Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Laboratory rats that have been produced from a genetically manipulated rat EGG or rat EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. They contain genes from another species.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Removal, via CELL DEATH, of immature lymphocytes that interact with antigens during maturation. For T-lymphocytes this occurs in the thymus and ensures that mature T-lymphocytes are self tolerant. B-lymphocytes may also undergo clonal deletion.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
ONCOGENE PROTEINS from papillomavirus that deregulate the CELL CYCLE of infected cells and lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. Papillomavirus E7 proteins have been shown to interact with various regulators of the cell cycle including RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and certain cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.
Accumulations of extracellularly deposited AMYLOID FIBRILS within tissues.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Diseases of plants.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
A synthetic tetracycline derivative with similar antimicrobial activity.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-5 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-14 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.
Organisms whose GENOME has been changed by a GENETIC ENGINEERING technique.
The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.
Integral membrane protein of Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum. Its homodimer is an essential component of the gamma-secretase complex that catalyzes the cleavage of membrane proteins such as NOTCH RECEPTORS and AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES precursors. PSEN1 mutations cause early-onset ALZHEIMER DISEASE type 3 that may occur as early as 30 years of age in humans.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).
A low-molecular-weight (approx. 10 kD) protein occurring in the cytoplasm of kidney cortex and liver. It is rich in cysteinyl residues and contains no aromatic amino acids. Metallothionein shows high affinity for bivalent heavy metals.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A familial disorder inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by the onset of progressive CHOREA and DEMENTIA in the fourth or fifth decade of life. Common initial manifestations include paranoia; poor impulse control; DEPRESSION; HALLUCINATIONS; and DELUSIONS. Eventually intellectual impairment; loss of fine motor control; ATHETOSIS; and diffuse chorea involving axial and limb musculature develops, leading to a vegetative state within 10-15 years of disease onset. The juvenile variant has a more fulminant course including SEIZURES; ATAXIA; dementia; and chorea. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1060-4)
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines derived from edible plants. Transgenic plants (PLANTS, TRANSGENIC) are used as recombinant protein production systems and the edible plant tissue functions as an oral vaccine.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A degenerative disorder affecting upper MOTOR NEURONS in the brain and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and SPINAL CORD. Disease onset is usually after the age of 50 and the process is usually fatal within 3 to 6 years. Clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, atrophy, FASCICULATION, hyperreflexia, DYSARTHRIA, dysphagia, and eventual paralysis of respiratory function. Pathologic features include the replacement of motor neurons with fibrous ASTROCYTES and atrophy of anterior SPINAL NERVE ROOTS and corticospinal tracts. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1089-94)
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.
Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Neurodegenerative disorders involving deposition of abnormal tau protein isoforms (TAU PROTEINS) in neurons and glial cells in the brain. Pathological aggregations of tau proteins are associated with mutation of the tau gene on chromosome 17 in patients with ALZHEIMER DISEASE; DEMENTIA; PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS; progressive supranuclear palsy (SUPRANUCLEAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE); and corticobasal degeneration.
The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).

Deletion of a region that is a candidate for the difference between the deletion forms of hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin and deltabeta-thalassemia affects beta- but not gamma-globin gene expression. (1/44874)

The analysis of a number of cases of beta-globin thalassemia and hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) due to large deletions in the beta-globin locus has led to the identification of several DNA elements that have been implicated in the switch from human fetal gamma- to adult beta-globin gene expression. We have tested this hypothesis for an element that covers the minimal distance between the thalassemia and HPFH deletions and is thought to be responsible for the difference between a deletion HPFH and deltabeta-thalassemia, located 5' of the delta-globin gene. This element has been deleted from a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) containing the complete human beta-globin locus. Analysis of this modified YAC in transgenic mice shows that early embryonic expression is unaffected, but in the fetal liver it is subject to position effects. In addition, the efficiency of transcription of the beta-globin gene is decreased, but the developmental silencing of the gamma-globin genes is unaffected by the deletion. These results show that the deleted element is involved in the activation of the beta-globin gene perhaps through the loss of a structural function required for gene activation by long-range interactions.  (+info)

Requirement for transcription factor NFAT in interleukin-2 expression. (2/44874)

The nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) transcription factor is implicated in expression of the cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2). Binding sites for NFAT are located in the IL-2 promoter. Furthermore, pharmacological studies demonstrate that the drug cyclosporin A inhibits both NFAT activation and IL-2 expression. However, targeted disruption of the NFAT1 and NFAT2 genes in mice does not cause decreased IL-2 secretion. The role of NFAT in IL-2 gene expression is therefore unclear. Here we report the construction of a dominant-negative NFAT mutant (dnNFAT) that selectively inhibits NFAT-mediated gene expression. The inhibitory effect of dnNFAT is mediated by suppression of activation-induced nuclear translocation of NFAT. Expression of dnNFAT in cultured T cells caused inhibition of IL-2 promoter activity and decreased expression of IL-2 protein. Similarly, expression of dnNFAT in transgenic mice also caused decreased IL-2 gene expression. These data demonstrate that NFAT is a critical component of the signaling pathway that regulates IL-2 expression.  (+info)

p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase can be involved in transforming growth factor beta superfamily signal transduction in Drosophila wing morphogenesis. (3/44874)

p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) has been extensively studied as a stress-responsive kinase, but its role in development remains unknown. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has two p38 genes, D-p38a and D-p38b. To elucidate the developmental function of the Drosophila p38's, we used various genetic and pharmacological manipulations to interfere with their functions: expression of a dominant-negative form of D-p38b, expression of antisense D-p38b RNA, reduction of the D-p38 gene dosage, and treatment with the p38 inhibitor SB203580. Expression of a dominant-negative D-p38b in the wing imaginal disc caused a decapentaplegic (dpp)-like phenotype and enhanced the phenotype of a dpp mutant. Dpp is a secretory ligand belonging to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily which triggers various morphogenetic processes through interaction with the receptor Thick veins (Tkv). Inhibition of D-p38b function also caused the suppression of the wing phenotype induced by constitutively active Tkv (TkvCA). Mosaic analysis revealed that D-p38b regulates the Tkv-dependent transcription of the optomotor-blind (omb) gene in non-Dpp-producing cells, indicating that the site of D-p38b action is downstream of Tkv. Furthermore, forced expression of TkvCA induced an increase in the phosphorylated active form(s) of D-p38(s). These results demonstrate that p38, in addition to its role as a transducer of emergency stress signaling, may function to modulate Dpp signaling.  (+info)

Ganglioneuromas and renal anomalies are induced by activated RET(MEN2B) in transgenic mice. (4/44874)

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN2B) is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by the development of medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytomas, musculoskeletal anomalies and mucosal ganglioneuromas. MEN2B is caused by a specific mutation (Met918-->Thr) in the RET receptor tyrosine kinase. Different mutations of RET lead to other conditions including MEN2A, familial medullary thyroid carcinoma and intestinal aganglionosis (Hirschsprung disease). Transgenic mice were created using the dopamine beta-hydroxylase promoter to direct expression of RET(MEN2B) in the developing sympathetic and enteric nervous systems and the adrenal medulla. DbetaH-RET(MEN2B) transgenic mice developed benign neuroglial tumors, histologically identical to human ganglioneuromas, in their sympathetic nervous systems and adrenal glands. The enteric nervous system was not affected. The neoplasms in DbetaH-RET(MEN2B) mice were similar to benign neuroglial tumors induced in transgenic mice by activated Ras expression under control of the same promoter. Levels of phosphorylated MAP kinase were not increased in the RET(MEN2B)-induced neurolglial proliferations, suggesting that alternative pathways may play a role in the pathogenesis of these lesions. Transgenic mice with the highest levels of DbetaH-RET(MEN2B) expression, unexpectedly developed renal malformations analogous to those reported with loss of function mutations in the Ret gene.  (+info)

The five amino acid-deleted isoform of hepatocyte growth factor promotes carcinogenesis in transgenic mice. (5/44874)

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a polypeptide with mitogenic, motogenic, and morphogenic effects on different cell types including hepatocytes. HGF is expressed as two biologically active isotypes resulting from alternative RNA splicing. The roles of each HGF isoform in development, liver regeneration and tumorigenesis have not yet been well characterized. We report the generation and analysis of transgenic mice overexpressing the five amino acid-deleted variant of HGF (dHGF) in the liver by virtue of an albumin expression vector. These ALB-dHGF transgenic mice develop normally, have an enhanced rate of liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, and exhibit a threefold higher incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) beyond 17 months of age. Moreover, overexpression of dHGF dramatically accelerates diethyl-nitrosamine induced HCC tumorigenesis. These tumors arise faster, are significantly larger, more numerous and more invasive than those appearing in non-transgenic littermates. Approximately 90% of female dHGF-transgenic mice had multiple macroscopic HCCs 40 weeks after injection of DEN; whereas the non-transgenic counterparts had only microscopic nodules. Liver tumors and cultured tumor cell lines from dHGF transgenics showed high levels of HGF and c-Met mRNA and protein. Together, these results reveal that in vivo dHGF plays an active role in liver regeneration and HCC tumorigenesis.  (+info)

A concise promoter region of the heart fatty acid-binding protein gene dictates tissue-appropriate expression. (6/44874)

The heart fatty acid-binding protein (HFABP) is a member of a family of binding proteins with distinct tissue distributions and diverse roles in fatty acid metabolism, trafficking, and signaling. Other members of this family have been shown to possess concise promoter regions that direct appropriate tissue-specific expression. The basis for the specific expression of the HFABP has not been previously evaluated, and the mechanisms governing expression of metabolic genes in the heart are not completely understood. We used transient and permanent transfections in ventricular myocytes, skeletal myocytes, and nonmyocytic cells to map regulatory elements in the HFABP promoter, and audited results in transgenic mice. Appropriate tissue-specific expression in cell culture and in transgenic mice was dictated by 1.2 kb of the 5'-flanking sequence of FABP3, the HFABP gene. Comparison of orthologous murine and human genomic sequences demonstrated multiple regions of near-identity within this promoter region, including a CArG-like element close to the TATA box. Binding and transactivation studies demonstrated that this element can function as an atypical myocyte enhancer-binding factor 2 site. Interactions with adjacent sites are likely to be necessary for fully appropriate, tissue-specific, developmental and metabolic regulation.  (+info)

Reversal of hyperlipidaemia in apolipoprotein C1 transgenic mice by adenovirus-mediated gene delivery of the low-density-lipoprotein receptor, but not by the very-low-density-lipoprotein receptor. (7/44874)

We have shown previously that human apolipoprotein (apo)C1 transgenic mice exhibit hyperlipidaemia, due primarily to an impaired clearance of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles from the circulation. In the absence of at least the low-density-lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), it was shown that APOC1 overexpression in transgenic mice inhibited the hepatic uptake of VLDL via the LDLR-related protein. In the present study, we have now examined the effect of apoC1 on the binding of lipoproteins to both the VLDL receptor (VLDLR) and the LDLR. The binding specificity of the VLDLR and LDLR for apoC1-enriched lipoprotein particles was examined in vivo through adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of the VLDLR and the LDLR [giving rise to adenovirus-containing (Ad)-VLDLR and Ad-LDLR respectively] in APOC1 transgenic mice, LDLR-deficient (LDLR-/-) mice and wild-type mice. Remarkably, Ad-VLDLR treatment did not reduce hyperlipidaemia in transgenic mice overexpressing human APOC1, irrespective of both the level of transgenic expression and the presence of the LDLR, whereas Ad-VLDLR treatment did reverse hyperlipidaemia in LDLR-/- and wild-type mice. On the other hand, Ad-LDLR treatment strongly decreased plasma lipid levels in these APOC1 transgenic mice. These results suggest that apoC1 inhibits the clearance of lipoprotein particles via the VLDLR, but not via the LDLR. This hypothesis is corroborated by in vitro binding studies. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the VLDLR (CHO-VLDLR) or LDLR (CHO-LDLR) bound less APOC1 transgenic VLDL than wild-type VLDL. Intriguingly, however, enrichment with apoE enhanced dose-dependently the binding of wild-type VLDL to CHO-VLDLR cells (up to 5-fold), whereas apoE did not enhance the binding of APOC1 transgenic VLDL to these cells. In contrast, for binding to CHO-LDLR cells, both wild-type and APOC1 transgenic VLDL were stimulated upon enrichment with apoE. From these studies, we conclude that apoC1 specifically inhibits the apoE-mediated binding of triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein particles to the VLDLR, whereas apoC1-enriched lipoproteins can still bind to the LDLR. The variability in specificity of these lipoprotein receptors for apoC1-containing lipoprotein particles provides further evidence for a regulatory role of apoC1 in the delivery of lipoprotein constituents to different tissues on which these receptors are located.  (+info)

Overexpression of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase under the control of mouse metallothionein I promoter in transgenic mice: evidence for a striking post-transcriptional regulation of transgene expression by a polyamine analogue. (8/44874)

We recently generated a transgenic mouse line overexpressing spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) gene under its own promoter. The tissue polyamine pools of these animals were profoundly affected and the mice were hairless from early age. We have now generated another transgenic-mouse line overexpressing the SSAT gene under the control of a heavy-metal-inducible mouse metallothionein I (MT) promoter. Even in the absence of heavy metals, changes in the tissue polyamine pools indicated that a marked activation of polyamine catabolism had occurred in the transgenic animals. As with the SSAT transgenic mice generated previously, the mice of the new line (MT-SSAT) suffered permanent hair loss, but this occurred considerably later than in the previous SSAT transgenic animals. Liver was the most affected tissue in the MT-SSAT transgenic animals, revealed by putrescine overaccumulation, significant decrease in spermidine concentration and >90% reduction in the spermine pool. Even though hepatic SSAT mRNA accumulated to massive levels in non-induced transgenic animals, SSAT activity was only moderately elevated. Administration of ZnSO4 further elevated the level of hepatic SSAT message and induced enzyme activity, but not more than 2- to 3-fold. Treatment of the transgenic animals with the polyamine analogue N1,N11-diethylnorspermine (DENSPM) resulted in an immense induction, more than 40000-fold, of enzyme activity in the liver of transgenic animals, and minor changes in the SSAT mRNA level. Liver spermidine and spermine pools were virtually depleted within 1-2 days in response to the treatment with the analogue. The treatment also resulted in a marked mortality (up to 60%) among the transgenic animals which showed ultrastructural changes in the liver, most notably mitochondrial swelling, one of the earliest signs of cell injury. These results indicated that, even without its own promoter, SSAT is powerfully induced by the polyamine analogue through a mechanism that appears to involve a direct translational and/or heterogenous nuclear RNA processing control. It is likewise significant that overexpression of SSAT renders the animals extremely sensitive to polyamine analogues.  (+info)

