1. Diabetogenic diets promote calcification in male Ldlr−/− mice. Mice were fed HFD for 1 (A and B) or 6 (C through F) ... Inactivation of the osteopontin gene enhances vascular calcification of matrix Gla protein-deficient mice: evidence for ... Mice with vascular TNF-α augmented by a transgene (SM22-TNFαTg) driven from the SM22 promoter upregulated aortic Msx2, Wnt3a, ...
To determine whether teriparatide alters vascular calcification, we imaged aortic calcification in mice treated with ... Effects of teriparatide on morphology of aortic calcification in aged hyperlipidemic mice.. Hsu JJ1, Lu J2, Umar S3, Lee JT4, ... Female apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were aged for over 1 yr to induce aortic calcification, treated for 4.5 wk with daily ... NEW & NOTEWORTHY Parathyroid hormone regulates bone mineralization and may also affect vascular calcification, which is an ...
These in vitro data were confirmed and extended by studying an in vivo mouse model of vascular calcification. Mice lacking NPP1 ... Expression of IGF2 is associated with aortic calcification in a mouse model of GACI. The association of IGF2 with vascular ... The vascular biology of calcification. Seminars in Dialysis. 2007;20:103-109. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-139X.2007.00255.x. [PubMed] [ ... In this study, we have carried out in vitro VSMC calcification studies, in conjunction with ex vivo analyses of a mouse model ...
B, Thiamet-G accelerated vascular calcification in diabetic mice. Calcium content was determined in mouse descending aortas and ... Thiamet-G treatment accelerates vascular calcification in diabetic mice. Mice were treated with control, streptozotocin (STZ), ... Administration of Thiamet-G in diabetic mice further enhances vascular O-GlcNAcylation, accelerated vascular calcification and ... D, Increased vascular calcification in diabetic mice. Calcium content was determined in descending aortas from control and STZ- ...
Previously vascular calcification was thought to be a passive process which involved the deposition of calcium and phosphate in ... Previously vascular calcification was thought to be a passive process which involved the deposition of calcium and phosphate in ... However, recent studies have shown that vascular calcification is a highly regulated, cell-mediated process similar to bone ... However, recent studies have shown that vascular calcification is a highly regulated, cell-mediated process similar to bone ...
... mice exhibit exaggerated TNF induction and increased mortality.53 Finally, in the apoE-null mouse, vascular calcification ... Osteoprotegerin inhibits vascular calcification without affecting atherosclerosis in ldlr(−/−) mice. Circulation. 2008; 117: ... atherosclerotic calcification, diabetic medial artery calcification, vascular calcification of end-stage renal disease, and ... Mice. Some degree of vascular inflammation is a frequent concomitant of most forms of arterial calcification.13,14 Sites of ...
Vascular calcification occurs spontaneously in genetically modified mice such as apoE-deficient mice, which were recently shown ... vascular calcification promoting bone loss, (2) bone loss promoting vascular calcification, or (3) a common etiology. The first ... For years, the vascular calcification and osteoporosis phenotypes of the Klotho mouse were attributed to a premature aging ... Osteoprotegerin (OPG) inhibits vascular calcification without affecting atherosclerosis in ldlr(−/−) mice. Circulation. 2008; ...
Klotho-hypomorphic mice (kl/kl) suffer from severe vascular calcification and rapid aging. The calcification is at least in ... In kl/kl mice, ACM reversed tissue calcification despite continued hyperphosphatemia. ACM tripled the life span of kl/kl mice. ... interference with osteoinductive signaling and tissue calcification in kl/kl mice.. KEY MESSAGES: Klotho deficient (kl/kl) mice ... Acetazolamide sensitive tissue calcification and aging of klotho-hypomorphic mice.. Leibrock CB1, Alesutan I1, Voelkl J1, ...
In valves, calcification presents as Calcific Aortic Valve Disease (CAVD), in which the aortic valve becomes stenotic when ... In valves, calcification presents as Calcific Aortic Valve Disease (CAVD), in which the aortic valve becomes stenotic when ... Calcification of either tissue leads to deterioration and, ultimately, failure causing poor quality of life and decreased ... Calcification of either tissue leads to deterioration and, ultimately, failure causing poor quality of life and decreased ...
