Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
Mice which carry mutant genes for neurologic defects or abnormalities.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A congenital anomaly of the hand or foot, marked by the presence of supernumerary digits.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
Congenital structural deformities, malformations, or other abnormalities of the cranium and facial bones.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A congenital anomaly of the hand or foot, marked by the webbing between adjacent fingers or toes. Syndactylies are classified as complete or incomplete by the degree of joining. Syndactylies can also be simple or complex. Simple syndactyly indicates joining of only skin or soft tissue; complex syndactyly marks joining of bony elements.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
An inherited disorder of copper metabolism transmitted as an X-linked trait and characterized by the infantile onset of HYPOTHERMIA, feeding difficulties, hypotonia, SEIZURES, bony deformities, pili torti (twisted hair), and severely impaired intellectual development. Defective copper transport across plasma and endoplasmic reticulum membranes results in copper being unavailable for the synthesis of several copper containing enzymes, including PROTEIN-LYSINE 6-OXIDASE; CERULOPLASMIN; and SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE. Pathologic changes include defects in arterial elastin, neuronal loss, and gliosis. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p125)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Congenital structural deformities of the upper and lower extremities collectively or unspecified.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Myelin-deficient mutants which are from the inbred Tabby-Jimpy strain.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
Rats bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene, quaking (qk), associated with disorder in myelin formation and manifested by axial tremors.
A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-13 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Defects in gene for keratin-4 are a cause of HEREDITARY MUCOSAL LEUKOKERATOSIS.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Strains of mice arising from a parental inbred stock that was subsequently used to produce substrains of knockout and other mutant mice with targeted mutations.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
Diseases of plants.
A tube of ectodermal tissue in an embryo that will give rise to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, including the SPINAL CORD and the BRAIN. Lumen within the neural tube is called neural canal which gives rise to the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain. For malformation of the neural tube, see NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A region, of SOMITE development period, that contains a number of paired arches, each with a mesodermal core lined by ectoderm and endoderm on the two sides. In lower aquatic vertebrates, branchial arches develop into GILLS. In higher vertebrates, the arches forms outpouchings and develop into structures of the head and neck. Separating the arches are the branchial clefts or grooves.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.

Stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. (1/10079)

The essential role of vitamin A and its metabolites, retinoids, in kidney development has been demonstrated in vitamin A deficiency and gene targeting studies. Retinoids signal via nuclear transcription factors belonging to the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) families. Inactivation of RARaplpha and RARbeta2 receptors together, but not singly, resulted in renal malformations, suggesting that within a given renal cell type, their concerted function is required for renal morphogenesis. At birth, RARalpha beta2(-) mutants displayed small kidneys, containing few ureteric bud branches, reduced numbers of nephrons and lacking the nephrogenic zone where new nephrons are continuously added. These observations have prompted us to investigate the role of RARalpha and RARbeta2 in renal development in detail. We have found that within the embryonic kidney, RARalpha and RARbeta2 are colocalized in stromal cells, but not in other renal cell types, suggesting that stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. Analysis of RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys at embryonic stages revealed that nephrons were formed and revealed no changes in the intensity or distribution of molecular markers specific for different metanephric mesenchymal cell types. In contrast the development of the collecting duct system was greatly impaired in RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys. Fewer ureteric bud branches were present, and ureteric bud ends were positioned abnormally, at a distance from the renal capsule. Analysis of genes important for ureteric bud morphogenesis revealed that the proto-oncogene c-ret was downregulated. Our results suggest that RARalpha and RARbeta2 are required for generating stromal cell signals that maintain c-ret expression in the embryonic kidney. Since c-ret signaling is required for ureteric bud morphogenesis, loss of c-ret expression is a likely cause of impaired ureteric bud branching in RARalpha beta2(-) mutants.  (+info)

VEGF is required for growth and survival in neonatal mice. (2/10079)

We employed two independent approaches to inactivate the angiogenic protein VEGF in newborn mice: inducible, Cre-loxP- mediated gene targeting, or administration of mFlt(1-3)-IgG, a soluble VEGF receptor chimeric protein. Partial inhibition of VEGF achieved by inducible gene targeting resulted in increased mortality, stunted body growth and impaired organ development, most notably of the liver. Administration of mFlt(1-3)-IgG, which achieves a higher degree of VEGF inhibition, resulted in nearly complete growth arrest and lethality. Ultrastructural analysis documented alterations in endothelial and other cell types. Histological and biochemical changes consistent with liver and renal failure were observed. Endothelial cells isolated from the liver of mFlt(1-3)-IgG-treated neonates demonstrated an increased apoptotic index, indicating that VEGF is required not only for proliferation but also for survival of endothelial cells. However, such treatment resulted in less significant alterations as the animal matured, and the dependence on VEGF was eventually lost some time after the fourth postnatal week. Administration of mFlt(1-3)-IgG to juvenile mice failed to induce apoptosis in liver endothelial cells. Thus, VEGF is essential for growth and survival in early postnatal life. However, in the fully developed animal, VEGF is likely to be involved primarily in active angiogenesis processes such as corpus luteum development.  (+info)

Inhibition of in vitro enteric neuronal development by endothelin-3: mediation by endothelin B receptors. (3/10079)

The terminal colon is aganglionic in mice lacking endothelin-3 or its receptor, endothelin B. To analyze the effects of endothelin-3/endothelin B on the differentiation of enteric neurons, E11-13 mouse gut was dissociated, and positive and negative immunoselection with antibodies to p75(NTR )were used to isolate neural crest- and non-crest-derived cells. mRNA encoding endothelin B was present in both the crest-and non-crest-derived cells, but that encoding preproendothelin-3 was detected only in the non-crest-derived population. The crest- and non-crest-derived cells were exposed in vitro to endothelin-3, IRL 1620 (an endothelin B agonist), and/or BQ 788 (an endothelin B antagonist). Neurons and glia developed only in cultures of crest-derived cells, and did so even when endothelin-3 was absent and BQ 788 was present. Endothelin-3 inhibited neuronal development, an effect that was mimicked by IRL 1620 and blocked by BQ 788. Endothelin-3 failed to stimulate the incorporation of [3H]thymidine or bromodeoxyuridine. Smooth muscle development in non-crest-derived cell cultures was promoted by endothelin-3 and inhibited by BQ 788. In contrast, transcription of laminin alpha1, a smooth muscle-derived promoter of neuronal development, was inhibited by endothelin-3, but promoted by BQ 788. Neurons did not develop in explants of the terminal bowel of E12 ls/ls (endothelin-3-deficient) mice, but could be induced to do so by endothelin-3 if a source of neural precursors was present. We suggest that endothelin-3/endothelin B normally prevents the premature differentiation of crest-derived precursors migrating to and within the fetal bowel, enabling the precursor population to persist long enough to finish colonizing the bowel.  (+info)

A Wnt5a pathway underlies outgrowth of multiple structures in the vertebrate embryo. (4/10079)

Morphogenesis depends on the precise control of basic cellular processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation. Wnt5a may regulate these processes since it is expressed in a gradient at the caudal end of the growing embryo during gastrulation, and later in the distal-most aspect of several structures that extend from the body. A loss-of-function mutation of Wnt5a leads to an inability to extend the A-P axis due to a progressive reduction in the size of caudal structures. In the limbs, truncation of the proximal skeleton and absence of distal digits correlates with reduced proliferation of putative progenitor cells within the progress zone. However, expression of progress zone markers, and several genes implicated in distal outgrowth and patterning including Distalless, Hoxd and Fgf family members was not altered. Taken together with the outgrowth defects observed in the developing face, ears and genitals, our data indicates that Wnt5a regulates a pathway common to many structures whose development requires extension from the primary body axis. The reduced number of proliferating cells in both the progress zone and the primitive streak mesoderm suggests that one function of Wnt5a is to regulate the proliferation of progenitor cells.  (+info)

The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping. (5/10079)

Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut.  (+info)

Mrj encodes a DnaJ-related co-chaperone that is essential for murine placental development. (6/10079)

We have identified a novel gene in a gene trap screen that encodes a protein related to the DnaJ co-chaperone in E. coli. The gene, named Mrj (mammalian relative of DnaJ) was expressed throughout development in both the embryo and placenta. Within the placenta, expression was particularly high in trophoblast giant cells but moderate levels were also observed in trophoblast cells of the chorion at embryonic day 8.5, and later in the labyrinth which arises from the attachment of the chorion to the allantois (a process called chorioallantoic fusion). Insertion of the ROSAbetageo gene trap vector into the Mrj gene created a null allele. Homozygous Mrj mutants died at mid-gestation due to a failure of chorioallantoic fusion at embryonic day 8.5, which precluded formation of the mature placenta. At embryonic day 8.5, the chorion in mutants was morphologically normal and expressed the cell adhesion molecule beta4 integrin that is known to be required for chorioallantoic fusion. However, expression of the chorionic trophoblast-specific transcription factor genes Err2 and Gcm1 was significantly reduced. The mutants showed no abnormal phenotypes in other trophoblast cell types or in the embryo proper. This study indicates a previously unsuspected role for chaperone proteins in placental development and represents the first genetic analysis of DnaJ-related protein function in higher eukaryotes. Based on a survey of EST databases representing different mouse tissues and embryonic stages, there are 40 or more DnaJ-related genes in mammals. In addition to Mrj, at least two of these genes are also expressed in the developing mouse placenta. The specificity of the developmental defect in Mrj mutants suggests that each of these genes may have unique tissue and cellular activities.  (+info)

The cardiac homeobox gene Csx/Nkx2.5 lies genetically upstream of multiple genes essential for heart development. (7/10079)

Csx/Nkx2.5 is a vertebrate homeobox gene with a sequence homology to the Drosophila tinman, which is required for the dorsal mesoderm specification. Recently, heterozygous mutations of this gene were found to cause human congenital heart disease (Schott, J.-J., Benson, D. W., Basson, C. T., Pease, W., Silberbach, G. M., Moak, J. P., Maron, B. J., Seidman, C. E. and Seidman, J. G. (1998) Science 281, 108-111). To investigate the functions of Csx/Nkx2.5 in cardiac and extracardiac development in the vertebrate, we have generated and analyzed mutant mice completely null for Csx/Nkx2.5. Homozygous null embryos showed arrest of cardiac development after looping and poor development of blood vessels. Moreover, there were severe defects in vascular formation and hematopoiesis in the mutant yolk sac. Interestingly, TUNEL staining and PCNA staining showed neither enhanced apoptosis nor reduced cell proliferation in the mutant myocardium. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated that, among 20 candidate genes examined, expression of ANF, BNP, MLC2V, N-myc, MEF2C, HAND1 and Msx2 was disturbed in the mutant heart. Moreover, in the heart of adult chimeric mice generated from Csx/Nkx2.5 null ES cells, there were almost no ES cell-derived cardiac myocytes, while there were substantial contributions of Csx /Nkx2.5-deficient cells in other organs. Whole-mount &bgr;-gal staining of chimeric embryos showed that more than 20% contribution of Csx/Nkx2. 5-deficient cells in the heart arrested cardiac development. These results indicate that (1) the complete null mutation of Csx/Nkx2.5 did not abolish initial heart looping, (2) there was no enhanced apoptosis or defective cell cycle entry in Csx/Nkx2.5 null cardiac myocytes, (3) Csx/Nkx2.5 regulates expression of several essential transcription factors in the developing heart, (4) Csx/Nkx2.5 is required for later differentiation of cardiac myocytes, (5) Csx/Nkx2. 5 null cells exert dominant interfering effects on cardiac development, and (6) there were severe defects in yolk sac angiogenesis and hematopoiesis in the Csx/Nkx2.5 null embryos.  (+info)

Identification of sonic hedgehog as a candidate gene responsible for the polydactylous mouse mutant Sasquatch. (8/10079)

The mouse mutants of the hemimelia-luxate group (lx, lu, lst, Dh, Xt, and the more recently identified Hx, Xpl and Rim4; [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]) have in common preaxial polydactyly and longbone abnormalities. Associated with the duplication of digits are changes in the regulation of development of the anterior limb bud resulting in ectopic expression of signalling components such as Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and fibroblast growth factor-4 (Fgf4), but little is known about the molecular causes of this misregulation. We generated, by a transgene insertion event, a new member of this group of mutants, Sasquatch (Ssq), which disrupted aspects of both anteroposterior (AP) and dorsoventral (DV) patterning. The mutant displayed preaxial polydactyly in the hindlimbs of heterozygous embryos, and in both hindlimbs and forelimbs of homozygotes. The Shh, Fgf4, Fgf8, Hoxd12 and Hoxd13 genes were all ectopically expressed in the anterior region of affected limb buds. The insertion site was found to lie close to the Shh locus. Furthermore, expression from the transgene reporter has come under the control of a regulatory element that directs a pattern mirroring the endogenous expression pattern of Shh in limbs. In abnormal limbs, both Shh and the reporter were ectopically induced in the anterior region, whereas in normal limbs the reporter and Shh were restricted to the zone of polarising activity (ZPA). These data strongly suggest that Ssq is caused by direct interference with the cis regulation of the Shh gene.  (+info)

