Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Problem-Based Learning: Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.Discrimination Learning: Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.Reversal Learning: Any situation where an animal or human is trained to respond differentially to two stimuli (e.g., approach and avoidance) under reward and punishment conditions and subsequently trained under reversed reward values (i.e., the approach which was previously rewarded is punished and vice versa).Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Serial Learning: Learning to make a series of responses in exact order.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Olfactory Mucosa: That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.Ibotenic Acid: A neurotoxic isoxazole (similar to KAINIC ACID and MUSCIMOL) found in AMANITA mushrooms. It causes motor depression, ataxia, and changes in mood, perceptions and feelings, and is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist.Mice, Inbred BALB CNasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Professional Staff Committees: Committees of professional personnel who have responsibility for determining policies, procedures, and controls related to professional matters in health facilities.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Mice, Neurologic Mutants: Mice which carry mutant genes for neurologic defects or abnormalities.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration: Cerebellar degeneration associated with a remote neoplasm. Clinical manifestations include progressive limb and GAIT ATAXIA; DYSARTHRIA; and NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC. The histologic type of the associated neoplasm is usually carcinoma or lymphoma. Pathologically the cerebellar cortex and subcortical nuclei demonstrate diffuse degenerative changes. Anti-Purkinje cell antibodies (anti-Yo) are found in the serum of approximately 50% of affected individuals. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p686)Purkinje Cells: The output neurons of the cerebellar cortex.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Xylazine: An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.Running: An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.IndianaPhysical Conditioning, Animal: Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.Ketamine: A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.Thoracic Cavity: The region of the thorax that includes the PLEURAL CAVITY and MEDIASTINUM.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Electron Transport Chain Complex Proteins: A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Electron Transport Complex I: A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase complex that catalyzes the conversion of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol. In MITOCHONDRIA the complex also couples its reaction to the transport of PROTONS across the internal mitochondrial membrane. The NADH DEHYDROGENASE component of the complex can be isolated and is listed as EC 1.6.99.3.Electron Transport Complex III: A multisubunit enzyme complex that contains CYTOCHROME B GROUP; CYTOCHROME C1; and iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol to UBIQUINONE, and transfers the electrons to CYTOCHROME C. In MITOCHONDRIA the redox reaction is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Antimycin A: An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)ShrewsBehavioral Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the study of human and animal behavior.Tenebrio: A genus of beetles which infests grain products. Its larva is called mealworm.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Emetics: Agents that cause vomiting. They may act directly on the gastrointestinal tract, bringing about emesis through local irritant effects, or indirectly, through their effects on the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the postremal area near the medulla.Theileria parva: A protozoan parasite that is the etiologic agent of East Coast fever (THEILERIASIS). Transmission is by ticks of the Physicephalus and Hyalomma genera.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
Whitley JR, O'Dell BL, Hogan AG (September 1951). "Effect of diet on maze learning in second generation rats; folic acid ... Nutritional deficiencies have been shown to have a negative effect on learning behavior in mice as far back as 1951. "Better ... More "engaged" learning models that encompass nutrition is an idea that is picking up steam at all levels of the learning cycle ... February 1999). "High-linoleate and high-alpha-linolenate diets affect learning ability and natural behavior in SAMR1 mice". J ...
X-irradiated mice show hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and memory impairments in the Barnes maze, but not in the Morris ... Radiation exposure impaired the rats' cognitive behavior, since they committed more errors than control rats in the radial maze ... can be used to demonstrate deficits in rats. Particle radiation studies of behavior have been accomplished with rats and mice, ... Studies on rats were performed using the Morris water maze test 1 month after whole-body irradiation with 1.5 Gy of 1 GeV/u ...
VIII). Effects on learning and memory in the radial maze task in mice]". Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica ... V) Effect on learning and memory in intact and experimentally amnesic rats]". Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica ... VII). Effects on transient cerebral ischemia-induced amnesia in rats]". Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica ... The effect on monoamine uptake and turnover in mouse brain]". Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica (in ...
... a brain structure whose role in spatial learning is well established. Rats were trained on the Morris water maze, a spatial ... "Smart Mouse", a Quantum ABC TV episode about the Doogie mice.. *Long-Term+Potentiation at the US National Library of Medicine ... Both groups were then subjected to the water maze spatial memory task. Rats in the control group were able to locate the ... The accuracy of these maps determines how well a rat learns about its environment and thus how well it can navigate it. ...
"Effects of caffeine on learning and memory in rats tested in the Morris water maze". Brazilian Journal of Medical and ... When the mice entered the dark box, a shock was released from the floor. The next day, the mice entered the apparatus again and ... Improvement of long-term memory with caffeine intake was also seen in a study using rats and a water maze. In this study, ... The Auditory-Verbal Learning Test is a memory test that assesses recall of lists of words on single and multiple trials given ...