Downregulation of Msx Signaling Reduces Vascular Calcification and Stiffness in Diabetic Mice. Although arterial calcification ... Downregulation of Msx Signaling Reduces Vascular Calcification and Stiffness in Diabetic Mice ... Targeted reduction of vascular Msx1 and Msx2 mitigates arteriosclerotic calcification and aortic stiffness in LDLR-deficient ... Treated mice also displayed decreased expression of vascular Shh (Sonic hedgehog), which is involved in multipotent mesenchymal ...
Vitamin K2 can inhibit calcification of aortic intima in mice.Dec 31, 2016. ... Panax notoginseng saponins attenuate phenotype switching of vascular smooth muscle cells induced by notch3 silencing.Dec 31, ... Oral treatment with a low dose of THC inhibits atherosclerosis progression in this mouse model.Apr 06, 2005. ... Hawthorn leave flavonoids can slow down the development of atherosclerosis in apoE knockout mice.Feb 22, 2017. ...
Similarly, Sgk1 deficiency blunted vascular calcification in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice after subtotal nephrectomy. ... These observations identified SGK1 as a key regulator of vascular calcification. SGK1 promoted vascular calcification, at least ... Medial vascular calcification, associated with enhanced mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD), is fostered by osteo-/ ... SGK1 induces vascular smooth muscle cell calcification through NF-κB signaling. ...
Warfarin accelerated vascular calcification and worsened cardiac dysfunction in remnant kidney mice.Dec 31, 2017. ... Diseases : Kidney Failure: Chronic, Lipid Peroxidation, Vascular Calcification. Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory ... Diosgenin attenuates vascular calcification in chronic renal failure rats.May 31, 2013. ...
... mice,22 indicating that such a mechanism may be involved in diverse variants of medial vascular calcification, although ... Vascular smooth muscle cell phenotypic plasticity and the regulation of vascular calcification. J Intern Med. 2006;260:192-210. ... A10 cells (A and B) or aortic rings dissected from the TG2−/− mice (C) were cultured in calcification medium and supplemented ... Spontaneous calcification of arteries and cartilage in mice lacking matrix GLA protein. Nature. 1997;386:78-81. ...
2015). ENPP1-Fc prevents mortality and vascular calcifications in rodent model of generalized arterial calcification of infancy ... Calcification levels are also increased in a statistically significant manner in Asj-2J hom mice compared with WT mice in ... Tissue calcification data from Asj-2J mice were used to establish a therapeutic treatment window for a calcification prevention ... These mice present with severe arterial calcification with minor secondary calcification in nonvascular tissues (Fig. 1A). ...
Mice that lack MGP develop to term but die within two months as a result of arterial calcification which leads to blood-vessel ... "A role for the endothelium in vascular calcification". Circ. Res. 113 (5): 495-504. doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.113.301792. PMC ... "Spontaneous calcification of arteries and cartilage in mice lacking matrix GLA protein". Nature. 386 (6620): 78-81. doi:10.1038 ... The protein acts as an inhibitor of vascular mineralization and plays a role in bone organization. MGP is found in number body ...
Supporting the idea that low fetuin-A causes vascular calcification, we observed in patients with PAD (NGM-PAD and type 2 ... Fetuin-A knockout mice develop severe calcification of various organs (4). In a cross-sectional study, low levels of fetuin-A ... In addition, we support the hypothesis that low fetuin-A might result in vascular calcification. Finally, we are first to ... low fetuin-A has been linked to vascular calcification (6) and flow-limiting aortic stenosis (7). ...
Similarly, Sgk1 deficiency blunted vascular calcification in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice after subtotal nephrectomy. ... These observations identified SGK1 as a key regulator of vascular calcification. SGK1 promoted vascular calcification, at least ... In Ahsp−/− mice, EC α-globin was decreased by 70%. Ahsp−/− and Hba1−/− mice exhibited similar evidence of increased vascular NO ... Medial vascular calcification, associated with enhanced mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD), is fostered by osteo-/ ...
