Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Gene Knockout Techniques: Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.Mice, Inbred C57BLAnimals, LaboratoryMuridae: A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Alicyclobacillus: A genus of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING RODS, in the family Alicyclobacillaceae, containing a unique lipid in their membranes.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Urinary Bladder, Overactive: Symptom of overactive detrusor muscle of the URINARY BLADDER that contracts with abnormally high frequency and urgency. Overactive bladder is characterized by the frequent feeling of needing to urinate during the day, during the night, or both. URINARY INCONTINENCE may or may not be present.Fecal Incontinence: Failure of voluntary control of the anal sphincters, with involuntary passage of feces and flatus.Urinary Incontinence, Stress: Involuntary discharge of URINE as a result of physical activities that increase abdominal pressure on the URINARY BLADDER without detrusor contraction or overdistended bladder. The subtypes are classified by the degree of leakage, descent and opening of the bladder neck and URETHRA without bladder contraction, and sphincter deficiency.Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.BostonUrinary Incontinence, Urge: Involuntary discharge of URINE that is associated with an abrupt and strong desire to void. It is usually related to the involuntary contractions of the detrusor muscle of the bladder (detrusor hyperreflexia or detrusor instability).Phenylpropanolamine: A sympathomimetic that acts mainly by causing release of NOREPINEPHRINE but also has direct agonist activity at some adrenergic receptors. It is most commonly used as a nasal vasoconstrictor and an appetite depressant.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-alpha: Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha is a transcription factor found in the LIVER; PANCREAS; and KIDNEY that regulates HOMEOSTASIS of GLUCOSE.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-beta: A hepatocyte nuclear factor that is closely related to HEPATOCYTE NUCLEAR FACTOR 1-ALPHA but is only weakly expressed in the LIVER. Mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta are associated with renal CYSTS and MATURITY-ONSET DIABETES MELLITUS type 5.Granulomatous Disease, Chronic: A defect of leukocyte function in which phagocytic cells ingest but fail to digest bacteria, resulting in recurring bacterial infections with granuloma formation. When chronic granulomatous disease is caused by mutations in the CYBB gene, the condition is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern. When chronic granulomatous disease is caused by CYBA, NCF1, NCF2, or NCF4 gene mutations, the condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory: Method in which repeated blood pressure readings are made while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It allows quantitative analysis of the high blood pressure load over time, can help distinguish between types of HYPERTENSION, and can assess the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Blood Pressure Determination: Techniques for measuring blood pressure.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Kidney Concentrating Ability: The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Polyuria: Urination of a large volume of urine with an increase in urinary frequency, commonly seen in diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS; DIABETES INSIPIDUS).Heart Block: Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.Kidd Blood-Group System: A group of antigens consisting principally of Jk(a) and Jk(b), determined by allelic genes. Amorphs are encountered. Antibodies of these substances are usually weak and quite labile, stimulated by erythrocytes.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Depth Perception: Perception of three-dimensionality.Microtechnology: Manufacturing technology for making microscopic devices in the micrometer range (typically 1-100 micrometers), such as integrated circuits or MEMS. The process usually involves replication and parallel fabrication of hundreds or millions of identical structures using various thin film deposition techniques and carried out in environmentally-controlled clean rooms.Microfluidic Analytical Techniques: Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.Inhalation Spacers: A variety of devices used in conjunction with METERED DOSE INHALERS. Their purpose is to hold the released medication for inhalation and make it easy for the patients to inhale the metered dose of medication into their lungs.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.CaliforniaNational Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports basic and applied research for a national program in diabetes, endocrinology, and metabolic diseases; digestive diseases and nutrition; and kidney, urologic, and hematologic diseases. It was established in 1948.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.United States

Molecular chaperones: small heat shock proteins in the limelight. (1/61166)

Small heat shock proteins have been the Cinderellas of the molecular chaperone world, but now the crystal structure of a small heat shock protein has been solved and mutation of two human homologues implicated in genetic disease. Intermediate filaments appear to be one of the key targets of their chaperone activity.  (+info)

Alzheimer's disease: clues from flies and worms. (2/61166)

Presenilin mutations give rise to familial Alzheimer's disease and result in elevated production of amyloid beta peptide. Recent evidence that presenilins act in developmental signalling pathways may be the key to understanding how senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and apoptosis are all biochemically linked.  (+info)