The basic function of Barnes maze is to measure the ability of a mouse to learn and remember the location of a target zone ... The test subjects are usually rodents such as mice or lab rats, which either serve as a control or may have some genetic ... Effect of traumatic brain injury on mouse spatial and nonspatial learning in the Barnes circular maze. J Neurotrauma. 15:1037- ... The Barnes maze is a tool used in psychological laboratory experiments to measure spatial learning and memory. The test was ...
The radial arm maze was designed by Olton and Samuelson in 1976 to measure spatial learning and memory in rats. The original ... "Learning spatial orientation tasks in the radial-maze and structural variation in the hippocampus in inbred mice". Behavioral ... rats do not rely on local intra-maze cues, but rather on extra-maze cues. The maze has since been used extensively by ... doi:10.1016/0023-9690(77)90054-6. Roberts, W.A. (1979). "Spatial memory in the rat on a hierarchical maze". Learning & ...
Since water mazes have been used mostly with rats and mice, the extrapolation of research data from these experiments to other ... Cognitive decision making abilities the focus of the maze, similar to T-maze. Y shape of maze has shown greater learning ... T-maze Original T-mazes are very simple grounded mazes (dry) that present the rat with two options to choose from. Allows the ... Y-maze Very similar to the T-maze, original Y-maze is a grounded maze with a simple two choice decision to be made. ...
After letting the rat roam, researchers restarted the maze again with a reward placed at the end of the maze. The rats with ... T-mazes are used to study how the rodents function with memory and spatial learning through applying various stimuli. Starting ... T-maze Forced Alternation and Left-right Discrimination Tasks for Assessing Working and Reference Memory in Mice. J. Vis. Exp ... Elevated plus maze Morris water navigation task Oasis maze Barnes maze Olton, D.S. (1979). Mazes, maps, and memory. American ...
The purpose of the test is for the rat or mouse to remember which maze arm was last visited and try to enter as many different ... Spontaneous alternation is a behavioral test which tests spatial learning and memory. This maze task has been extensively used ... Chance is determined by the number of arms the maze has, in a three-arm maze it is 22%, in a four-arm or plus maze it is around ... The radial arm maze is similar but is much more complicated and a harder task because of the many arms. The rat is placed in ...
Whitley JR, O'Dell BL, Hogan AG (September 1951). "Effect of diet on maze learning in second generation rats; folic acid ... February 1999). "High-linoleate and high-alpha-linolenate diets affect learning ability and natural behavior in SAMR1 mice". ... More "engaged" learning models that encompass nutrition is an idea that is picking up steam at all levels of the learning cycle ... The "nutrition-learning nexus" demonstrates the correlation between diet and learning and has application in a higher education ...
The Group 1 rats quickly learned to rush to the end of the maze; Group 2 rats wandered in the maze but did not preferentially ... Another study, conducted with mice, found intriguing evidence that the absence of a prion protein disrupts latent learning and ... The rats in Group 1 always found food at the end of the maze; the rats in Group 2 never found food; and the rats in Group 3 ... Upon being returned to the maze while food deprived, the rats learned where the food was located at a rate that increased with ...
Conversely, a study of complex milk lipid supplementation to pregnant mice did not have an effect on cognitive tasks in their ... 2014) studied brain development and spatial learning and memory in neonatal piglets. Piglets that were fed with a formula ... 2009) demonstrated that administration of complex milk lipids to rats from postnatal day 10 through adulthood (day 80) led to ... and gangliosides to mimic levels in human milk made choices more rapidly and with fewer errors in a spatial T-maze cognitive ...
Similar effects have been found in the hippocampus, substantia nigra, and cerebellum granule cells of rats and mice. While ... as found within rats in a radial-maze task. AmmTX3 also increases spontaneous pacemaking frequency in substantia nigra pars ... "Kv4 potassium channels modulate hippocampal EPSP-spike potentiation and spatial memory in rats". Learning & memory (Cold Spring ... AmmTX3 is a specific pore blocker of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 channels of mice. This high-affinity blockade depends on the expression of ...
... both lesioned and non-lesioned rats were placed in an eight-armed maze with food in one of the arms. The rats had to orientate ... In this experiment, mice were trained to avoid a certain leg of a Y-shaped maze. After training, the experimenters gave a dose ... a fear-aggravated test used to evaluate learning and memory in rodent models. Some rats were allowed to familiarize themselves ... In their study, the researchers put mice through a maze with six 'gates'. Each of these 'gates' had three doors, two of them ...