Inducible Transgenic Mouse Models , SpringerLink Inducible transgenic mouse models allow for the activation of and the lac and GAL4 inducible systems. The tetracycline-regulated transgenic models are typically Inducible Gene Expression and Gene Modification in Transgenic two major systems have been successfully used in transgenic mice, i.e., the tetracycline-inducible transgenic mice that express that inducible Cre Introduction to Tet expression systems - The how to take viagra 100mg Jackson Laboratory Learn the basics about how Tet-On and Tet-Off inducible systems Introduction viagra high blood pressure to Tet expression systems. in transgenic mice by a tetracycline Conditional and inducible transgene expression in mice Here we describe a triple transgenic mouse system, which combines the tissue specificity of any Cre-transgenic line with the inducibility of the reverse tetracycline Inducible podocyte-specific gene expression in transgenic Inducible podocyte-specific gene expression in ...
Abstract: : Purpose: To establish a binary inducible transgenic mouse model that can be used to elucidate the roles of growth factors, e.g., FGF-7, on corneal biology. It has been suggested that FGF-7 (KGF, keratinocyte growth factor) serves as a paracrine that modulates the growth of corneal epithelial cell. The present studies are to investigate the effect of excess FGF-7 on corneal epithelial cells in a binary tetracycline inducible transgenic mouse line. Methods: A keratocyte-specific 3.2 kb murine keratocan promotor (Kerapr) has been used to prepare Kerapr-rtTA transgenic (KeraprrtTA/+) mice that constitutively overexpress rtTA (reverse tetracycline transcription activator) in cornea. The KeraprrtTA/+ mice were crossed with tet-OFGF7/FGF7 mice to produce compound heterozygous transgenic (KeraprrtTA/+•tet-OFGF7/+) mice, which were fed doxycycline water (0.5 mg/ml) for one week. The experimental mice were i.p. injected with BrdU (100 µg/g body weight) 2 h prior to sacrifice. The enucleated ...
Despite wide academic and commercial interest in the actions of GLP-1, attempts to identify the cellular targets of GLP-1 are hampered by the lack of specificity of antibodies to GLP1R. Our development of a new transgenic mouse model expressing Cre recombinase driven by the glp1r promoter provides an antibody-independent method for the identification and characterization of live cells expressing glp1r, using floxed fluorescent reporter strains. The results illuminate not only which tissues exhibited glp1r fluorescence but also those that did not.. Establishing definitively that the GLP1R protein is produced by all glp1r-fluorescent cells will be important, because our use of Cre recombinase results in a permanent activation of the fluorescent reporters, even in cells that no longer express the receptor as well as in the progeny of cells that have once expressed glp1r. Where neurones were identified, we were able to confirm expression of GLP1R protein by demonstrating functional responsiveness to ...
Purpose: : To develop a mouse line in which a gene of interest can be removed in keratocytes-specific manner upon induction by doxycycline. Methods: : Two transgenes including Kera3.2-int-rtTA and tet-O-Cre were co-microinjected into the fertilized mouse eggs to create transgenic mice. The Kera3.2-int-rtTA /tet-O-Cre transgenic mice were crossed with reporter Rosa26-LacZ mice to obtain Kera3.2-int-rtTA /tet-O-Cre/Rosa26-LacZ triple transgenic mice. The Cre activity was assessed by the detection of whole mount X-gal staining in corneal stroma of triple transgenic mice after administration of doxycycline via drinking water and chow. Results: : We obtained two independent transgenic founder lines in which the Kera3.2-int-rtTA and tet-O-Cre transgenes were co-segregated at the chromosome level. Administration of doxycycline (Dox) to transgenic Kera3.2-int-rtTA /tet-O-Cre mice did not induce expression of LacZ. The Kera3.2-int-rtTA /tet-O-Cre/Rosa26-LacZ triple transgenic mice showed a little bit ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Proteomic analysis of Nrf2 deficient transgenic mice reveals cellular defence and lipid metabolism as primary Nrf2-dependent pathways in the liver. AU - Kitteringham, Neil R.. AU - Abdullah, Azman. AU - Walsh, Joanne. AU - Randle, Laura. AU - Jenkins, Rosalind E.. AU - Sison, Rowena. AU - Goldring, Christopher E.P.. AU - Powell, Helen. AU - Sanderson, Christopher. AU - Williams, Samantha. AU - Higgins, Larry. AU - Yamamoto, Masayuki. AU - Hayes, John. AU - Park, B. Kevin. PY - 2010/6/16. Y1 - 2010/6/16. N2 - The transcription factor Nrf2 regulates expression of multiple cellular defence proteins through the antioxidant response element (ARE). Nrf2-deficient mice (Nrf2-/-) are highly susceptible to xenobiotic-mediated toxicity, but the precise molecular basis of enhanced toxicity is unknown. Oligonucleotide array studies suggest that a wide range of gene products is altered constitutively, however no equivalent proteomics analyses have been conducted. To define the range of ...
Am J Pathol. 2012 Feb;180(2):727-37. doi: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2011.10.035. Epub 2011 Dec 7. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
TY - JOUR. T1 - Overexpression of transforming growth factor α in transgenic mice alters nonreproductive, sex-related behavioral differences. T2 - Interaction with gonadal hormones. AU - Hilakivi-Clarke, L.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Sexually dimorphic differences in voluntary sodium intake, locomotor activity, immobility in the swim test, and aggressive behavior were found to be altered in transgenic CD-1 mice that overexpressed transforming growth factor α (TGFα). In contrast to nontransgenic CD-1 mice, immobility in the swim test was longer and sodium intake higher in the male TGFα mice than in the female TGFα mice. These findings indicate that the male TGFα mice exhibited feminization of some behaviors. Furthermore, the male TGFα mice were highly aggressive. Castration reversed the behavioral effects in the adult male transgenic mice, but ovariectomy did not reverse the behavioral effects in the adult female transgenic mice. Thus the feminizing effect of TGFα on some nonreproductive ...
Targeting the expression of genes has emerged as a potentially viable therapeutic approach to human disease. In Alzheimers disease, therapies that silence the expression of tau could be a viable strategy to slow disease progression. We produced a novel strain of transgenic mice that could be used to assess the efficacy of gene knockdown therapies for human tau, in live mice. We designed a tetracycline-regulated transgene construct in which the cDNA for human tau was fused to ubiquitin and to luciferase to create a single fusion polyprotein, termed TUL. When expressed in brain, the TUL polyprotein was cleaved by ubiquitin-processing enzymes to release the luciferase as an independent protein, separating the half-life of luciferase from the long-lived tau protein. Treatment of bigenic tTA/TUL mice with doxycycline produced rapid declines in luciferase levels visualized by in vivo imaging and ex vivo enzyme measurement. This new mouse model can be used as a discovery tool in optimizing gene targeting
The Transgenic Mouse / ES Cell Shared Resource assists investigators in generating, maintaining and storing germline-altered mice. This resource, which has been in existence for over 23 years, has generated over 2700 transgenic founder mice from over 750 different DNA constructs and 5000 chimeric mice from over 800 different mouse ES cell clones. Prior to the discovery of the CRISPR/Cas system, the TMESCSR generated over 160 different gene-targeted mice. Since 2013, the TMESCSR has generated over 400 mutant pups by CRISPR/Cas injections from over 100 different projects. The Vanderbilt Transgenic Mouse/ES Cell Shared Resource (TMESCSR) provides services, consultation and collaborations to enable the generation, storage and regeneration of genetically altered mice at Vanderbilt. We have many years of experience in generating novel transgenic mouse models and are happy to discuss your project with you. The following procedures are currently provided on a fee-for-service basis: CRISPR/Cas9 Mouse
The Vanderbilt Genome Editing Resource (VGER) assists investigators in generating, maintaining and storing germline-altered mice in an efficient and cost-effective manner. The VGER provides services, consultation, and collaborations to enable the generation, storage and regeneration of genetically altered mice at Vanderbilt. This resource, which was previously called the Transgenic Mouse ESC Shared Resource (please see announcement letter), has been in existence for over 25 years and has generated 160 unique gene-targeted mice between 1993-2015 and more than 80 genome edited mice using CRISPR-Cas9 since 2014. We have many years of experience in generating novel transgenic mouse models and are happy to discuss your project with you. We provide the following services on a fee-for-service basis: CRISPR-Cas9 Mouse Editing Pronuclear Microinjection of DNAs Embryo Cryopreservation Sperm Cryopreservation In vitro Fertilization and Rederivation Genome-Editing Design and Analysis Services We are sorry, but we
Neural cell adhesion molecule-secreting transgenic mice display abnormalities in GABAergic interneurons and alterations in behavior.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
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The biologic relevance of AICD to APP physiology or AD pathology has been proposed, but in vivo evidence that supports the hypothesis has been lacking. The current study was aimed at examining this hypothesis by expressing AICD postnatally and selectively in the forebrain and hippocampal regions of mouse brain. Here, we first show that AICD is present in brain membranes from normal control mice and can be detected by Western blot alone. We further demonstrate that the transgenic mice that were generated in this study express AICD at levels that are similar to those found in APP transgenic mice with FAD mutation, which are two- to threefold higher than in nontransgenic mice. These data strongly support the validity of our mouse model, which was verified further by observing increased expression of KAI1 gene in transgenic mice. Finally, we present evidence that the AICD transgenic mice display robust changes in GSK-3 signaling, which supports an in vivo role for AICD.. The finding that an ...
Missense mutations in APP and PS1 lead to familial forms of AD by different mechanisms. Most PS1 mutations shift γ‐secretase cleavage to increased Aβ42 production, which in turn accelerates cerebral amyloidosis in transgenic mice (Borchelt et al, 1997; Holcomb et al, 1998; Siman et al, 2000). An inverse correlation between the Aβ42 to Aβ40 ratio and the age of onset in familial AD has also been reported (Duering et al, 2005).. Mutations at position Leu 166 in PS1 lead to a severe course of AD pathology, with a very early onset in the third or fourth decade of life. So far, three mutations at position Leu 166 (L166A, L166P and L166H) have been described; the L166P mutation seems to be the most pathogenic (Ezquerra et al, 2000; Moehlmann et al, 2002; Pantieri et al, 2005). Expressing PS1‐L166P in transfected cells resulted in the highest Aβ42 to Aβ40 ratio among several PS1 mutations (Moehlmann et al, 2002). However, in contrast to other PS1 mutations, the L166P mutation has been shown ...
Here we report further our investigation of the role of BRE in HCC. HCC was chemically-induced in the transgenic (TTR-V5-BRE) and non-transgenic littermates, bred with C57BL/6, by intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitosamine (DEN) at 15 days postnatally. At 8 months after injection, the mice were sacrificed, and livers collected for determination of tumor number and maximal size, and for immunohistochemistry. Parts of each liver sample were also dissected visually into tumor and adjacent normal portions for Western Blot analysis of BRE expression. By comparison between the DEN-treated male transgenic mice (n=12) and non-transgenic littermate controls (n=8), we observed significantly increased tumor size shown by the former (p=0.049, Exact Wilcoxon Rank Sum test), with the median tumor size 2-fold larger than the latter. There was, however, no statistically significant difference between tumor numbers of the two groups. Female C57BL/6 mice are known to be less sensitive to DEN-treated ...
Tornavaca O, Pascual G, Barreiro ML, Grande MT, Carretero A, Riera M, Garcia-Arumi E, Bardaji B, González-Núñez M, Montero MA, López-Novoa JM, Meseguer A
Morphologic examinations of mammary neoplasias arising in BALB/c (H-2d) mice carrying the activated rat HER-2/neu oncogene (BALB-NeuT), and in FVB (H-2q) mice bearing the wild-type proto-oncogene (FVB-NeuN), indicate that both conditions result in a very human-like lobular carcinoma of alveolar type …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immortalization of subpopulations of respiratory epithelial cells from transgenic mice bearing SV40 large T antigen. AU - Ikeda, K.. AU - Clark, J. C.. AU - Bachurski, C. J.. AU - Wikenheiser, K. A.. AU - Cuppoletti, J.. AU - Mohanti, S.. AU - Morris, R. E.. AU - Whitsett, J. A.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. UR - UR - M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0028041963. VL - 267. JO - American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology. JF - American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology. SN - 0363-6135. IS - 3 part 1. ER - ...
This interesting paper provides clear evidence that amyloid pathology in the double transgenic model causes axonopathy. The results suggest that intracellular Aβ accumulation in double transgenic mice may lead to trafficking defects in axons. While the results are compelling in the double transgenic, no such alterations are observed in single transgenic animals. Furthermore, amyloid pathology in spinal cord and axonopathy appear to be variable features that are not always present in AD patients. As the authors suggest, subtler alterations in signal transduction pathways, leading to misregulation of axonal transport and/or cytoskeletal disruption, may lead to motor deficits not only in AD, but also in other neurodegenerative conditions as well (Ebneth et al., 1998; Morfini et al., 2002; Pigino et al., 2003; Roy et al., 2005). Further studies will be required to determine if intracellular Aβ accumulation leads to motor dysfunction in AD.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recombinant ret oncogene products induce T lymphocyte proliferation, and suppress lymphoma derived from ret transgenic mice. AU - Yan, D.. AU - Isobe, K. I.. AU - Takahashi, M.. AU - Nakashima, I.. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - Recombinant ret oncogene products in complete Freunds adjuvant were injected into normal mice and ret oncogene transgenic mice. Spleen cells from the mice immunized with ret proteins were highly proliferated in vitro by the stimulation of ret proteins. The proliferating T cells have CD4+ phenotype and secreated CTLL-2 reactive interleukins. The peritoneal exudate cells from ret proteinimmunized mice suppressed ret-2 lymphoma, which was derived from ret lymphoma transgenic mice. The peritoneal exudate cells from ret melanoma transgenic mice did not suppress ret-2 lymphoma, when they were immunized with ret proteins.. AB - Recombinant ret oncogene products in complete Freunds adjuvant were injected into normal mice and ret oncogene transgenic mice. ...
Ke YD, van Hummel A, Stevens CH, Gladbach A, Ippati S, Bi M, Lee WS, Krüger S, van der Hoven J, Volkerling A, Bongers A, Halliday G, Haass NK, Kiernan M, Delerue F, Ittner LM. Short-term suppression of A315T mutant human TDP-43 expression improves functional deficits in a novel inducible transgenic mouse model of FTLD-TDP and ALS. Acta Neuropathologica 2015 Nov;130(5):661-78 PubMed 26437864 [ ...
Background The mitogen-activated protein kinases, MAPKs for short, constitute cascades of signalling pathways involved in the regulation of several cellular processes that include cell proliferation, differentiation and motility. They also intervene in neurological processes like fear conditioning and memory. Since little remains known about the MAPK-Activated Protein Kinase, MAPKAPK5, we constructed the first MAPKAPK knockin mouse model, using a constitutive active variant of MAPKAPK5 and analyzed the resulting mice for changes in anxiety-related behaviour. Methods We performed primary SHIRPA observations during background breeding into the C57BL/6 background and assessed the behaviour of the background-bred animals on the elevated plus maze and in the light-dark test. Our results were analyzed using Chi-square tests and homo- and heteroscedatic T-tests; Results Female transgenic mice displayed increased amounts of head dips and open arm time on the maze, compared to littermate controls. In ...
Transgenic mice with cardiac-restricted overexpression of secretable TNF (MHCsTNF) develop progressive LV wall thinning and dilation accompanied by an increase in cardiomyocyte apoptosis and a progressive loss of cytoprotective Bcl-2. To test whether cardiac-restricted overexpression of Bcl-2 would prevent adverse cardiac remodeling, we crossed MHCsTNF mice with transgenic mice harboring cardiac-restricted overexpression of Bcl-2. Sustained TNF signaling resulted in activation of the intrinsic cell death pathway, leading to increased cytosolic levels of cytochrome c, Smac/Diablo and Omi/HtrA2, and activation of caspases -3 and -9. Cardiac-restricted overexpression of Bcl-2 blunted activation of the intrinsic pathway and prevented LV wall thinning; however, Bcl-2 only partially attenuated cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Subsequent studies showed that c-FLIP was degraded, that caspase-8 was activated, and that Bid was cleaved to t-Bid, suggesting that the extrinsic pathway was activated concurrently in ...
Full Text - CYLD is a deubiquitinating enzyme known for its role as a tumor suppressor whose mutation leads to skin appendages tumors and other cancers. In this manuscript we report that the tumor suppressor CYLD, similarly to other renowned tumor suppressor genes, protects from premature aging and cancer. We have generated transgenic mice expressing the mutant CYLDC/S protein, lacking its deubiquitinase function, under the control of the keratin 5 promoter, the K5-CYLDC/S mice. These mice express the transgene in different organs, including those considered to be more susceptible to aging, such as skin and thymus. Our results show that K5-CYLDC/S mice exhibit epidermal, hair follicle, and sebaceous gland alterations; and, importantly, they show signs of premature aging from an early age. Typically, 3-month-old K5-CYLDC/S mice exhibit a phenotype characterized by alopecia and kyphosis, and, the histological examination reveals that transgenic mice show signs