JNK2 is required for efficient T-cell activation and apoptosis but not for normal lymphocyte development. (3/61166)

BACKGROUND: The Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway has been implicated in cell proliferation and apoptosis, but its function seems to depend on the cell type and inducing signal. In T cells, JNK has been implicated in both antigen-induced activation and apoptosis. RESULTS: We generated mice lacking the JNK2 isozymes. The mutant mice were healthy and fertile but defective in peripheral T-cell activation induced by antibody to the CD3 component of the T-cell receptor (TCR) complex - proliferation and production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were reduced. The proliferation defect was restored by exogenous IL-2. B-cell activation was normal in the absence of JNK2. Activation-induced peripheral T-cell apoptosis was comparable between mutant and wild-type mice, but immature (CD4(+) CD8(+)) thymocytes lacking JNK2 were resistant to apoptosis induced by administration of anti-CD3 antibody in vivo. The lack of JNK2 also resulted in partial resistance of thymocytes to anti-CD3 antibody in vitro, but had little or no effect on apoptosis induced by anti-Fas antibody, dexamethasone or ultraviolet-C (UVC) radiation. CONCLUSIONS: JNK2 is essential for efficient activation of peripheral T cells but not B cells. Peripheral T-cell activation is probably required indirectly for induction of thymocyte apoptosis resulting from administration of anti-CD3 antibody in vivo. JNK2 functions in a cell-type-specific and stimulus-dependent manner, being required for apoptosis of immature thymocytes induced by anti-CD3 antibody but not for apoptosis induced by anti-Fas antibody, UVC or dexamethasone. JNK2 is not required for activation-induced cell death of mature T cells.  (+info)

Reduced water permeability and altered ultrastructure in thin descending limb of Henle in aquaporin-1 null mice. (4/61166)

It has been controversial whether high water permeability in the thin descending limb of Henle (TDLH) is required for formation of a concentrated urine by the kidney. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy (FFEM) of rat TDLH has shown an exceptionally high density of intramembrane particles (IMPs), which were proposed to consist of tetramers of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) water channels. In this study, transepithelial osmotic water permeability (Pf) was measured in isolated perfused segments (0.5-1 mm) of TDLH in wild-type (+/+), AQP1 heterozygous (+/-), and AQP1 null (-/-) mice. Pf was measured at 37 degrees C using a 100 mM bath-to-lumen osmotic gradient of raffinose, and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran as the luminal volume marker. Pf was (in cm/s): 0.26 +/- 0.02 ([+/+]; SE, n = 9 tubules), 0.21 +/- 0.01 ([+/-]; n = 12), and 0.031 +/- 0.007 ([-/-]; n = 6) (P < 0.02, [+/+] vs. [+/-]; P < 0.0001, [+/+] vs. [-/-]). FFEM of kidney medulla showed remarkably fewer IMPs in TDLH from (-/-) vs. (+/+) and (+/-) mice. IMP densities were (in microm-2, SD, 5-12 micrographs): 5,880 +/- 238 (+/+); 5,780 +/- 450 (+/-); and 877 +/- 420 (-/-). IMP size distribution analysis revealed mean IMP diameters of 8.4 nm ([+/+] and [+/-]) and 5.2 nm ([-/-]). These results demonstrate that AQP1 is the principal water channel in TDLH and support the view that osmotic equilibration along TDLH by water transport plays a key role in the renal countercurrent concentrating mechanism. The similar Pf and AQP1 expression in TDLH of (+/+) and (+/-) mice was an unexpected finding that probably accounts for the unimpaired urinary concentrating ability in (+/-) mice.  (+info)

A genetic model of substrate deprivation therapy for a glycosphingolipid storage disorder. (5/61166)

Inherited defects in the degradation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) cause a group of severe diseases known as GSL storage disorders. There are currently no effective treatments for the majority of these disorders. We have explored a new treatment paradigm, substrate deprivation therapy, by constructing a genetic model in mice. Sandhoff's disease mice, which abnormally accumulate GSLs, were bred with mice that were blocked in their synthesis of GSLs. The mice with simultaneous defects in GSL synthesis and degradation no longer accumulated GSLs, had improved neurologic function, and had a much longer life span. However, these mice eventually developed a late-onset neurologic disease because of accumulation of another class of substrate, oligosaccharides. The results support the validity of the substrate deprivation therapy and also highlight some limitations.  (+info)