Conclusions: Inhibition of BMP signaling leads to reduced vascular calcification and improved survival in MGP-/- mice. The ... Aortic calcification was assessed in 28-day-old mice by measuring the uptake of a fluorescent bisphosphonate probe and by ... Aortic calcification was 80% less in MGP-/- mice treated with LDN-193189 or ALK3-Fc compared with vehicle-treated control ... suggest that BMP signal transduction has critical roles in the development of vascular calcification in MGP-deficient mice. ...
Potassium plays a crucial role in staving off arterial calcification, which is associated with kidney disease, cardiovascular ... Potassium plays a crucial role in staving off arterial calcification, which is associated with kidney disease, cardiovascular ... A new study showed that vascular calcification was relieved in animal studies; mice given the highest levels of potassium had ... The scientists noted that vascular smooth muscle cells, or VSMCs, contribute to vascular calcification in atherosclerosis and ...
Clearing out the clutter: senolytic drugs improve vascular health in mice. Reduced calcification of plaques on blood-vessel ... in mice improve age-related vascular conditions - and may possibly reduce cardiovascular disease and death. ... The researchers intermittently gave the mice a cocktail of two senolytic drugs (ones that selectively induce cell death): ... Mayo Clinic researchers extend lifespan by up to 35 percent in mice. February 3, 2016. ...
Figure 3: Mouse calvaria: particle-induced osteolysis. *characterization of dystrophic calcifications. *visualization of bone ... vascular mapping. Equipment. Scanner: Scanco Medical MicroCT 35 (Fig. 4). *Resolution: 1.75-38 microns. In a typical mouse bone ... mouse femur trabecular bone: ,0.5% for mineral density, ,0.7% for trabecular bone volume fraction, relative bone surface, ... Typical scanning time for mouse femurs: 6-10µm resolution ~1.5h (4 femurs can be scanned in parallel). ...
Current Vascular Pharmacology. *Antibacterial Combination of Oleoresin from Copaifera multijuga Hayne and Biogenic Silver ... Susceptibility of Intracellular Coxiella burnetii to Antimicrobial Peptides in Mouse Fibroblast Cells. Protein & Peptide ... Prevention of Bioprosthetic Heart Valve Calcification: Strategies and Outcomes. Author(s): L.P. Bre, R. McCarthy, W. Wang ... Firstly, the calcification process has been studied and factors such as young patient age, use of glutaraldehyde fixative, the ...
Sclerostin is locally produced in aortic valve tissue adjacent to areas of calcification. ... and aortic valve calcifications (AVC) in haemodialysis (HD) patients. We conducted a cross-sectional multi-slice computed ... regarding their association to the presence of calcification. Fifty-four adults without relevant renal disease served as ... Role of calcification inhibitors in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Kidney Int. ...
Teriparatide, a PTH1R agonist that inhibits murine vascular calcification, suppressed vascular BMP2-Msx2-Wnt signaling. ... In diabetic LDLR-/- mice, an ectopic BMP2-Msx2 gene regulatory program is upregulated in association with vascular ... Analyses of CMV-Msx2Tg+ mice confirmed that Msx2 suppresses aortic Dkk1 and upregulates vascular Wnts; moreover, TOPGAL+ (Wnt ... On high-fat diets, CMV-Msx2Tg+ mice exhibited marked cardiovascular calcification involving aortic and coronary tunica media. ...