This work extended his mentor Tryon's earlier rat demonstration that they could be bred to do well or poorly in learning a maze ... of emotionality in rats and his discovery that a single dominant gene led to acoustical traumas in one inbred strain of mice". ...
The T-maze and radial arm maze are much more structured in comparison. The T-maze, for instance, only requires the rat or mouse ... "Effect of Morris water maze diameter on visual-spatial learning in different mouse strains". Neurobiology of learning and ... Morris, R (May 1984). "Developments of a water-maze procedure for studying spatial learning in the rat". Journal of ... Another reason this task became popular is that rats (but not mice) are natural swimmers, but dislike colder water (mice simply ...
Rats solving mazes. Offspring learnt mazes quicker (20 vs 165 trials). Poor experimental controls[69][70][71][72][73][74][48]. ... Reared mice at different temperatures, humidities. Inherited longer bodies, tails, hind feet. Inconsistent results[64][65]. ... The mechanism may also enable the inheritance of behavioral traits, for example in chickens[113][114][115] rats[116][117] and ... Weber, Bruce H.; Depew, David J. (2003). Evolution and learning: The Baldwin effect reconsidered. MIT Press. pp. 3-31. ISBN 978 ...
Rats solving mazes. Offspring learnt mazes quicker (20 vs 165 trials). Poor experimental controls[78][79][80][81][82][83][57]. ... Reared mice at different temperatures, humidities. Inherited longer bodies, tails, hind feet. Inconsistent results[73][74]. ... The mechanism may also enable the inheritance of behavioral traits, for example in chickens[111][112][113] rats,[114][115] and ... Weber, Bruce H.; Depew, David J. (2003). Evolution and learning: The Baldwin effect reconsidered. MIT Press. pp. 3-31. ISBN 0- ...
Rodents, mice and rats, have been the most prominent model organism since the discovery of modern neurons by Santiago Ramon y ... Rats also show decreased contextualized freezing behaviors in response to contextualized fear and impairment in learning ... "Spatial memory performances of aged rats in the water maze predict levels of hippocampal neurogenesis". PNAS. 100 (24): 14385- ... Many studies have observed how inhibiting adult neurogenesis in other mammals, such as rats and mice, affect their behavior. ...
Lin D, Parsons LH (2002). "Anxiogenic-like effect of serotonin(1B) receptor stimulation in the rat elevated plus-maze". ... "Blockade of 5-HT 1B receptors facilitates contextual aversive learning in mice by disinhibition of cholinergic and ... on plus-maze anxiety in mice". Psychopharmacology. 139 (3): 185-94. doi:10.1007/s002130050703. PMID 9784072. Harrison AA, ... on scopolamine-induced amnesia in the rat in a spatial learning task". Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 47 (1): 95-99. doi:10.1016/0091 ...
Laboratory rats have been taught to enter one arm of a maze in the morning and another in the afternoon, though only 63% of the ... Faced with a choice of entering one of three arms at three different times of day, laboratory mice can learn which arm to enter ... However, other studies have failed to find evidence of time-place learning in rats. Outcomes of time-place tests with rats seem ... In a protocol not based on food acquisition, rats swimming in a tank could learn the location of one resting platform in the ...
"Assessment of a cholinergic contribution to chlordiazepoxide-induced deficits of place learning in the Morris water maze". ... chlordiazepoxide induced muscle relaxation and a quieting effect on laboratory animals like mice, rats, cats, and dogs. Fear ... in rats. Serotonin is closely involved in regulating mood and may be one of the causes of feelings of depression in rats using ... "Effects of benzodiazepines on passive avoidance response and latent learning in mice: relationship to benzodiazepine receptors ...
Whitley JR, O'Dell BL, Hogan AG (1951). "Effect of diet on maze learning in second generation rats; folic acid deficiency". J. ... 1999). "High-linoleate and high-alpha-linolenate diets affect learning ability and natural behavior in SAMR1 mice". J. Nutr. ... Duster T, Waters A (2006). "Engaged learning across the curriculum: The vertical integration of food for thought". Liberal ...
Small suggested that the rate of learning could be measured by rats in a maze; a suggestion employed by John B. Watson for his ... Rat Genome and Nomenclature Committee (January 2016). "Rules and Guidelines for Nomenclature of Mouse and Rat Strains". Mouse ... Biobreeding rat[edit]. Main article: Biobreeding rat. Biobreeding diabetes-prone rat (a.k.a. biobreeding rat or BBDP rat) is an ... The Sprague Dawley rat and Long-Evans rat were developed from Wistar rats. Wistar rats are more active than others like Sprague ...