The alymphoplasia (aly) mutation of mouse is autosomal recessive and characterized by the systemic absence of lymph nodes (LN) and Peyers patches (PP) and disorganized splenic and thymic structures with immunodeficiency. Although recent reports have shown that the interaction between lymphotoxin (L …
These microRNA 219-2 conditional mutant mice are designed to generate a null allele or a |i|lacZ|/i| tagged null allele when combined with Flp or Cre recombinase expressing strains. This mutant mouse strain may be useful in studies of microRNA biology.
Its been shown that eating materials get excited about immune legislation in the intestine. and VCAM-1) on stromal cells as well as the appearance is controlled by NFB-inducing kinase (NIK). As a result, NIK-mutant aly/aly mice present decreased awareness to FTY720 in the legislation of peritoneal B-cell trafficking because of the impaired appearance of adhesion substances although peritoneal B1 cells in aly/aly mice portrayed comparable degrees of S1P1. 5. Distinct S1P Dependency of Trafficking of Intraepithelial T-Lymphocytes in the Gut Many lymphocytes may also be within the intestinal epithelium and known as as intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) [42]. IELs are T cells KU-60019 mainly, but unlike in typical T cells seen in the systemic compartments (e.g., spleen) which mostly exhibit the T-cell receptor (TCR), in the IEL subset now there is an plethora of T cells expressing the T cell receptor (TCR) furthermore to TCR+ T cells [42]. TCR identifies peptide antigen provided via main ...
DISC1 mutant mice exhibit greater responses to an NMDA antagonist, MK-801, and D-serine treatment[a] Locomotor activity in open field of male mice before and af
PHENOTYPE: Homozygous mutant mice show a decreased mean percentage of natural killer cells when compared with controls. Male homozygous mutant mice exhibit impaired sensorimotor gating/attention during prepulse inhibition testing. [provided by MGI curators ...
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The generalized lymphoproliferative disorder (gld) mouse strain is characterized by severe splenomegaly/lymphadenopathy, the production of autoimmune antibodies, and the appearance of CD4/CD8-negative T cells. An additional TNF deficiency of gld/gld mice attenuates the course of the disorder through a yet-unknown mechanism. In this study, we could demonstrate that the reduced splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy in B6.gld/gld.TNF-/- mice were correlated with a decreased peripheral T cell proliferation rate and a delayed polyclonal activation. A comparative analysis of naïve T cells and memory/effector T cells showed an age-dependent difference in the T cell activation pattern in the spleen of B6.gld/gld and B6.gld/gld.TNF-/- mice. T cells from B6.gld/gld.TNF-/- spleens and lymph nodes showed significantly higher levels of CCR7 and CD62 ligand on their surface compared with B6.gld/gld mice when mice of the same age were compared. Additionally, we found an increased titer of the Th1 cytokine ...
Nmu (Neuromedin U) and Nmus (Neuromedin S) gene double knock-out mice. Nmu KO: Exon 9 of the Nmu gene was replaced with a PGK-neo cassette. Homozygous mutant mice show a increased body weight. Nms KO: Exon 8 of the Nms gene was replaced with a neo cassette. Homozygous mutant mice show no obvious abnormality. Nmu gene knockout mice (RBRC04549), Nms gene knockout mice (RBRC04550 ...
The PD1 (programmed cell death 1) gene is an immunoinhibitory receptor that belongs to the CD28 family, and plays a role in the negative control of proliferation, differentiation and class switching of B cells. Homozygous mutant mice exhibit abnormalities in leukopoiesis and the immune system which vary considerably depending on the genetic background. The homozygous mutant mice with BALB/c background exhibit autoimmune dilated cardiomyopathy. The mutant mice of the BALB/c-PD1 (N10 line) show severe dilated cardiomyopathy and start to die as early as 5 weeks of age. Meanwhile, the BALB/c-PD1 (N12) line mutant mice exhibit less severe dilated cardiomyopathy and survive longer than N10 line ...
NIK is widely held as a central mediator of noncanonical NF-κB signaling and the activation of NF-κB2. Indeed, both NF-κB2−/− and NIKaly/aly mice show impaired T and B cell responses, while displaying lymphocyte infiltration into various organs similar to that of Aire−/− mice (Anderson et al., 2002; Liston et al., 2003; Kajiura et al., 2004; Zhu et al., 2006). However, the autoimmune phenotype in NIKaly/aly and NF-κB2−/− mice seems to originate from the stromal compartment, as transplantation of NIKaly/aly or NF-κB2−/− thymi into WT mice was sufficient to induce the breakdown in self-tolerance, which is mediated by the loss of Aire function in mTECs (Kajiura et al., 2004; Zhu et al., 2006). In contrast, the impairment of T cell responses in NIKaly/aly mice resulted from disrupted NIK signaling in hematopoietic cells (Greter et al., 2009). Also, NIKaly/aly mice have a defect in the generation of Treg cells, which is not observed in NF-κB2−/− mice (Zhu et al., 2006). ...
Regional variations in the distribution of small intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes in alymphoplasia (aly/aly) mice and heterozygous (aly/+) mice.: Regional
Th1 cell differentiation is impaired in these mice. Primary murine embryonic fibroblasts prepared from mutant embryos have decreased viability and increased genomic DNA fragmentation with UV irradiation. This mutant mouse strain represents a model that may be useful in studies related to signal transduction.
So I had purchased a full grown boesemani rainbow from my LFS a couple of weeks ago. The fish looked fine in the store but when I got him home his scales...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Growth hormone-releaser diet attenuates cognitive dysfunction in klotho mutant mice via insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor activation in a genetic aging model. AU - Park, Seok Joo. AU - Chung, Yoon Hee. AU - Lee, Jeong Hyun. AU - Dang, Duy Khanh. AU - Nam, Yunsung. AU - Jeong, Ji Hoon. AU - Kim, Yong Sun. AU - Nabeshima, Toshitaka. AU - Shin, Eun Joo. AU - Kim, Hyoung Chun. N1 - Funding Information: This study was supported by a grant from the Brain Research Center from the 21st Century Frontier Research Program (2012K001115) funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea. JHL and DKD were supported by the BK21 PLUS program, National Research Foundation of Korea. Equipment at the Institute of Pharmaceutical Science (Kangwon National University) was used for this study.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Background: It has been recognized that a defect in klotho gene expression accelerates the degeneration of multiple age-sensitive traits. Accumulating evidence ...
The patches can appear elsewhere but most patients will describe a long story of patches appearing intermittently on different parts ...
The Nomination Committee assists the Board with oversight of the competence profile and composition of the Board, nomination of members and committees, and other tasks on an ad hoc basis as specifically decided by the Board.
This report describes the development of obesity syndromes in mice caused by two autosomal recessive mutations, fat (fat), located on chromosome 8, and tubby (tub), located on chromosome 7. Both mutations cause slowly developing but ultimately severe obesity conditions. Although hyperinsulinemia, hyperactivity of the beta cell of the islets of Langerhans, and beta-cell degranulation are consistent features, these obesity syndromes do not progress to severe diabetes. The many different single-gene mutations in the mouse that produce obesity-diabetes syndromes of varying degrees of severity make the mutant mouse a powerful tool for analyzing the number and nature of the primary defects than can cause obesity states.
Anxiety is often comorbid with depression (Zimmerman et al., 2002). In rodents, some animal models of depression display anxiety-like responses (Bale et al., 2000; Schramm et al., 2001; Ansorge et al., 2004; Heim et al., 2004; Wei et al., 2004), whereas others do not (Overstreet, 1993). To determine whether Vmat2 mice show anxiety-like behaviors, animals were subjected to the open field, zero maze, light-dark exploration, and novelty-suppressed feeding tests. Because behaviors of WT and Vmat2 heterozygotes were indistinguishable among these tests, these findings suggest anxiety is not a comorbid feature of the VMAT2 phenotype. Interestingly, these results are similar to those for reserpine-treated hypertensive patients, where anxiety does not appear to accompany their depressive-like states (Freis, 1954).. A core symptom of depression is anhedonia (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). This behavior is modeled as an endophenotype in Flinders rats, learned helpless mice, the chronic mild ...
In addition to sensory neurons, in rodents and birds (and presumably humans) Brn3a is expressed in multiple sites in the central nervous system, including the spinal cord, midbrain superior colliculus, red nucleus, nucleus ambiguus, inferior olivary nucleus, habenula, and retina.[6] Mice with null mutations (knockouts) in Brn3a die at birth, due to developmental defects in the nucleus ambiguus, which is essential for respiration.[7][8][9] Brn3a is a transcription factor which acts in development by regulating downstream target genes. Microarrays have been used to determine many genes downstream of Brn3a in peripheral sensory neurons.[10][11] In the sensory neurons Brn3a is co-expressed with the LIM domain transcription factor ISL1 or Islet1, and has many downstream targets in common with Isl1.[12] Pou4f1/Isl1 double mutant mice show strong epistatic effects in regulation of many downstream genes in the sensory neurons of double mutant mouse embryos.[13] Although the homozygous Brn3a null ...
Programmed cell death (PCD) in the interdigit region of developing vertebrate limbs generates separated rather than webbed digits. Previous models have proposed that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) directly trigger such PCD; however, they might also act indirectly by regulating fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), which act as cell survival factors. To investigate this question, Mark Lewandoskis group inactivated the BMP receptor gene Bmpr1a specifically in the limb buds apical ectodermal ridge (AER) - a source of FGF activity. They report on p. 2359 that in mice, BMP signalling mediates AER induction. However, it subsequently inhibits the expression of the AER survival factors Fgf4 and Fgf8, leading to interdigit PCD. By generating conditional mutant mice, the authors show that Bmpr1a inactivation induces Fgf4 and Fgf8 upregulation in the AER. Webbing persists in mice where Bmpr1a and Fgf8 are inactivated, but disappears when one copy of Fgf4 is also inactivated. Evolutionary alterations in ...
Ins-TOPGAL and Ctnnb1 C429S mutant mice. Ctnnb1 C429S mutant mice were generated by ENU mutagenesis. C492S homozygous mutant mice are infertile. Ins-TOPGAL transgenic mice are useful for visualizing Wnt signal pathway. The transgene contains the nLacZ gene under the control of a TOPFLASH promoter (6x TCF binding motifs upstream of a TK promoter). The transgene construct was flanked by the insulator core elements ...
Calcium, Calcium Channels, Drugs, Ligands, Role, Therapeutic, Alanine, Anxiety, Anxiety Disorder, Arginine, At 10, Carrying, Conflict, Measure, Mice, Mouse, Mutant Mouse Strains, Mutation, Pharmacology, Phenobarbital
Dung, H, Pathologic changes observed in organs of lethargic mutant mice. Abstr. (1972). Subject Strain Bibliography 1972. 311 ...
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A dye-injection technique has been used to determine the developmental stage at which posterior neuropore (PNP) closure occurs in normal and mutant curly tail mouse embryos. In vivo, the majority of non-mutant embryos undergo PNP closure between 30 and 34 somites whereas approximately 50% of all mutant embryos show delayed closure, and around 20% maintain an open PNP even at advanced stages of development. A similar result has been found for embryos developing in vitro from the headfold stage. Later in development, 50-60% of mutant embryos in vivo develop tail flexion defects, and 15-20% lumbosacral myeloschisis. This supports the view that delayed PNP closure is the main developmental lesion leading to the appearance of caudal neural tube defects in curly tail mice. The neural tube is closed in the region of tail flexion defects, but it is locally overexpanded and abnormal in position. The significance of these observations is discussed in relation to possible mechanisms of development of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hereditary emphysema in the tight-skin mouse. Evaluation of pathogenesis. AU - Rossi, G. A.. AU - Hunninghake, G. W.. AU - Gadek, J. E.. AU - Szapiel, S. V.. AU - Kawanami, O.. AU - Ferrans, V. J.. AU - Crystal, Ronald. PY - 1984/7/19. Y1 - 1984/7/19. N2 - The tight-skin (Tsk/+) mouse is a genetically determined model characterized by alveolar enlargement and physiologic evidence of emphysema. Morphologic evaluation of the lungs of these animals demonstrated increased numbers of potential protease-secreting cells (alveolar macrophages and neutrophils) in the lower respiratory tract prior to development of the emphysematous lesions. Quantitation of the neutrophils in the lungs of these animals was carried out by bronchoalveolar lavage. In the Tsk/+ mice, neutrophils constituted 3.5 ± 2% of all inflammatory and immune effector cells present compared with 0.4 ± 0.1% in control (+/+) mice (p , 0.01). The Tsk/+ animals had no evidence of infection to explain the presence of the ...
Question - Dark, itchy and flaky skin after blunt force injury. What is it and how can I get rid of it?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Hypertrophic scar, Ask a Dermatologist
Although the underlying causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex, two aspects have emerged from studies over the years: 1) there is a large genetic component to ASD, and 2) ASD is a disorder of brain development.
TY - JOUR. T1 - FoxM1 insufficiency hyperactivates Ect2-RhoA-mDia1 signaling to drive cancer. AU - Limzerwala, Jazeel F.. AU - Jeganathan, Karthik B.. AU - Kloeber, Jake A.. AU - Davies, Brian A.. AU - Zhang, Cheng. AU - Sturmlechner, Ines. AU - Zhong, Jian. AU - Fierro Velasco, Raul. AU - Fields, Alan P.. AU - Yuan, Yaxia. AU - Baker, Darren J.. AU - Zhou, Daohong. AU - Li, Hu. AU - Katzmann, David J.. AU - van Deursen, Jan M.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank B. Childs, R. Naylor and C. Sieben for helpful discussions, and G. Nelson for managing the mouse colony. We thank the transgenic and gene knockout core at Mayo Clinic for generation of all mutant mouse strains, D. Billadeau (Mayo Clinic, Rochester) for the Cofilin 1 antibody, G. Razidlo (Mayo Clinic, Rochester) for Cytochalasin D and GST-PBD construct, S. Kaufmann (Mayo Clinic, Rochester) for H1299 and A549 cell lines and R. Thaler for assistance with the in vitro GEF activity assay. The human tumor results shown here are in whole or ...
Such Knockin mice have an inserted exogenous gene that is regulated under the native promoter, providing a physiologically relevant and secure expression.
Even though FLASH mutant mice have been claimed to die in the early embryonic stage , FLASH KO ES cells was revealed to proliferate and differentiate commonly
When Fidos flaky skin is disrupting his day with itching and chewing, and yours with questions and concerns, its time to plan a visit to your vet. In the meantime, narrowing the possibilities for the source of your pups problems can help you find ways to relieve his dermatological misery.
Soothes irritations, treats flaky skin and moderates sebum levels. Protects against environmental factors, revealing a relaxed, replenished and smooth skin.
Homozygous mutants have a white belt across the back in the midtrunk region and a white belly patch that coalesces to form a white belt ...
Interactions between products of the mouse W locus, which encodes the c-kit tyrosine kinase receptor, and the Sl locus, which encodes a ligand for c-kit receptor, which we have designated stem cell factor (SCF), have a critical role in the development of mast cells. Mice homozygous for mutations at either locus exhibit several phenotypic abnormalities including a virtual absence of mast cells. Moreover, the c-kit ligand SCF can induce the proliferation and maturation of normal mast cells in vitro or in vivo, and also can result in repair of the mast cell deficiency of Sl/Sld mice in vivo. We now report that administration of SCF intradermally in vivo results in dermal mast cell activation and a mast cell-dependent acute inflammatory response. This effect is c-kit receptor dependent, in that it is not observed when SCF is administered to mice containing dermal mast cells expressing functionally inactive c-kit receptors, is observed with both glycosylated and nonglycosylated forms of SCF, and ...
Mice. Rnf8-/- mice (AS0574 strain) were previously reported (11). Trp53fl/fl conditional mutant mice (37) (NCI Mouse Repository) were intercrossed with WapCre transgenic mice (The Jackson Laboratory) to obtain WapCre Trp53fl/fl mice. Subsequent crosses of Rnf8-/- mice with WapCre Trp53fl/fl mice generated Rnf8-/- WapCre Trp53fl/fl females. Mice in this study were on a mixed 129/J × C57BL/6 genetic background and were genotyped by PCR for Rnf8WT (forward 5′-TGATGACACCTGGGCATGT-3′; reverse 5′-TCTTTGAGACAGCGCCTGG-3′), Rnf8 mutant (forward 5′-TCAAAGGTTTGCCCTCTGAT-3′; reverse 5′-CGGAGCGGATCTCAAACTCT-3′), Trp53fl (forward 5′-CAGCCTCTGTTCCACATACACT-3′; common 5′-TGGATGGTGGTATACTCAGAGC-3′), Trp53WT (forward 5′-AGGCTTAGAGGTGCAAGCTG-3′; common 5′-TGGATGGTGGTATACTCAGAGC-3′), and Cre (forward 5′-CCATCTGCCACCAGCCAG-3′; reverse 5′-TCGCCATCTTCCAGCAGG-3′). All mice were housed in a pathogen-free mouse facility at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre. Ten- to 12-week-old ...