  • Vascular Discovery: From Genes to Medicine is sponsored by the Council on Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology and the Peripheral Vascular Disease Council , in cooperation with the Council on Genomic and Precision Medicine , and the Society for Vascular Surgery. (heart.org)
  • The primary goal of this virtual event is to provide a forum for the exchange of information about new and emerging scientific research in lipids and lipoproteins, arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, vascular biology, genomics and peripheral vascular disease. (heart.org)
  • Additionally, it is believed that they play a role in wound healing processes, but also in pathological events, for instance those that occur during vascular calcification (arteriosclerosis). (eurekalert.org)
  • Increased O-GlcNAcylation, either by Thiamet-G or O-GlcNAcase knockdown, promoted calcification of primary mouse vascular smooth muscle cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • To investigate possible mechanisms, different atherogenic cell types (e.g., macrophages, dendritic cells, HUVECs, vascular smooth muscle cells) were stimulated with IL-17A in addition to TNF-α, IFN-γ, or LPS to induce cellular activation or apoptosis in vitro. (jimmunol.org)
  • In addition, we investigated possible mechanisms of IL-17A on atherogenic cells (vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), monocytes/macrophages, HUVECs, DCs, and CD4 + T cells) in vitro. (jimmunol.org)
  • By inhibiting autophagy, the researchers found that they were able to prevent calcification in vascular smooth muscle cells, indicating that autophagy plays a significant role in the calcification process. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In cell culture, low potassium levels in the culture media markedly enhanced calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • So the UAB researchers tested the effect of growing vascular smooth muscle cells in low-potassium cell culture. (eurekalert.org)
  • Zhu D, Mackenzie NC, Millan JL, Farquharson C, MacRae VE (2011) The appearance and modulation of osteocyte marker expression during calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells. (springer.com)
  • The objective of this work was to examine the ability of 17β-estradiol (E2) to stimulate calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in vivo, using aged apolipoprotein E-null mice with advanced atherosclerotic lesions, and subsequently to explore underlying mechanisms in vitro. (ovid.com)
  • miR-34a and IL6 levels increased and positively correlated in aortas of 21 months-old male C57BL/6J mice and in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) isolated from donors of different age and undergone senescence. (skincare.nz)
  • Using low, normal or high levels of dietary potassium -- 0.3 percent, 0.7 percent and 2.1 percent weight/weight, respectively, the UAB team found that the mice fed a low-potassium diet had a significant increase in vascular calcification. (eurekalert.org)
  • Previously considered a passive, unregulated, and degenerative process occurring in the arterial media, vascular calcification has now been demonstrated to be a highly regulated process of osteochondrogenic differentiation of vascular cells. (mercola.com)
  • He has also studied the biology of differentiation and phenotypic switching in vascular SMCs, first identifying differentially regulated genes associated with SMC lineage determination, and then focusing on the epigenetic regulation of SMC differentiation state. (stanford.edu)
  • In view of the capacity of differentiation into osteoblast from BM-MSCs, we investigated whether BM-MSCs was involved in the process of angiosteosis in atherosclerosis when exposed to vascular injure and hyperlipemia. (bmj.com)
  • It is widely accepted that endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction, inflammatory cell recruitment, and vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) de-differentiation contribute to atherogenesis [ 3 , 4 , 7 ]. (thno.org)
  • By understanding better the molecular pathways and genetic circuitry responsible for the pathological mineralization process novel drug targets may be identified and exploited to combat and reduce the detrimental effects of vascular calcification on human health. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although both heart valves and vasculature exhibit calcification and share some of the underlying processes leading toward mineralization, few significant correlations between the two have been made. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this study, the efficacy of a recombinant human ENPP1 protein therapeutic (rhENPP1) was tested in Enpp1 asj-2J homozygous mice ( Asj-2J or Asj-2J hom), a model previously described to show extensive mineralization in the arterial vasculature, similar to GACI patients. (biologists.org)
  • Firstly, the calcification process has been studied and factors such as young patient age, use of glutaraldehyde fixative, the presence of phospholipids along with cell debris in the valve tissue and mechanical stress have been identified to influence tissue mineralization. (eurekaselect.com)
  • These investigators went on to show that phosphate supplements also accelerate mineralization in vascular cells and implicated sodium-dependent phosphate transport. (ahajournals.org)
  • 2 In this issue of Circulation Research , these investigators 3 now provide compelling evidence that a specific phosphate transporter is essential for in vitro vascular calcification and, possibly, the severe mineralization of the vascular tree in end-stage renal disease patients. (ahajournals.org)