... just as a rat's spatial memory is needed to learn the location of food at the end of a maze. It is often argued that in both ... "Learning spatial orientation tasks in the radial-maze and structural variation in the hippocampus in inbred mice". Behavioral ... The maze is set up so the rat is forced to return to the center of the maze before pursuing another arm. Measures are usually ... "Entorhinal-perirhinal lesions impair performance of rats on two versions of place learning in the Morris water maze". ...
Shrews on the high-calcium diet made fewer errors in the maze than shrews on the low-calcium diet (F1,14 = 12.8, p , 0.01). ... We measured running speed and performance in a complex maze over 10 weeks. ... demonstrating an ability to learn the course of the maze and remember it from one week to the next. Similarly, rats that were ... LaBuda, C.J.; Mellgren, R.L.; Hale, R.L. Sex differences in the acquisition of a radial maze task in the CD-1 mouse. Physiol. ...
Check this overview of all mazes and learn more! ... We offer a wide range of mazes and open fields for your ... Radial arm maze. The radial arm maze is test for spatial / working / reference learning and memory in rats and mice, for ... The Y-maze is, similar to the T-maze, a test to investigate spatial learning and memory. Specifically designed for testing rats ... T-maze. The T-maze task is an investigation of spatial learning and memory. Subsequently, reversal learning or retention can be ...
In this study we evaluated the effect of quercetin on D-galactose-induced aged mice using the Morris water maze (MWM) test. ... Water maze learning and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in streptozocin-diabetic rats: effects of insulin treatment. Brain Res ... In this study we evaluated the effect of quercetin on D-galactose-induced aged mice using the Morris water maze (MWM) test. ... The results indicated that quercetin can enhance the exploratory behavior, spatial learning and memory of the mice. The effects ...
Stone, C., 1929, The age factor in animal learning. I. Rats in the problem box and the maze, Genet. Psychol. Monogr. 5:1.Google ... Life Span Aged Mouse Inbred Mouse Young Mouse Behavior Genetic These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. ... Goodrick, C., 1967a, Learning and retention of a light-contingent bar press response for three inbred strains of mice, J. ... Goodrick, C., 1975b, Behavioral differences in young and aged mice: Strain differences for activity measures, operant learning ...
1984) Developments of a water-maze procedure for studying spatial learning in the rat. J Neurosci Methods 11:47-60. ... mice (untreated vs treated APP mice, *p , 0.05, **p , 0.01, ***p , 0.001; n = 4-8 mice/group). B, Pioglitazone, but not NAC or ... treated APP mice) as measured by laser Doppler flowmetry (n = 4-7 mice/group). C, In a subset of mice (3 per group), ... A subset of mice tested in the water maze were scanned for cerebral uptake of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose ([18F]FDG) under ...
Morris Water Maze Test for Learning and Memory Deficits in Alzheimers Disease Model Mice… ... Pool size can vary depending on if you are using rats or mice. Next, place non-motile visual cues around the room, with at ... Youve just watched JoVEs introduction to the Morris water maze. Water mazes are one way for us to test how animals learn and ... The Morris water maze is a valuable tool to study learning and memory in rodents. These critters are good swimmers, but they ...
Morris R. Developments of a water-maze procedure for studying spatial learning in the rat. J Neurosci Methods. 1984;11(1):47-60 ... E) Lesioned mice (n = 32) exhibited significant impairment in a visuospatial learning task when compared with control mice (n ... Cognitive capacities of mice were assessed in the olfactory tubing maze (A-D) and the Morris water maze (E and F). Associative ... grafted mice demonstrated a significant improvement in spatial learning and memory when compared with vehicle-grafted mice ( ...
... learning and memory in pcd and Lurcher mice, two of the most frequently used cerebellar mutants. The mice were tested in the ... The mice were tested in the open field for exploration behavior, in the Morris water maze with visible as well as reversal ... The aim of this work was to compare spatial navigation, learning and memory in pcd and Lurcher mice, two of the most frequently ... However, the overall performance of Lurcher mice was better than that of pcd mutants. Lurcher mice showed the ability of visual ...
The radial-arm maze task takes advantage of the natural tendency of food-deprived rodents to learn and remember different ... Sensitive for both rats and mice. *Spatial memory and non-spatial memory, working and reference memory ... The radial-arm maze task takes advantage of the natural tendency of food-deprived rodents to learn and remember different ... Gives index of learning progression (evolution curves of performances). *Robust performance, can be tested across a large range ...