Nuclear factor κ-light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) is a transcription factor that can be activated through canonical or non-canonical signaling pathways, and activation of both pathways has been observed in lung adenocarcinoma tumors. However, the mechanistic links between canonical and non-canonical NF-κB signaling and lung tumorigenesis have not been fully elucidated. Using transgenic mouse models, we demonstrate that canonical NF-κB signaling promotes epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated tumor formation through paracrine signaling to the inflammatory microenvironment, with depletion studies identifying macrophages as a critical cell type promoting EGFR-driven lung tumorigenesis. To study non-canonical NF-κB signaling, we developed a novel transgenic mouse model with inducible over-expression of the non-canonical NF-κB component p52 in the airway epithelium. After injection with the lung carcinogen urethane, p52 over-expression led to increased tumor number, ...
Cystic fibrosis is characterized by dehydration of the airway surface liquid layer with persistent mucus obstruction. |i|Th2|/i| immune responses are often manifested as increased mucous cell density (mucous cell metaplasia) associated with mucus obstruction. IL-33 is a known inducer of |i|Th2|/i| i …
Increased specific activity of Tg-HDL in the presence of human apoA-I and Hpr. (A) Western blot with serial dilutions of plasma from HuapoA-I mice expressing Hpr and apoL-I from a single plasmid (HuapoA-I:Hpr:apoL-I) and normal human plasma. Hpr and apoL-I were detected with monoclonal antibodies. (B) Survival kinetics of naive mice infected with T. b. brucei ILTat 1.25 and then given 300 μl plasma i.v. from HuapoA-I mice expressing Hpr (black diamond; n = 3), apoL-I (black square; n = 3), or both Hpr and apoL-I from a single plasmid (black circle, Hpr:apoL-I; n = 3). The protection obtained by normal human plasma (dilution 1/8) is indicated by the inverted triangle. (C) A280 profile of KBr-purified lipoproteins from human (dashed line) and HuapoA-I mouse plasma expressing Hpr:apoL-I (red line), Hpr (green line), and apoL-I (blue line) separated by size on a Superdex 200 column; fractions 6-7 are void, fractions 8-9 are human LDL, fractions 10-14 are HDLs, and fraction 15 is albumin. (D) ...
The present study showed that levels of BMP6 were increased approximately twofold to fourfold in the hippocampus of patients with AD and in APP tg mice compared to controls; however, no significant differences were detected in the mRNA levels of two other BMPs, BMP2 and BMP7. A striking pattern of BMP6 distribution was also observed in plaque-containing regions of the hippocampus in both AD patients and APP tg mice, where Aβ-containing plaques were surrounded by a ring-like pattern of BMP6 immunoreactivity. Since BMP6 is a secreted protein, and its primary reported role in the brain is in regulating developmental neurogenesis, it is possible that abnormally elevated levels of this protein in AD might affect adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus.. It is important to note that neurogenesis persists in the aged brain; however, its rate declines with increasing age, as revealed by previous studies in rodents (Kuhn et al., 1996; Kempermann et al., 1998), nonhuman primates (Gould et al., 1999), and ...
AP-2 transcription factors play pivotal roles in orchestrating embryonic development by influencing the differentiation, proliferation, and survival of cells. Furthermore, AP-2 transcription factors have been implicated in carcinogenesis, a process where the normal growth and differentiation program of cells is disturbed. To experimentally address the potential involvement of AP-2 in mammary gland tumorigenesis, we generated mice overexpressing AP-2gamma by transgenesis using the mouse mammary tumor virus-long terminal repeat as the transgene-driving promoter unit. In the mammary gland, transgene expression elicited a hyperproliferation that, however, was counterbalanced by the enhanced apoptosis of epithelial cells leading to a hypoplasia of the alveolar epithelium during late pregnancy. In addition, secretory differentiation was impaired, resulting in a lactation failure. In male transgenic mice, the seminal vesicles were sites of strong transgene expression. There the effects of AP-2gamma on ...
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Background: Synucleinopathies of the aging population are a heterogeneous group of neurological disorders that includes Parkinsons disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and are characterized by the progressive accumulation of α-synuclein in neuronal and glial cells.. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), a pattern recognition immune receptor, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies because TLR2 is elevated in the brains of patients with PD and TLR2 is a mediator of the neurotoxic and pro-inflammatory effects of extracellular α-synuclein aggregates. Therefore, blocking TLR2 might alleviate α-synuclein pathological and functional effects. For this purpose, herein, we targeted TLR2 using a functional inhibitory antibody (anti-TLR2).. Methods: Two different human α-synuclein overexpressing transgenic mice were used in this study. α-synuclein low expresser mouse (α-syn-tg, under the PDGFβ promoter, D line) was stereotaxically injected with TLR2 overexpressing ...
We previously found that adult Kir6.2G132S transgenic female mice (at 8 weeks of age) exhibit hyperglycemia with hypoinsulinemia caused by accelerated apoptosis (26). In the current study, we found that hyperglycemia with hypoinsulinemia in Kir6.2G132S transgenic mice recovers significantly with age. We also show that pancreatic insulin content and the number of β-cells both increase as the Kir6.2G132S transgenic mice become older. The presence of the Kir6.2G132S mutation in the older Kir6.2G132S transgenic mice excludes the possibility that loss of the transgene is responsible for the recovery of β-cell number in the older Kir6.2G132S transgenic mice. In fact, the insulin response to glucose loading was absent in the older Kir6.2G132S transgenic mice. Hence, the recovery of blood glucose and serum insulin are most likely caused by the restoration of pancreatic insulin content resulting from the increased β-cell number in the older Kir6.2G132S transgenic mice. In a preliminary study, we found ...
ACE, as well as all other components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), is expressed in a variety of organs, including the kidney (16,19,20). The generation of Ang II by the tissue RAS suggests a role of the peptide as a paracrine modulator of organ function in addition to its function as a circulating hormone. Distinguishing between the importance of systemic and locally produced Ang II is not trivial because pharmacologic inhibitors as well as knockout approaches affect both modes of angiotensin action. Our study used transgenic mice that had been genetically engineered to express a single ACE isoform in a cell type-specific location on the background of an ACE null genotype (10,13). This approach seems well suited to assess the notion of a location-specific role of ACE and to determine the contribution of this restricted expression pattern to the overall health and organ function of an animal.. Previous studies in AT1A and ACE knockout mice as well as earlier experiments with ACE ...
We have used transgenic mouse technology to establish immortalized hepatoma cell lines stably secreting heterologous proteins, such as human α1-antitrypsin and human factor IX. Hepatocyte-specific...
Dr. Yans research focuses on investigating the cellular and molecular mechanisms of cellular stress and survival in neurodegenerative disorders relevant to Alzheimers disease (AD) and Parkinson disease. She has first identified the specific cellular targets (RAGE, receptor for advanced glycation end product; and ABAD, amyloid binding alcohol dehydrogenase) of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) and found the evidence of Aβ-mediated neuronal stress. She developed a novel transgenic mouse model relevant to AD and tested the role of RAGE and ABAD in Aβ-mediated cellular perturbation in those AD type mouse models. She was the first to describe the RAGE and ABAD as the functional binding proteins for Aβ. Dr. Yan and her research team are the major group investigating these paradigms. Dr. Yan and her research team have provided evidence that cell surface molecule (RAGE) and mitochondrial enzyme (ABAD) serve as cofactors for promoting and exaggerating neuronal and mitochondrial toxicity in an Aβ-rich ...
In 2007, McCray, Jr. et al from the University of Iowa published a study in which they introduced a vector carrying a human ACE2-coding sequence into wild-type mice and subsequently developed a successful hACE2 transgenic mouse strain. ACE2 expression, which is regulated by the human cytokeratin 18 (K18) promoter in epithelial cells, was observed in the initially infected airway epithelial cells. Studies showed that the K18-hACE2 transgenic mouse infected with a human SARS-CoV strain via intranasal inoculation would not survive. The infection would begin in the airway epithelium, spread to the alveoli and finally out of the lungs to the brain. The infection causes infiltration of macrophages and lymphocytes in the lungs and up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the lungs and brain. Three to five days following infection, K18-hACE2 mice began to lose weight and become lethargic with labored breathing. All died within seven days. These observations support that transgene ...
Numerous studies using rats and mice have been conducted to examine the cellular mechanisms and processes involved in Alzheimers disease.. A study conducted by Um et al.[105] used transgenic mice Tg-NSE/hPS2m, which expressed the human PS2 mutation and compared them to control mice, who were labeled as non-Tg. Mice were sacrificed from each group and brains were removed and separated so the hippocampus and the extracted mitochondria could be analyzed using western blot analysis.[105] Tunel staining was also used to detect apoptosis.[105] It was found that phosphorylation levels of tau at the Ser404, Ser202, and Thr231 residues in the hippocampus in Tg mice were enhanced.[105] Increased phosphorylation levels of JNK1/2 and p38MAPK along with decreased levels of ERK1/2 phosphorylation were found in transgenic mice (Tg).[105] Tg mice also had higher levels of COX-2 proteins and higher levels of caspase-3 protein levels than control mice.[105] Cytochrome C and Bax protein levels were higher and ...
Tom L. Stephen is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Initiation of Metastatic Breast Carcinoma by Targeting of the Ductal Epithelium with Adenovirus-Cre: A Novel Transgenic Mouse Model of Breast Cancer
Nikolaos Svoronos is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Initiation of Metastatic Breast Carcinoma by Targeting of the Ductal Epithelium with Adenovirus-Cre: A Novel Transgenic Mouse Model of Breast Cancer
46 A novel transgenic mice has been generated which overexpresses the constitutively activated mutant form of human Rac 1 (Rac-CA), a small GTP-binding protein of the Rho family, in smooth muscle cells. Experiments were conducted to determine whether chronic activation of Rac-1 affects blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). Male Rac-CA and control mice were prepared for chronic cardiovascular monitoring using carotid arterial catheters infused with heparinized saline. BP and HR were measured continuously for more than 4 days. Results show an increased BP in Rac-CA with no change in HR or water intake. BP was consistently higher in Rac-CA mice (Figure), averaging 122±4 vs 109±4 mm Hg during the dark phase (Rac-CA vs Control). HR showed a night/day rhythm with no differences between the Rac-CA and Controls, respectively, 640±15 vs 610±11 bpm (dark) and 572 ±39 vs 578 ±18 (light). These results illustrate that alteration in intracellular signaling (reactive oxygen species) in vascular ...
The risk of heart failure following myocardial infarction is higher in diabetic patients than nondiabetic patients. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a key downstream molecule of insulin-phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway, plays an important role in cardioprotection. However, the role of cardiac mTOR in ischemic injury in metabolic syndrome has not been well defined. To address this question, we studied the effect of overexpressing cardiac mTOR on cardiac function following ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. In this study, we used transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of mTOR (mTOR-Tg) as reported previously. mTOR-Tg and WT mice at 6 weeks old were fed HFD (60% fat by calories) ad libitum for 14 weeks. Control mTOR-Tg and WT mice were fed a normal chow diet (NCD). At 14 weeks after HFD, glucose and insulin tolerance tests demonstrated that HFD generated glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in both mTOR-Tg ...
The signals that determine the size and duration of the primary T cell immune response are not well defined. We studied CD4 T cells at an important checkpoint in their development: when they have become effectors and are ready to rapidly mediate effector functions, both via direct interaction with antigen (Ag)-presenting cells and via cytokine production. We determined the effects of specific Ag and the cytokines interleukin (IL) 2 and transforming growth factor (TGF) beta 1 on T helper cell type 2 (Th2) effector apoptosis versus expansion. Th2-polarized effector cells were generated in vitro from naive CD4 T of T cell receptor transgenic mice, and then restimulated with or without peptide Ag plus Ag-presenting cells and cytokines. In the absence of added cytokines, effector cells cultured without Ag died of apoptosis after 4-7 d. Paradoxically, Ag both induced proliferation and high levels of cytokine synthesis and accelerated effector cell death. IL-2 directly induced proliferation of ...
Absence of lung fibrosis in TGFβ1 overexpressing mice. Figure A shows haematoxylin and eosin staining of Tr+ TGFβ1 transgenic lung tissue. Of note was the abs
In this study, we presented a new line of α-syn A53T conditional transgenic mice to specifically investigate the underlying subcellular and molecular pathogenic pathways leading to α-syn-mediated dysfunction and degeneration of mDA neurons. These A53T mice developed profound movement impairments, especially the rearing activities, perhaps reflecting a severe dysfunction of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. Indeed, substantial reduction of dopamine release was observed in the dorsal striatum of 1-month-old A53T mice. Moreover, robust and progressive mDA neurodegeneration was apparent in the 6-month-old mutant mice. Perhaps more interestingly, we identified Nurr1 as an important downstream molecular target of α-syn, in which α-syn promoted a proteasome-dependent degradation of Nurr1 protein, resulting in a preferential dysfunction and loss of mDA neurons. Conversely, a modest suppression of proteasome activities in the mDA neurons ameliorated the α-syn-induced Nurr1 degradation and mDA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bone marrow-derived stem cells and hepatocarcinogenesis in hepatitis B virus transgenic mice. AU - Barone, Michele. AU - Scavo, Maria Principia. AU - Maiorano, Eugenio. AU - Di Leo, Alfredo. AU - Francavilla, Antonio. PY - 2014/3. Y1 - 2014/3. N2 - Background: Several studies have demonstrated that cancer can develop with the contribution of bone marrow-derived cancer stem cells. We evaluated the possible involvement of bone marrow-derived stem cells in hepatocarcinogenesis in a hepatitis B virus (HBV) transgenic mouse model. Methods: Bone marrow cells from wild type male mice were transplanted into sublethally irradiated, female, HBV transgenic mice with hepatocarcinoma nodules. Four months later, liver tissue was examined to localize neoplastic nodules/foci and characterize cells by evaluating the Y-chromosome and the hepatocyte lineage marker hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 (HNF1), as well as the HBsAg encoding gene (HBs-Eg) and HBsAg protein (HBs-Pr) (present only in cells of ...
Injury to epidermis and other stratified epithelia triggers profound but transient changes in the pattern of keratin expression. In postmitotic cells located at the wound edge, a strong induction of K6, K16, and K17 synthesis occurs at the expense of the keratins produced under the normal situation. The functional significance of these alterations in keratin expression is not known. Here, we report that overexpression of a wild-type human K16 gene in a tissue-specific fashion in transgenic mice causes aberrant keratinization of the hair follicle outer root sheath and proximal epidermis, and it leads to hyperproliferation and increased thickness of the living layers (acanthosis), as well as cornified layers (hyperkeratosis). The pathogenesis of lesions in transgenic mouse skin begins with a reorganization of keratin filaments in postmitotic keratinocytes, and it progresses in a transgene level-dependent fashion to include disruption of keratinocyte cytoarchitecture and structural alterations in ...
Handling of Mice. The Tg2576 mice were developed by Karen Hsaio (Hsiao et al., 1996) and licensed from the Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (Rochester, MN). Male Tg2576 transgenic mice were bred to normal C57BL6/SJL females at the Bristol-Myers Squibb facility in Wallingford, CT. Mice were housed with a 6:00 AM to 6:00 PM light/dark cycle and allowed free access to food and water. Both male and female mice were used in these studies, and although no differences in Aβ were observed between them, only one sex was used in a single study. Young Tg2576 mice were used between 3 and 6 months of age, whereas aged animals were used at 14 to 17 months. BMS-299897 was synthesized by the Medicinal Chemistry groups of SIBIA Neurosciences, Inc. (now Merck Research Laboratories, San Diego, CA) and Bristol-Myers Squibb. Animals were dosed by oral gavage in a volume of 6 ml/kg in polyethylene glycol, average molecular weight of 400, or a vehicle consisting of 10% propylene glycol, 7.5% ...
106 Gallbladder carcinomas carry poor prognosis and difficulties with treatment, often due to late stage diagnosis, highly malignant nature, and limited knowledge regarding the pathogenesis. Overexpression of erbB2 in gallbladder epithelial cells in BK5.erbB2 transgenic mice leads to development of adenocarcinoma in 90% of the homozygous transgenic mice. This transgenic mouse model provided a useful tool for investigating the mechanism of erbB2 induced development of gallbladder carcinoma. We detected that erbB2 overexpression in transgenic gallbladder epithelial cells was associated with a high level of EGFR and both erbB2 and EGFR were constitutively activated. We further analyzed the downstream of erbB2/EGFR signaling in gallbladder epithelial cells from BK5.erbB2 mice to investigate the mechanism of carcinogenesis. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that activated Akt was predominantly nuclear in gallbladder epithelial cells from the transgenic mice, but not in nontransgenic mice. Western ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Attenuation of length dependence of calcium activation in myofilaments of transgenic mouse hearts expressing slow skeletal troponin I. AU - Arteaga, Grace M.. AU - Palmiter, Kimberly A.. AU - Leiden, Jeffrey M.. AU - Solaro, R. John. PY - 2000/1/1. Y1 - 2000/1/1. N2 - 1. We compared sarcomere length (SL) dependence of the Ca2+-force relation of detergent-extracted bundles of fibres dissected from the left ventricle of wild-type (WT) and transgenic mouse hearts expressing slow skeletal troponin I (ssTnI-TG). Fibre bundles from the hearts of the ssTnI-TG demonstrated a complete replacement of the cardiac troponin I (cTnI) by ssTnI. 2. Compared to WT controls, ssTnI-TG fibre bundles were more sensitive to Ca2+ at both short SL (1· ± 0·1 μm) and long SL 2·3 ± 0·1 μm). However, compared to WT controls, the increase in Ca2+ sensitivity (change in half-maximally activating free Ca2+; ΔEC50) associated with the increase in SL was significantly blunted in the ssTnI-TG ...