Interleukin-8 receptor modulates IgE production and B-cell expansion and trafficking in allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation. (6/61166)

We examined the role of the interleukin-8 (IL-8) receptor in a murine model of allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation using mice with a targeted deletion of the murine IL-8 receptor homologue (IL-8r-/-). Wild-type (Wt) and IL-8r-/- mice were systemically immunized to ovalbumin (OVA) and were exposed with either single or multiple challenge of aerosolized phosphate-buffered saline (OVA/PBS) or OVA (OVA/OVA). Analysis of cells recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) revealed a diminished recruitment of neutrophils to the airway lumen after single challenge in IL-8r-/- mice compared with Wt mice, whereas multiply challenged IL-8r-/- mice had increased B cells and fewer neutrophils compared with Wt mice. Both Wt and IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice recruited similar numbers of eosinophils to the BAL fluid and exhibited comparable degrees of pulmonary inflammation histologically. Both total and OVA-specific IgE levels were greater in multiply challenged IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice than in Wt mice. Both the IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA and OVA/PBS mice were significantly less responsive to methacholine than their respective Wt groups, but both Wt and IL-8r mice showed similar degrees of enhancement after multiple allergen challenge. The data demonstrate that the IL-8r modulates IgE production, airway responsiveness, and the composition of the cells (B cells and neutrophils) recruited to the airway lumen in response to antigen.  (+info)

Lung fluid transport in aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-4 knockout mice. (7/61166)

The mammalian lung expresses water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) in microvascular endothelia and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in airway epithelia. To test whether these water channels facilitate fluid movement between airspace, interstitial, and capillary compartments, we measured passive and active fluid transport in AQP1 and AQP4 knockout mice. Airspace-capillary osmotic water permeability (Pf) was measured in isolated perfused lungs by a pleural surface fluorescence method. Pf was remarkably reduced in AQP1 (-/-) mice (measured in cm/s x 0.001, SE, n = 5-10: 17 +/- 2 [+/+]; 6.6 +/- 0.6 AQP1 [+/-]; 1.7 +/- 0.3 AQP1 [-/-]; 12 +/- 1 AQP4 [-/-]). Microvascular endothelial water permeability, measured by a related pleural surface fluorescence method in which the airspace was filled with inert perfluorocarbon, was reduced more than 10-fold in AQP1 (-/-) vs. (+/+) mice. Hydrostatically induced lung interstitial and alveolar edema was measured by a gravimetric method and by direct measurement of extravascular lung water. Both approaches indicated a more than twofold reduction in lung water accumulation in AQP1 (-/-) vs. (+/+) mice in response to a 5- to 10-cm H2O increase in pulmonary artery pressure for five minutes. Active, near-isosmolar alveolar fluid absorption (Jv) was measured in in situ perfused lungs using 125I-albumin as an airspace fluid volume marker. Jv (measured in percent fluid uptake at 30 min, n = 5) in (+/+) mice was 6.0 +/- 0.6 (37 degrees C), increased to 16 +/- 1 by beta-agonists, and inhibited to less than 2.0 by amiloride, ouabain, or cooling to 23 degrees C. Jv (with isoproterenol) was not affected by aquaporin deletion (18.9 +/- 2.2 [+/+]; 16.4 +/- 1.5 AQP1 [-/-]; 16.3 +/- 1.7 AQP4 [-/-]). These results indicate that osmotically driven water transport across microvessels in adult lung occurs by a transcellular route through AQP1 water channels and that the microvascular endothelium is a significant barrier for airspace-capillary osmotic water transport. AQP1 facilitates hydrostatically driven lung edema but is not required for active near-isosmolar absorption of alveolar fluid.  (+info)

GM-CSF-deficient mice are susceptible to pulmonary group B streptococcal infection. (8/61166)

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene-targeted mice (GM-/-) cleared group B streptococcus (GBS) from the lungs more slowly than wild-type mice. Expression of GM-CSF in the respiratory epithelium of GM-/- mice improved bacterial clearance to levels greater than that in wild-type GM+/+ mice. Acute aerosolization of GM-CSF to GM+/+ mice significantly enhanced clearance of GBS at 24 hours. GBS infection was associated with increased neutrophilic infiltration in lungs of GM-/- mice, while macrophage infiltrates predominated in wild-type mice, suggesting an abnormality in macrophage clearance of bacteria in the absence of GM-CSF. While phagocytosis of GBS was unaltered, production of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide was markedly deficient in macrophages from GM-/- mice. Lipid peroxidation, assessed by measuring the isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2alpha, was decreased in the lungs of GM-/- mice. GM-CSF plays an important role in GBS clearance in vivo, mediated in part by its role in enhancing superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production and bacterial killing by alveolar macrophages.  (+info)