45 - Morris, R., Developments of a water-maze procedure for studying spatial learning in the rat. J Neurosci Methods, 1984. 11( ... 3 - Brody, D.L. and D.M. Holtzman, Morris water maze search strategy analysis in PDAPP mice before and after experimental ... the Barnes maze [46] or the Olton radial arm maze [47]; or associative learning, as measured by passive-avoidance [48] or ... 56 - DHooge, R. and P.P. De Deyn, Applications of the Morris water maze in the study of learning and memory. Brain Res Brain ...
Spatial memory performances of aged rats in the water maze predict levels of hippocampal neurogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA ... Spatial learning. Mice were trained on the Morris water maze (Morris et al., 1982) with four trials per day over 5 d. The ... Water maze learning in young and aged mice housed with or without running wheel access. Aged controls (O) had significantly ... Spatial learning. Mice were tested in the water maze between days 35 and 39. There was a significant interaction between ...
... our line of mazes and devices include Morris water maze, plus, Y-, T-, Zero- and Barnes mazes, sophisticated automated mazes, ... learning, anxiety, depression, fear, stress, social interaction, or more complex behaviours, Ugo Basile has the answer: ... The T-Maze is widely used to measure preference and spatial memory and learning tasks in laboratory animals. Animals learn to ... for either mice or rats. The mouse T-Maze, has a 35cm long stem and two 30cm long arms, 5cm wide and 15cm tall. In the rat ...
The dry-land Barnes maze is widely used to measure spatial navigation ability in response to mildly aversive stimuli. Over ... indicative of normal learning and memory. Differences between rats and mice necessitate apparatus and methodology changes that ... Extra-maze visual cues are the norm for Barnes maze testing with rats. In typical laboratory mouse species, it has been ... Brown, W. The effects of intra-maze tetanizing shock upon the learning and behavior of the rat in a multiple-T maze. J. Genet. ...
... and Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain Activity in Aging Mice http://www.chiro.org/nutrition/ABSTRACTS/A_Complex_Dietary_ ... A Complex Dietary Supplement Augments Spatial Learning, Brain Mass, ... Morris water maze The MWM is a standard test of memory and learning for mice and rats and is routinely applied to assess aging ... indicating that young mice were successful at learning the maze. In other studies, some mice employ a search strategy where ...
New study finds that general anesthetic given to infant mice severely alters neuronal growth. The researchers also find ... Using an object-place recognition test and a Y-maze test, the mice were put through their paces. ... To learn more and make choices about data use, visit our Advertising Policy and Privacy Policy. By clicking "Accept and ... In rats, for instance, approximately 85 percent of them are generated after birth. ...
Pups were tested at 2.5 months of age in a maze-learning apparatus; the offspring of treated rats showed impaired maze learning ... Female mice showed a dose-related increase in the average estrous cycle length. Nitromethane was not mutagenic in Salmonella ... Reproductive effects were investigated in female rats. No differences were found between treated and control rats in ... There was clear evidence of carcinogenic activity of nitromethane in female rats based on increased incidences of mammary gland ...
This study discusses the effects of cerebellar mutations in mice, and OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02) lesions in rats on water maze ... Results indicate that the cerebellum plays a role in working memory and the procedural aspect of maze learning, as well as ... Sound sequence discrimination learning is dependent on cholinergic inputs to the rat auditory cortex. ... release in the rat cerebral cortex. This series of experiments investigated the effects of these antagonists on rats with 0.067 ...
Maze tests have been routinely used by behavioral psychologists to study memory and learning, typically in rats and mice. Now ... The best performing AIs on the maze test displayed cognitive abilities involving deep reinforcement learning enhanced with ... Proceedings of the 33 rd International Conference on Machine Learning. arXiv:1605.09128 ... researchers are using the same tests on the latest breed of artificial intelligence machines with mazes created in the online ...
A new research method that incorporates virtual reality and brain imaging is being used to learn how the brain forms short-term ... Princeton University researchers studied rats as they negotiated a virtual maze. By following the brain activity of mice they ... A new research method that incorporates virtual reality and brain imaging is being used to learn how the brain forms short-term ... The new study is the first to analyze it in the mouse. "We hope that by using the mouse as our model system we will be able to ...
... mice). En2-/- mice display ASD-like behaviors (social interactions, defective spatial learning, increased seizure ... mice). En2-/- mice display ASD-like behaviors (social interactions, defective spatial learning, increased seizure ... mice, as compared to wild-type (WT) controls. In mutant mice, GH mRNA levels were significantly increased in the pituitary ... In mutant mice, GH mRNA levels were significantly increased in the pituitary gland, blood and liver, whereas decreased levels ...
In the Morris water maze, for example, rats directly injected in the brain with 0.1 micrograms of GLP-1 traveled much shorter ... To further investigate the role of the peptide, During and colleagues used a strain of mice deficient in the peptide receptor ( ... When they administered it to rats, the authors found that the animals performed better than controls in a variety of learning ... learning when administered intranasally to rats-leads to a significant increase in phosphorylation of MAP kinase in rat ...