The role of MC in non-allergic inflammatory responses has been a subject of many recent investigations. Although in vitro evidence of T cell-MC interactions exists, as does proof that MC are normally present in secondary lymphoid organs, little is known about the in vivo contribution of these cells to adaptive immune responses 28-31. The availability of the W/Wv mouse model has been pivotal in definitively establishing a role for MC in innate immune responses that confer, for example, resistance to bacterial infection 32. However, because the c-kit mutations present in this mouse can affect the development of other hematopoietic cell lineages, the use of this model requires stringent proof that MC are responsible for any phenotypic differences observed between W/Wv mice and their WT counterparts. This is particularly true in instances such as the present study of EAE where MC effects on T cell function are being investigated. Despite the widespread use of W/Wv mice, a careful analysis of ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Madoka Kato, Akira Shimizu, Yoko Yokoyama, Kyoichi Kaira, Yutaka Shimomura, Akemi Ishida-Yamamoto, Kiyoko Kamei, Fuminori Tokunaga, Osamu Ishikawa].
This animation of early neural development from week 3 onward shows the neural groove fusing to form the neural tube. View - Dorsolateral of the whole early embryo and yolk sac. Cranial (head) to top and caudal (tail) to bottom. Yolk sac is shown to the left. Beginning with the neural groove initially fusing at the level of the 4th somite to form the neural tube and closing in both directions to leave 2 openings or neuropores: a cranial neuropore (anterior neuropore) and a caudal neuropore (posterior neuropore). The animation also shows as the embryo grows and folds it increases in size relative to the initial yolk sac. Note also the increasing number of somites over time. ...
Using a stringent statistical methodology, 593 of the 6190 proteins identified in our current study displayed significantly different levels between the wild-type and R9C hearts. (Another ∼1000 proteins were tentatively identified, albeit with less confidence, primarily as a result of lower spectral counts.) The identification of proteins comprising the altered profiles allowed us to interrogate more carefully the mechanisms underlying the progression of cardiac disease at least for the R9C mouse.. These proteomic changes, when analyzed for functional enrichment in GO terms, largely confirmed previous studies highlighting changes in the organization of the cytoskeleton and contractile apparatus together with systematic perturbations of energy metabolism. Other proteins and original categories found to be up-regulated in the R9C mouse include protein degradation and ubiquitination, protein folding and processing, proteins involved in ER stress responses, activation of apoptosis, cellular ...
Caspr3-Deficient Mice Exhibit Low Motor Learning during the Early Phase of the Accelerated Rotarod Task. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
EMMA is short for the European Mouse Mutant Archive. It is a repository and distributor of mutant mouse strains in the form of frozen sperm and embryos or live animals. Together with similar organisations worldwide it forms the Federation of International Mouse Resources FIMRe. ...
There are many reasons that flak skin can form on the face, but how do you solve the problem? This hub will try to help you control this often embarrassing problem.
D: The skeleton of a wild-type mouse (right) and Wwtr1tm1Whun/Wwtr1tm1Whun mouse (left) embryos stained with Alizarin red and Alcian blue to stain bone (red) and cartilage (blue), respectively. Note the slightly shorter skeleton of the homozygous mouse embryo. G & H: Hematoxylin and eosin staining of longitudinal kidney sections from 8 week old wild-type (G) and homozygous mutant mouse (H), showing numerous cysts in the corticomedullary region of the homozygous mouse kidney. Magnification: x20 ...
Factor XII Knockout Mice - Mutant mice are from an ongoing colony made in-house at our state of the art facility in the U.S.A and available immediately. No waiting for cryo recovery or costly breeding. Complete absence of FXII protein confirmed by Western Blot. Useful for cardiovascular and neurological studies.
A Novel N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-Induced Mutation in Phospholipase C gamma 2 Causes Inflammatory Arthritis, Metabolic Defects, and Male Infertility In Vitro in a Murine Model ...
Filagra lowest prices 2 FFilagra Tafra The Breast Center at Anne Arundel Medical Center Annapolis, Maryland. (1992) TAP1 mutant mice are deficient in antigen presentation, surface class I molecules, and CD4в8 T cells. Y.
For a while now [way before I started the DKR] Ive had really dry, flaky skin in my eyebrows. By in, I mean that its underneath the actual hairs [is that what you call them? haha] Ive tried rubbing moisturizer on but it hasnt helped a whole lot. For a week or so Ive been using the baby brush on them but it doesnt really get down to my skin, I think. Has anyone else had this problem?? I think that it may have gotten a lot worse when I started using the AcneFree system at the beginning ...
Mice are identical with dirty condition. Mice usually live in moist and dirty area. We know that dirty area contains bacteria. Finally, mice bring bacteria to a house where they live. Bacteria from mice will cause various diseases. When mice urinate or defecate in our home, their feces and urine contain bacteria, even virus. When virus or bacteria contaminate water and food in our home, finally it makes us get risk to experience diseases caused by mice.. There are so many diseases caused by mice. The best way to avoid disease caused by mice is getting rid of mice as soon as possible. You can ask exterminator to get rid of mice. You can also use mice trap to trap mice. Finally, your home will be free of mice.. ...
Expression of ELC mRNA is decreased in the LNs and spleens of plt mice. Tissues from +/+ (A and C) and plt (B and D) mice were analyzed as described in the
Wounds on mice were inoculated with the two strains. The pigmented strains created lingering abscesses. Wounds with the ... Colonies of the two strains were also exposed to human neutrophils. The mutant colonies quickly succumbed while many of the ... When comparing a normal strain of S. aureus with a strain modified to lack staphyloxanthin, the wildtype pigmented strain was ... more likely to survive incubation with an oxidizing chemical such as hydrogen peroxide than the mutant strain was. ...
He began developing large, mutant strain, colonies of mice. Under the charge of Dr. William Castle, Little helped to expand the ... 30-35 Rader, Making Mice Rader, Making Mice, pp. 190-195 Rader, Making Mice, p. 252 Allen, Garland E. Thomas Hunt Morgan: The ... in mice was one that may have created a negative response to the fertility of the mice thus discontinuing the strain. Little ... This necessity for funds all but stopped the continuation of these strains of mice. The transition for these laboratories to ...
Trp53 mutant mice develop glioblastoma with evidence of strain-specific effects". Nature Genetics. 26 (1): 109-113. doi:10.1038 ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Wong-Staal F, Dalla ... Tennant RW, Stasiewicz S, Eastin WC, Mennear JH, Spalding JW (2002). "The Tg.AC (v-Ha-ras) transgenic mouse: nature of the ...
The albino FVB mouse laboratory strain become blind by weaning age due to a mutant allele of the PDE6b gene. There are ... Chang B, Hawes NL, Hurd RE, Davisson MT, Nusinowitz S, Heckenlively JR (Feb 2002). "Retinal degeneration mutants in the mouse ... pigmented derivative strains of FVB that lack this trait. Similar to rd1 in mice, Rod-cone dysplasia type 1 (rcd1-PRA) is a ... The rd1 mouse is a well-characterized animal model of retinitis pigmentosa caused by the mutation of Pde6b gene. The phenotype ...
... mice, gerbils, and hamsters, as well as hybrid, mutant, and transgenic animals. Its brochure says it supplies more stocks and ... and stock and strain elimination. It also provides contract research services, which comprise toxicology, environmental science ... strains of lab animals than any other commercial supplier in the world. BUAV writes that the company breeds around 450 baby ...
The SV40 was known to cause cancer tumors to develop in mice. Additionally, the E. coli bacterium (although not the strain used ... The final step involved placing the mutant genetic material into a laboratory strain of the E. coli bacterium. This last step, ...
The lifecycle of N. brasiliensis can be passed through lab mice. The availability of inbred and mutant mouse strains can be ... Characterization of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection in different strains of mice. The Journal of Parasitology 76:377-382 ... Lab mice previously infected with N. brasiliensis develop massive emphysema with dilation of distal airspaces due to the loss ... The immune response of mice, however, leads to cessation of egglaying by day 8 and adults are expelled by day 10. N. ...
This demonstrates that Myf6 is not essential for the formation of most myofibers, at least in the strains of mice tested. In ... Myod double-mutant mice". Nature. 431 (7007): 466-71. Bibcode:2004Natur.431..466K. doi:10.1038/nature02876. PMID 15386014. ... In mouse, Myf6/Mrf4 differs somewhat from the other MRF genes due to its two-phase expression. Initially, Myf6 is transiently ... Mutations in the mouse Myf6 gene typically exhibit reduced levels of Myf5. Despite reductions in muscle mass of the back and ...
Mice with mutant carboxypeptidase E, Cpefat, display endocrine disorders like obesity and infertility. In some strains of mice ... but this is not found in all strains of mice. The obesity and infertility in the Cpefat mice develop with age; young mice (. 50 ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. "Entrez Gene: CPE ... This patient had intellectual disability (inability to read or write) and had abnormal glucose homeostasis, similar to mice ...
All Core F strains are now archived at the Mutant Mouse Regional Resource Center (MMRRC) at the University of California, Davis ... At the discretion of the Mouse Subcommittee, Core G also occasionally evaluates mouse lines provided by investigators. Protein- ... Mouse Transgenics Core (F), formerly located at The Scripps Research Institute, is now closed. From 2001-2009, Core F generated ... Mouse Phenotype Core (G), located at the Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, works with participating investigator " ...
... or double mutant mice deficient in both Ku70 and Ku80 exhibit early aging. The mean lifespans of the three mutant mouse strains ... and the three mutant mice were found to display the same aging signs as the control mice, but at a much earlier age. Cancer ... A mouse mutant with a defect in this DNA polymerase is only able to replicate its mitochondrial DNA inaccurately, so that it ... However, in mice there is no increase in mutation in the brain with aging. Mice defective in a gene (Pms2) that ordinarily ...
... or double mutant mice deficient in both Ku70 and Ku80 exhibit early aging. The mean lifespans of the three mutant mouse strains ... and the three mutant mice were found to display the same aging signs as the control mice, but at a much earlier age. Cancer ... Both subunits of Ku have been experimentally knocked out in mice. These mice exhibit chromosomal instability, indicating that ... incidence was not increased in the mutant mice. These results suggest that Ku function is important for longevity assurance and ...
In the experiment, the donor was a mutant strain of hamster with a shortened circadian period. The recipient was a wild-type ... In 1999, Foster studied light entrainment on mice without cones or both rods and cones.[11] Mice without cones or without both ... Transplantation was done the other way around as well, with wild-type hamster as the donor and mutant strain hamster as the ... The results showed that both mice with normal retina and mice with degenerate retina showed similar entrainment patterns. ...
... aureus directly correlates with the virulence of the strain. Recent research has shown that immunization with a mutant form of ... alpha-toxin that is no longer able to form pores protects against S. aureus pneumonia in mice. Also, introduction of alpha- ... As many strains of S. aureus are proving to be resistant to most available antibiotics, specific targeting of virulence factors ... Alpha-toxin has been shown to play a role in pathogenesis of disease, as hly knockout strains show reductions in invasiveness ...
A transgenic mouse has been created carrying a single copy of a mutant fibrillin-1, a mutation similar to that found in the ... This mouse strain recapitulates many of the features of the human disease and promises to provide insights into the ... Reducing the level of normal fibrillin 1 causes a Marfan-related disease in mice. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) plays ... 1999). "Pathogenetic sequence for aneurysm revealed in mice underexpressing fibrillin-1". Proceedings of the National Academy ...
Canine parvovirus is a mutant strain of feline parvovirus.[10][11][12] A very specific mutation is necessary for the virus to ... mouse cells, cat and mouse hybrid cells, mink cells, dog cells, human cells, and HeLa cells.[10] Both feline parvovirus and ... "Mouse transferrin receptor 1 is the cell entry receptor for mouse mammary tumor virus". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Mouse parvovirus 1, however, causes no symptoms but can contaminate immunology experiments in biological research laboratories. ...
Mutant strains of S. aureus modified to lack staphyloxanthin are less likely to survive incubation with an oxidizing chemical, ... Mutant colonies are quickly killed when exposed to human neutrophils, while many of the pigmented colonies survive. In mice, ... whereas wounds infected with the unpigmented strains quickly heal. These tests suggest the Staphylococcus strains use ... Only a few strains of S. aureus are associated with infections in humans. This demonstrates that there is a large range of ...
Earmarking a mutant strain of mice called MRL/MpJ led to the accidental discovery that they had the ability to regenerate ... It was later found that this strain of mice also heals damage to other body parts such as knee cartilage and heart muscle ... Laboratory mice are often kept with several animals in one cage since mice are social animals, therefore it is necessary to ... Microchips are less commonly used in mice because of their expense compared to the short life span of a mouse. ...
She has investigated how the RNA-binding protein mutant FUS behaves in mouse models. Fisher serves as a Council Member at the ... The sex-determining region of the human Y chromosome encodes a finger protein Genealogies of mouse inbred strains Mutations in ... In a paper published in Science, Fisher found that two spontaneous mouse mutants generated from an ENU (N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea) ... Fisher, Elizabeth M. C. (2000). "Genealogies of mouse inbred strains". Nature. 24 (1): 23-25. doi:10.1038/71641. PMID 10615122 ...
... where she characterised a mutant mice strain with a 'pallid' mutation and published the research. During the course of her PhD ... She also scrutinised a 'mottled' mutant, which had a different effect on male and female mice: male embryos sometimes died, and ... where there was room for more mouse facilities. There she continued to investigate the mouse mutations. ... She also did extensive work on the mouse t-complex. She was head of the Genetics Section of the MRC Radiology Unit at Harwell ...
... the Rockefeller team sought to obtain an attenuated strain of the virus that would not kill mice when injected into their ... Animal tests showed the attenuated 17D mutant was safe and immunizing. Theiler's team rapidly completed the development of a ... In his test, sera from vaccinated human subjects were injected into mice to see if they protected the mice against yellow fever ... This "mouse protection test" was used with variations as a measure of immunity until after World War II. Subculturing the ...
The studied mouse strains with decreased GH signalling showed between 20% and 68% increased longevity, and mouse strains with ... Over-expression of the Ras2 gene increases lifespan in yeast by 30%.[87] A yeast mutant lacking the genes SCH9 and RAS1 has ... telomere length in wild mouse strains is unrelated to lifespan,[94] and mice lacking the enzyme telomerase do not have a ... The precise mechanism by which decreased GH/IGF-1 signalling increases longevity is unknown, but various mouse strains with ...
"Creating a Mutant Strain of Streptococcus Free of All Integrated Viruses" (Press release). American Society for Microbiology. ... June 2009). "Intranasal vaccination with 1918 influenza virus-like particles protects mice and ferrets from lethal 1918 and ... Production can begin as soon as the virus strain is sequenced and can take as little as 12 weeks, compared to 9 months for ...
Its main activity is the reproduction and maintenance of mice stocks either of inbred strains or genetically engineered mice, ... such as transgenic and knockout mouse lines, as well as chemically induced mutants developed by Fleming researchers. The Animal ... Fleming operates its own Animal House, which can house up to 20,000 mice and has its own complete mouse histopathology unit. ... to house more than 20,000 mice and is currently the largest Mouse Unit in Greece in terms of number and variety of mice. The ...
Significantly, mouse antibodies were 10 times less potent against the mutants than against the pre-mutated viruses. A graphic ... This strain caused asymptomatic infections in humans and may have died out, like the 1959 strain, so that its low mortality ... This relatively benign Korean strain of H5N1 has died out, and the remaining strains of H5N1 have a higher case fatality rate ... In fact, when less-virulent strains die off, the surviving strains are the more virulent. Such difficulties in interpretation ...
Classical conditioning of a Purkinje cell deficient mutant mouse strain helped to determine the extent to which spared regions ... Results of conditioning were similar to the cortical aspiration mice. Mice took significantly longer to produce CRs, and the ... These mice are born with PCs that die after about 3 weeks of life. Because PCs are the sole output neuron of the cortex, this ... including mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, ferrets, cats, and humans. Historically, rabbits have been the most popular ...
The recessive lidgap-Gates mutation (first described in 1961) identified on the SELH/Bc mouse strain causes the same open- ... MAP3K1 mutants were identified in breast cancer by GWAS. MAP3K1 contains a protein kinase domain, PHD finger (which has a RING ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Vinik BS, Kay ES, ... MAP3K1 has been analysed genetically by targeted mutagenesis using transgenic mice, embryonic stem cells, and the DT40 cell ...