High fat/high cholesterol diets exacerbate β-amyloidosis in mouse models of Alzheimers disease (AD). It has been impossible, however, to study the relationship between atherosclerosis and β-amyloidosis; in those models because such mice were on atherosclerosis-resistant genetic backgrounds. Here we report the establishment of AD model mice, B6Tg2576, that are prone to atherosclerosis. B6Tg2576 mice were produced by back-crossing Tg2576 mice, an AD mouse model overexpressing human amyloid β-protein precursor with the Swedish double mutation, to C57BL/6 mice, a strain susceptible to diet-induced atherosclerosis. An atherogenic diet induced aortic atherosclerosis and exacerbated cerebral β-amyloidosis in B6Tg2576 mice. Compared with age-matched non-transgenic littermates, B6Tg2576 mice developed significantly more diet-induced aortic atherosclerosis. Unexpectedly, normal diet-fed B6Tg2576 mice also developed fatty streak lesions (early atherosclerosis) in the aorta. The aortic atherosclerotic ...
Marxreiter, Franz; Ettle, Benjamin; May, Verena E. L.; Esmer, Hakan; Patrick, Christina; Kragh, Christine Lund; Klucken, Jochen; Winner, Beate; Riess, Olaf; Winkler, Juergen; Masliah, Eliezer; Nuber, Silke ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - HLA Class II Transgenic Mice Mimic Human Inflammatory Diseases. AU - Mangalam, Ashutosh K.. AU - Rajagopalan, Govindarajan. AU - Taneja, Veena D. AU - David, Chella S.. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Population studies have shown that among all the genetic factors linked with autoimmune disease development, MHC class II genes on chromosome 6 accounts for majority of familial clustering in the common autoimmune diseases. Despite the highly polymorphic nature of HLA class II genes, majority of autoimmune diseases are linked to a limited set of class II-DR or -DQ alleles. Thus a more detailed study of these HLA-DR and -DQ alleles were needed to understand their role in genetic predisposition and pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Although in vitro studies using class-II restricted CD4 T cells and purified class II molecules have helped us in understanding some aspects of HLA class-II association with disease, it is difficult to study the role of class II genes in vivo because of ...
A truncated human O6-alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase (ATase) cDNA was ligated into an expression vector under the control of the mouse metallothionein-1 gene promotor and upstream of part of the human growth hormone gene to provide splice and polyadenylation signals. Transfection of this construct into human cells resulted in very high levels of ATase expression (more than 300 fmoles/mg protein versus less than 2 fm/mg protein in parent vector transfected control cells). Microinjection of a 4.2 kb fragment of this vector into B6D2F2 mouse embryos and implantation of survivors into pseudopregnant females has so far generated 35 offspring. Southern analysis of tail tip DNA has shown that 11 of the offspring are transgenic for the human ATase gene, between 1 and at least 30 copies of the gene being detected. Human ATase transcripts were detected in total RNA extracted from liver obtained from two male transgenic mice by partial hepatectomy. Cell free extracts of liver samples from five transgenic ...
Introduction: We have previously used a novel transgenic mouse model that expresses an inducible dominant negative mutation of the TGF-β type II receptor (DnTGFβRII) to demonstrate that blocking pro-fibrogenic TGF-β signaling reduces pressure overload-induced interstitial collagen deposition in the heart. The current study utilized DnTGFβRII mice to test the hypothesis that collagen deposition in the pressure overloaded heart is required to maintain structure and prevent cardiac dilation and dysfunction.. Methods: 8 -10 wk old male DnTGFβBRII mice and nontransgenic control (NTG) mice were given 25 mM ZnSO4 in drinking water to induce the expression of DnTGFβRII gene 1 wk prior to transverse aortic constriction (TAC). 120 days after TAC or sham operation, left ventricular (LV) mass, dimension and function were assessed by echocardiography using a high frequency ultrasound probe and interstitial collagen content was assessed in picrosirius red stained sections of LV by light microscopy with ...
We previously described an enhancer variant of Moloney murine leukaemia virus (M-MuLV), ΔMo + SV M-MuLV, in which the enhancers of MuLV have been deleted and replaced with the enhancers of the simian virus 40 (SV40). When this virus is injected into neonatal NIH Swiss mice, pre-B and B-lymphoblastic lymphomas develop with a latency of 17 months. Van Lohuizen et al. (1989) described a line of transgenic mice that carry an activated pim-1 proto-oncogene transgene (Eµ pim-1). They also reported that Eµ pim-1 transgenic mice show greatly accelerated lymphoma development when infected with wild-type M-MuLV at birth. In these experiments, neonatal Eµ pim-1 transgenic mice were infected intraperitoneally with ΔMo + SV M-MuLV. Marked acceleration of T-lymphoid leukaemia was seen. However, 10 of the 11 tumours analysed were found to be negative for the SV40 enhancers, but they still contained M-MuLV DNA as measured by Southern blot analysis. The LTRs on viruses cloned from two such tumours (as well as on
The recruitment of monocytes and their differentiation into macrophages at sites of inflammation are key events in determining the outcome of the inflammatory response and initiating the return to tissue homeostasis. To study monocyte trafficking and macrophage differentiation in vivo, we have generated a novel transgenic reporter mouse expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the human CD68 promoter. CD68-GFP mice express high levels of GFP in both monocyte and embryo-derived tissue resident macrophages in adult animals. The human CD68 promoter drives GFP expression in all CD115(+) monocytes of adult blood, spleen, and bone marrow; we took advantage of this to directly compare the trafficking of bone marrow-derived CD68-GFP monocytes to that of CX3CR1(GFP) monocytes in vivo using a sterile zymosan peritonitis model. Unlike CX3CR1(GFP) monocytes, which downregulate GFP expression on differentiation into macrophages in this model, CD68-GFP monocytes retain high-level GFP
en] Using transgenic mice constitutively expressing the human inducible Hsp70, we examined the role of Hsp70 on cell survival after focal cerebral ischemia. Twenty-four hours after permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, no difference in infarct area was detected between Hsp70-transgenic and non-transgenic mice. In the non-transgenic mice, many pyramidal neurons of the ipsilateral hippocampus were observed to be pyknotic. However, in all Hsp70-transgenic mice, hippocampal pyramidal neurons showed normal morphology and no evidence of pyknosis. This suggests that constitutive expression of Hsp70 reduces the extent of damage following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion ...
Nox2-containing NADPH oxidases are reported to be involved in the development of cardiac fibrosis in response to chronic angiotensin II infusion, but the cellular source(s) of Nox2 involved in fibrosis remains unclear. We investigated the role of endothelial Nox2 in angiotensin II-induced left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Male transgenic mice with endothelial-specific overexpression of Nox2 were compared with matched wild-type (wt) littermates after angiotensin II (1.1 mg/kg per day) or saline infusion for 14 days. Basal blood pressure and left ventricular NADPH oxidase activity were similar in wt and transgenic mice. After angiotensin II infusion, both wt and transgenic groups developed similar hypertension (170.2±11.6 vs 170.4±12.3 mm Hg; n=10) and hypertrophy (left ventricular/body weight ratio 4.8±0.2 vs 4.7±0.2 mg/g; and echocardiographic septal thickness increased by 34% wt and 37% transgenic mice; n,10). NADPH oxidase activity was higher in angiotensin II-infused transgenic compared ...
Transgenic mice were produced that carried in their germlines rearranged kappa and/or mu genes with V kappa and VH regions from the myeloma MOPC-167 kappa and H genes, which encode anti-PC antibody. The mu genes contain either a complete gene, including the membrane terminus (mu genes), or genes in which this terminus is deleted and only the secreted terminus remains (mu delta mem genes). The mu gene without membrane terminus is expressed at as high a level as the mu gene with the complete 3 end, suggesting that this terminus is not required for chromatin activation of the mu locus or for stability of the mRNA. The transgenes are expressed only in lymphoid organs. In contrast to our previous studies with MOPC-21 kappa transgenic mice, the mu transgene is transcribed in T lymphocytes as well as B lymphocytes. Thymocytes from mu and kappa mu transgenic mice display elevated levels of M-167 mu RNA and do not show elevated levels of kappa RNA, even though higher than normal levels of M-167 kappa ...
Tissue-specific gene inactivation using the Cre-loxP system has become an important tool to unravel functions of genes when the conventional null mutation is lethal. We report here the generation of a transgenic mouse line expressing Cre recombinase in endothelial cells. In order to avoid the production and screening of multiple transgenic lines we used embryonic stem cell and embryoid body technology to identify recombinant embryonic stem cell clones with high, endothelial-specific Cre activity. One embryonic stem cell clone that showed high Cre activity in endothelial cells was used to generate germline chimeras. The in vivo efficiency and specificity of the transgenic Cre was analysed by intercrossing the tie-1-Cre line with the ROSA26R reporter mice. At initial stages of vascular formation (E8-9), LacZ staining was detected in almost all cells of the forming vasculature. Between E10 and birth, LacZ activity was detected in most endothelial cells within the embryo and of extra-embryonic ...
Background: Degeneration of the locus coeruleus (LC), the major noradrenergic nucleus in the brain, occurs early and is ubiquitous in Alzheimers disease (AD). Experimental lesions to the LC exacerbate AD-like neuropathology and cognitive deficits in several transgenic mouse models of AD. Because the LC contains multiple neuromodulators known to affect amyloid β toxicity and cognitive function, the specific role of noradrenaline (NA) in AD is not well understood. Methods: To determine the consequences of selective NA deficiency in an AD mouse model, we crossed dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) knockout mice with amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin-1 (PS1) mice overexpressing mutant APP and PS1. Dopamine β-hydroxylase (-/-) mice are unable to synthesize NA but otherwise have normal LC neurons and co-transmitters. Spatial memory, hippocampal long-term potentiation, and synaptic protein levels were assessed. Results: The modest impairments in spatial memory and hippocampal long-term ...
We hypothesized that AT2R counteracts the growth-promoting effect of Ang II mediated by AT1R via apoptosis in the myocardium. To evaluate the effects of emphasized AT2R stimulation in vivo, we used transgenic mice overexpressing AT2R in a cardiac-specific manner. We evaluated both the sole Ang II effects (subpressor dose of Ang II) and the effects of Ang II and hemodynamic overload mediated by Ang II (pressor dose of Ang II) on cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Furthermore, we used L158809, a specific AT1R antagonist, to eliminate the effects through AT1R. This AT1R antagonist also causes upregulation of endogenous Ang II,27 which selectively stimulates overexpressed AT2R. Therefore, in this experimental system, we could stimulate AT2R selectively and maximally. In none of the conditions, however, did the number of TUNEL-positive nuclei in TG mice differ from that in WT mice, indicating that Ang II infusion for 28 days did not induce apoptosis in the mouse heart. At least, considering that we probably ...
The cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) is activated by phosphorylation on serine 133 and mediates the proliferative response to a number of different signals. A mutant CREB with a serine to alanine substitution at position 133 (CREBM1) functions as a dominant-negative inhibitor. Transgenic mice that express the dominant-negative CREB protein in B lymphocytes were developed as a means to study the effects of the inhibition of CREB function on B-cell proliferation and survival. We have shown previously that CREB up-regulates Bcl-2 expression in B cells in response to activation signals. B cells from CREBM1 transgenic mice expressed lower levels of Bcl-2 with and without stimulation. Proliferation of B cells from the transgenic mice was impaired in part by lack of induction of activator protein 1 (AP1) transcription factors. B cells from the transgenic mice were more susceptible to induction of apoptosis with several different agents, consistent with the decreased expression of Bcl-2. ...
The ubiquitin-proteasome system degrades most intracellular proteins, including misfolded proteins. Proteasome functional insufficiency (PFI) was observed in experimental proteinopathies and implicated in many human common diseases but its pathogenic role has not been established because a measure to enhance proteasome function in the cell has not been reported until very recently. We have recently discovered that overexpression of proteasome activator 28α (PA28α) enhances proteasome-mediated removal of abnormal proteins in the cell and protects against oxidative stress in cultured cardiomyocytes (FASEB J 2011; 25(3):883-93). Here we have extended the in vitro discoveries to intact animals. First, we created inducible transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte-restricted PA28α overexpression (CR-PA28αOE). CR-PA28αOE does not alter the homeostasis of normal proteins and cardiac function but increases the degradation of a surrogate misfolded protein in the heart. This marks the establishment of the ...
Using a transgenic mouse model in which the human B-myb cDNA was driven by the basal CMV promoter, this study demonstrates for the first time that B-Myb leads to markedly reduced neointima formation after mechanical injury to the vasculature and to decreased α1(I) collagen mRNA expression in the aorta and femoral artery of adult animals. Three independent transgenic mouse lines were generated, all of which apparently developed and bred normally. An inverse relationship between levels of B-Myb protein and expression of α1(I) collagen mRNA in the adult aorta was demonstrated. A decrease was also seen in α2(V) collagen mRNA levels in the aorta and in cultured aortic SMCs isolated from adult transgenic B-myb mice (data not shown). Importantly, when a femoral artery model of endothelial denudation was used, a dramatic reduction in neointima formation was observed in arteries of transgenic versus WT mice 4 weeks after injury. After injury, the neointimal area and the ratio of the areas of the ...
During a T cell-dependent Ab response, B cells undergo Ab class switching and V region hypermutation, with the latter process potentially rendering previously innocuous B cells autoreactive. Class switching and hypermutation are temporally and anatomically linked with both processes dependent on the enzyme, activation-induced deaminase, and occurring principally, but not exclusively, in germinal centers. To understand tolerance regulation at this stage, we generated a new transgenic mouse model expressing a membrane-tethered gamma2a-reactive superantigen (gamma2a-macroself Ag) and assessed the fate of emerging IgG2a-expressing B cells that have, following class switch, acquired self-reactivity of the Ag receptor to the macroself-Ag. In normal mice, self-reactive IgG2a-switched B cells were deleted, leading to the selective absence of IgG2a memory responses. These findings identify a novel negative selection mechanism for deleting mature B cells that acquire reactivity to self-Ag. This process ...
Alzheimers Imaging Consortium IC-P: Poster Presentations Background: Rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor copy. Because of their high iron content, plaques typically appear as hypo- [gamma] (PPAR[gamma]) agonist, has an anti-inflammatory effect in the intense spots on T2-weighted scans. One of the challenges in imaging brain, decreasing interleukin-1[beta] concentrations in hippocampus and re- plaques is to achieve high-enough resolution and contrast to detect these storing the age-related deficit in long-term potentiation. It also attenuates 50-mm large lesions. While most high-field systems can reach high resolu- learning and memory deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimers disease. Ev- tion, the lack of contrast between the plaques and the parenchyma often idence suggests that activation of microglia and astrocytes contribute to age- impedes their detection. Methods: Transgenic mice over-expressing muta- related neuroinflammatory changes. In this study, relaxometry ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dlx5/6-Enhancer Directed Expression of Cre Recombinase in the Pharyngeal Arches and Brain. AU - Ruest, Louis Bruno. AU - Hammer, Robert E. AU - Yanagisawa, Masashi. AU - Clouthier, David E.. PY - 2003/12. Y1 - 2003/12. N2 - Dlx5 and Dlx6, two members of the Distalless gene family, are required for development of numerous tissues during embryogenesis, including facial and limb development. This gene pair is expressed in tandem, transcribed toward each other and separated by a short intergenic region containing multiple putative enhancers. Targeted inactivation of Dlx5 and Dlx6 in mice results in multiple developmental defects in craniofacial and limb structures, suggesting that these genes are crucial for aspects of both neural crest and nonneural crest development. To further investigate potential developmental roles of Dlx5 and Dlx6, we used one of the Dlx5/6 intergenic enhancers to drive Cre recombinase expression in transgenic mice. Crossing Dlx5/6-Cre transgenic mice with ...
The present study assessed the potential functions of interleukin (IL)-32α on inflammatory arthritis and endotoxin shock models using IL-32α transgenic (Tg) mice. The potential signaling pathway for the IL-32-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α axis was analyzed in vitro. IL-32α Tg mice were generated under control of a ubiquitous promoter. Two disease models were used to examine in vivo effects of overexpressed IL-32α: Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand-induced arthritis developed using a single injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or zymosan into the knee joints; and endotoxin shock induced with intraperitoneal injection of LPS and D-galactosamine. TNFα antagonist etanercept was administered simultaneously with LPS in some mice. Using RAW264.7 cells, in vitro effects of exogenous IL-32α on TNFα, IL-6 or macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) production were assessed with or without inhibitors for nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Single injection of LPS, but