Many neurotransmitters, hormones and sensory stimuli elicit their cellular responses through the targeted activation of receptors coupled to Gq family heterotrimeric G proteins. Nevertheless, we still understand little about the consequences of loss of this signaling activity on brain function. We therefore examined the effects of genetic inactivation of Gnaq on responsiveness in a battery of behavioral tests in order to assess the contribution of Gaq signaling capacity in the brain circuits mediating expression of affective behaviors (anxiety and behavioral despair), spatial working memory and locomotor output (coordination, strength, spontaneous activity and drug-induced responses). First, we replicated and extended findings showing clear motor deficits in Gaq knockout mice as assessed on an accelerating rotarod and the inverted screen test. We then assessed the contribution of the basal ganglia motor loops to these impairments, using open field testing and analysis of drug-induced locomotor
15-Lipoxygenase-2 (ALOX15B), an oxidoreductase in the metabolism of arachidonic acid, is a functional tumor suppressor whose expression is reduced in a variety of human cancers. To determine the roles of ALOX15B in carcinogenesis, we generated transgenic mice with ALOX8, the murine homolog of ALOX15B, knocked out. ALOX8 expression at mRNA level was abolished in homozygous knockout mice and reduced to half of wild type in heterozygous knockout mice. Its observed that homozygous female ALOX8 knockout mice are infertile but male ALOX8 knockout mice are fertile. Increased incidence of tumor as uni or multimass was found in the lung, prostate and in the mesentery region of homozygous and heterozygous ALOX8 knockout mice, when compared with little mate wild type mice. Histological evaluations showed an increase in secondary tumors and inflammation in different tissues like lung and large intestine in mice with ALOX8 knocked out. The transgenic mice could be a good model to study the role of ...
Our results show an important role for the extracellular matrix molecule TN-C in the regulation of neural precursor cell proliferation and migration, as revealed by reduced proliferation of SVZ cells and OP cells in transgenic mice that lack TN-C (Saga et al., 1992). These mice have previously been reported as normal (Saga et al., 1992). Although subsequent studies have revealed changes in behaviour (Fukamauchi et al., 1996; Kiernan et al., 1999) and neurotransmitter levels (Fukamauchi et al., 1996) in the CNS, as well as abnormalities of neuromuscular junction architecture (Cifuentes-Diaz et al., 1998) and repair in the kidney (Nakao et al., 1998), no developmental abnormalities have been described previously. Our results are therefore important in that they demonstrate for the first time a significant role for TN-C in the basic processes of cell growth control during normal development.. The reduction in cell proliferation in the TN-C-deficient animals was revealed by BrdU studies in vivo, ...
There is growing evidence that neuropeptide Y acting through Y1 and Y2 receptors has a prominent role in modulating anxiety- and depression-like behavior in rodents. However, a role of other Y receptors like that of Y4 receptors in this process is poorly understood. We now investigated male Y2, Y4 single and Y2/Y4 double knockout mice in behavioral paradigms for changes in motor activity, anxiety and depression-like behavior. Y4 and Y2 knockout mice revealed an anxiolytic phenotype in the light/dark test, marble-burying test and motor-activity independent in stress-induced hyperthermia, and reduced depression-like behavior in the forced swim and tail suspension tests. In Y2/Y4 double knockout mice, the response in the light/dark test and in the forced swim test was further enhanced compared to Y4 and Y2 knockout mice, respectively. Motor activity was increased in Y2, Y4 and Y2/Y4 knockout mice under changing and stressful conditions, but not altered in a familiar environment. High levels of Y4 ...
Activation of neuropeptide S (NPS) signaling has been found to produce arousal, wakefulness, anxiolytic-like behaviors, and enhanced memory formation. In order to further study physiological functions of the NPS system, we generated NPS precursor knockout mice by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. NPS-/- mice were viable, fertile, and anatomically normal, when compared to their wild-type and heterozygous littermates. The total number of NPS neurons-although no longer synthesizing the peptide - was not affected by the knockout, as analyzed in NPS-/- /NPSEGFP double transgenic mice. Analysis of behavioral phenotypes revealed significant deficits in exploratory activity in NPS-/- mice. NPS precursor knockout mice displayed attenuated arousal in the hole board test, visible as reduced total nose pokes and number of holes inspected, that was not confounded by increased repetitive or stereotypic behavior. Importantly, long-term memory was significantly impaired in NPS-/- mice in the ...