... heterozygous mutants can be produced by crossing sdy mice with a strain of normal mice. Play media Reelin is a protein which is ... As of 2011, seven different strains of DISC1 mouse models had been developed. As in schizophrenia patients, DISC1 mice have an ... Knockout mice in which the reelin gene is disrupted are called reeler mice. In homozygous reeler mice, extreme changes in gait ... mouse, has a number of anatomical changes compared to normal mice, including changes to the hippocampus. Sdy mice have ...
Relative to non-ataxic controls of the same background strain, Dab1-scm mutants were impaired in the Rotarod Performance test ... Malformation of the radial glial scaffold in the dentate gyrus of reeler mice, scrambler mice, and ApoER2/VLDLR-deficient mice ... Scrambler is a spontaneous mouse mutant lacking a functional DAB1 gene, resulting in a phenotype resembling that seen in the ... Dab1(scm) mutants were also less anxious in the elevated plus-maze but with higher latencies in the emergence test. In mutants ...
He used strains of E. Coli with mutated B-lactamase, an antibiotic resistance enzyme, and assayed their activity in the ... After injection into mice, tumors started to form in as little as 10 days. Next, the transforming activities of the ... Finally, Ral mutants unable to bind to their specific effector proteins showed that RalA and RalB isoforms promote branching ... GTPase activity of different mutant forms of p21, one cloned from a patient with myeloblastic leukaemia and one derived from in ...
Reactive oxygen species levels increase with age in these mutant strains and show a similar pattern to the pattern of DNA ... Mice lacking SOD2 die several days after birth, amid massive oxidative stress.[26] Mice lacking SOD1 develop a wide range of ... "Dilated cardiomyopathy and neonatal lethality in mutant mice lacking manganese superoxide dismutase". Nature Genetics. 11 (4): ... In wild-type S. cerevisiae, DNA damage rates increased 3-fold with age, but more than 5-fold in mutants deleted for either the ...
doi:10.1016/j.str.2006.05.019. PMID 16843899.. *^ Krüger E, Kloetzel PM, Enenkel C (2001). "20S proteasome biogenesis". ... For example, studies in mice bearing human skin grafts found a reduction in the size of lesions from psoriasis after treatment ... "Contribution of proteasomal beta-subunits to the cleavage of peptide substrates analyzed with yeast mutants". The Journal of ...
"Mouse PubMed Reference:".. *^ Pollitt AY, Insall RH (August 2009). "WASP and SCAR/WAVE proteins: the drivers of actin assembly" ... Rajmohan R, Raodah A, Wong MH, Thanabalu T (December 2009). "Characterization of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) mutants using ... "WASP suppresses the growth defect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae las17Delta strain in the presence of WIP". Biochemical and ...
For example, recent studies have suggested genetic variants in deer mice that help explain how deer mice that live in the ... Mutations in the genes for the hemoglobin protein in a species result in hemoglobin variants.[25][26] Many of these mutant ... This strain is transmitted to the remaining three monomers in the tetramer, where it induces a similar conformational change in ... Some of these mutant forms of hemoglobin, however, cause a group of hereditary diseases termed the hemoglobinopathies. The best ...
... and the high-pathogenicity island among Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strains". J. Clin. Microbiol. 39 (10): 3541-7. PMC 88386. ... and factors involved in YPM-induced toxicity in mice". Microbiol. Immunol. 41 (4): 345-52. PMID 9159409. doi:10.1111/j.1348- ... "Reevaluation of the virulence phenotype of the inv yadA double mutants of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis". Infect. Immun. 65 (1 ... between Far East and Europe in prevalence of ypm gene encoding the novel superantigen among Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strains ...
Due to their low-maintenance and highly mapped genomes, mice, Drosophila,[19] and C. elegans[20] are very common. Zebrafish[21] ... The use of recombinant DNA is an example of a reverse genetics, where researchers create a mutant genotype and analyze the ... By identifying specific genetic markers for the genes of interest in a recombinant inbred strain, the amount of interaction ... researchers are able to use animal subjects such as mice and rats, but also fruit flies, worms, and zebrafish,[19][20] to try ...
There are several thousand different strains of knockout mice.[3] Many mouse models are named after the gene that has been ... Crusio WE, Goldowitz D, Holmes A, Wolfer D (February 2009). "Standards for the publication of mouse mutant studies". Genes, ... A knockout mouse or knock-out mouse is a genetically modified mouse (Mus musculus) in which researchers have inactivated, or " ... A laboratory mouse in which a gene affecting hair growth has been knocked out (left), is shown next to a normal lab mouse. ...
This mutant yeast strain can be made to incorporate foreign DNA in the form of plasmids. In yeast two-hybrid screening, ... This system uses the GAL4 BD and the activation domain of mouse NF-κB P65. Both are under the control of the OpIE2 promoter.[35 ... Yeast strains R2HMet and BK100 have also been used.[20] Candida albicans[edit]. C. albicans is a yeast with a particular ... separate bait and prey plasmids are simultaneously introduced into the mutant yeast strain or a mating strategy is used to get ...
Δasd mutant exhibits attenuated intracellular infectivity and imparts protection against acute inhalation melioidosis in mice ... From the point of view of the bacterium, human infection is a developmental "dead end". Strains which cause disease in humans ... Colony morphology is very variable and a single strain may display multiple colony types, so inexperienced laboratory staff may ... Haase A, Janzen J, Barrett S, Currie B (July 1997). "Toxin production by Burkholderia pseudomallei strains and correlation with ...
The journal has developed standards for the publication of mouse mutant studies. Many mouse mutant studies have serious ... "Sociability and preference for social novelty in five inbred strains: An approach to assess autistic-like behavior in mice". ... Crusio WE, Goldowitz D, Holmes A, Wolfer D (February 2009). "Standards for the publication of mouse mutant studies". Genes, ... Crusio, Wim E. (2004). "Flanking gene and genetic background problems in genetically manipulated mice". Biological Psychiatry. ...
... mouse typhoid fever), S. cholerae-suis. After host specificity was recognized to not exist for many species, new strains ... Buchmeier et al.,[68] showed that mutants of S. enterica lacking RecA or RecBC protein function are highly sensitive to ... The large number of mutants led to a revision of genetic nomenclature for bacteria.[77] Many of the uses of transposons as ... Further differentiation of strains to assist clinical and epidemiological investigation may be achieved by antibiotic ...
These mice are also protected from diabetes.[12] A lack of ACC1 in mutant mice is lethal already at the embryonic stage. ... "accA, acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha subunit (Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655)". NCBI gene. National Center for ... "Mutant mice lacking acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 are embryonically lethal". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... "accD, acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta subunit (Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655)". NCBI gene. National Center for ...
A major disadvantage of the TST is that it is restricted to mice and limited to strains that do not tend to climb their tail. ... Genetically engineered mice: Only few generated mutant lines can be regarded as depression models, for example, α2A adrenergic ... Social model of depression in mice of C57BL/6J strain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1991, 38: 315-320 McEwen, B.S. (2003) Early life ... glucocorticoid receptor heterozygous mice, and cAMP response element-binding protein overexpressing mice. Forward genetics: ...
Aspergillus flavus mutant strain 241, blocked in aflatoxin biosynthesis, does not accumulate aflR transcript. Matthew P. Brown ... 6500 ppm (mouse, 1.65 hr)[6]. - LCLo. 106,000 ppm (rabbit). 76,000 ppm (dog)[6]. ...
... influencing viral evolution by encouraging the production of novel strains, in this case referred to as escape mutants, that ... in reference to research examining disease mortality in mouse populations with varying degrees of immunity.[74] Herd immunity ... immunity acting as an evolutionary pressure or because herd immunity against one strain allowed another already-existing strain ... which is more common when there are more strains in circulation, can also produce new serotypes.[30][34] When either of these ...
The ovarian tissue may also be transplanted into mice that are immunocompromised (SCID mice) to avoid graft rejection, and ... Many common culturable laboratory strains are deep-frozen to preserve genetically and phenotypically stable, long-term stocks.[ ... Schulte J, Reski R (2004). "High throughput cryopreservation of 140,000 Physcomitrella patens mutants". Plant Biology. Plant ... Rall WF, Fahy GM (February 14-20, 1985). "Ice-free cryopreservation of mouse embryos at -196 degrees C by vitrification". ...
... wings and halteres in wild type and certain mutant strains of Drosophila melanogaster".. ... Auerbach, C.; Falconer, D.S.; Isaacson, J.A. (1962). "Test for sex-linked lethals in irradiated mice". Genetical Research. 3: ... The greatest reward for herself however was the telegram her hero Hermann Joseph Muller sent after their first striking mutant ...
Twenty six tests were carried out on mutant mice and two significant abnormalities were observed.[10] No homozygous mutant ... It accounts for all of the observed residual polyadenylation in strains of Escherichia coli missing the normal polyadenylation ... A conditional knockout mouse line, called Pnpt1tm1a(KOMP)Wtsi[12][13] was generated as part of the International Knockout Mouse ... The remaining tests were carried out on heterozygous mutant adult mice; no additional significant abnormalities were observed ...
"Rules and Guidelines for Nomenclature of Mouse and Rat Strains". Mouse Genome Informatics. Jackson Laboratory. Retrieved 5 ... a new neurological mutant rat in the Wistar strain". Acta Neuropathologica. 76 (4): 366-72. doi:10.1007/bf00686973. PMID ... Like NOD mice, Biobreeding rats are used as an animal model for Type 1 diabetes. The strain re-capitulates many of the features ... Inbred strains are also available but are not as commonly used as inbred mice. ...
... the mutants that show a complete loss of pigmentation from the cuticle (y-type) and other mutants that show a mosaic pigment ... "Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center" - collects, maintains and distributes Drosophila melanogaster strains for research ... Vermilion eye color mutant is sex-linked recessive gene due to its absence of brown eye pigment. The red pigment is located on ... Triple mutant male fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) exhibiting black body, vestigial wings, and brown eyes mutations. ...
... this strain is now called MRSA252. EMRSA 15 is also found to be one of the common MRSA strains in Asia. Other common strains ... A secondary covering of clothing is preferred.[79] As shown in an animal study with diabetic mice, the topical application of a ... "Inhibition of cell wall turnover and autolysis by vancomycin in a highly vancomycin-resistant mutant of Staphylococcus aureus" ... Several newly discovered strains of MRSA show antibiotic resistance even to vancomycin and teicoplanin. These new strains of ...
... the study found that in the lab and in mice, these strains grew better and produced more toxins when fed trehalose. The authors ... Selaginella lepidophylla trehalose-6-phosphate synthase complements growth and stress-tolerance defects in a yeast tps1 mutant" ... In January 2018 research was published showing that some strains of Clostridium difficile found in the human gut microbiome are ...
These promoters can cause aberrant expression of linked genes, causing disease or mutant phenotypes.[31] ... Use of the Sleeping Beauty Transposon System for Stable Gene Expression in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells ... multi-antibiotic resistant bacterial strains can be generated in this way). Bacterial transposons of this type belong to the Tn ... "Genome-wide analysis in the mouse embryo reveals the importance of DNA methylation for transcription integrity". Nature ...
... producing a mixed population of mutant and non-mutant progenies. Furthermore, the template used is methylated while the mutant ... All DNA produced from most Escherichia coli strains would be methylated; the template plasmid that is biosynthesized in E. coli ... "Mechanism of 2-aminopurine mutagenesis in mouse T-lymphosarcoma cells". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 2 (9): 1096-1103. doi ... As the double-mutant E. coli replicates the phage DNA, its enzymatic machinery may, therefore, misincorporate dUTP instead of ...
A. thaliana mutants were developed using the mutagen ethyl methanesulfonate and screened to identify mutants with increased ... Arabidopsis thaliana, the thale cress, mouse-ear cress or arabidopsis, is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia and Africa. ... Having specialized as a spring ephemeral, it has been used to found several laboratory strains that take about six weeks from ... The mutants with higher infection rates are referred to as PEN mutants due to the ability of B. graminis to penetrate A. ...
Ang strain na P. aeruginosa ay hindi gumamit ng parehong mga enzyme na ginagamit ng strain na Flavobacterium.[208] Nagawa rin ... 2000). "Rapid chromosomal evolution in island mice". Nature 403 (6766): 158. Bibcode 2000Natur.403..158B. doi:10.1038/35003116 ... "Mutant Chicken Grows Alligatorlike Teeth". Scientific American. http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=mutant-chicken-grows-alli ... Napagmasdan ni Richard Lenski na ang ilang mga strain ng E. coli ay nag-ebolb ng masalimuot na bagong kakayahan na mag- ...
"Construction of a quadruple auxotrophic mutant of an industrial polyploid saccharomyces cerevisiae strain by using RNA-guided ... "One-step generation of mice carrying mutations in multiple genes by CRISPR/Cas-mediated genome engineering". Cell. 153 (4): ... doi:10.1016/j.str.2010.11.014. PMC 3154685. PMID 21300293.. *^ Niewoehner O, Jinek M, Doudna JA (January 2014). "Evolution of ... doi:10.1016/j.str.2009.03.019. PMID 19523907.. *^ Beloglazova N, Brown G, Zimmerman MD, Proudfoot M, Makarova KS, Kudritska M, ...
Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals. ...
... replication of the mutant was also restricted in the mouse cornea in vivo and in confluent primary mouse embryo cells and mouse ... ICP34.5 mutants of herpes simplex virus type 1 strain 17syn+ are attenuated for neurovirulence in mice and for replication in ... ICP34.5 mutants of herpes simplex virus type 1 strain 17syn+ are attenuated for neurovirulence in mice and for replication in ... ICP34.5 mutants of herpes simplex virus type 1 strain 17syn+ are attenuated for neurovirulence in mice and for replication in ...
Evaluation of unmarked deletion mutants as improved Brucella vaccine strains in the mouse and goat models. by Kahl, Melissa ... Survival and efficacy of these novel deletion mutants were then evaluated in the mouse model. The asp24 mutants, which persist ... In an effort to develop improved vaccine strains, we have screened signature tagged mutagenesis banks to identify mutants with ... We demonstrated that the most persistent mutant, delta-asp24, affords the greatest protection in mice against virulent ...
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis phoP mutant strain SO2 has previously been shown to have reduced multiplication in mouse ... Balb/c mice subcutaneously vaccinated with the M. tuberculosis SO2 strain were also protected against intra-venous challenge ... Complementation of the M. tuberculosis SO2 with the wild-type phoP gene restored the virulence of the strain in the SCID mice, ... tuberculosis phoP mutant strain is more attenuated than BCG and confers protective immunity against tuberculosis in mice and ...
Special Mouse Strains Resource. The SMSR maintains mice that are important tools for genetic analysis of complex diseases, ... Eye Mutant Resource. Describes mouse models for ocular research available at The Jackson Laboratory and provides a list of ... In the late 1990s, the mouse and human nomenclature committees and basic researchers met and combined efforts to standardize ... Making and Genetically Manipulating Mouse Embryos. Genetic Tools, Reproductive Biology, Fertility Research ...
Mutant mouse strains. Creation of the hypomorphic and null alleles of Fgf8 has previously been described (Moon and Capecchi, ... To test this hypothesis in mice, we are searching for genetic interactions by evaluating mice bearing combinations of mutant ... hypomorphic mutants is markedly decreased. (C) Newborn Fgf8H/- mutant and Fgf8H/+ control. The mutant is smaller, cyanotic and ... An Fgf8 mouse mutant phenocopies human 22q11 deletion syndrome. Deborah U. Frank, Lori K. Fotheringham, Judson A. Brewer, Louis ...
Nf1;Trp53 mutant mice develop glioblastoma with evidence of strain-specific effects *Karlyne M. Reilly ... Rights & permissionsfor article ,i,Nf1,/i,;,i,Trp53,/i, mutant mice develop glioblastoma with evidence of strain-specific ... An inhibitor of the protein kinases TBK1 and IKK-ɛ improves obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions in mice *Shannon M Reilly ... Heat shock protein 90 inhibition by 17-DMAG lessens disease in the MRL/lpr mouse model of systemic lupus erythematosus *Samuel ...
The Mouse Mutant Resource maintains over 700 established mutant strains and 90-100 new mutant strains are at various stages of ... Mice harboring spontaneous mutations have long been a major source for animal models of human genetic disorders, particularly ... Mouse Mutant Resource: Available mouse models. New mutant mice are made available to the scientific community once they have ... The Mouse Mutant Resource (MMR) encourages the use of these unique disease models, maintaining and distributing mutant strains ...
Mutant Mouse Strains Available. Fmr1 KO - This is the original Fmr1 knockout animal that carries an insertion in exon 5 (Bakker ... Mutant Mouse Models - FMR1 and Paralogs. A Fragile X Mutant Mouse facility was established in 2009 at Baylor College of ... Additional strains can be made available upon request. Please inquire.. Knockout Mice are also available from Jackson ... More than a dozen advanced mouse strains are available to researchers; the laboratory of David L. Nelson, PhD, is accepting ...