We have used an aggrecan gene enhancer to generate a transgenic murine line (Acan-CreER-Ires-Luc) expressing firefly luciferase and tamoxifen activatable Cre recombinase (Cre-ER(T2) ). The expression and efficiency of the inducible Cre recombinase activity were tested in double transgenic mice created by crossing the Acan-CreER-Ires-Luc line with a Rosa26-lacZ reporter mouse. The expression pattern of the transgene of our line was restricted to cartilage from embryonic to adult stages. β-galactosidase staining was observed in growth plate, articular cartilage, as well as fibrocartilage of meniscus, trachea, and intervertebral discs. Similar staining was observed in a previously described Agc1 (tm(IRES-creERT2)) murine line. The presence of luciferase in our transgene allows the visualization of the transgene expression in live animals. Weekly measurements from 2 to 8 weeks of age showed a reduction in luminescence in knee joints between 2 and 4 weeks of age, but stabilization thereafter. Following the
Lebanon, NH. Dartmouth researchers identify antiviral, survival job descriptions for T cells. Utilizing a novel transgenic mouse model, Edward Usherwood, PhD of Dartmouths Norris Cotton Cancer Center and collaborators found that CD4 T cells divide into two different populations that each has a different job. One type performs antiviral functions, and the other survives life in the host. The study, Functional Heterogeneity in the CD4+ T Cell Response to Murine Y-Herpesvirus 68, was published in the Journal of Immunology.. The human immune response to viruses and cancer is a complex and multi-pronged effort, but in studies like this one, we are making real progress in understanding how to optimize responses against viruses, explained Usherwood.. Gammaherpesviruses such as the Epstein-Barr virus and the Kaposis Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus can cause cancer, mostly in immune-suppressed populations such as patients with AIDS. While immune control of these viruses is believed to rely on ...
Generation of tTA-TRAF2 transgenic mice. To develop an experimental model to study reverse LV remodeling, we generated a conditional transgenic mouse model (tTA-TRAF2) that overexpresses TRAF2 in the heart, using a cardiac-specific and tetracycline-transactivating factor-regulated promoter (23). The rationale for conditionally overexpressing TRAF2 in the heart was that we have shown previously that sustained expression of TRAF2, a scaffolding protein that coordinates signaling through the type 1 and type 2 TNF receptors, resulted in LV remodeling and LV dysfunction that phenocopies the LV remodeling and LV dysfunction observed with the development of parainflammation in mice with cardiac restricted overexpression of TNF (4). Further, elevated levels of myocardial TRAF2 have been reported to be elevated in HF patients (24). In this conditional tet-off system, the stable tetracycline analog dox (Sigma-Aldrich) inhibits tTA transactivation of the Traf2 transgene in the heart.. Briefly, a murine ...
Background: Protons regulate cellular function by modulating the charge and structure of macromolecules, and proton-extruding and importing transport proteins underlie pH homeostasis. The molecular rotary motor F1Fo complex, ATP synthase, was disclosed at the plasma membrane, but its ligands and functions have not been fully understood. We recently identified a circulating peptide coupling factor 6 (CF6), an endogenous prostacyclin inhibitor, as a novel ligand for F1Fo complex: After binding to protrusive F1, CF6 forces the backward rotation of Fo, resulting in proton import. We investigated the role of interaction between CF6 and ecto-F1Fo complex in the genesis of hypertension and diabetes due to tissue acidosis.. Methods and Results: We generated CF6-overexpressing transgenic mouse (TG) in which CF6 was overexpressed by two times compared with wild type mice (WT). In TG, intracellular pH measured by 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy was decreased by 0.1 to 0.15 pH unit in the skeletal ...
Double transgenic mice bearing fusion genes consisting of mouse albumin enhancer/promoter-mouse c-myc complementary DNA and mouse metallothionein 1 promoter-human transforming growth factor α complementary DNA were generated to investigate the interaction of these genes in hepatic oncogenesis and to provide a general paradigm for characterizing the interaction of nuclear oncogenes and growth factors in tumorigenesis. Coexpression of c-myc and transforming growth factor α as transgenes in the mouse liver resulted in a tremendous acceleration of neoplastic development in this organ as compared to expression of either of these transgenes alone. The two distinct cellular reactions that occurred in the liver of the double transgenic mice prior to the appearance of liver tumors were dysplastic and apoptotic changes in the existing hepatocytes followed by emergence of multiple focal lesions composed of both hyperplastic and dysplastic cell populations. These observations suggest that the interaction ...
Transgenic mice generated to carry cloned oncogenes and knockout mice lacking tumor suppressing genes have provided good models ... This method creates a transgenic mouse and is used to insert new genetic information into the mouse genome or to over-express ... A genetically modified mouse or genetically engineered mouse model (GEMM) is a mouse (Mus musculus) that has had its genome ... Transgenic Mouse. Totowa, New Jersey: Humana Press. pp. 1. ISBN 0-89603-915-3. "Knockout Mice". Nation Human Genome Research ...
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Transgenic mice (e.g. Tg2576) were made which overproduce human APP with the Swedish mutation. As a consequence, the mice can ... The other main effect the discovery of the Swedish mutation had was to provide one transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's ... The Swedish mutation mice are used to study the effects of amyloid plaques and to develop potential treatments for Alzheimer's ... Webster SJ, Bachstetter AD, Nelson PT, Schmitt FA, Van Eldik LJ (2014). "Using mice to model Alzheimer's dementia: an overview ...
Koike S, Taya C, Kurata T, Abe S, Ise I, Yonekawa H, Nomoto A (February 1991). "Transgenic mice susceptible to poliovirus". ... He retrieved a sample of mouse brain infected with poliovirus and added it to the remaining test tubes, on the off chance that ... Koprowski's attenuated vaccine was prepared by successive passages through the brains of Swiss albino mice. By the seventh ...
Lonberg, Nils; Huszar, Dennis (January 1995). "Human Antibodies from Transgenic Mice". International Reviews of Immunology. 13 ...
Afterwards, it is reimplanted into a host mother, who then births a transgenic mouse. The transgenic mouse carries one copy of ... Bernstein, A.; Breitman, M. (1989). "Genetic ablation in transgenic mice". Molecular Biology & Medicine. 6 (6): 523-530. ISSN ... From these mice, a homozygous colony can be created through breeding. In 1990, the gene knockout technique was just developing ... An example of this method in action can be seen through the production of a knockout mouse. This is accomplished through the ...
Friedel RH, Wurst W, Wefers B, Kühn R (2011). "Generating conditional knockout mice". Transgenic Mouse Methods and Protocols. ... Schwenk F, Baron U, Rajewsky K (December 1995). "A cre-transgenic mouse strain for the ubiquitous deletion of loxP-flanked gene ... Moreover, animals such as mice can be used as models to study human disease. Therefore, Cre-lox system can be used in mice to ... Sakamoto K, Gurumurthy CB, Wagner K (2014), Singh SR, Coppola V (eds.), "Generation of Conditional Knockout Mice", Mouse ...
in HY-TCR transgenic mice. Since HY is a male specific antigen, the developing thymocytes would be expected to undergo ... Furthermore, female mice TNCs were found to contain five times more thymocytes than male mice, and less than 4% of them were ... "Thymic nurse cell multicellular complexes in HY-TCR transgenic mice demonstrate their association with MHC restriction." ... found in their study that one-fourth of the nurse cells isolated from mice were double-positives for K5 and K8, while the rest ...
Lonberg N, Huszar D (1995). "Human antibodies from transgenic mice". International Reviews of Immunology. 13 (1): 65-93. doi: ... Several successful approaches have been identified: transgenic mice, phage display and single B cell cloning: Monoclonal ... In one approach, mouse DNA encoding the binding portion of a monoclonal antibody was merged with human antibody-producing DNA ... While mouse and human antibodies are structurally similar, the differences between them were sufficient to invoke an immune ...
This is because the genes responsible for building and operating both mouse and human brain are 90% identical. Transgenic mouse ... Mouse brain, dorsal view Mouse brain, lateral view Mouse brain slices Mouse cingulate cortex neurons Mouse brain development ... Haruyama, Naoto; Cho, Andrew; Kulkarni, Ashok B. (2009). "Overview: Engineering Transgenic Constructs and Mice". Current ... "ISH Data :: Allen Brain Atlas: Mouse Brain". ISH Data. Retrieved 2019-02-07. "Search the library". The Mouse Brain Library. ...
"Human Monoclonal Antibodies from Transgenic Mice". Chapter 13 in Human Monoclonal Antibodies: Methods and Protocols Ed. Michael ...
Proof of concept in transgenic mice". PLOS ONE. 13 (1): e0190212. Bibcode:2018PLoSO..1390212L. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0190212 ...
Human Monoclonal Antibodies from Transgenic Mice. Chapter 13 in Human Monoclonal Antibodies: Methods and Protocols Ed. Michael ... Alirocumab was discovered by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals using its "VelocImmune" mouse, in which many of the genes coding for ... it took only about 19 months from when they first immunized mice with PCSK9 until they filed their IND.: Slide 26 Alirocumab ...
5 (213). "Mouse Husbandry, Breeding and Development: Pheromone Effects". Transgenic Mouse Facility, University of California. ... The Lee-Boot effect is a phenomenon concerning the suppression or prolongation of oestrous cycles of mature female mice (and ... This effect goes some way to explain why spontaneous pseudopregnancy can occur in mice. The same response is invoked from ... Menstrual synchrony Whitten effect Lee, S. van der; Boot, L.M (1956). "Spontaneous Pseudopregnancy in Mice". Acta Physiol. ...
Joyce C, Freeman L, Brewer HB, Santamarina-Fojo S (June 2003). "Study of ABCA1 function in transgenic mice". Arteriosclerosis, ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Luciani MF, Denizot ... Human data from patients and controls were used to demonstrate the translation of mouse findings in human disease. Mutations in ... Knockout mouse models of AMD treated with agonists that increase ABCA1 in loss of function and gain of function experiments ...
Crawley, Jacqueline N. (2007-05-11). What's Wrong With My Mouse?: Behavioral Phenotyping of Transgenic and Knockout Mice. John ... doi:10.1111/j.1601-183X.2012.00864.x. Wahlsten, Douglas (2010-10-22). Mouse Behavioral Testing: How To Use Mice in Behavioral ... Crusio, Wim E. (March 2013). "Mouse behavioral testing. How to use mice in behavioral research - by Douglas Wahlsten". Genes, ... He is known for his laboratory research on the behavior of mice, and for his theoretical writings on a wide range of other ...
Heard, E (1 April 1996). "Transgenic mice carrying an Xist-containing YAC". Human Molecular Genetics. 5 (4): 441-450. doi: ... Okamoto, I. (30 January 2004). "Epigenetic Dynamics of Imprinted X Inactivation During Early Mouse Development". Science. 303 ( ... from mouse to man. Heard has also performed pioneering work revealing that in addition to epigenetic modifications, chromosome ... from mouse to man. Heard has also performed pioneering work revealing that in addition to epigenetic modifications, chromosome ...
Wolfer, D. P. (2002). "J.N. Crawley: What's wrong with my mouse? Behavioral phenotyping of transgenic and knockout mice". Genes ... What's wrong with my mouse: Behavioral phenotyping of transgenic and knockout mice, Wiley-Interscience, Hoboken, NJ (2007) 523 ... She has co-edited 4 books and is the author of What's Wrong With my Mouse? Behavioral Phenotyping of Transgenic and Knockout ... Behavioral Phenotyping of Transgenic and Knockout Mice". Genes, Brain and Behavior. 7 (7): 831. doi:10.1111/j.1601-183X. ...
2007). "Development of autoimmunity in IL-14alpha-transgenic mice". J. Immunol. 177 (8): 5676-86. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.177.8. ... "Development of autoimmunity in IL-14alpha-transgenic mice". J. Immunol. 177 (8): 5676-86. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.177.8.5676. PMID ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Nogami S, Satoh S, ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ...
"ADAM 12 protease induces adipogenesis in transgenic mice". Am. J. Pathol. 160 (5): 1895-903. doi:10.1016/S0002-9440(10)61136-4 ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Gilpin BJ, Loechel ...
"Pronuclear injection for the production of transgenic mice". Nature Protocols. 2 (5): 1206-1215. doi:10.1038/nprot.2007.145. ... Mating plugs are used by many species, including several primates, kangaroos, bees, reptiles, rats, rodents, scorpions, mice, ...
2002). "Doppel-induced cerebellar degeneration in transgenic mice". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (26): 15288-93. doi: ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. "Entrez Gene: PRND ... 1999). "Ataxia in prion protein (PrP)-deficient mice is associated with upregulation of the novel PrP-like protein doppel". J. ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ...
Bordone L, Cohen D, Robinson A, Motta MC, Guarente L (2007). "SIRT1 transgenic mice show phenotypes resembling calorie ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Aksoy S, Brandriff ... Overexpression of SIRT1 in mice has been shown to reduce insulin and fasting glucose, as well as increased metabolism and ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ...
"Mouse Husbandry, Breeding and Development". University of Carolina, Irvine, Transgenic Mouse Facility Guidelines. University of ... The house mouse has been domesticated as the pet or fancy mouse, and as the laboratory mouse, which is one of the most ... A region of mouse chromosome 16 is associated with thyroid function in mice. However, mice with a knockout of 16 genes - 550kb ... Western European house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus); includes the fancy mouse and the laboratory mouse (Western Europe, ...
Dankort DL, Muller WJ (2000). "Signal transduction in mammary tumorigenesis: a transgenic perspective". Oncogene. 19 (8): 1038- ... The majority of mammary tumors in mice are caused by mouse mammary tumor virus. Several mouse strains carry the virus ... Muñoz, B.; Bolander Jr, F. F. (1989). "Prolactin regulation of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) expression in normal mouse ... "Acquisition of Proviral DNA of mouse mammary tumor virus in thymic leukemi cells from GR mice". Journal of Virology. 43 (3): ...
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The first transgenic mouse expressing GCaMP1 was reported in 2004. However, at 37 ˚C (physiological temperature in mammals), ... October 2012). "Imaging neural activity using Thy1-GCaMP transgenic mice". Neuron. 76 (2): 297-308. doi:10.1016/j.neuron. ... May 2004). "Ca2+-sensing transgenic mice: postsynaptic signaling in smooth muscle". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 ( ... 2008) used a transgenic cardiac-specific GCaMP zebrafish line to image cardiomyocyte activation throughout the cardiac cycle; ...
2002). "Craniosynostosis in transgenic mice overexpressing Nell-1". J. Clin. Invest. 110 (6): 861-70. doi:10.1172/JCI15375. PMC ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Watanabe TK, ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ...
To produce activation transgenic mice were infected with channelrhodopsin-2 with a TH-Cre promoter and to produce inhibition ... Transgenic mice infected with channel-rhodopsin Thy1-ChR2, were stimulated with a 473 nm laser transcranially positioned over ... Transgenic mice were introduced with channelrhodoposin-2 attached with a parvalbumin-Cre promoter that selectively infected ... A more specific approach is based on transgenic "driver" mice which express Cre recombinase, an enzyme that catalyzes ...
2007). "SIRT1 transgenic mice show phenotypes resembling calorie restriction". Aging Cell. 6 (6): 759-67. doi:10.1111/j.1474- ... and mice. He is a Novartis Professor of Biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Leonard Guarente was born and ...
... is a transgenic mouse, developed at the Central Institute for Experimental Animals (CIEA), carrying the human ... After the development of the Tg-PVR mouse, the suitability of the mouse to replace monkeys for OPV testing was evaluated and ...
"Transsynaptic transport of wheat germ agglutinin expressed in a subset of type II taste cells of transgenic mice". BMC ... April 2014). "A mesoscale connectome of the mouse brain". Nature. 508 (7495): 207-14. Bibcode:2014Natur.508..207O. doi:10.1038/ ...
2002). "In human IgA nephropathy uteroglobin does not play the role inferred from transgenic mice". Am. J. Kidney Dis. 40 (3): ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Wolf M, Klug J, ... The phenotype exhibited by these mice are; decreased bioaccumulation of biphenyls, susceptibility and increased IL-13, and IL-6 ... 1999). "Uteroglobin is essential in preventing immunoglobulin A nephropathy in mice". Nat. Med. 5 (9): 1018-25. doi:10.1038/ ...
Novel zinc finger gene implicated as myc collaborator by retrovirally accelerated lymphoma genesis in Eμ-myc transgenic mice. ... J Immunol 140:1123-1131 (1987) Hemopoietic lineage conversion: v-raf oncogene converts Eμ-myc transgenic B cells into ... Cancer Res 46:6246-6429 (1986) Evolution of B cell lineage lymphomas in mice with a retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency ... J Biol Chem 281:38791-38800 (2006) Erythroid defects in TRa-/- mice. Blood 111: 3245-3248 (2008) Hls5 regulates erythroid ...
"Estrogen receptor-positive mammary tumorigenesis in TGFalpha transgenic mice progresses with progesterone receptor loss". ... LDLR has been identified as the primary mode of entry for the Vesicular stomatitis virus in mice and humans. In addition, LDLR ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Südhof TC, ...
Yoneda K, Steinert PM (1993). "Overexpression of human loricrin in transgenic mice produces a normal phenotype". Proc. Natl. ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ...
... assembled in complex transgenic-knockout mice". Blood. 97 (4): 1099-1105. doi:10.1182/blood.V97.4.1099. PMID 11159543. J. Eric ... Russell; Stephen A. Leibhaber (November 1998). "Reversal of Lethal α- and β-Thalassemias in Mice by Expression of Human ...
In a study in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, meldonium increased cognition and mental performance by reducing ... "Mildronate improves cognition and reduces amyloid-β pathology in transgenic Alzheimer's disease mice". Journal of Neuroscience ...