We have previously reported the TCR inhibitory molecule CD5 impairs reactivity of tumor-specific PBL-derived T-cell clones against the cognate target and controls their susceptibility to activation-induced cell death (AICD) triggered by tumor cells. In this report, we compared the antitumor T-cell response developed against the B16F10 melanoma engrafted in CD5-deficient and wild-type (wt) C57BL/6 mice. Our results indicate that CD5 knock out mice elicit a delayed tumor growth as compared to wt mice, which is associated with tumor infiltration by more activated tumor-reactive T lymphocytes. Our data also indicate that tumor suppression in CD5-deficient mice is transient and that tumor flare up correlates with increase in AICD of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells. Our data suggest that tumor T lymphocyte infiltration occurs at early stages of cancer development and that tumor-mediated AICD is most likely involved in the induction of T-cell tolerance to malignant cells. ...
M1 Muscarinic Receptor Knockout: support involvement in cognitive processes.. The five Muscarinic Acetylcholine (ACh) receptors are G-protein coupled receptors (M1R-M5R). M1R, M3R and M5R selectively couple to Gq/G11; M2R and M4R selectively couple to Gi/Go. M1R knockout mice are viable and fertile, and have no major morphological abnormalities.. M1 muscarinic receptors are located in higher brain regions of the central nervous system that are involved in cognitive processes. Studies in M1R knockout mice show that M1 receptors may be involved in cortical memory functions that require interactions between the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Supporting a role for M1 receptor activation in cognition, muscarinic agonist-induced activation of the MAPK pathway, which plays an important role in synaptic plasticity and many cognitive functions, is virtually abolished in primary cortical cultures or CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons in M1R knockout mice. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phospholipase β4-knockout mouse exhibits retinal phenotype. AU - Jiang, Huiping. AU - Lyubarsky, A.. AU - Vardi, N.. AU - Pugh Jr, Edward N. AU - Chen, J.. AU - Xu, J.. AU - Simon, M. I.. AU - Wu, Dianqing. PY - 1996/2/15. Y1 - 1996/2/15. N2 - Purpose: Determine if PLC-β4 has a retinal function by making/assessing a mouse knockout. Rationale: PLC-β4 is one of the four PLC-β isoforms that have been cloned and can be activated by the Gα subunits of G-proteins of the Gq class, but not by the Gβγ subunits. PLC-β4 shares a closer homology to the NorpA protein (which mediates phototransduction in Drosopnila) than to the isoforms PLC-β1-β3. Previous immunohistochemical studies have shown that PLC-β4 is expressed in cone photoreceptors, and in bipolar and ganglion cells1. Method: A mouse line was generated in which the PLC-β4 genes are disrupted. Retinal rod function was assessed with single-flash a- and b-wave electroretinography. Anatomical analysis of rod density, rod ...
Its not every day that you get something useful at no charge. But if youre a researcher studying genes that produce secreted and transmembrane proteins, today is your day. A full 472 knockout mouse lines - all extensively characterized (phenotyped) - are now publicly available from the National Institutes of Healths Mutant Mouse Regional Resource Center (MMRRC) at the University of California, Davis. Distribution of the lines is supported by the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) and the NIH-funded Knockout Mouse Project (KOMP) repository, operated by UC Davis and the Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute in Oakland, Calif. Knockout mouse lines have served as valuable models to study a range of human conditions, from obesity and heart disease to diabetes and substance abuse. In knockout laboratory mice, researchers have inactivated, or "knocked out", a gene with an artificial piece of DNA. This helps scientists infer what a gene normally does by understanding what goes ...