Mouse strains. Two female AKR mice (Jackson ImmunoResearch Laboratories) and one male NMRI founder heterozygous for the pmn ... Progressive motor neuronopathy (pmn) mutant mice have been widely used as a model for human motoneuron disease. Mice that are ... we isolated motoneurons from embryonic day 13.5 wt and pmn mutant mice. The identification of the genetic defect in pmn mice ... A new mouse mutant with progressive motor neuronopathy. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 50:192-204. [PubMed] ...
Functional Insights from GR Mutant Mouse Strains. Several lines of GR mutant transgenic mice provided key insights about the ... Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation and behavioral analysis of mouse mutants with altered glucocorticoid or ... WT) mice challenged with an intra-striatal bolus of LPS (116), again supporting a pivotal of GR signaling in microglia in ... Using the Tie2-GRKO mice, one group recently revealed that GR activation in endothelial cells of brain vessels might be both ...
Mutant mouse strains. The strategy for homologous recombination in ES cells used to target Fgf8, and the other loci noted below ... Jerome, L. A. and Papaioannou, V. E. (2001). DiGeorge syndrome phenotype in mice mutant for the T-box gene, Tbx1. Nat. Genet. ... Schwenk, F., Baron, U. and Rajewsky, K. (1995). A cre-transgenic mouse strain for the ubiquitous deletion of loxP-flanked gene ... In marked contrast to both Fgf8 hypomorphs and Fgf8;AP2α-IRESCre mutants, all Fgf8;hoxa3-IRESCre mutants survive to birth and ...
However, the overall performance of Lurcher mice was better than that of pcd mutants. Lurcher mice showed the ability of visual ... Nevertheless, they differ in pathogenesis of manifestation of the particular mutation and also in the strain background. The ... However, the overall performance of Lurcher mice was better than that of pcd mutants. Lurcher mice showed the ability of visual ... There is a wide spectrum of cerebellar mutant mice which are used as models of hereditary cerebellar degenerations. ...
Mouse mutant strains and breeding. All mouse experiments were conducted with the prior approval of the Cornell Institutional ... show colocalization in the Blmflox/neo mouse; however, in the BLM-deleted mutant mouse where BLM is absent from some ... CKO mouse ID no. 5439 and 3862) and two Blmflox/neo (CKO mouse ID no. 4026 and 5443) mice. PCR amplification of the floxed ... only the Blmflox/neo mice are presented in this study as comparisons with Blmneo/cko mice. Mice were genotyped for Blm alleles ...
Scheme of deleted mouse strains used in this work. On the top, the HoxD cluster with the position of the various LoxP sites ( ... red). Each site represents an independent mouse strain. The strains containing the L5, L6, L7, and L8 sites were produced for ... HoxD cluster scanning deletions identify multiple defects leading to paralysis in the mouse mutant Ironside.. Tarchini B1, ... HoxD cluster scanning deletions identify multiple defects leading to paralysis in the mouse mutant Ironside ...
Mice, Mutant Strains * Mutation * Neoplasm Invasiveness * Pancreas / pathology * Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism * Pancreatic ... Surprisingly, adult mice become refractory to K-Ras(G12V)-induced PanINs and PDA. However, if these mice are challenged with a ... Chronic pancreatitis is essential for induction of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma by K-Ras oncogenes in adult mice Cancer ...
Mice, Inbred Strains * Mice, Mutant Strains * Molecular Weight * Mutation * Protein Isoforms / chemistry ... We also demonstrate that the formation of the XY body during spermatogenic progression in neonatal mice coincides with the ...
2003) Differences among eight inbred strains of mice in motor ability and motor learning on a rotorod. Genes Brain Behav 2:214- ... However, based on the relative affinity of this antibody to mutant and to wild-type htt in Hdh-Q111 knock-in mice (ibid), and ... 2003) Mutant huntingtin causes context-dependent neurodegeneration in mice with Huntingtons disease. J Neurosci 23:2193-2202. ... BACHD as a robust preclinical mouse model expressing full-length mutant huntingtin. We next asked whether BACHD could be used ...
Mouse Strains. Fmr1 KO - This is the original Fmr1 knockout animal that carries an insertion in exon 5 (Bakker et al., 1994). ... Fragile X Mutant Mouse Facility FRAXA Research Foundation 2006-2010 Grants • 2011 Grants • 2012 Grants • 2014 Grants • 2015 ... There has been demand for all mouse strains, although the Fmr1 mutations are most popular. ... Mice available from the BCM facility have been backcrossed over 20 generations to the C57/Bl6 strain. ...
... β mutant strains were inserted under the skin of mice at the dorsum. Each mouse received 2 pieces, left and right, 1 of which ... A) CLSM pictures of S. epidermidis 1457 WT, isogenic psmβ mutant, and psmβ-complemented strains. The WT and psmβ mutant strains ... β mutant strain (Table 1), indicating dissemination is favored in the WT over the mutant strain. Bacteria were rarely found in ... epidermidis strains and the 1457 strain used in this study. Construction of the psmβ mutant allelic replacement strain is shown ...
Biological Methods for Archiving and Maintaining Mutant Laboratory Mice. Part I: Conserving Mutant Strains ... Biological Methods for Archiving and Maintaining Mutant Laboratory Mice. Part II: Recovery and Distribution of Conserved Mutant ... The volume explores classic procedures to genetically modify mice and other model organisms, as well as cutting-edge practices ... Covers a wide range of organisms, including Drosophila, C. elegans, Xenopus, zebrafish, rat and mouse ...
... strain #003310] (Soriano, 1999). Compound conditional mutant mice (Lmx1a−/−; Lmx1bcko/− mice) were generated by intercrossing ... These Lmx1b conditional mutant mice were also bred with Lmx1a mutant mice to further reduce Lmx1 gene dosage. Lmx1a; Lmx1b ... Mice.. Lmx1a-null (Lmx1a−/−) (Lmx1adr-J The Jackson Laboratory strain #000636), Lmx1b-null (Lmx1b−/−) (Chen et al., 1998), ... The mice used to create the desired mutant embryos carried a floxed allele of Lmx1b (Lmx1bf) (Zhao et al., 2006) and a null ...
Inheritance of a mutant histocompatibility gene and a new mammary tumor virus genome in the B6.KH-84 mouse strain. / Colombo, ... Inheritance of a mutant histocompatibility gene and a new mammary tumor virus genome in the B6.KH-84 mouse strain. ... Inheritance of a mutant histocompatibility gene and a new mammary tumor virus genome in the B6.KH-84 mouse strain. ... title = "Inheritance of a mutant histocompatibility gene and a new mammary tumor virus genome in the B6.KH-84 mouse strain", ...
DOI: 10.1016/j.str.2009.08.016. *Primary Citation of Related Structures: 3IM5, 3IM6, 3ILA, 3IM7 ... Crystal structure of mouse Ryanodine Receptor 2 mutant V186M. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb3IM6/pdb ... A RyR2 deletion mutant causes significant changes in the thermal stability. The disease positions highlight two putative ... Crystal structures of two RyR2 disease mutants, A77V (2.2 A) and V186M (1.7 A), show that the mutations cause distinct local ...
View mouse strain NOD.Cg-Tg(TcrLCMV)327Sdz/Dvs : mutations, QTL, phenotypes, diseases, and references. ... Mouse Resources & Model Organism Links. *Phenotypes & Mutants Community Resources. *Nucleic Acids Research (Journal) Database ... Mouse Genome Database (MGD), Gene Expression Database (GXD), Mouse Models of Human Cancer database (MMHCdb) (formerly Mouse ... J:71050 Serreze DV, et al., Autoreactive diabetogenic T-cells in NOD mice can efficiently expand from a greatly reduced ...
Selected mutants of mouse hepatitis-virus type-4 (jhm-strain) induce different cns diseases - pathobiology of disease induced ... mutants, designated ts8 and ts15, in BALB/c and SJL/J mice. In BALB/c mice, 3 plaque-forming units (PFU) of wt MHV-4 given ... BALB/c mice usually showed demyelination, remyelination, and recurrent demyelination with ts8, while SJL/J mice only rarely had ... TS15 did not cause death in either BALB/c or SJL/J mice and did not cause histopathologic injury in SJL/J mice. ...
Here, using a mouse model of infection, the authors show that S. pyogenes readily transit through sequential lymph nodes within ... Although some of our observations may be specific to the strain of mouse or specific hypervirulent strains used, our ... Isogenic strains were: wildtype (H584); acapsular mutant, Δcapsule (H1454); high-capsule ΔP2 (H1458); and high-capsule CovR ... To construct a SpyCEP allelic replacement mutant (H1567), in hypervirulent strain H1565, a 520 bp fragment of the cepA gene and ...
When catecholamine-deficient [tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) null] mouse fetuses die at embryonic day (E)13.5-14.5, they resemble ... Mice. Mice, Inbred Strains. Mice, Mutant Strains. Norepinephrine / blood*, deficiency. Oxygen / pharmacology*. Oxygen ... When catecholamine-deficient [tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) null] mouse fetuses die at embryonic day (E)13.5-14.5, they resemble ... supporting the notion that mutants experience lower oxygen tension or have an enhanced response to hypoxia. Hypoxia induces a ...
Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Mutant Strains. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors, metabolism. ... Furthermore, upregulation of the PI3K-Akt pathway in mutant mice lacking phosphatase and tensin homolog, a lipid phosphatase ... In cultured mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons, two mechanistically different forms of desensitization were observed after ...
Mouse Virulence Studies. Virulence of wild-type and mutant Bp strains were assessed using an intranasal BALB/c mouse model as ... Construction of Isogenic Mutant Strains. Isogenic unmarked mutant Bp strains carrying a 3.7 kb deletion of the TFP4 gene ... we generated isogenic Bp mutant strains deleted in the TFP4 locus, and tested the virulence of TFP4 deletion strains in a BALB/ ... A) Relative Virulence of TFP4 Deletion Mutants: Graphs show survival curves of BALB/c mice following intranasal challenge with ...
  • In order to test this, we constructed marked and unmarked deletion mutants of B. abortus and B. melitensis in genes previously demonstrated by transposon mutagenesis to attenuate in vivo and in vitro virulence. (openthesis.org)
  • Phenotypic analysis of single and compound conditional mutants confirmed overlapping roles for Lmx1 genes in regulating hindbrain roof plate formation and growth and also revealed roles in regulating adjacent cerebellar morphogenesis. (jneurosci.org)
  • conditional compound mutant mice showed severe fourth ventricle roof plate size reduction, confirming overlapping roles for the dorsally expressed Lmx1 genes in roof plate formation. (jneurosci.org)
  • GSE10341), hypoxia-inducible factor-1 target genes are induced to a greater extent in null fetuses than in wt siblings, supporting the notion that mutants experience lower oxygen tension or have an enhanced response to hypoxia. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The evolutionary success of Bp as a thriving soil microbe suggests that most Bp strains are likely to possess a common repertoire of genes (the Bp core genome, or BpCG) regulating survival and fitness in this highly competitive environmental niche. (prolekare.cz)
  • The polyglutamate system's requirement for the five cap genes, for capsulation and anchoring, was assayed in nonpolar mutants. (asm.org)
  • In reverse transcription-PCR analyses, the expression of the pic and tsh genes in E. coli CFT073 was higher in broth cultures grown at 37°C than at 25°C. Moreover, pic and tsh were expressed by bacteria isolated from urine of transurethrally infected mice. (asm.org)
  • We have adapted a microarray-based transposon tracking strategy for use with a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium cDNA microarray in order to identify genes important for survival and replication in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage-like cells or in the spleens of BALB/cJ mice. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, vaccinated mice harbored hemagglutinin genes that had mutated to allow the viruses to bind more strongly to the receptors used to enter lung cells. (nih.gov)
  • Five mutants were identified by STM as having iron acquisition gene homologs, including nrpG (homologous to yersiniabactin), hasR , and genes encoding an iron transport permease and an iron-regulated outer membrane protein [46]. (umich.edu)
  • In a new study, McIver's laboratory and researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine identified two genes important for invasive group A Streptococcus infections in mice. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Studies of the small intestines of transgenic mice showed that the subepithelial basement membranes (BM) were highly abnormal and that they exhibited heightened expression of genes involved in immune responses. (aacrjournals.org)
  • With the aim of identifying some of the remaining deafness genes, we performed an ethylnitrosourea mutagenesis screen for deaf mice. (plos.org)
  • These included lists and maps of mouse genes and mutants, information on inbred strains, and brief reports of useful results that did not merit a full paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • On behalf of the Committee for Standardised Genetic Nomenclature for Mice, nomenclature rules for naming mouse genes and mouse strains were published. (wikipedia.org)
  • The new maps ranged from a Mouse Chromosome Atlas that showed man-mouse homologies and correspondence between the genetic and G-band maps and replaced the previous linkage map, to maps of man-mouse homologies, cancer-related genes, the Genetic Imprinting map (http://mousebook.org), the chromosome aberration map, and a probe/clone map. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first issue of the year was a "Maps" issue, the second issue was a "Genes" issue, the third issue was "Inbred Strains" and the fourth issue was a DNA probes and Restriction fragment length polymorphism issue. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was found that termination of the ICP34.5 gene after the N-terminal 30 amino acids resulted in a mutant, 17termA, which was 25- to 90-fold reduced in neurovirulence. (asm.org)
  • Restoration of the ICP34.5 gene to the mutant resulted in a virus which displayed wild-type neurovirulence and replication kinetics in all cells and tissues tested. (asm.org)
  • Complementation of the M. tuberculosis SO2 with the wild-type phoP gene restored the virulence of the strain in the SCID mice, confirming that the attenuated phenotype is due to the phoP mutation. (pasteur.fr)
  • Fmr1 CGG expansion - These animals carry an expanded (~100 triplets) CGG repeat in the mouse Fmr1 gene. (fraxa.org)
  • Mice that are homozygous for the pmn gene defect appear healthy at birth but develop progressive motoneuron disease, resulting in severe skeletal muscle weakness and respiratory failure by postnatal week 3. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We localized the genetic defect in pmn mice to a missense mutation in the tubulin - specific chaperone E (Tbce) gene on mouse chromosome 13. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To identify the corresponding gene defect in pmn mice, we have performed detailed genetic mapping by genotyping 229 pmn/pmn F2 progeny from one male NMRI founder that was heterozygous for the pmn gene defect and two female AKR mice. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Characterization of the gene defect in pmn mice. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We report the cloning and targeted disruption of the mouse Smad3 gene. (nih.gov)
  • This resource has been essential for a broad, rapid distribution of Fragile X and related gene mouse models and has increased the pace of Fragile X research. (fraxa.org)
  • The Oostra and Nelson groups developed a knockout mouse for this gene by insertion of a selection cassette into exon 7, eliminating protein expression (Bontekoe et al. (fraxa.org)
  • Colombo, MP, Melvold, RW & Wettstein, PJ 1987, ' Inheritance of a mutant histocompatibility gene and a new mammary tumor virus genome in the B6.KH-84 mouse strain ', Immunogenetics , vol. 26, no. 1-2, pp. 99-104. (elsevier.com)
  • Wettstein, Peter J. / Inheritance of a mutant histocompatibility gene and a new mammary tumor virus genome in the B6.KH-84 mouse strain . (elsevier.com)
  • These Lmx1b conditional mutant mice were also bred with Lmx1a mutant mice to further reduce Lmx1 gene dosage. (jneurosci.org)
  • The roles in gene regulation and colonization of infant mice of one major class of regulators controlling chemotaxis signaling were further investigated by defined mutational analysis. (pnas.org)
  • All of the V. cholerae strains used in this study are isogenic derivatives of El Tor biotype strain, C6709-1, containing the res-tet-res substrate for TnpR resolvase integrated within the endogenous lacZ gene (strain AC-V66) ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • To study the function of Notch signaling in the skin of adult mice, we made use of a series of conditional gene targeted mice that allow inactivation of several components of the Notch signaling pathway specifically in the skin. (nih.gov)
  • These results suggest that the initial lesion caused by the mutant gene is intrinsic to the kidney and that the immune response that subsequently occurs can involve any one of several different cellular compositions. (jimmunol.org)
  • During experiments on the positional cloning of the kd gene, we identified mice with recombinant haplotypes in which crossover events had occurred very near the gene for this disease ( 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • To our knowledge, the CBA/CaH- kd strain no longer exists, so the B6 .kd strain described here may be the only living carrier of this mutant gene. (jimmunol.org)
  • kd carries the same mutant gene as CBA/CaH- kd is quite strong. (jimmunol.org)
  • First, the construct validity (shared underlying etiology between mouse models and patients) of the AS mouse model is very good, since AS mouse models recapitulate the patient genetics by carrying a mutated Ube3a gene specifically at the maternal allele. (springer.com)