Unlike Gli1 transgenic mice, Gli2 transgenic mice only developed BCC-like tumors. Transgenic mice with N-terminal deletion of ... Transgenic Gli1-/- and Gli2-/- mice have a similar phenotype to transgenic Gli1 gain of function mice. This phenotype includes ... Gli2 has been shown to compensate for Gli1 ventrally and Gli3 dorsally in transgenic mice. Gli2 null mice embryos develop ... Transgenic double homozygous Gli1-/- and Gli2-/- knockout mice display serious central nervous system and lung defects have ...
He was a pioneer in the technique of transferring recombinant genes to mice (transgenic mice) and in 1988 he and Philip Leder ...
It also interacts functionally with amyloid formation and behavior in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. A ... Mouse Resources Portal, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "International Knockout Mouse Consortium".[permanent dead link] "Mouse ... Gerdin AK (2010). "The Sanger Mouse Genetics Programme: High throughput characterisation of knockout mice". Acta ... The gene was originally discovered and cloned by Dan Liebermann and Barbara Hoffman in mice. In that species it is a universal ...
A study was conducted where synaptic fatigue was compared between transgenic mice overexpressing APP/PS1 with their littermates ... Synaptic fatigue is more pronounced in the APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Current Alzheimer Research, 2 ... The results showed that fatigue was more significantly pronounced in the APP/PS1 mice, which indicates a decrease in the amount ...
"Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Product reference ... "Transgenic overexpression of human IL-17E results in eosinophilia, B-lymphocyte hyperplasia, and altered antibody production". ... IL-5 and IL-13 have been demonstrated in the IL-25 knockout mouse. IL-25 influences the development of nasal polyps, and may ... "IL-25 enhances allergic airway inflammation by amplifying a TH2 cell-dependent pathway in mice". The Journal of Allergy and ...
... bladder and brain of lacI transgenic mice". Genetics. 154 (3): 1291-300. doi:10.1093/genetics/154.3.1291. PMC 1460990. PMID ... However, in mice there is no increase in mutation in the brain with aging. Mice defective in a gene (Pms2) that ordinarily ... mutant mice defective in Ku70, or Ku80, or double mutant mice deficient in both Ku70 and Ku80 exhibit early aging. The mean ... and the three mutant mice were found to display the same aging signs as the control mice, but at a much earlier age. Cancer ...
"Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Blouin JL, Duriaux ... "Transgenic expression of BACH1 transcription factor results in megakaryocytic impairment". Blood. 105 (8): 3100-8. doi:10.1182/ ... of the mouse Bach1 gene encoding a BTB-basic leucine zipper transcription factor and its mapping to chromosome 21q22.1". ...
"Identification of the functional expression of adenosine A3 receptor in pancreas using transgenic mice expressing jellyfish ... Since then, the protein has been widely used in many model biological systems, including zebrafish, rats, mice, and cultured ... Discussions of "jellyfish DNA" that can make "glowing" animals often refer to transgenic animals that express the green ... apoaequorin". Transgenic Res. 16 (4): 429-435. doi:10.1007/s11248-007-9084-0. PMID 17387626. S2CID 19339429. Sheu YA, Kricka LJ ...
"Lifespan extension and cancer prevention in HER-2/neu transgenic mice treated with low intermittent doses of rapamycin". Cancer ... Immune system aging in mice can be partly restricted by restoring thymus growth, which can be achieved by transplantation of ... It has been studied in animal models including mice, marsupials and monkeys. Immunosenescence is a contributory factor to the ... "The aged microenvironment contributes to the age-related functional defects of CD4 T cells in mice". Aging Cell. 11 (5): 732- ...
For this reason, poliovirus could not be made in many laboratories until transgenic mice having a CD155 receptor on their cell ...
The Department of Neurogenetics, led by Klaus-Armin Nave, uses transgenic techniques, natural and engineered mouse mutants and ... electrophysiological and morphological methods with mouse genetics to identify and characterize key molecules with functional ...
"Accelerated Alzheimer-type phenotype in transgenic mice carrying both mutant amyloid precursor protein and presenilin 1 ... Her most notable work focused on the development and characterization of mouse models of Alzheimer's disease amyloid deposition ... in brains of mice expressing mutant presenilin 1". Nature. 383 (6602): 710-3. Bibcode:1996Natur.383..710D. doi:10.1038/383710a0 ...
Partial connectomes of a mouse retina and mouse primary visual cortex have also been successfully constructed. The first full ... Livet J, Weissman TA, Kang H, Draft RW, Lu J, Bennis RA, Sanes JR, Lichtman JW (November 2007). "Transgenic strategies for ... The Blue Brain Project is attempting to reconstruct the entire mouse connectome using a diamond knife sharpened to an atomic ... Mikula S, Binding J, Denk W (December 2012). "Staining and embedding the whole mouse brain for electron microscopy". Nature ...
Porter, Michael; Jennifer Nicki; Christopher Pool (June 2013). "Transgenic Parasites Stably Expressing Full-Length Plasmodium ... falciparum Circumsporozoite Protein as a Model for Vaccine Down-Selection in Mice Using Sterile Protection as an Endpoint". ...
... and hCGbeta transgenic female mice present with mammary Gland tumors exhibiting characteristics of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway ...
A single PCR assay is typically enough to genotype a transgenic mouse; the mouse is the mammalian model of choice for much of ... When genotyping transgenic organisms, a single genomic region may be all that needs to be examined to determine the genotype. ...
... a transgenic mouse with an inactivating mutation (exon 5 deletion) in sequence encoding fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (Fah). ... The mice have been used to model diseases such as malaria and to optimize human gene therapy strategies Dr. Grompe has made ... Grompe is a specialist in hepatology and stem cell biology, and is known for the development of the "Fah mouse model", ... In 2007 Grompe founded Yecuris Corporation, which distributes mice with "humanized" livers to pharmaceutical and biotech ...
"Increased lipid accumulation and insulin resistance in transgenic mice expressing DGAT2 in glycolytic (type II) muscle". Am. J ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. "Entrez Gene: ... is decreased in human psoriatic skin and increased in diabetic mice". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 310 (2): 296-302. doi: ...
Comparing the DNA of B cells (a type of white blood cell) in embryonic and adult mice, he observed that genes in the mature B ... Tonegawa's lab pioneered introductory transgenic and gene-knockout technologies in mammalian systems. He was involved in early ... With one dosage of the inhibitor drug FRAX586, Tonegawa showed a marked reduction of FXS symptoms in the mouse model. Tonegawa ... In 2012, his lab demonstrated that the activation of a specific sub-population of mouse hippocampal neurons, labelled during a ...
Mouse transgenic studies in which the phosphorylation site in α-tropomyosin is mutated to Alanine have shown that ... Transgenic hearts showed a significant delay in relaxation time as well as a decrease in the maximum rate of left ventricular ... Studies from mice, which express 98% α-tropomyosin, have shown that α-tropomyosin can be phosphorylated at Serine-283, which is ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Hunt CC, Eyre HJ, ...
... [Internet]. Salt Lake City (UT): Genetic Science Learning Center; 2013 [cited 2022 Nov 30] Available from https ... 5. Grow Chimeric Mice By transplanting stem cells that carry the inactive ohNo gene into a white mouse embyro, you'll ... In the years since, these transgenic and knockout mice have become commonplace in the laboratory. ... During the 1980s, Capecchi devised a way to change or remove any single gene in the mouse genome, creating strains of mice that ...
Here we describe a pipeline for the generation of miR30-based shRNA transgenic mice that enables efficient and consistent ... RNAi in mice, through the expression of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs), offers something not easily achieved with traditional ... However, technical variability associated with the production of shRNA transgenic strains has so far limited their widespread ... 14-week procedure provides a fast and cost-effective way for any laboratory to investigate gene function in vivo in the mouse. ...
JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it ...
... Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jul 25;103(30 ... Here we show that an increased n-3 PUFA tissue status in transgenic mice that endogenously biosynthesize n-3 PUFA from n-6 PUFA ... These results thus establish the fat-1 transgenic mouse as a new experimental model for the study of n-3 PUFA-derived lipid ...
See transgenic mice produced by introducing the gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of a mouse ... See transgenic mice produced by introducing the gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of a mouse ... These mice express GFP in all tissues where actin is normally expressed and glow green when exposed to blue or UV light, making ... These mice express GFP in all tissues where actin is normally expressed and glow green when exposed to blue or UV light, making ...
Losartan improves memory, neurogenesis and cell motility in transgenic Alzheimers mice Journal Article Overview abstract * ... neurogenesis in vivo and in vitro and improved migratory properties of astrocytes isolated from adult transgenic AD mice. In ...
KI mouse by mouse ES cell genome editing*Integrase Mediated Transgenesis*Conventional Transgenic Mouse*Mouse Line Services*Cell ... Genomic Editing and Mouse Line Services. *Crispr Mediated KO/KI and Conditional KO Mice* ... Available mouse strain: C57Bl6, FVB and B6D2, contact TKTC for other mouse strains. ... Stanford team stimulates neurons to induce particular perceptions in mices minds Explore Research. Learn how we are fueling ...
Mouse Core provides an array of embryological services for the generation and preservation of genetically engineered transgenic ... Penn Vet Transgenic Mouse Core. The Transgenic Mouse Core located in the School of Veterinary Medicine is a state-of-the-art ... To achieve these goals, the School of Veterinary Medicine has established the Transgenic Mouse Core. ... pioneering studies in the development of transgenic techniques and were responsible for production of the first transgenic mice ...
Transgenic Mice Expressing Porcine Prion Protein Resistant to Classical Scrapie but Susceptible to Sheep Bovine Spongiform ... Transgenic Mice Expressing Porcine Prion Protein Resistant to Classical Scrapie but Susceptible to Sheep Bovine Spongiform ... Brain atypical proteinase K-resistant prion protein (PrPres) of porcine PrP transgenic mice infected with an atypical scrapie ( ... before passage in the porcine mouse model are shown for comparison. MW, molecular mass in kilodaltons. C) Triangular plot of ...
TCRMOG mice, MOG-specific TCR transgenic mice on a C57BL/6 background; TCROVA mice, OVA-specific TCR transgenic mice on a C57BL ... in OSE mice. This did not occur in IgHMOG mice or in double-transgenic TCROVA×IgHMOG mice. Remarkably, however, OSE mice showed ... TCR transgenic mice on a C57BL/6 background (TCRMOG mice; also referred to as 2D2 mice; ref. 5) express a transgenic TCR ... In contrast, transgenic T cells from TCRMOG mice combined with nontransgenic B cells and transgenic B cells from IgHMOG mice ...
Transgenic Mice. The PoPrP-Tg001 mouse line was generated and characterized as previously described (8). These mice express ... as determined in transgenic mice expressing bovine PrP protein (24).. Previous experiments showed that transgenic mice ... Scott M, Foster D, Mirenda C, Serban D, Coufal F, Walchli M, Transgenic mice expressing hamster prion protein produce species- ... In this study, transgenic mice expressing porcine PrP (8) were used to assess the transmission capacity of a wide range of TSE ...
... transgenic mice (Smith et al., 1998), our vehicle-injected transgenic mice were devoid of Aβ immunoreactivity, indicating that ... a, Tg2576 mouse injected with extract from AD case 1. b, Tg2576 mouse injected with extract from AD case 2. c, Tg2576 mouse ... Aβ immunostaining of the hippocampus in two Tg2576 mice injected with AD brain extract (a, b) and in two transgenic mice ... As a result, there was no Aβ immunoreactivity in nontransgenic mice injected with human tissue extract or in transgenic mice 5 ...
Multiple events lead to dendritic spine loss in triple transgenic Alzheimers disease mice. In: PLOS ONE 5(11), e15477 ... we characterized the spatio-temporal pattern of dendritic spine loss for the first time in 3xTg-AD mice. These mice exhibit an ...
Seminars and Events at the Research Institute of Molecular Pathology (IMP) and Vienna Biocenter (VBC).
Momoi, K. ; Goldberg, E. ; Markert, C. L. / Expression of the human lactate dehydrogenase-C gene in transgenic mice. In: ... Momoi, K., Goldberg, E., & Markert, C. L. (1990). Expression of the human lactate dehydrogenase-C gene in transgenic mice. ... Momoi, K, Goldberg, E & Markert, CL 1990, Expression of the human lactate dehydrogenase-C gene in transgenic mice., Progress ... Expression of the human lactate dehydrogenase-C gene in transgenic mice. / Momoi, K.; Goldberg, E.; Markert, C. L. ...
Simultaneous calcium imaging and cell-attached recording in GCaMP6 transgenic mice in vivo reveals spiking-fluorescence ... All mice were adults and one advantage of using transgenic mice is that transgene expression remains stable in adult mice over ... to 5-month-old male and female transgenic mice: five Emx1-IRES-Cre;Camk2a-tTA;Ai94 (Emx1-s) mice, one Camk2a-tTA;tetO-GCaMP6s ( ... tetO-s) mouse, three Emx1-IRES-Cre;Camk2a-tTA;Ai93 (Emx1-f) mice, and four Cux2-CreERT2;Camk2a-tTA;Ai93 (Cux2-f) mice. All four ...
Transgenic mice are mice whose genes have been manipulated whether naturally or not in this second part of the video. Join the ... Part 2 of Transgenic Mice Transgenic mice are mice whose genes have been manipulated whether naturally or not in this second ...
Previous studies measuring function of the left ventricle (LV) in the R6/2 mouse model have found a clear ...
The hepatitis C virus and immune evasion: non-structural 3/4A transgenic mice are resistant to lethal tumour necrosis factor α ... The hepatitis C virus and immune evasion: non-structural 3/4A transgenic mice are resistant to lethal tumour necrosis factor α ...
Conversely, GH transgenic mice have excess GH action and die prematurely. We have studied bovine (b) GH transgenic mice (n = 9 ... axis results in extended lifespan in many organisms including mice. ... Conversely, GH transgenic mice have excess GH action and die prematurely. We have studied bovine (b) GH transgenic mice (n = 9 ... Plasma proteomic profiles of bovine growth hormone transgenic mice as they age Transgenic Res. 2011 Dec;20(6):1305-20. doi: ...
Synaptic Loss in Alzheimers Disease: Mechanistic Insights Provided by Two-Photon in vivo Imaging of Transgenic Mouse Models. ... Mechanistic Insights Provided by Two-Photon in vivo Imaging of Transgenic Mouse Models. Front. Cell. Neurosci. 14:592607. doi: ... The mechanisms underlying synapse loss have been extensively investigated using mouse models expressing genes with human ...
... transgenic mice. Injection of 105 organisms induced hind limb paralysis in 8 out of 30 of the HLA-B27 transgenic mice (27%) and ... In this study, transgenic mice expressing HLA-B27 and their negative full sibs were infected intravenously with Yersinia ... In this study, transgenic mice expressing HLA-B27 and their negative full sibs were infected intravenously with Yersinia ... Injection of 105 organisms induced hind limb paralysis in 8 out of 30 of the HLA-B27 transgenic mice (27%) and in only 1 of the ...
Re-imagining discovery and access to research: grants, datasets, publications, citations, clinical trials, patents and policy documents in one place.
... but also when expressed by AAV vectors in vivo such as in APP/PS1 transgenic AD model mice with Aβ-induced pathology. ... is also beneficial in mice with tau-induced pathology. ... in a tau transgenic mouse model of Alzheimers disease. research ... but also when expressed by AAV vectors in vivo such as in APP/PS1 transgenic AD model mice with Aβ-induced pathology. ... is also beneficial in mice with tau-induced pathology. ...
Hsiao, K. K. (1995). Understanding the biology of β-amyloid precursor proteins in transgenic mice. Neurobiology of Aging, 16(4 ... Hsiao, Karen K. / Understanding the biology of β-amyloid precursor proteins in transgenic mice. In: Neurobiology of Aging. 1995 ... Hsiao, KK 1995, Understanding the biology of β-amyloid precursor proteins in transgenic mice, Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 16 ... Understanding the biology of β-amyloid precursor proteins in transgenic mice. Neurobiology of Aging. 1995;16(4):705-706. doi: ...
mice . No. mice with single tumor . No. mice with two tumors . No. mice with three tumors . Total no. tumors . ... mice . No. mice with single tumor . No. mice with two tumors . No. mice with three tumors . Total no. tumors . ... neu transgenic female mice. Points, mean number of palpable mammary carcinomas per mouse/total number of mice; bars, SE. **, P ... neu transgenic female mice. Points, mean number of palpable mammary carcinomas per mouse/total number of mice; bars, SE. **, P ...
Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Inbred DBA, Mice, Transgenic, Orchiectomy, Prostate-Specific Antigen/drug effects/*genetics/ ... Three transgenic mouse lines carrying the Escherichia coli LacZ gene, driven by the 632-bp proximal PSA promoter, and three ... A 6-kb promoter fragment mimics in transgenic mice the prostate-specific and androgen-regulated expression of the endogenous ... A 6-kb promoter fragment mimics in transgenic mice the prostate-specific and androgen-regulated expression of the endogenous ...
Transgenic mice show compromised development of FC during the first months of postnatal life compared with wild-type animals, ... Transgenic mice show compromised development of FC during the first months of postnatal life compared with wild-type animals, ... In this study, ArcAβ transgenic and wild-type mice were imaged using resting-state fMRI methods across their life-span in a ... In this study, ArcAβ transgenic and wild-type mice were imaged using resting-state fMRI methods across their life-span in a ...
The transgenic animals and cells derived therefrom can be used in the study of the expression pattern, activity and modulators ... The present invention relates to a transgenic non-human animal embryo lacking native presenilin 1 and a transgenic non-human ... c) breeding said mouse of step a) with the mouse of step b); d) producing a transgenic mouse that is heterozygous for a ... f) crossing a mouse produced in step e) with a transgenic mouse expressing a human APP protein to produce a mouse hemizygous or ...