Learn how to shop for groceries smarter, eat healthier, and live better. With new food product reviews, recipes, food allergy ... One recent study tested the difference in the memory of both rats and mice that were injected with caffeine. Through memory- ... However, caffeine could help with recalling something already learned.. Studying for an exam? Need to prep for a clear-headed ... Through memory-testing mazes and obstacles, researchers found that caffeine did not help concentration or attention spans when ...
Since water mazes have been used mostly with rats and mice, the extrapolation of research data from these experiments to other ... Cognitive decision making abilities the focus of the maze, similar to T-maze. Y shape of maze has shown greater learning ... T-maze Original T-mazes are very simple grounded mazes (dry) that present the rat with two options to choose from. Allows the ... Y-maze Very similar to the T-maze, original Y-maze is a grounded maze with a simple two choice decision to be made. ...
To study the effects of chronic extremely low frequency magnetic field exposure of mice on habit learning which is dependent on ... Lai H (1996): Spatial learning deficit in the rat after exposure to a 60 Hz magnetic field. ... cognitive/behavioral endpoints: learning and memory (habit learning and spatial learning; two modified Morris water maze tasks ... 1998): 50 Hz magnetic field effects on the performance of a spatial learning task by mice. ...
It could also enhance the learning and memory capacity in the Morris water maze test in SAM [9]. ... It has been shown that rodents (mice and rats) are very useful for to obtain adequate and uniform results. ... rats, with a . indicates with respect to the 6-month control group. indicates with respect to the 6-month vehicle group (ANOVA ... rats. indicates with respect to exposure A1/B1 of its corresponding group. indicates with respect to the control group in long- ...
  • When infected, mice and rats adapt behaviors that make them more likely to be devoured by cats, the only host that supports the sexual stage of the parasite. (asm.org)
  • Time-dependent dampening of TH activity during the day reverses manic-related behaviors in ClockΔ19 mice. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine whether reproductive experience induces alterations in anxiety-like behaviors in cycling female rats and in older, reproductively senescent rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • When there is less CREB in the central amygdala, rats show increased anxiety-like behaviors and preference for alcohol. (webmd.com)
  • Autism-like behaviors related with social interaction, social memory, and pair bonding can be studied in mice. (commat.com.tr)
  • No differences were found between treated and control rats in percentages of successful matings, litter size, pup mortality, birth weight, or maternal behavior. (nih.gov)
  • Regarding the anti-osteoporotic effects, bone mineral density increased significantly in OVX induced rats treated with 60 and 120 mg/kg of an RC:PCP 2:1 mixture, respectively, compared with OVX control rats. (mdpi.com)
  • Additionally, femoral, tibia, and L4 bone resorption was decreased in OVX induced control rats treated with the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture (60 and 120 mg/kg), respectively, compared with OVX control rats. (mdpi.com)
  • Regarding anti-obesity effects, the OVX induced rats treated with 60 and 120 mg/kg of the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture showed a decrease in total fat pad thickness, the mean diameters of adipocytes and the body weights gain compared with OVX induced control rats. (mdpi.com)
  • The estradiol and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly increased in OVX induced rats treated with the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture (120 mg/kg) compared with OVX induced control rats, also, the uterine atrophy was significantly inhibited in 60 and 120 mg/kg of the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture treatment compared with OVX control rats. (mdpi.com)
  • Hippocampal slices were prepared from control rats or rats subjected to surgery two weeks previously. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Changes in the time it takes the rodent to find the platform in a series of successive trials can be used as a measure of spatial learning and memory. (jove.com)
  • In this context, anxiety-related behavior is measured by the degree to which the rodent avoids the unenclosed arms of the maze. (harvardapparatus.com)
  • And Terrence Town of Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and the University of California, Los Angeles, presented brand-new data on a transgenic rat that exhibits robust amyloid and tau pathology and a key feature absent from the vast majority of current rodent models-neuron loss. (alzforum.org)
  • In a recent study of energy (isotonic) drinks and how they impact renal (kidney) health, The Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , conducted tests on male Wistar rats that were divided into those fed isotonic drinks and those who were not and those who were exercised on motorized treadmills and those who were not. (supermarketguru.com)
  • To this end, we developed a Cx3cr1 - Dtr transgenic Wistar rat with a diphtheria toxin receptor ( Dtr ) gene inserted into the fractalkine receptor ( Cx3cr1 ) promoter, expressed on microglia and monocytes. (springer.com)