  • Journal Article] Gene-trap mutagenesis using Mol/MSM-1 embryonic stem cells from MSM/Ms mice. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In the fully virulent CO92 strain of Yersinia pestis, the tatA gene was deleted. (nih.gov)
  • Deletion of the tatA gene resulted in several consequences for the mutant as compared to wild-type. (nih.gov)
  • The mutant was severely attenuated in the bubonic model with full virulence restored by complementation with the native gene. (nih.gov)
  • One group of mutants was interrupted in cydB , a gene that is part of the cydAB operon encoding cytochrome bd oxidase, which catalyzes an alternate terminal electron transport step in bacterial respiration. (asm.org)
  • Both types of DISC1 mutant mice exhibited the same kind of reduced brain volume seen in people with schizophrenia and depression, and both types showed biochemical abnormalities in the function of the protein produced by the DISC1 gene. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Here, we investigate the role for histone acetylation in the developmentally regulated rearrangements of the mouse TCR-gamma gene, wherein predominant rearrangement is switched from Vgamma3 to Vgamma2 gene during the fetal to adult thymocyte development. (nih.gov)
  • Evidence from cultures of mutant and normal cerebellum show that granule cells of wv/wv and wv/+ mice have gene-dosage dependent abnormalities in morphology and cell behavior. (neurolex.org)
  • To elucidate mechanisms of inflammation-induced carcinogenesis, we undertook a comprehensive analysis of histopathology, molecular damage, and gene expression changes during disease progression in these mice. (nih.gov)
  • We previously prepared a native (non-detergent-treated) OMV vaccine from a mutant of group B strain H44/76 in which the lpxL1 gene was inactivated, which resulted in penta-acylated lipid A with attenuated endotoxin activity. (asm.org)
  • This study revealed that incompatibility of interactions of X-linked gene(s) with autosomal and/or Y-linked gene(s) causes the hybrid breakdown between the genetically distant C57BL/6J and MSM/Ms strains. (genetics.org)
  • Systemic vasculitis in MRL/lpr mice is genetically controlled with cumulative effects of multiple gene loci, each of which has tissue specificity. (wiley.com)
  • However, the effect of Tdo2 gene deletion on behavioral phenotypes has not yet been investigated extensively.Materials & Methods: We conducted tests to further examine the behavioral effects of knockout (KO) of Tdo2 in mice. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The MMRRC at UNC distributes and cryopreserves scientifically valuable, genetically engineered mouse strains and mouse ES cell lines with potential value for the genetics and biomedical research community. (unc.edu)
  • Mouse News Letter (MNL) was a bulletin of mouse genetics information published from 1949 to 1998. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mouse News Letter now exists as a company, Mouse News Letter Ltd, which promotes the science of Genetics and provides funds to enable younger scientists to attend Genetics Conferences. (wikipedia.org)
  • To survey the history of the Mouse News Letter is to see the history of mouse genetics unfold. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the Eighth International Genetics Congress in 1948 eminent geneticists Douglas Falconer, R.A.Fisher, Salome Gluecksohn-Waelsch, Hans Grüneberg and Paula Hertwig agreed that investigators working on mouse genetics and development needed a regular information bulletin. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the 1990s it became clear with the exponential increase in knowledge that the long-term future of mouse genetics information was an electronic one. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this report, specific mutations within ICP34.5 were constructed in HSV-1 strain 17syn+ to determine the effects of these mutations in a fully neurovirulent isolate. (asm.org)
  • The Jackson Laboratory distributes a number of mice with targeted mutations ("knockout") for these TNF superfamily members. (jax.org)
  • Describes mouse models for ocular research available at The Jackson Laboratory and provides a list of known mouse mutations that affect vision. (jax.org)
  • Mice harboring spontaneous mutations have long been a major source for animal models of human genetic disorders, but until recently the process of identifying causative mutations has been time-consuming, labor-intensive and costly. (jax.org)
  • We characterize mice carrying spontaneous genetic mutations genetically, genomically and phenotypically prior to making them available to researchers. (jax.org)
  • Over 700 established mutant stocks are maintained in the Mouse Mutant Resource, and 90-100 new mutations are at various stages of characterization. (jax.org)
  • Mice with newly identified spontaneous mutations undergo genetic, genomic and phenotypic characterization to evaluate and develop their value as resources for ongoing biomedical research. (jax.org)
  • We use exome sequencing to characterize spontaneous mutation mice, and were the first to publish this approach for the discovery of mutations in the mouse genome. (jax.org)
  • Moreover, the mutations appear in different mouse strains and these mutants retain specific phenotypic traits of the original strains. (frontiersin.org)
  • With respect to these facts, it is therefore difficult to compare the behavioral phenotype of various mutations in mice of different background strains from different studies. (frontiersin.org)
  • To define the role of these residues in thymocyte development, we generated two lines of "knock-in" mice, one expressing a mutation in tyrosine 145 (Y145F) and a second harboring two point mutations at tyrosines 112 and 128 (Y112-128F). (nih.gov)
  • Although several proximal TCR signaling events were defective in both mutant mice, phosphorylation of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor, Vav1, and activation of Itk-dependent pathways were differentially affected by mutations at Y112-128 and Y145, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • There has been demand for all mouse strains, although the Fmr1 mutations are most popular. (fraxa.org)
  • The potential association between integration or deletion of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) retroviral sequences and the appearance of non-H-2 histocompatibility (H) antigen mutations was investigated. (elsevier.com)
  • Genomic blots from inbred strains carrying 22 loss, gain-loss, and gain mutations on the BALB/c and C57BL/6 backgrounds were hybridized with probes homologous to the long terminal repeat (LTR) and envelope (env) regions of MMTV. (elsevier.com)
  • Crystal structures of two RyR2 disease mutants, A77V (2.2 A) and V186M (1.7 A), show that the mutations cause distinct local changes in the surface of the protein. (rcsb.org)
  • Blue squares indicate phenotypes directly attributed to mutations/alleles in this strain. (jax.org)
  • Dysferlin-null mouse models do not allow to study the consequences of missense mutations. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • COL4A1 mutations cause ocular dysgenesis, neuronal localization defects, and myopathy in mice and Walker-Warburg syndrome in humans. (ucsf.edu)
  • To test this theory, they screened a large population of mouse mutants to isolate two with different mutations in DISC1. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Mice homozygous for these mutations display profound hearing loss. (plos.org)
  • We performed a mouse mutagenesis screen to isolate dominant mutations causing hearing loss. (plos.org)
  • The deafness mutations in these mice lie in Atp2b2 , which encodes the plasma membrane calcium ATPase 2 (PMCA2). (plos.org)
  • by using ung + and and for rpoB mutations in E. coli K12 in mouse macrophages. (cdc.gov)
  • Nevertheless, they differ in pathogenesis of manifestation of the particular mutation and also in the strain background. (frontiersin.org)
  • On the other hand, the identification and understanding of specific impairments related to a particular mutation should be of interest regarding the variability of human hereditary cerebellar degenerations ( Manto, 2005 ) and the use of mouse models for the development of disease-targeted therapeutic approaches. (frontiersin.org)
  • A spontaneous semidominant mutation (Ironside, Irn) was isolated in mice, leading to severe hindlimb paralysis following multiple deletions in cis at the HoxD locus. (nih.gov)
  • We generated a new mouse model (MMex38) carrying a missense mutation in exon 38 in analogy to a clinically relevant human DYSF variant (DYSF p.Leu1341Pro). (mdc-berlin.de)
  • The targeted mutation induces all characteristics of missense mutant dysferlinopathy including a progressive dystrophic pattern, amyloid formation and defects in membrane repair. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • The kidney disease ( kd ) 3 mutation that occurred spontaneously in a colony of CBA/CaH mice ( 1 ) provides an interesting model of autoimmune disease. (jimmunol.org)
  • Mice homozygous for this mutation are apparently healthy for at least the first 10 weeks of life but then develop polyuria and polydipsia. (jimmunol.org)
  • A single mutation was introduced into genome of these mice resulting in the substantially accelerated mutagenesis in mitochondria. (eurekalert.org)
  • The mutation promotes development of many age-related defects and diseases indicating that the major defect of these mice is indeed ageing. (eurekalert.org)
  • The mouse carries a silent genetic mutation of an oncogene known as K-ras, which is found in about one-third of all tested non-small cell lung cancers in people. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Previous reports have shown that mice heterozygous for a null mutation in α -CaMKII, which encodes a key synaptic plasticity molecule, display abnormal behaviors related to schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. (hindawi.com)
  • or A/A Kncj6wv/+ Strain Description Mice homozygous for the weaver spontaneous mutation (Kcnj6wv) are recognizable in the second postnatal week by their small size, instability of gait, weakness, and hypotonia. (neurolex.org)
  • Jobin and his team reared mice with a mutation that makes them susceptible to inflammatory bowel disease in germ-free cages. (scientificamerican.com)
  • With this in mind, Li et al generated several strains of mutant mice lacking the BDNF receptor TrkB. (scienceblogs.com)
  • In the present study, the behavioral phenotype of two of the most frequently used mouse models of olivocerebellar degeneration, Lurcher and Purkinje cell degeneration ( pcd ), were studied. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, the localization of BLM protein on meiotic chromosomes together with evidence from yeast and other organisms implicates a role for BLM helicase in meiotic recombination events, prompting us to explore the meiotic phenotype of mice bearing a conditional mutant allele of Blm . (rupress.org)
  • In contrast, 10(4) PFU of MHV-4 ts8 did not cause death in either BALB/c or SJL/J mice, and persisted in the CNS of both strains while retaining its ts phenotype. (scripps.edu)
  • To date, the iDG phenotype and shared behavioral abnormalities (including working memory deficit and hyperlocomotor activity) have been discovered in Schnurri-2 knockout, mutant SNAP-25 knock-in, and forebrain-specific calcineurin knockout mice. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, both chronic fluoxetine treatment and pilocarpine-induced seizures reverse the neuronal maturation, resulting in the iDG phenotype in wild-type mice. (hindawi.com)
  • A signature pattern, quite similar to the iDG phenotype identified in these mutant mice, has also been found in mice treated with chronic fluoxetine [ 5 ] and in a pilocarpine-induced mouse model of epilepsy [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Whereas deletion of RBP-J in renin-expressing cells of C57BL/6 mice leads to the development of B-cell leukemia, 129/SV mice develop dermatitis with a reactive, myeloproliferative phenotype. (biologists.org)
  • The Kluyveromyces lactis ter1-16T strain contains mutant telomeres that are poorly bound by Rap1, resulting in a telomere-uncapping phenotype and significant elongation of the telomeric DNA. (asm.org)
  • Starved WT fish showed intestinal atrophy, zymogen granule loss, and tp53 upregulation - similar to the mutant phenotype. (jci.org)
  • In addition, there was reduction in neutral lipid storage and ribosomal protein amount, similar to the mutant phenotype. (jci.org)
  • However, genomic blots of one gain mutant, B6.C-KH-84, exhibited restriction fragments which were not exhibited by either of the parental strains, C57BL/6 or BALB/c. (elsevier.com)
  • identified a single genetic locus (Ahl) that could explain the early presbycusis observed in the inbred C57BL/6J mouse strain. (cdc.gov)
  • In the congenic C57BL/6J strain, the Ahl locus has been replaced by the wild-type locus from the inbred CBA/CaJ strain (strain B6.CBA). (cdc.gov)
  • This presentation will compare ABR results in the two congenic strains as well as compare the present data with the previous inbred C57BL/6J and CBA/CaJ data. (cdc.gov)
  • Strain Development Weaver (Kcnj6wv) arose spontaneously in the pedigreed expansion stocks of C57BL/6J at The Jackson Laboratory in 1961. (neurolex.org)
  • Further, we compared the incidence and timing of leukemia development in two unique strains of mice, C57BL/6 and 129/SV, as well as at different B-cell developmental stages. (biologists.org)
  • In addition, we found a difference in leukemia incidence between C57BL/6 and 129/SV mouse strains. (biologists.org)
  • C57BL/6 mice have more renin-expressing cells within hematopoietic tissues. (biologists.org)
  • We studied hybrid breakdown using a new consomic strain, C57BL/6J-X MSM , in which the X chromosome of C57BL/6J (derived mostly from Mus musculus domesticus ) is substituted by the X chromosome of the MSM/Ms strain ( M. m. molossinus ). (genetics.org)
  • Males of this consomic strain are sterile, whereas F 1 hybrids between C57BL/6J and MSM/Ms are completely fertile. (genetics.org)
  • The Mycobacterium tuberculosis phoP mutant strain SO2 has previously been shown to have reduced multiplication in mouse macrophages and in vivo using the mouse intravenous-infection model. (pasteur.fr)
  • Transposon (Tn 5 ) mutagenesis of B. abortus and the subsequent screening of mutants for sensitivity to killing in murine macrophages and in the mouse model led to the identification of mutants which were severely attenuated for intracellular survival. (asm.org)
  • IgG immune complex-binding in macrophages from arthritis-susceptible and arthritis-resistant mice following collagen type II immunization. (diva-portal.org)
  • The interaction of five mutant strains with mouse bone marrow macrophages was investigated. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • A 50,000-CFU transposon library of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain SL1344 was serially passaged in cultured macrophages or intraperitoneally inoculated into BALB/cJ mice. (asm.org)
  • Infected mice developed severe colitis and hepatitis by 10ýýwk post-infection, progressing into colon carcinoma by 20ýýwk post-infection, with pronounced pathology in the cecum and proximal colon marked by infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages. (nih.gov)
  • This mutant is attenuated for viral virulence by its inability to suppress the innate immune response. (asm.org)
  • The rM51R virus is attenuated for spread to the central nervous system and is attenuated for virulence in mice ( 1 , 2 , 45 ). (asm.org)
  • These results indicate that M protein mutant VSV has the ability to induce an adaptive immune response in vivo in the absence of viral virulence and support its potential as a vaccine vector. (asm.org)
  • The mutant was assayed for loss of virulence through various in vitro and in vivo assays. (nih.gov)
  • The virulence of the ΔtatA mutant was assessed in various murine models of plague. (nih.gov)
  • Tn 5 strains exhibited heightened sensitivity to the respiratory inhibitors zinc and azide, highly reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide, low pH, and attenuated virulence in the mouse model of infection. (asm.org)
  • Each approach dramatically reduced the virulence of staph infections in mice. (redorbit.com)
  • From 1927 mutants tested, 16 were attenuated for their virulence. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The SMSR maintains mice that are important tools for genetic analysis of complex diseases, including consomic strains. (jax.org)
  • To achieve maximal genetic diversity, we elected to analyze all Bp strains regardless of their source of isolation (clinical or environmental). (prolekare.cz)
  • Genetic mapping experiments conducted by crossing the CBA/CaH- kd strain with an unrelated strain, CAST, found no recombination between kd and the microsatellite markers D10Mit-225, -184, -108, -54, and -55 of 539 backcross and 435 F 2 progeny ( 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • We further assessed the robustness of these phenotypes by comparing Ube3a mutants in different genetic backgrounds and by comparing the behavioral phenotypes of independently derived Ube3a -mutant lines. (springer.com)
  • We find that the test battery is robust across different Ube3a -mutant lines, but confirm and extend earlier studies that several phenotypes are very sensitive to genetic background. (springer.com)
  • The CS mouse is a useful model to explore a genetic background of oscillator coupling in the circadian system of nocturnal rodents. (springer.com)
  • Molecular and Genetic Analyses of Collagen Type IV Mutant Mouse Models of Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage Identify Mechanisms for Stroke Prevention. (ucsf.edu)
  • The researchers said their findings in mice offer a possible animal model for developing treatments for schizophrenia and depression, which have been proven to share common genetic mechanisms by the researchers. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In mice, genetic studies on reproductive isolation have focused mostly on male sterility in F 1 hybrids between subspecies or closely related species. (genetics.org)
  • Thus, this strain of mice may be useful for clarifying whether the tissue distribution of vasculitis is under genetic control. (wiley.com)
  • It has also been used for genetic engineering to create mutant mouse strains. (sba-list.org)