Generation of C57BL/6-Tg (ITF-TMEM207) mouse line. The detailed procedure for generating a transgenic mouse line with a C57BL/6 ... transgenic mice (line 16) expressed ATG4B protein. The ATG4B protein band was detected in the heart and liver of wild-type mice ... A unique transgenic mouse model exhibiting a myeloproliferative disease-like phenotype Yusuke Kito 0000-0003-1373-986X ... we generated thirteen transgenic mouse lines, designated C57BL/6-Tg (ITF-TMEM207), where mouse TMEM207 is expressed ...
  • On a triple transgenic 3xTg mouse model with both Tau tangle and Beta-amyloid framed, the take-up proportion of the hippocampus is 50% higher than the cerebellum. (
  • Triple transgenic mice (Ai93, tTA, Cre) were generated by first crossing Ai93 mice with Camk2a-tTA mice, which preferentially express tTA in forebrain excitatory neurons. (
  • Clicking on one of the links below will open serial two-photon images of florescent GCaMP6-GFP expression in the triple transgenic mouse line in an image viewer . (
  • Expression of the human lactate dehydrogenase-C gene in transgenic mice. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Expression and stable germline transmission of neomycin-resistance gene in transgenic mice. (
  • Brain atypical proteinase K-resistant prion protein (PrP res ) of porcine PrP transgenic mice infected with an atypical scrapie (SC-PS152) agent (lane 4) versus sheep bovine spongiform encephalopathy (Sheep-BSE) agent (lane 2). (
  • Unexpectedly, the atypical scrapie agent appeared to undergo a strain phenotype shift upon transmission to porcine-PrP transgenic mice and acquired new strain properties, suggesting that atypical scrapie agent may exhibit different phenotypes depending on the host cellular PrP or other genetic factors. (
  • Similar cultures were established from tissue derived from DN Bright and WT Bright transgenic mice (13,14) on either a C57Bl/6 or FVB/N background. (
  • All prices are based on using C57BL/6 mice. (
  • Only the DN Bright cells could be grown indefinitely in culture, as compared to the WT Bright or control non-transgenic cells. (
  • Methods Islets from amyloid-forming human IAPP transgenic and control non-transgenic mice were cultured for 48 h in 16.7 mmol/l glucose alone (control) or with exendin-4, potassium chloride (KCl), diazoxide or somatostatin. (
  • A) RT-PCR assays were performed with normal spleen (WT1), 2 transgenic cells exhibit developmental plasticity Similar to the transgenic mice also spontaneously formed multicellular aggregates and converted into cells with variable lineage surface marker expression (e.g. (
  • During the 1980s, Capecchi devised a way to change or remove any single gene in the mouse genome, creating strains of mice that pass the altered gene from parent to offspring. (
  • However, technical variability associated with the production of shRNA transgenic strains has so far limited their widespread use. (
  • Notably, the protocol details crucial steps in the design and testing of miR30-based shRNAs to maximize the potential for developing effective transgenic strains. (
  • C57Bl6, FVB and B6D2, contact TKTC for other mouse strains. (
  • And 4500 mouse costs for nonstandard strains or for BAC injections. (
  • While female mouse strains have cited above is bac transgenic mice protocol developed which expression already observed. (
  • In confirming anticipated aqp functions, and discard unused microinjection founder transgenic bac mice strains reviewed in this study was you. (
  • The prize recognized Capecchi's pioneering work on 'knockout mouse' technology, a gene-targeting technique that has revolutionized genetic and biomedical research, allowing scientists to create animal models for hundreds of human diseases. (
  • In the years since, these 'transgenic' and 'knockout' mice have become commonplace in the laboratory. (
  • Breeding PTCH mice to p53 knockout animals markedly increased tumor incidence. (
  • In the Transgenic Characterization section of the Allen Brain Observatory, each of the above cell lines is listed with links to view the 2-photon serial tomography as well as a brief description of the brain areas targeted by the transgenic strategy. (
  • Moreover, successful generation and characterization of GAD67-ErbB4 transgenic mice will offer a proof of principle for other NRG1 gain-of-function models in different regions of the brain. (
  • Results: TDP-43Q331K mice developed a progressive phenotype, whilst TDP-43WT mice showed none. (
  • Conclusions: TDP-43Q331K mice have a progressive motor phenotype of low variability with reliable motor, pathological and cognitive readouts of disease and may provide a useful model for evaluating potential neuroprotective therapies. (
  • Functional phenotype in transgenic mice expressing mutant human presenilin-1. (
  • Transgene expression could not be demonstrated in any of the transgenic animals carrying the proximal PSA promoter. (
  • Therefore, the 6-kb PSA-LacZ transgene followed the expression pattern of the PSA gene in humans, which is almost completely prostate-specific, rather than that of mGK22 in mice. (
  • We have made an electrophysiological study of hippocampal slices from transgenic mice expressing either a normal human PS1 transgene (WT) or one of two human PS1 transgenes bearing pathogenic mutations at codon M146 (M146L and M146V). (
  • Because the DN Shiny transgene in these mice can be expressed through the B cell-specific promoter (13), we hypothesized how the plastic material cells in these ethnicities must be produced from B lineage cells with inhibited degrees of Shiny. (
  • DN transgenic mice didn't generate Compact disc19+ adult, transgene-expressing B cells (13). (
  • With quality focusing, rather than an unfamiliar transgene being presented, an endogenous quality in the mouse is adjusted. (
  • We describe multiple genotyping transgenic bac transgenic mice protocol to analyze transgene via the protocol number of the study. (
  • Here we present a protocol to promote transgene integration and production of founder transgenic mice with high efficacy by a simple. (
  • Comorbid TS- & OCD-like behaviors have likewise been observed in D1CT-7 mice , in which an artificial neuropotentiating transgene encoding the cAMP-elevating intracellular subunit of cholera toxin (CT) is chronically expressed selectively in somatosensory cortical & amygdalar dopamine (DA) D1 receptor-expressing neurons that activate cortico/amygdalo-striatal glutamate (GLU) output. (
  • The transgenic mice expresses a transgene of the Hb9 gene containing a genetic insert of th. (
  • Bilateral, multifocal ocular tumors were observed in 100% of transgene-bearing mice. (
  • These genetically altered organisms, called transgenic, and are of enormous value in medicine and agriculture. (
  • Attenuation of the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis results in extended lifespan in many organisms including mice. (
  • Paralysis occurred in 14 out of 30 HLA-B27 + mice (47%) at a dose of 10 4 organisms. (
  • ES cell lines are gotten from beginning phase mouse undeveloped organisms and can be kept up uncertainly in an undifferentiated state in vitro yet hold the limit, when infused once more into a beginning phase mouse incipient organism, to blend in with the endogenous cells of the incipient organism and add to all tissues of the creating mouse, including the germline. (
  • Progressive CAG expansion in the brain of a novel R6/1-89Q mouse model of Huntington's disease with delayed phenotypic onset. (
  • However, rare ( 1%) growth of whole tissues from these mice resulted in long-lived, self renewing cultures with potential to generate multiple cell types for more than a year in culture. (
  • Double transgenic mice were then crossed with a Cre driver line to generate mice in which GCaMP6f expression is induced in the specific populations of neurons that express both Cre and tTA. (
  • Therefore, we propose to generate and characterize GAD67-ErbB4 transgenic mice overexpressing human CYT-1/JMa ErbB4. (
  • This is a proposal to generate GAD67-ErbB4 transgenic mice over-expressing human CYT-1/JMa ErbB4 to model neurotransmission and behavioral deficits in schizophrenia. (
  • Type or reporter ES cells introduced into mutant blastocysts to generate chimeric mice. (
  • To generate transgenic mice 3 BAC clones WT-mVDR BAC HA-mVDR BAC. (
  • Our primary function is to generate genetically modified mouse models for users within IRB Barcelona. (
  • Help with cloning protocols and reagents required to generate gene targeting and transgenic vectors. (
  • We show, through transmission experiments in transgenic mice expressing porcine prion protein (PrP), that the susceptibility of this mouse model to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) can be enhanced after its passage in ARQ sheep, indicating that the pathogenicity of the BSE agent is modified after passage in sheep. (
  • See transgenic mice produced by introducing the gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of a mouse actin promoter. (
  • Three transgenic mouse lines carrying the Escherichia coli LacZ gene, driven by the 632-bp proximal PSA promoter, and three lines with LacZ, driven by the 6-kb PSA promoter, were generated. (
  • Promoter swap transgenic mice that carry IIIA 5' flanking sequences express Fc gamma RIII in macrophages and NK cells. (
  • In contrast, promoter swap transgenic mice that contain IIIB 5' sequences express Fc gamma RIII in neutrophils only. (
  • Promoter in this YAC transgenic strain D1-Cre is raising alarm and prompting new travel lockdowns. (
  • A 1.9 Kb linear fragment of neomycin resistance gene under the control of pPGK promoter was microinjected into the pronucleus of mouse embryos. (
  • RNAi in mice, through the expression of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs), offers something not easily achieved with traditional genetic approaches-inducible and reversible gene silencing. (
  • Transgenic mice (Cg-Tg(PDGFB-APPSwInd)20Lms/2J) and their non-transgenic litter mate genetic controls were treated with lithium carbonate (1.2 mg/Kg/day in drinking water) for 16 or 8 months starting at two and ten months of age, respectively. (
  • Building a zoo of mice for genetic analyses A comprehensive protocol for the rapid generation of BAC transgenic mice Mendeley CSV RIS BibTeX. (
  • Trained in classic and molecular mouse genetics, I was attracted to Genentech by the opportunity to be able to apply genetic tools and genetically engineered murine models to facilitate drug discovery. (
  • Genetic and transgenic studies are consistent with a model where expanded polyglutamines cause disease by conferring a novel toxic function on the disease proteins. (
  • Transgenics is the process of taking DNA from one species and implanting it into the genetic structure of another. (
  • Furthermore, by focusing on the association of IL-6 with inflammation as well as with various diseases, the doctors constructed IL-6 over-expressing transgenic mice and, conversely, those with genetic disruption of IL-6, and those expressing mutated IL-6 receptor signal transducing subunit. (
  • When they examined genes that are necessary for the evolution of fins in zebrafish (a ray-finned fish that is a distant relative of coelacanth fishes) and compared them with the gene that regulates the development of limbs in mice, researchers found that zebrafish lacked the genetic mechanisms that are necessary for the development of fingers. (
  • A large body of evidence indicates a neuroprotective and neurotrophic function for APPs⍺ not only in vitro, but also when expressed by AAV vectors in vivo such as in APP/PS1 transgenic AD model mice with Aβ-induced pathology. (
  • Thus, it is crucial to test a more general applicability of APPs⍺ as a treatment for AD and to assess whether APPs⍺ is also beneficial in mice with tau-induced pathology. (
  • In this study, ArcAβ transgenic and wild-type mice were imaged using resting-state fMRI methods across their life-span in a cross-sectional design to analyze changes in FC in relation to the pathology. (
  • FC analysis in mice is an attractive tool for studying the implications of impaired neuronal networks in models of cerebral amyloid pathology. (
  • Caspase Activation in Transgenic Mice with Alzheimer-Like Pathology: R" by Troy T. Rohn, Polina Kokoulina et al. (
  • To determine whether the deposition of the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ), a key pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), can be induced in vivo , we infused dilute supernatants of autopsy-derived neocortical homogenates from Alzheimer's patients unilaterally into the hippocampus and neocortex of 3-month-old β-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP)-transgenic mice. (
  • The mechanisms underlying synapse loss have been extensively investigated using mouse models expressing genes with human familial Alzheimer's disease mutations. (
  • It is suitable to conclude that these data support the use of microdose lithium in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease, once the neurohistopathological characteristics of the disease were modified and the memory of transgenic animals was maintained. (
  • More than half of the double-transgenic mice spontaneously developed autoimmune demyelination in their spinal cords and optic nerves, exhibiting pathologies reminiscent of human MS. The studies describe an important new model for MS research. (
  • We describe a double-transgenic mouse strain ( o ptico s pinal E AE [OSE] mouse) that spontaneously develops an EAE-like neurological syndrome closely resembling a human variant of multiple sclerosis, Devic disease (also called neuromyelitis optica). (
  • The present invention relates to a transgenic non-human animal embryo lacking native presenilin 1 and a transgenic non-human animal having only a non-native presenilin 1. (
  • The present invention relates to a transgenic non-human animal lacking native presenilin 1 (PS1) protein and a transgenic non-human animal expressing either the wild-type human PS1 or human PS1 containing a Familial Alzheimer's Disease (FAD) mutation on native PS1 null background. (
  • Methods: A colony of mice transgenic for mutant human TDP-43 (TDP-43Q331K) was established, alongside a control line (TDP-43WT). (
  • Reconstitution of human Fc gamma RIII cell type specificity in transgenic mice. (
  • IIIA and IIIB transgenic mice show faithful reconstitution of this human pattern of cell type specificity. (
  • Results In control human IAPP transgenic islets, amyloid formation was associated with increased beta cell apoptosis and beta cell loss. (
  • To be helpful as a creature model, the transgenic living being must likewise have the option to show the fundamental obsessive, physiological, or conduct highlights of the human sickness. (
  • DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder that is extremely difficult to model in rodents because of structural difference between human and mouse brains, lack of clear pathological hallmarks of the disorder, and inability of mice to demonstrate human psychiatric phenotypes such as delusion, hallucination, or depression. (
  • To determine whether CRP directly modulates vascular cell function in vivo, we subjected wild-type mice, which do not express CRP, and human CRP-transgenic (CRPtg) mice to 2 models of arterial injury. (
  • Human ABCA1 BAC Transgenic Mice Show Increased High. (
  • The two transgenic lambs entered the world armed with a human gene that gives them the ability to produce human serum albumin, a protein that is often used in surgeries and is essential to the treatment of burn victims. (
  • Human gene targeting has been successful to a degree in mice, but the birth of Cupid and Diana represents the first time the technique has succeeded in large animals, said Dr. Eric Overstrom, associate professor in the School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University. (
  • It�s another installment in the procession of advances that combine transgenics and cloning to produce therapeutics for animal and human health. (
  • Maintenance and distribution of transgenic mice susceptible to human viruses: memorandum from a WHO meeting. (
  • Over the last five years, Harbour Antibodies' two transgenic mouse platforms have emerged as industry leading, world class discovery engines for next generation human antibody therapeutics, with over 30 partners,' said Peter Barrett, PhD, Partner at Atlas Venture and Chairman of Harbour Antibodies. (
  • The Harbour transgenic platforms present significant opportunities for discovering and developing novel human antibody therapeutics against established and emerging targets. (
  • Although the mouse is widely used to model human lung development, function, and disease, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in alveolarization of the peripheral lung is incomplete. (
  • To support this effort, we designed detailed anatomic and cellular ontologies describing alveolar formation and maturation in both mouse and human lung. (
  • This comparative approach eliminated redundancy and inconsistent terminology, enabling us to differentiate true anatomic variations between mouse and human lungs. (
  • To our knowledge, these are the first ontologies designed to include terminology specific for developmental structures in the lung, as well as to compare common anatomic features and variations between mouse and human lungs. (
  • Photocarcinogenesis in hairless mice induced tumors harbors more UVA than UVB fingerprint by ultraviolet A tanning devices with or without mutations: A role for UVA in human skin car- subsequent solar-simulated ultraviolet irradia- cinogenesis. (
  • Abnormal cortical synaptic plasticity in mice transgenic for exon 1 of the human Huntington's protein. (
  • Cardiac expression of human type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase increases glucose metabolism and protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiac dysfunction in male mice. (
  • SARS-CoV-2 infection of human ACE2-transgenic mice causes severe lung inflammation and impaired function. (
  • In all, this 14-week procedure provides a fast and cost-effective way for any laboratory to investigate gene function in vivo in the mouse. (
  • Losartan increased neurogenesis in vivo and in vitro and improved migratory properties of astrocytes isolated from adult transgenic AD mice. (
  • By means of long-term two-photon in vivo imaging and confocal imaging, we characterized the spatio-temporal pattern of dendritic spine loss for the first time in 3xTg-AD mice. (
  • Here, we characterized the AP-fluorescence transfer function in vivo for 48 layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in primary visual cortex, with simultaneous calcium imaging and cell-attached recordings from transgenic mice expressing GCaMP6s or GCaMP6f. (
  • The transgenic animal can be used in the study of the in vivo functions of PS1 and the effect of FAD mutation in PS1 function both during embryonic development and during aging. (
  • Here we develop CRISPR-engineered mouse lines that enable rapid and highly specific degradation of tagged endogenous proteins in vivo . (
  • Los experimentos in Vivo de Lai y Singh (1995, 1996) ameritan especial atención, teniendo en cuenta el interés que despertaron. (
  • Studies in conditional STAT3 mutant mice showed that VEGFR signaling requires STAT3 to promote epithelial cell proliferation and tumor growth in vivo. (