  • 10. Schwarting RKW, Jegan N & Wöhr M. (2007) Situational factors, conditions and individual variables which can determine ultrasonic vocalizations in male adult Wistar rats. (uni-marburg.de)
  • The elevated zero maze is very similar to the elevated plus maze, but lacks a center square. (noldus.com)
  • This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. (springer.com)
  • Our story starts in the 1940s, with a group of rats at UC Berkeley in the laboratory of experimental psychologist Edward Tolman . (scientificamerican.com)
  • Experimental studies of mice and rats have been conducted to clarify the effects of DHA on learning and memory. (lifeextension.com)
  • The present experimental series was undertaken in order to compare extracts from two different species of Herba Sideritis by an in vivo and an in vitro method: firstly, by field potential analysis in freely moving rats to obtain a so-called electropharmacogram and secondly, by recording the population spike from hippocampal pyramidal cells in vitro after electric stimulation of the Schaffer Collaterals. (scirp.org)
  • Path lengths to escape to the hidden platform in water maze were measured during the 2-day training period on days as indicated in the experimental schedule (Figure 7). (nih.gov)
  • Like people, these mice develop so-called amyloid plaques in their brains. (whqr.org)
  • Once they inserted the mutant genes, the rats began to develop plaques in their brains, just like the mice had, Town says. (whqr.org)
  • And Rod Corriveau of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke says, in one important way, the brains of these mice do resemble those of Alzheimer's patients. (whqr.org)
  • The tired animals were then required to navigate mazes while readings were taken from electrodes surgically implanted in their brains. (huffingtonpost.co.uk)
  • I was also thinking that one of the insidious aspects of all this is that those of us whose brains may not be as "wired for persistence" as other people's, also get used to the immediate gratification of eating… so it becomes a double whammy: learning to defer gratification, while also learning to give up the immediate gratification that many of us have gotten so used to. (pastaqueen.com)
  • Astrocyte cultures derived from postnatal mouse brains have been extensively used to characterize their biological properties. (medworm.com)
  • Here, we developed a protocol to successfully establish highly enriched astrocyte cultures from the brains of adult mouse. (medworm.com)
  • Until the development of site-specific, inducible glucocorticoid receptor mutants, glucocorticoid receptor-knockout mice present the only animal model for the study of corticosteroid-mediated effects in the complete absence of a functional receptor. (rug.nl)
  • Compare SAP102 knockout mice and wild-type mice on a task designed to measure spatial learning and memory. (dnalc.org)
  • There was clear evidence of carcinogenic activity of nitromethane in female rats based on increased incidences of mammary gland fibroadenomas and carcinomas. (nih.gov)
  • Reproductive effects were investigated in female rats. (nih.gov)
  • To elucidate the physiological basis of sex differences in responses to energy intake, we maintained groups of male and female rats for 6 months on diets with usual, reduced calories (20% and 40% CR), ADF, or elevated (high-fat/high-glucose) energy levels and measured multiple physiological variables related to reproduction, energy metabolism, and behavior (39). (nih.gov)
  • Reproductive experience (i.e. pregnancy and lactation) results in significant alterations in subsequent hormone levels in female rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Noradrenergic alpha-2 receptor modulators in the ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis: effects on anxiety behavior in postpartum and virgin female rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The influence of the polyunsaturated fatty acids on body weight and anxiolytic-like behavior in female rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Our results are the first to demonstrate that late pharmacological intervention with pioglitazone not only overcomes cerebrovascular dysfunction and altered neurometabolic coupling in aged APP mice, but also counteracts cerebral oxidative stress, glial activation, and, partly, cholinergic denervation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Previous studies from this group demonstrated that 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists potentiated by GABA(A) antagonists increased acetylcholine (ACh) release in the rat cerebral cortex. (atsbio.com)
  • A rat cerebral I/R injury model was constructed by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by reperfusion, and the mice were treated by MH, EDA or the inhibitor of the Nrf2 signaling pathway brusatol (Bru). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 7. Chan SL, Capdeville-Atkinson C, and Atkinson J. Red wine polyphenols improve endothelium-dependent dilation in rat cerebral arterioles. (openaire.eu)
  • 8. Chan SL, Tabellion A, Bagrel D, Perrin-Sarrado C, Capdeville-Atkinson C, and Atkinson J. Impact of chronic treatment with red wine polyphenols (RWP) on cerebral arterioles in the spontaneous hypertensive rat. (openaire.eu)
  • Low-grade chronic liver failure (CLF) was induced in 3-month old Sprague-Dawley male rats using thioacetamide (TAA, 50 mg·kg −1 ·day −1 ) intraperitoneally for 2 weeks. (scielo.br)
  • Postnatal 7 days rats were divided randomly into three groups: control group (C), midazolam group (M), and minocycline pretreatment group (MP). (deepdyve.com)