  • Accurate recapitulation of these genetic alterations using genetically engineered mouse models allows for in vivo modeling of brain tumors with similar histopathology, etiology, and biology. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In 1998 Mouse Genome, the official journal of the International Committee for Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice, merged with Mammalian Genome the official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting congenic strain, B6. (jimmunol.org)
  • Susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss in two congenic mouse strains. (cdc.gov)
  • Recently, Johnson has developed two relevant congenic mouse strains. (cdc.gov)
  • In the congenic CBA/CaJ strain the wild-type locus has been replaced by the mutant Ahl locus (strain CBA.B6). (cdc.gov)
  • The present study was designed to test these congenic strains for their vulnerability to noise-induced hearing loss. (cdc.gov)
  • This would be expected based on the fact that the congenic CBA.B6 mice genotypes included the mutant Ahl locus. (cdc.gov)
  • In this study we demonstrate that the M. tuberculosis SO2 is highly attenuated when compared with the parental M. tuberculosis MT103 strain and also more attenuated than BCG in severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) mice. (pasteur.fr)
  • In Balb/c mice subcutaneously vaccinated with either M. tuberculosis SO2 or BCG, the proportions of CD4+ and CD8+ populations measured in the spleen were significantly higher in the M. tuberculosis SO2 vaccinated group. (pasteur.fr)
  • Balb/c mice subcutaneously vaccinated with the M. tuberculosis SO2 strain were also protected against intra-venous challenge with M. tuberculosis H37Rv at levels comparable to mice vaccinated with BCG, as measured by reduced bacterial counts in lung and spleens. (pasteur.fr)
  • The insertions harboured by the selected mutants were mapped on the M. tuberculosis genome and most of the mutated loci appeared to be involved in lipid metabolism or transport across the membrane. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Using a mouse model of tuberculosis, we have shown lower doses of bedaquiline together with verapamil have the same antibacterial effect as the higher toxic doses," says Shashank Gupta, Ph.D., a research fellow at Johns Hopkins. (eurekalert.org)
  • mutability in some strains of this mutants for M. tuberculosis , i.e., 2002;17:250-8. (cdc.gov)
  • Human at least one of the translesion synthe- tuberculosis strains of the W-Beijing fami- ly. (cdc.gov)
  • Recent research has focused upon the development of rough vaccine strains to avoid interference with standard diagnostic tests. (openthesis.org)
  • In an effort to develop improved vaccine strains, we have screened signature tagged mutagenesis banks to identify mutants with varying survival characteristics. (openthesis.org)
  • The asp24 mutants, which persist for extended periods in vivo, appear superior as a vaccine candidate compared to approved vaccine strains S19 and Rev1 in the mouse model against either homologous or heterologous challenges. (openthesis.org)
  • In order to evaluate safety of the novel vaccine strains as well as protection against infection and abortion, we tested selected B. melitensis unmarked deletion mutants in a natural host, the goat. (openthesis.org)
  • Studies presented here test an alternative approach for attenuation that uses a matrix (M) protein mutant (rM51R) VSV as a vaccine vector against respiratory infection. (asm.org)
  • These results demonstrate the potential of M protein mutant VSVs as candidate vaccine vectors against human diseases. (asm.org)
  • The goal of the experiments presented here was to test this strategy using matrix (M) protein mutants of VSV as vaccine vectors. (asm.org)
  • In the last decade, however, as staph increased its ability to resist multiple antibiotics and drug-resistant strains came to dominate the community setting, the search for a protective vaccine has moved to center stage. (redorbit.com)
  • When they exposed mice to these mutant microbes, two sets of potential vaccine targets emerged. (redorbit.com)
  • The vaccine enabled these mice to reduce tissue damage and prevent, or at least delay, death. (redorbit.com)
  • The also made and tested an anti-coagulase vaccine by injecting purified versions of the clotting factors from a different kind of bacteria (E. coli) into mice and allowing the mice time to produce antibodies. (redorbit.com)
  • Sequencing revealed that the unvaccinated mice, which lacked vaccine-induced antibodies, had no mutated influenza viruses in their lungs. (nih.gov)
  • This mutant strain also served as a potent vaccine, protecting mice from normal S. typhimurium and other forms of Salmonella (Science, vol 284, p967). (newscientist.com)
  • The vaccine elicited broad serum bactericidal antibody responses in mice against strains with fHbp variant 1 (∼70% of group B isolates) but not against strains with variant 2 or 3. (asm.org)
  • Conjugate vaccines based on the capsular polysaccharide are available against strains with capsular groups A, C, W-135, and Y. No broadly protective vaccine is available against strains with capsular group B, in part because of safety concerns about cross-reactivities of anticapsular antibodies with glycoproteins in human tissues ( 10 , 15 ). (asm.org)
  • In recent years, three principal strategies have been pursued to expand vaccine protection against genetically diverse N. meningitidis group B strains ( 16 ). (asm.org)
  • We demonstrate that an oral vaccine based on live recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum protects mice from tick-transmitted Borrelia burgdorferi infection. (asm.org)
  • Presentation of antigens on the surface of lactobacilli is attractive for vaccine design, especially because the peptidoglycan layer of some strains appears to exhibit natural immuno-adjuvanticity ( 33 , 35 , 44 , 46 ). (asm.org)
  • Of the Lactobacillus strains previously used for vaccine delivery, we chose L. plantarum because there is evidence that this strain is a better agent for vaccination with tetanus toxin fragment C (TTFC) than L. casei or L. lactis ( 22 , 53 ). (asm.org)
  • These deleted strains are classified in three groups, with the same color code throughout the paper, based on the severity of the paralysis, documented by footprint analyses of representative homozygous specimen. (nih.gov)
  • Many homozygous mutant mice die at weaning age, but some survive to adulthood, and females may breed. (neurolex.org)
  • The cerebellum in homozygous mutants is very small, simple, and almost devoid of granule cells, which degenerate during the second week. (neurolex.org)
  • In previous studies, mice that were homozygous for a transgene ( Col13a1 del ) expressing mutant collagen XIII with a partial deletion of the collagenous ectodomain died in utero of cardiovascular defects ( 17 , 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Homozygous mutant fish developed normally until 15 dpf. (jci.org)
  • Survival and efficacy of these novel deletion mutants were then evaluated in the mouse model. (openthesis.org)
  • The Fgf8 mutants described herein display the complete array of cardiovascular, glandular and craniofacial phenotypes seen in human deletion 22q11 syndromes. (biologists.org)
  • For convenience, the strains are referred to as, for example, Del(10-13) for a deletion removing from Hoxd10 to Hoxd13 , inclusively [ HoxD Del(10-13) ]. (nih.gov)
  • A RyR2 deletion mutant causes significant changes in the thermal stability. (rcsb.org)
  • In the third strain, deletion of the receptor from differentiated neurons had no apparent effect. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Cell morphology of the mutant bacteria was altered and demonstrated a more elongated form. (nih.gov)
  • So mice confronted with a staph infection do not make antibodies against the bacteria. (redorbit.com)
  • Mice exposed to the "non-toxic" version of protein A were able to mount an effective immune response, killing bacteria, -- including the virulent strain known as USA300, the current source of about 60 percent of staph infections. (redorbit.com)
  • However, of the SPI1-associated mutants individually tested for intracellular survival, only a sirA mutant exhibited reduced numbers relative to those of wild-type bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Surprisingly, however, we demonstrated that swarmer cells, visualized by examination of GFP-expressing bacteria by confocal microscopy in infected mouse tissue, were very rare [43]. (umich.edu)
  • It also protected against the development of resistant mutants of the bacteria in the animals. (eurekalert.org)
  • Mice with inflammatory bowel disease contain higher proportions of toxin-producing bacteria that may lead to colorectal cancer, the researchers say. (scientificamerican.com)
  • They then moved these mice to cages where mice teeming with bacteria had previously lived. (scientificamerican.com)
  • There is evidence that some strains of lactic acid bacteria have a favorable influence on physiologic and pathological processes of the host due to their specific health-promoting probiotic characteristics that relate to modulation of the immune system ( 15 , 36 , 41 ). (asm.org)
  • Some strains of lactic acid bacteria polarize the naïve immune system by skewing it toward Th1 responses ( 41 , 56 ). (asm.org)
  • Although the mutant protein is widely expressed, the most affected cell types in HD are the medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) in the striatum and pyramidal neurons in the cortex ( Vonsattel and DiFiglia, 1998 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • We hypothesized that Lmx1b, a protein with 64% amino acid identity to mouse Lmx1a (100% identity in the homeodomain and 67% and 83% in each LIM domain), functions redundantly with Lmx1a. (jneurosci.org)
  • Inhibition of protein biotinylation increased the potency of the frontline TB drug rifampicin both in vitro and during infection of mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • Autopsy showed that the 'mad mice' had all the signs of BSE, with 'holes' and characteristic clumps of protein fibrils in the brain. (newscientist.com)
  • A recombinant mutant virus in which the methionine at position 51 is mutated to an arginine in the M protein (rM51R) is deficient in its ability to suppress the host innate immune response but replicates in most cell types to titers that are as high or higher than the titer of an isogeneic control virus with wild-type M protein ( 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Schneewind and colleague Dominique Missiakas, PhD, associate professor of microbiology at the University, began by assembling a library of all 23 surface proteins made by staph and created new strains with a mutated version of each protein. (redorbit.com)
  • So each strain was normal except for one disabled surface protein. (redorbit.com)
  • They found that staph with a mutant version of protein A, unable to short-circuit B cells, did stimulate an immune response. (redorbit.com)
  • Comprehensive behavioral analysis of voltage-gated calcium channel beta-anchoring and -regulatory protein knockout mice. (nii.ac.jp)
  • It has been linked to aggressive forms of bowel disease in mice and makes colibactin, a protein that damages DNA. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Under the described experimental design, the test substance Semi Dry Absorption (SDA) Product was non-mutagenic for all the Salmonella typhimurium as well as Escherichia coli strains both in experiments without as well as with metabolic activation. (europa.eu)
  • We have identified two chromosomal open reading frames in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strain CFT073 which are highly homologous to serine protease autotransporters Pic and Tsh. (asm.org)
  • The latest work, however, indicates that an ordinarily harmless strain of Escherichia coli , a common gut bacterium, can cause cancer when the gut is inflamed. (scientificamerican.com)
  • ung- Escherichia coli strains, demon- strain (11). (cdc.gov)
  • We analyzed whole-genome sequences from eleven Bp strains, comprising ten clinical isolates from four countries (Australia, Thailand, Singapore, and Vietnam) and one soil isolate (S13) from Singapore. (prolekare.cz)
  • At least four fimbriae have been identified in this species [29-35] and 11 more are predicted by the newly completed genome sequence of our strain. (umich.edu)
  • In 1990 Mouse News Letter changed its name to Mouse Genome which merged with the journal Mammalian Genome in 1998. (wikipedia.org)
  • In February 1990 Mouse News Letter changed its name to Mouse Genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Starting in 1991 Mouse Genome was published four times a year as one volume with four issues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The merged journal kept the name Mammalian Genome and includes the words "Incorporating Mouse Genome" on its front cover. (wikipedia.org)
  • CS mice, an inbred strain, showed two distinctive characteristics in the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity: (1) large variation in the freerunning period, and (2) spontaneous rhythm splitting under continuous darkness. (springer.com)
  • We are part of a national network of breeding and distribution facilities plus an information coordinating center serving together as NIH's premier repository of spontaneous and induced mutant mouse and cell lines. (unc.edu)
  • We are using these technologies to study rare phenotypic deviant mice that arise spontaneously within the Laboratory's numerous large mouse colonies. (jax.org)
  • Journal Article] Pheno-Pub: a total support system for the publication of mouse phenotypic data on the web. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Twenty-one mutants were identical in restriction patterns to the respective background strains with all tested restriction enzymes and both probes. (elsevier.com)
  • The viability of these compound conditional mutant mice with small roof plate further allowed us to demonstrate that rh1 roof plate directs multiple aspects of cerebellar morphogenesis, including cerebellar anlage proliferation. (jneurosci.org)
  • The mouse is known as a conditional mutant strain. (rxpgnews.com)
  • In this study, we examined the regulation of CD5 surface expression during normal thymocyte ontogeny and in mice with developmental and/or signal transduction defects. (rupress.org)
  • Once enhanced protection against infection was demonstrated in the mouse, components of immune function that appeared to be most important were identified to correlate the immune response with the observed protection. (openthesis.org)
  • The delta-asp24 mutant was shown to be safe in pregnant goats while providing significant protection against infection and abortion. (openthesis.org)
  • Here we have demonstrated that specific secreted, surfactant-like S. epidermidis peptides - the β subclass of phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) - promote S. epidermidis biofilm structuring and detachment in vitro and dissemination from colonized catheters in a mouse model of device-related infection. (jci.org)
  • In BALB/c mice, 3 plaque-forming units (PFU) of wt MHV-4 given intracerebrally caused fatal encephalomyelitis in all mice by 7 days after infection, with spread of virus outside the CNS, especially to liver. (scripps.edu)
  • In this study, we undertook a comprehensive qualitative and quantitative survey of the BpCG across a panel of eleven Bp genomes, comprising nine independently derived strains, and two related strain pairs isolated from human patients at primary infection and disease relapse. (prolekare.cz)
  • A Yersinia pestis tat mutant is attenuated in bubonic and small-aerosol pneumonic challenge models of infection but not as attenuated by intranasal challenge. (nih.gov)
  • After small-particle aerosol challenge in a pneumonic model of infection, the mutant was also shown to be attenuated. (nih.gov)
  • The human PfΔ b9 Δ slarp GAP generated without drug resistance markers were infective to human hepatocytes in vitro and to humanized mice engrafted with human hepatocytes in vivo but completely aborted development after infection. (elifesciences.org)
  • In the August 2010 issue of PLoS Pathogens, Schneewind and colleagues show that by generating antibodies to these two clotting factors and transferring them to infected mice, they could protect those mice from a staph infection. (redorbit.com)
  • In susceptible strains of mice, serovar Typhimurium can cause a systemic disease that mimics the human-specific infection typhoid fever, caused by S. enterica serovar Typhi. (asm.org)
  • In resistant strains of mice that carry the Nramp1 Gly169 (also known as Slc11a1 ) allele, a persistent long-term infection can be established similar to that seen in human typhoid carriers ( 45 ). (asm.org)
  • Much of our understanding of the systemic diseases that Salmonella serovars can cause has been obtained by utilizing a number of inbred mouse lines of varying susceptibility to infection and disease (reviewed in references 39 and 56 ). (asm.org)
  • It also protected against infection by different strains of the influenza virus. (hindustantimes.com)
  • L-R) Uninfected mouse tissue and mouse tissue 48 hours after infection. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Infection-induced colitis in mice causes dynamic and tissue-specific changes in stress response and DNA damage leading to colon cancer. (nih.gov)
  • In fact, because of similarities in the pathways for biosynthesis of staphyloxanthin and human cholesterol, a drug developed in the context of cholesterol-lowering therapy was shown to block S. aureus pigmentation and disease progression in a mouse infection model. (wikipedia.org)
  • The novel application of this approach to identify mutants unable to survive in cultured cells resulted in the identification of components of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI2), which is known to be critical for intracellular survival and replication. (asm.org)
  • The model system of central nervous system (CNS) disease induced by mouse hepatitis virus type 4 (MHV-4) is explored by comparison of wild type (wt) MHV-4 and two temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants, designated ts8 and ts15, in BALB/c and SJL/J mice. (scripps.edu)
  • BALB/c mice usually showed demyelination, remyelination, and recurrent demyelination with ts8, while SJL/J mice only rarely had lesions. (scripps.edu)
  • TS15 did not cause death in either BALB/c or SJL/J mice and did not cause histopathologic injury in SJL/J mice. (scripps.edu)