  • Feeding a mineral-rich diet to fetuin-A-deficient mice resulted in widespread calcification (ectopic mineralization) of lung, heart, and kidneys in these mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods In the Treatment of Ectopic Mineralization in Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum trial, adults with PXE and leg arterial calcifications (n = 74) were randomly assigned to etidronate or placebo (cyclical 20 mg/kg for 2 weeks every 12 weeks). (onlinejacc.org)
  • Sundberg, John 2016-04-28 00:00:00 Dystrophic cardiac calcinosis (DCC), also called epicardial and myocardial fibrosis and mineralization, has been detected in mice of a number of laboratory inbred strains, most commonly C3H/HeJ and DBA/2J. (deepdyve.com)
  • Macrovascular complications include coronary heart disease (CHD), which may result in myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease, leading to strokes, and peripheral vascular disease [5- (termedia.pl)
  • This lack of genotype-phenotype correlation prompted us to directly test the possible effects of genetic background or modifier genes on PTEN-controlled tumorigenesis using genetically engineered mouse models. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Most recently he has examined the role of microRNAs in the regulation of SMC phenotype, and studied the biology of aortic aneurysm development in mouse models. (stanford.edu)
  • Here, we report susceptibility to cardiac fibrosis, a sub-phenotype of DCC, at 12 and 20 months of age and close to natural death in a survey of 28 inbred mouse strains. (deepdyve.com)
  • Both diseases show that the endothelial layer and its regulation of nitric oxide is crucial to calcification progression. (frontiersin.org)
  • Angpt2 was highly expressed in endothelial cells at the infarct border zone after myocardial infarction (MI) or ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice. (jci.org)
  • In the acute phase of MI, endothelial-derived Angpt2 antagonized Angpt1/Tie2 signaling, which was greatly involved in pericyte detachment, vascular leakage, increased adhesion molecular expression, degradation of the glycocalyx and extracellular matrix, and enhanced neutrophil infiltration and hypoxia in the infarct border area. (jci.org)
  • Arteriolar endothelial cell-expressed (EC-expressed) α-globin binds endothelial NOS (eNOS) and degrades its enzymatic product, NO, via dioxygenation, thereby lessening the vasodilatory effects of NO on nearby vascular smooth muscle. (jci.org)
  • Additionally, CTRP13 treatment reduced reactive oxygen species overproduction and improved nitric oxide (NO) production and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) coupling in the aortae of diabetic mice and in HG-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Together, these results suggest that CTRP13 preserves endothelial function in diabetic mice by regulating GCH1/BH4 axis-dependent eNOS coupling, suggesting the therapeutic potential of CTRP13 against diabetic vasculopathy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Wołoszyn-Durkiewicz A, Myśliwiec M. The prognostic value of inflammatory and vascular endothelial dysfunction biomarkers in microvascular and macrovascular complications in type 1 diabetes. (termedia.pl)
  • Prof. Wenzel, together with the Technische Universität München, the Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology at the University of Bonn Hospital and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt Berlin, developed a method with which damaged endothelial cells can regenerate and which they successfully tested in mice. (technologynetworks.com)
  • After half an hour, the endothelial cells adhered so securely to the vascular wall that they could no longer be flushed away by the bloodstream," says Jun. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Female apoE −/− mice 8 wk of age (strain B6.129P2) on a C57BL/6J background were kept within the animal care facility of the University of Heidelberg (Heidelberg, Germany). (jimmunol.org)
  • Methods and Results We measured calcification volume of aortic arch plaques using CNT-based micro-CT in 16- to 18-month-old males on 129S6/SvEvTac and C57BL/6J genetic backgrounds (129-apoE KO and B6-apoE KO). (ahajournals.org)
  • Quantification from acquired images suggests higher susceptibility to calcification of the aortic arch plaques in 129-apoE KO than in B6-apoE KO mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • Strains of mice that contain genetic disruptions (knockout) of APOLIPOPROTEINS E genes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A tissue-specific Knockout mouse defines an animal model in which a gene of interest is ' floxed ' and thus inactivatable in specific cell types in a certain tissue. (genoway.com)
  • To clarify whether differences seen in both human patients and in animals models are due to ( a ) nature of individual mutations (e.g., hypomorphic variations in the Pten locus) or ( b ) genetic background/modifier genes, we generated two knockout mouse strains with different deletions and compared the consequences of Pten inactivation on 129/C57 and 129/BALB/c genetic backgrounds. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The function of Fetuin-A in the body was determined by gene knockout technology in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • The calcification became drastically exacerbated when the fetuin-A knockout was combined with the genetic background DBA/2. (wikipedia.org)
  • We are currently exploring downstream mechanisms by which vessel identity regulates vessel remodeling and the success or failure of vascular therapeutics (Sadaghianloo et al. (yale.edu)