  • In the study, the patterns of sequential neuronal firing corresponded to whether the mouse would turn left or right as it navigated a maze in search of a reward. (psychcentral.com)
  • The sequential neuronal firing patterns spanned the roughly 10-second period that it took for the mouse to form a memory, store it and make a decision about which way to turn. (psychcentral.com)
  • moreover, the CA1 region of the hippocampi of the mice exhibited reduced neuronal density and viability, and reduced mitochondrial dysfunction. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • To investigate whether manipulations that enhance neurotrophin levels will also restore neuronal structure and function in diabetes, we examined the effects of wheel running and dietary energy restriction on hippocampal neuron morphology and BDNF levels in db/db mice, a model of insulin resistant diabetes (59). (nih.gov)
  • Normal executive function, including learning and memory, is mediated by acute and long-term dynamic regulation of neuronal connectivity. (springer.com)
  • In support of this, the authors found that the first nine amino acids of the GLP-1 analog Ser(2) exendin-which also improves learning when administered intranasally to rats-leads to a significant increase in phosphorylation of MAP kinase in rat hippocampuses. (alzforum.org)
  • Gamoh S, Hashimoto M, Sugioka K, Shahdat Hossain M, Hata N, Misawa Y, Masumura S. Chronic administration of docosahexaenoic acid improves reference memory-related learning ability in young rats. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • 2012) Neonatal (+)-methamphetamine exposure in rats alters adult locomotor responses to dopamine D1 and D2 agonists and to a glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist, but not to serotonin agonists. (fsu.edu)
  • 2012) Neonatal citalopram treatment inhibits the 5-HT depleting effects of MDMA exposure in rats. (fsu.edu)
  • Here, we investigate whether minocycline can alleviate neurogenetic damage and improve cognition following midazolam exposure in neonatal rats. (deepdyve.com)
  • Our results indicated that pretreatment with minocycline can alleviate midazolam-induced damage in neural stem cell proliferation of neonatal rats and improve spatial learning and memory ability of rats in adulthood. (deepdyve.com)
  • Laboratory rats can quickly learn their way around mazes, and once they do, they can move between individual locations within the maze quickly and efficiently. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The standard elevated plus-maze is commonly used to assess anxiety-like behavior in laboratory animals (rats/mice). (harvardapparatus.com)
  • Neuroscientist Greg M. Cole, working in another laboratory at UCLA and also at the Veterans Administration Medical Center in Sepulveda, Calif. is finding that supplementing food with just the omega-3 fatty acid DHA--rather than the complex blend offish-oil ingredients--can dramatically slow neurodegenerative symptoms in mice bred to develop an Alzheimer's-like disease. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • A small molecule Nec‐1 inhibits Alzheimer‐like pathologies and behaviours of transgenic mice models by alleviating all of these phenotypes. (embopress.org)
  • These findings suggested that EFC exhibits beneficial effects on the cognition of aging rats probably by enhancing antioxidant capacity and anti-neuroinflammation, improving immune function, and modulating tau phosphorylation and presenilin expression. (hindawi.com)
  • In response to 40% CR, females became emaciated, ceased cycling, underwent endocrine masculinization, exhibited a heightened stress response, increased their spontaneous activity, improved their learning and memory, and maintained elevated levels of circulating BDNF. (nih.gov)
  • To assess the contribution of diabetes-induced elevations in corticosterone levels, we examined maze learning in diabetic rats that had levels of corticosterone 'clamped' through adrenalectomy and low-dose corticosterone replacement. (nih.gov)
  • Losartan, the first discovered ARB, alleviated carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis in Sprague-Dawley rats. (scielo.br)
  • We offer any type of maze, standard or custom, and always perfectly suited for video tracking with EthoVision ® XT. (noldus.com)
  • Although the heterozygous mice performed similarly to wild-type mice with respect to latency to find the platform, their strategy was more similar to that of the homozygous mice. (rug.nl)
  • 0.01) increased STL (step-through latency) in rats on 7th and 14th day with respect to disease control and control group. (scirp.org)
  • The administration of acute asiatic acid facilitated escaped latency which can be translated as having the properties of enhancement on memory and learning. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Differential effects of short- and long-term early maternal separation on subsequent maternal behavior in rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Lurasidone showed potent effects predictive of antipsychotic activity, such as inhibition of methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity and apomorphine-induced stereotyped behavior in rats, similar to other antipsychotics. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 2012) Distinct periods of developmental sensitivity to the effects of 3,4-(±)-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on behaviour and monoamines in rats. (fsu.edu)