  • BALB/c mice were injected in their tail vein with 5 × 10 6 C. albicans cells, and survival was monitored daily. (hindawi.com)
  • In these mutants, almost all neurons in the dentate gyrus are arrested at a pseudoimmature state at the molecular and electrophysiological levels, a phenomenon defined as "immature dentate gyrus (iDG). (hindawi.com)
  • They were confirmed by a further experiment in which cells were isolated from the dentate gyrus of the embyronic and adult mutants lacking TrkB in the progenitor cells, and then grown on culture dishes. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Loss of IL-12 function in IL-12Rβ2-deficient mice, however, did not ameliorate the allergic immune response, suggesting alternate IL-12-independent pathways in the induction of CHS. (rupress.org)
  • The tsh determinant was identified in 63% of our clinical UPEC strain isolates ( n = 87) and in 33% of fecal strains ( n = 27), whereas pic was present in 31% of the pyelonephritis ( n = 67) and 7% of the fecal strains. (asm.org)
  • Moreover, we speculated that these determinants are more prevalent among UPEC isolates than fecal strains. (asm.org)
  • The researchers used a strain of seasonal influenza virus that had circulated in Puerto Rico in 1934. (nih.gov)
  • The researchers propose a model for antigenic drift in which high- and low-affinity influenza virus mutants alternate. (nih.gov)
  • The engineered influenza virus "induced strong immune responses" in mice and ferrets without causing them to become ill, said the report. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Analysis of mice expressing one Y145F and one Y112-128F allele revealed that these mutants could complement one another in trans, demonstrating cooperativity between two or more SLP76 molecules. (nih.gov)
  • The studies to be presented here were prompted by the unanticipated findings that mice heterozygous for the Col13a1 del allele developed T-cell-rich, histiocyte-rich B-cell lymphomas appearing in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and that the incidence of lymphomas was significantly reduced in mice raised under specific pathogen-free (SPF) conditions. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Significantly, replication of the mutant was also restricted in the mouse cornea in vivo and in confluent primary mouse embryo cells and mouse 10T1/2 cells in vitro. (asm.org)
  • Bacterial Strains and in Vitro Growth Conditions. (pnas.org)
  • These investigators demonstrated that inactivation of BPL killed Mtb in vitro and eradicated this pathogen from infected mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • Hypoxia induces a 13-fold increase in plasma norepinephrine levels, which would be expected to increase heart rate, thereby improving oxygen delivery in wt mice. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The rM51R virus induces an antibody response comparable to that of the recombinant wild-type (rwt) virus in mice without causing disease ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • A library of signature-tagged transposon mutants of this bacterium was constructed and screened for those affected in their multiplication within the lungs of mice. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Mice injected with a mutant strain of the bacterium that was unable to make the Dam enzyme remained healthy. (newscientist.com)
  • The other two strains exhibited no clear difference from the virulent strain, MT103, in this model. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • 5. It is concluded that in normal mouse islets glucose metabolism via the pentose cycle does not play a primary role in insulin-secretory responses. (portlandpress.com)
  • Dopamine administration to mice infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium resulted in significantly increased bacterial burdens in liver and spleen, as well as reduced survival. (asm.org)
  • Fmr1 YAC transgenic mice (TG298) - These transgenic animals carry a yeast artificial chromosome that expresses human FMR1 (Peier et al. (fraxa.org)
  • The incidence of disease was reduced 2-fold in transgenic mice raised under specific pathogen-free conditions, suggesting a role for infectious agents. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Generation of collagen XIII Col13a1 del transgenic mice and their health monitoring. (aacrjournals.org)
  • First, unlike previous fl-mhtt mouse models, BACHD mice reveal that the slowly progressive and selective pathogenic process in HD mouse brains can occur without early and diffuse nuclear accumulation of aggregated mhtt (i.e., as detected by immunostaining with the EM48 antibody). (jneurosci.org)
  • In mice, the mixture of the two native OMV vaccines elicited broad serum bactericidal antibody responses against strains with heterologous PorA and fHbp in the variant 1, 2, or 3 group. (asm.org)
  • McIver and his colleagues used a transposon called Krmit--which they created in a previous study--to generate a collection of approximately 85,000 unique mutants in a group A Streptococcus strain. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • In the late 1990s, the mouse and human nomenclature committees and basic researchers met and combined efforts to standardize the nomenclature of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. (jax.org)
  • Researchers have found that Hbp expression enhances abscess formation in mice during mixed infections with Hbp-expressing E. coli and Bacteroides fragilis ( 15 ). (asm.org)
  • Working in a mouse model, the researchers isolated a novel type of lung cell that can divide into fresh copies of itself and into the two more specialized kinds of cells deep in the lung. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The researchers said their findings in mice offer a possible anima. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The researchers' theory was that different mutant variations of DI. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The researchers' theory was that different mutant variations of DISC1 might have different pathological effects. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The researchers concluded that the different effects of anti-psychotic and antidepressant drugs on the two mutant strains "might provide clues to effective medications for these patient groups. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The researchers next infected a new set of unvaccinated mice with the high-affinity mutant virus strains. (nih.gov)
  • The researchers used the Cre-LoxP system to generate the mutants. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The researchers found that adding verapamil augmented the potency of bedaquiline and accelerated its ability to clear mycobacteria in mice. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers demonstrated that supplementing bedaquiline with verapamil profoundly decreased the minimum inhibitory concentration of bedaquiline against various strains of TB. (eurekalert.org)
  • E. coli strains that did not make colibactin also flourished in the guts of the mutant mice, causing bowel disease but not colorectal tumours, the researchers report. (scientificamerican.com)
  • At this facility we can run a series of behavioral and anatomical tests of potential therapeutic compounds using FMR1 knockout mice, at very low or no cost. (fraxa.org)
  • Fmr1 cKO (conditional knockout) - This mouse carries loxP sites that were introduced by homologous recombination to flank the promoter and first exon of Fmr1 (Mientjes et al. (fraxa.org)
  • kd strain has also made it possible to develop doubly mutant lines in which both the kd/kd genotype and a knockout genotype of interest have been placed on the B6 background so as to assess the contributions of specific cell types to pathogenesis. (jimmunol.org)
  • Here, we examined behavioral effects of Sema3F deficiency through a comprehensive behavioral test battery in Sema3F knockout (KO) male mice to understand the possible functions of Sema3F in the brain. (nii.ac.jp)
  • To examine the role of the BARP in higher brain functions, we generated BARP knockout (KO) mice and conducted a comprehensive battery of behavioral tests. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The database currently houses over 4 million single nucleotide variants and small insertions or deletions, and provides a strain variation dataset of unprecedented breadth. (jax.org)
  • 2008). Total FMRP levels are elevated several fold over wildtype mice, providing an animal model that overexpresses FMRP with all alternatively spliced isoforms. (fraxa.org)
  • Progressive motor neuronopathy ( pmn) mutant mice have been widely used as a model for human motoneuron disease. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms in Huntington's disease (HD) elicited by expression of full-length human mutant huntingtin (fl-mhtt), a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-mediated transgenic mouse model (BACHD) was developed expressing fl-mhtt with 97 glutamine repeats under the control of endogenous htt regulatory machinery on the BAC. (jneurosci.org)
  • Power analyses reveal the robustness of the behavioral and neuropathological phenotypes, suggesting BACHD as a suitable fl-mhtt mouse model for preclinical studies. (jneurosci.org)
  • to generate a BAC transgenic mouse model of HD (BACHD). (jneurosci.org)
  • The volume explores classic procedures to genetically modify mice and other model organisms, as well as cutting-edge practices involving microinjection, site-specific recombination systems, cryopreservation, and many other topics. (springer.com)
  • In this study, we evaluated the effect of such a diet on the retinas of Ccl2(-/-)/Cx3cr1(-/-) mice, a model that develops AMD-like retinal lesions that include focal deep retinal lesions, abnormal retinal pigment epithelium, photoreceptor degeneration, and A2E accumulation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Overall, the MMex38 mouse model provides an ideal tool for preclinical development of treatment strategies for dysferlinopathy. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Contact hypersensitivity (CHS), the recognized mouse model for studying human ACD, involves painting a small area of abdominal skin with the allergen (sensitization), e.g., 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB), followed by an epicutaneous challenge 5 d later on a previously unexposed site, usually the ear (elicitation). (rupress.org)
  • The work of Bender Kim and colleagues represents not only a leap forward in our understanding of lung tumorigenesis, it also heralds the arrival of a valuable mouse model for identifying those cells that should be the targets of therapeutic intervention," wrote Anton Berns of The Netherlands Cancer Center in Amsterdam in an accompanying commentary in Cell. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Bender Kim started with a mouse model of non-small cell adenocarcinoma recently developed by another postdoc and graduate student in Jacks's lab to study the progression of lung cancer and the effects of conventional and experimental therapies. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Indeed, in our hands, flagella-deficient mutants are significantly attenuated in the CBA mouse model [42]. (umich.edu)
  • In a transgenic model of mutant K-ras-driven lung cancer, nicotine did not increase tumor number or size, and did not affect overall survival. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Likewise, in a syngeneic model of lung cancer cell lines derived from NNK-treated mice, oral nicotine did not enhance tumor growth or metastasis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • MRL/Mp- lpr/lpr (MRL/lpr) mice are a useful model of systemic vasculitis because they spontaneously develop systemic vasculitis with glomerulonephritis, sialoadenitis, and arthritis ( 3 , 4 ). (wiley.com)
  • In this study, we used the Lyme disease mouse model as a proof of concept. (asm.org)
  • We aim to reveal its molecular mechanisms through investigating genetically engineered mice lacking CBS and CTH, two trans-sulfuration enzymes essential for cysteine biosynthesis from homocysteine as well as for endogenous production of bioactive (cell-protective) hydrogen sulfide production. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We combined data of eight independent experiments involving 111 Ube3a mice and 120 wild-type littermate control mice. (springer.com)
  • Experiments involved a special strain of genetically-modified mice created and characterized in Sweden. (eurekalert.org)
  • In other experiments, a PMF fimbrial mutant was found in significantly lower concentration in the bladder only [40]. (umich.edu)
  • These experiments were performed in laboratory animals and the proof of the pudding will be how the mutant virus performs in humans, especially those who have been exposed to multiple strains of virus and might already have built up a degree of immunity. (hindustantimes.com)
  • The SUNY Research Seed Grant Program will provide the opportunity to keep this project going by funding the continued costs associated with mouse husbandry and the proposed experiments. (cornell.edu)
  • A, bottom ) Mice heterozygous for Irn ( HoxD Irn /+ ) display severe hindlimb paralysis, as illustrated by footprint analyses. (nih.gov)
  • Mice heterozygous for a transgene Col13a1 del expressing a mutant collagen XIII developed clonal mature B-cell lineage lymphomas originating in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Surprisingly, no cardiac, outflow tract or glandular defects were found in ectodermal-domain mutants, indicating that ectodermally derived FGF8 has essential roles during pharyngeal arch vascular development distinct from those in cardiac, outflow tract and pharyngeal gland morphogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • HoxD cluster scanning deletions identify multiple defects leading to paralysis in the mouse mutant Ironside. (nih.gov)
  • Sbds nu132/nu132 mutants lead to defects in the liver, pancreas, and digestive tract. (jci.org)
  • In the mouse, Fgf8 is expressed in several temporospatial domains that are potentially relevant to cardiovascular and pharyngeal development. (biologists.org)
  • A listing of the genotyping protocols available for strains held by MMRRC at UNC. (unc.edu)
  • This latter, noncoding sequence is still present at its original locus in the mutant configuration, in an inverted orientation. (nih.gov)
  • The test item Semi Dry Absorption (SDA) Product is considered to be mutagenic in the mouse lymphoma thymidine kinase locus using the cell line L5178Y with metabolic activation. (europa.eu)
  • This locus was later shown to make this strain more vulnerable to noise-induced hearing loss (Davis et al. (cdc.gov)
  • The development of treatments for AS heavily relies on the ability to test the efficacy of drugs in mouse models that show reliable, and preferably clinically relevant, phenotypes. (springer.com)
  • Using CRISPR/Cas9 editing, we created sbds-deficient zebrafish strains. (jci.org)
  • C ) Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA from scraped epidermis from control (Ctrl, n = 2) and N1N2K5 mice (n = 3) showing the floxed and the recombined (Recomb) alleles of Notch1 and Notch2 respectively. (nih.gov)
  • Carpinelli MR, Manning MG, Kile BT, Rachel AB (2013) Two ENU-Induced Alleles of Atp2b2 Cause Deafness in Mice. (plos.org)
  • In the second strain of mutants, in which the receptor was deleted in adulthood, there was a significant decrease in the number of newly-generated hippocampal neurons. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The aim of this study was to assess tumor promotion by nicotine in murine models of mutant K-ras-induced lung tumors when nicotine was administered to mimic NRT. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Isolated motoneurons from pmn mutant mice exhibit shorter axons and axonal swelling with irregularly structured β-tubulin and tau immunoreactivity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • BACHD mice exhibit progressive motor deficits, neuronal synaptic dysfunction, and late-onset selective neuropathology, which includes significant cortical and striatal atrophy and striatal dark neuron degeneration. (jneurosci.org)
  • BACHD mice express fl-mhtt , exhibit progressive motor deficits and selective late-onset neuropathology without somatic repeat instability in the aged brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • These intermediates presumably include the double-Holliday junctions that have been most consistently linked with reciprocal recombination or CO events in most meiotic species, including budding yeast and mice. (rupress.org)
  • A subset of human tumor and immortalized cells use a telomerase-independent mechanism termed alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) that is believed to be dependent on recombination ( 16 ), and recombinational telomere elongation (RTE) is well characterized in yeast mutants with telomerase deleted ( 23 ). (asm.org)
  • Vaccinated mice were protected from transurethral challenge with the homologous P. mirabilis HI4320 strain [39]. (umich.edu)
  • When separate groups of mice were transurethrally inoculated with the parent strain and an MR/P-deficient isogenic mutant (constructed in our laboratory), the mutant was recovered in lower numbers than the parent strain from the bladder and kidneys of mice. (umich.edu)
  • When mice were coinfected with parent and the isogenic MrpH-deficient strains, the adhesin-negative mutant was severely out-competed [38]. (umich.edu)
  • In addition, while cultures of the mutant strain were able to produce a biofilm, we observed a loss of adhesion of the mutant biofilm structure compared to the biofilm produced by the wild-type strain. (nih.gov)
  • However, CFU counts at all-time points (even for the starting inoculum at Time 0), were consistently lower in the mutant strain compared to the wild-type strain despite having similar OD measurements. (nih.gov)
  • However, in three cases, there was a growth defect in comparison with the wild-type strain. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The lymphomas did not express the mutant collagen XIII, indicating that its influence on tumorigenesis was B-cell extrinsic and likely to be associated with collagen XIII-positive tissues drained by the MLN. (aacrjournals.org)
  • and mutant mice with reduced BDNF levels have blunted responses to antidepressants. (scienceblogs.com)
  • These findings show that the actions of BDNF on progenitor cells, mediated by TrkB, is necessary for the normal proliferation of cells in the hippocampus, both in newborn and adult mice. (scienceblogs.com)