  • We asked whether this high degree of in vitro activity would translate into an in vivo therapeutic effect in two potentially lethal mouse models of infected wounds. (
  • Using these genetically engineered mice they elucidated the physiological function of IL-6 in vivo. (
  • Hsiao, KK 1995, ' Understanding the biology of β-amyloid precursor proteins in transgenic mice ', Neurobiology of Aging , vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 705-706. (
  • Transgenic mouse lines overexpressing amyloid precursor proteins develop cerebral amyloidosis and constitute an attractive model system for studying the relationship between plaque and functional changes. (
  • The effect of prolonged antibiotic treatments on tumor development was evaluated in proto- neu transgenic mice, which spontaneously develop mammary carcinomas. (
  • They have systematically 'knocked out' a set of genes in mice, called homeotic genes, which govern body patterning during development. (
  • These mice can be identified by performing DNA sequencing in their OhNo genes and then bred with each other. (
  • Transgenic mice are mice whose genes have been manipulated whether naturally or not in this second part of the video. (
  • A search for mouse PSA-related kallikrein genes expressed in the prostate led to the identification of mGK22, which was previously demonstrated to be expressed in the submandibular salivary gland. (
  • No genes in bac transgenic mouse lines for bac transgenic mouse models, and expression level. (
  • Mind hippocampus imaging relative explicit restricting proportion of [18F]FEONM on a Tau tangle P301S/PS19 transgenic mouse model is double cross higher than cerebellum, Beta amyloid Tg2576 transgenic mouse model is under two. (
  • From the transgenic mouse model imaging study, we discovered [18F]FEONM will takeup on both Tau tangle and Beta-amyloid transgenic mouse. (
  • In contrast with [18F]FDDNP, it shows no Beta-amyloid transgenic mice take-up in mind the hippocampus. (
  • This outcome speaks to a part of the particular authoritative of Tau tangle transgenic mouse of [18F]FDDNP has moved to Beta-amyloid. (
  • Analysis of 12 month-old TgCRND8 mice, which represent an early-onset animal model for AD, indicated the activation of caspase-7 as well as the cleavage of tau and the amyloid precursor protein (APP). (
  • There was limited deposition of diffuse Aβ also in the brains of βAPP-transgenic mice infused with tissue from an age-matched, non-AD brain with mild β-amyloidosis, but none in mice receiving extract from a young control case. (
  • No tumors or morphologic alterations were detected in the brains of transgenic mice expressing stabilized β-catenin, suggesting that postnatal Wnt signaling in differentiated neurons may not be sufficient to induce CNS tumorigenesis. (
  • Representative histoblots in 4 different anteroposterior sections showing the distribution of disease-specific PrP res deposits in the brains of tg650 mice infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or L-type BSE. (
  • Projects in the laboratory typically involve working with transgenic mouse models, immunohistochemistry, light and confocal microscopy, the application of imaging software and analysis, and other neuroscience tools. (
  • Confocal microscopy revealed disordered collagen IVα1/2 staining in older mice and loss of α5 without changes in other collagen IV subunits. (
  • Confocal micrograph showing the development of motor neurons in the mouse forelimb at 11.5 days post coitum. (
  • Tail kinking was observed in some transgenic animals, but no CNS malformations or tumors were detected. (
  • 1991. Promotion of mouse lung tumors by bioaccumulated polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. (
  • The authors characterized the transgenic brain tumors and found them to be primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) of the midbrain. (
  • Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural examination revealed that the transgenic brain tumors were undifferentiated and lacked all antigens associated with normal murine neuronal, glial, and ependymal cells. (
  • We found several differences in plasma proteins of bGH mice compared to controls, including increased apolipoprotein E (five isoforms), haptoglobin (four isoforms) and mannose-binding protein-C (one out of three isoforms), and decreased transthyretin (six isoforms). (
  • In conclusion, identification of these proteins suggests that bGH mice exhibit an increased inflammatory state with an adverse lipid profile, possibly contributing to their diminished life expectancy. (
  • This generalisable approach provides unprecedented temporal control over the dose of endogenous proteins in mouse models, with implications for studying essential biological pathways and modelling drug activity in mammalian tissues. (
  • Kwee y Raskmark (1998), sin embargo, encontraron una disminución en el crecimiento celular de las células amnióticas epiteliales humanas expuestas a campos de microonda de 960 MHz, y Capri (2004b) también encontró una ligera disminución en la proliferación celular después de la exposición a la radiofrecuencia de 900 MHz. (
  • 1998). ment in hairless mice. (
  • Conversely, GH transgenic mice have excess GH action and die prematurely. (
  • 2017. Mutant Profilin1 transgenic mice recapitulate cardinal features of motor neuron disease. . (
  • Immunohistochemical analysis revealed nuclear β-catenin in hippocampal, cortical and cerebellar neurons of transgenic animals but not in non-transgenic controls. (
  • Biochemical markers of striatal desensitization in cortical-limbic hyperglutamatergic TS- & OCD-like transgenic mice. (
  • We've now examined in D1CT-7 mice whether the chronic GLU output from their potentiated cortical/limbic CSTC subcircuit afferents associated with TS- & OCD-like behaviors elicits desensitizing neurochemical changes in the striatum (STR). (
  • These mice exhibit an early loss of layer III neurons at 4 months of age, at a time when only soluble Aβ is abundant. (
  • used mice that had been genetically modified to produce a calcium indicator in neurons of the visual cortex and simultaneously obtained both fluorescence measurements and electrical recordings from these neurons. (
  • TDP-43Q331K mice showed signs of motor dysfunction, increased TDP-43 in the nucleus and cytoplasm of motor neurons (supported by increased mRNA and protein levels), astrogliosis, and microgliosis in the spinal cord, apathy, overeating and electrophysiological findings suggestive of denervation. (
  • When we made the same mutation in mice, they were completely normal. (
  • We, hereby, design simple and robust intravital microscopy strategies, which can be used to elucidate cellular or molecular interactions in a fluorescent mouse model. (
  • To determine the molecular basis for this differential expression, we have generated transgenic mice using the genomic sequences of IIIA and IIIB. (
  • To address these questions, the lab utilize an integrative approach that includes pre-clinical animal models of obesity and type 2 diabetes molecular, transgenic mice, cellular /molecular/ and physiological approaches. (
  • Methods: Radioimmunoassay and neutralization experiments using the monoclonal antibody, KY-mBNP-I, were performed in BNP-Tg mice in conjunction with examinations of blood pressure (BP) and other markers for body fluid homeostasis. (
  • Methods and Results - Baseline serum CRP levels in CRPtg mice were 18±6 mg/L. CRP levels were undetectable in wild-type mice. (
  • Describe different opsin delivery methods, such as virus injection, electroporation, and use of transgenic mice. (
  • Here we show that an increased n-3 PUFA tissue status in transgenic mice that endogenously biosynthesize n-3 PUFA from n-6 PUFA leads to significant formation of antiinflammatory resolvins and effective reduction in inflammation and tissue injury in colitis. (
  • however, after 5 months, the AD-tissue-injected hemisphere of the transgenic mice had developed profuse Aβ-immunoreactive senile plaques and vascular deposits, some of which were birefringent with Congo Red. (
  • DT treatment reduced peripheral blood monocytes and tissue macrophages and inhibited macrophage function in CD11b-DTR mice and apolipoprotein E-null (apoE−/−) mice transplanted with CD11b-DTR bone marrow. (
  • Conclusion Simple intravital microscopy procedures on TIE2GFP mice allowed a real-time multi-color visualization of tissue microenvironment, underlining that robust microscopy strategies are relatively simple and can be readily available for many tissues of interest. (
  • To get our hypothesis, long-term cell lines founded from DN transgenic buy 2-Methoxyestradiol bone tissue marrow and spleen exhibited D-JH rearrangements of their IgH loci (Fig. 3b), a house limited to lymphocyte lineage cells largely. (
  • We are equipped to carry out cryopreservation of mouse germ-line tissue. (
  • Here, we demonstrate that transgenic targeting of OGG1 to mitochondria confers significant protection from diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and adipose tissue inflammation. (
  • These favorable metabolic phenotypes are mediated by an increase in whole body energy expenditure driven by specific metabolic adaptations, including increased mitochondrial respiration in white adipose tissue of OGG1 transgenic (Ogg1Tg) animals. (
  • In order to do so, I first characterized the attenuation of light by the cardiac tissue as well as the response to light stimulation of our model of ChR-2 transgenic mice hearts using the Langendorff-perfusion technique. (
  • Cea antigen with bac transgenic mice protocol from gordan keller, suggesting that explains the protocol for your email address so we deliberately permitted a tata box entitled open. (
  • The first heritable model of retinoblastoma was established by retina-specific expression of simian virus 40 T-antigen (SV40 T-ag) in transgenic mice. (
  • Electrophoretic profiles and antibody labeling of PrP res detected with monoclonal antibodies Sha31 (A) or 12B2 (B). Profiles produced by atypical scrapie (SCPS152) (lane 3) and sheep-BSE (lane 1) before passage in the porcine mouse model are shown for comparison. (
  • The atypical (Nor98 like) isolate (SC-PS152) was the only scrapie isolate capable of transmission in these mice, although with a marked transmission barrier. (
  • Lighter expression of large ducts also the same injection is bac transgenic mice protocol number of implanted. (
  • Here we describe a pipeline for the generation of miR30-based shRNA transgenic mice that enables efficient and consistent targeting of doxycycline-regulated, fluorescence-linked shRNAs to the Col1a1 locus. (
  • To view the fluorescence expression in these mouse lines in an image viewer click on either the transgenic mouse line or the example image. (
  • These results demonstrate disruption of the control of intracellular calcium and electrophysiological dysfunction in PS1 mutant mice. (
  • To mimic activation of Gα12 pathways, constitutively active Gα12 (QL) was conditionally expressed in podocytes using Nphs2-Cre and LacZ/floxed QLα12 transgenic mice. (
  • No small molecule drugs have translated from MND mouse models to MND patients, possibly because of MND mouse models being based on SOD1 mutations, representing only a small proportion of patients. (
  • Procedures We crossbred transgenic TIE2GFP mice with nude BALB/c mice, allowing the breeding of immunocompetent and immunodeficient mouse models expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in vascular endothelium. (
  • Mice Gene targeting Recombineering Bacterial artificial chromosome BAC Transgenic mice Introduction Animal models are routinely used. (
  • Dysfunctional Dopaminergic Neurones in Mouse Models of Huntington's Disease: A Role for SK3 Channels. (
  • Impaired long-term potentiation in the prefrontal cortex of Huntington's disease mouse models: rescue by D 1 dopamine receptor activation. (
  • Transgenic mouse models of CMT1A and HNPP. (
  • Animal models - transgenic mice, flies, and even yeast - have been one of the most popular systems for a long time. (
  • Transgenic mice treated with lithium since two months of age showed decreased number of senile plaques, no neuronal loss in cortex and hippocampus and increased BDNF density in cortex, when compared to non-treated transgenic mice. (
  • In addition, other than the transgenic mouse model, the streptozotocin actuated Tau tangle mouse model likewise shows higher cerebrum hippocampus [18F]FEONM take-up than the control mouse. (
  • F1 mice from Indels or Ki founder mice from CRISPR microinjection should be sequenced to confirm gene editing In order to preserve the transgenic line the. (
  • Log-in iLab select Transgenic Services DNA microinjection for transgenic mice. (
  • Bachd mice with the protocol for crb must be purified in bac transgenic mice protocol to submit a pathological course of mutant huntingtin gene. (
  • All cell-culture required for gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, including expansion, transfection, drug selection, colony picking and colony expansion. (
  • At work I'm the Mouse Maven because I'm in charge of our transgenic mouse colony. (
  • However, the experimental inoculation of pigs and transgenic mice overexpressing porcine PrP has indicated that swine are susceptible to BSE infection by the parenteral route, although with a considerable transmission barrier ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • Global deletion of OGG1 and common OGG1 polymorphisms render mice and humans susceptible to metabolic disease. (
  • Here we extend this dissimilarity is high concentrations of genomic dna concentration based modification cassette exchange of transgenic bac fragments instead of fertilized eggs and ending at each fertilized oocyte. (
  • Aβ deposits also were not found in either vehicle-injected or uninjected transgenic mice or in any nontransgenic mice. (
  • Medium and late afterhyperpolarizations in CA3 pyramidal cells were larger in mice expressing either mutant form compared with WT and nontransgenic controls. (
  • Isolate embryonic stem cells that originated from male brown mice with a normal OhNo gene (blue). (
  • The transgenic animal can also be used in the identification of compounds that modulate the expression or activity of PS1. (
  • There is not require the protocol presented to bac transgenic mice protocol as defined in the members of retinal research, transgenic rates and robust animal studies. (
  • Specifically, a postdoc in my laboratory can take advantage of in-house expertise in mouse genome engineering, animal model generation and advanced cell line engineering and apply this to facilitate scientific and drug discovery. (
  • The purpose of the School of Medicine Transgenic Mouse Core Laboratory TCL is to. (
  • Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell culture is carried out within a dedicated cell culture laboratory. (
  • I came to Genentech in 2006 after completing a postdoctoral fellowship in mouse cancer genetics and genome engineering in the joint laboratory of Drs. Neal Copeland and Nancy Jenkins at the National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland. (
  • Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. (
  • To examine the role of monocytes/macrophages in atherosclerosis, we developed CD11b-diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor (DTR) transgenic mice, whereby administration of DT selectively kills monocytes/macrophages. (
  • 1994. Ah receptor in embryonic mouse palate and effects of TCDD on receptor expression. (
  • 1999. Adverse reproductive outcomes in the transgenic Ah receptor-deficient mouse. (
  • 1991. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls with Ah receptor affinity on lymphoid development in the thymus and the bursa of Fabricius on chick embryos in ovo and in mouse thymus anlagen in vitro . (
  • The use of a fluorescent calcium indicator, GCaMP6f, was used to register neural activity in the visual cortex of transgenic mice exposed to various visual stimuli. (
  • These experiments use the transgenic mouse line Ai93, in which GCaMP6f expression is dependent on the activity of both Cre recombinase and the tetracycline-controlled transactivator protein (tTA). (
  • Fatality in mice due to oversaturation of cellular microRNA/short hairpin RNA pathways. (
  • In addition, in Ogg1−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts complemented with hOGG1S326C, there was increased cellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species compared to their wild type counterparts. (
  • In addition, in OSE mice, but not in single-transgenic parental mice, anti-MOG antibodies were switched from IgM to IgG1. (
  • The new company plans to leverage Harbour Antibodies' patented transgenic mouse platforms to build an internal portfolio of next generation therapeutic antibodies for cancer, expand the range of partnerships and licenses around Harbour's platforms, and capitalize on the Harbour BioMed management team's extensive worldwide drug discovery and development expertise. (
  • Atlas Venture is proud to have supported the Harbour Antibodies team in bringing their important transgenic mouse platforms to labs and companies around the world. (
  • These results thus establish the fat-1 transgenic mouse as a new experimental model for the study of n-3 PUFA-derived lipid mediators. (
  • In this study, transgenic mice expressing HLA-B27 and their negative full sibs were infected intravenously with Yersinia enterocolitica 0:8 WA in an attempt to develop an experimental model of reactive arthritis. (
  • Experimental data from the Atlas is associated with the 'Mouse Connectivity Projection' Product. (
  • Nep may be manipulated in bac transgenic mice protocol presented here, cryopreservation can be a protocol online request of the mouse yields and influenced by oxford. (
  • These mice express GFP in all tissues where actin is normally expressed and glow green when exposed to blue or UV light, making them useful for studies of cell fate in cell transplantation experiments. (
  • The transgenic animals and cells derived therefrom can be used in the study of the expression pattern, activity and modulators of presenilin 1, in the study of the role of presenilin 1 in Alzheimer's Disease and in the study of disorders of the central nervous system. (
  • Tubulin was studied in specific expression have been demonstrated by bac transgenic mice protocol for further explore the protocol for widespread use. (
  • Transgenic mice were produced to study the expression of amino-3' glycosyl phosphotransferase gene (neomycin resistance gene) in the embryonic fibroblast cells. (
  • Real-time PCR revealed no significant changes in Nphs1, Nphs2, Cd2ap or Trpc6 expression, but Col4a2 message was increased in younger and older mice, while Col4a5 was decreased in older mice. (
  • The Transgenic Mouse Core located in the School of Veterinary Medicine is a state-of-the-art fee-for-service facility that offers a full line of embryological manipulation services, focused on, but not limited to, murine model systems. (
  • Include an acknowledgement any time the Transgenic Mouse Facility provides services that support your research. (
  • Please notify the Transgenic Mouse Facility when your scholarly report, presentation, poster, or paper containing a facility acknowledgement is published. (
  • Transgenic Mice Case Transgenic And Targeting Facility. (