Author: Ebinger, M. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2005-09; Title: Is testosterone a substrate of P-glycoprotein in abcb1ab knock out mice?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mamu-A*01/Kb transgenic and MHC Class I knockout mice as a tool for HIV vaccine development. AU - Li, Jinliang. AU - Srivastava, Tumul. AU - Rawal, Ravindra. AU - Manuel, Edwin. AU - Isbell, Donna. AU - Tsark, Walter. AU - La Rosa, Corinna. AU - Wang, Zhongde. AU - Li, Zhongqi. AU - Barry, Peter A. AU - Hagen, Katharine D.. AU - Longmate, Jeffrey. AU - Diamond, Don J.. PY - 2009/4/25. Y1 - 2009/4/25. N2 - We have developed a murine model expressing the rhesus macaque (RM) Mamu-A*01 MHC allele to characterize immune responses and vaccines based on antigens of importance to human disease processes. Towards that goal, transgenic (Tg) mice expressing chimeric RM (α1 and α2 Mamu-A*01 domains) and murine (α3, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic H-2Kb domains) MHC Class I molecules were derived by transgenesis of the H-2KbDb double MHC Class I knockout strain. After immunization of Mamu-A*01/Kb Tg mice with rVV-SIVGag-Pol, the mice generated CD8+ T-cell IFN-γ responses to several known ...
Nmu (Neuromedin U) and Nmus (Neuromedin S) gene double knock-out mice. Nmu KO: Exon 9 of the Nmu gene was replaced with a PGK-neo cassette. Homozygous mutant mice show a increased body weight. Nms KO: Exon 8 of the Nms gene was replaced with a neo cassette. Homozygous mutant mice show no obvious abnormality. Nmu gene knockout mice (RBRC04549), Nms gene knockout mice (RBRC04550 ...
In humans, there are over 400 genetic syndromes that include a hearing loss component, but most of the genes underlying hearing loss syndromes are currently unknown. The knockout mice tested so far in this study represented only about 15 percent of mouse genes, so the researchers estimate that if the entire genome is searched there will be at least 450 genes required for hearing function.. Professor Steve Brown, senior author on the paper and director of British Medical Research Councils Harwell laboratory, said: "Importantly, the large number of hearing loss genes identified in this study demonstrates that there are many more genes involved in deafness in mouse and human genomes than we had previously realised.. "Our findings identify 52 genes that have previously not been recognised as being critical for hearing. These increase our knowledge of the many genes and molecular mechanisms required for hearing, and also provide a shortlist of new genes to investigate to discover the genetic basis ...
If one parent is a wild-type mouse and the other is a homozygous knockout mouse, their offspring will be heterozygous at the knockout gene. The mouse will likely produce the protein from the wild-type copy of the gene, but depending on how the gene is regulated it is likely that expression of the protein will be below wild-type levels ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Approach and Results-We bred the macrophage-specific L13a knockout mice L13a Flox+/+ Cre+/+ onto apolipoprotein E-deficient background and generated the experimental double knockout mice L13a Flox+/+ Cre+/+ apolipoprotein E deficient (apoE−/−). L13a Flox+/+ Cre−/− mice on apolipoprotein E-deficient background were used as controls. Control and knockout mice were subjected to high-fat diet for 10 weeks. Evaluation of aortic sinus sections and entire aorta by en face showed significantly higher atherosclerosis in the knockout mice. Severity of atherosclerosis in knockout mice was accompanied by thinning of the smooth muscle cell layer in the media, larger macrophage area in the intimal plaque region and higher plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines. In addition, macrophages isolated from knockout mice had higher polyribosomal abundance of several target mRNAs, thus showing defect in translation control.. ...
Recent Publications. Hill S, Deepa SS, Sataranatarajan K, Premkumar P, Pulliam D, Liu Y, Soto VY, Fischer KE, Van Remmen H. Sco2 deficient mice develop increased adiposity and insulin resistance. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2017 Nov 5;455:103-14. PMCID:PMC5592144. Sakellariou G, McDonagh B, Porter H, Giakoumaki I, Earl K, Nye G, Vasilaki A, Brooks S, Richardson A, Van Remmen H, McArdle A, Jackson MJ. Comparison of whole body SOD1 knockout with muscle specific SOD1 knockout mice reveals a role for nerve redox signaling in regulation of degenerative pathways in skeletal muscle. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2017 Oct 25. PMID: 29065712. Zhang N, Valentine JM, Zhou Y, Li ME, Zhang Y, Bhattacharya A, Walsh ME, Fischer KE, Austad SN, Osmulski P, Gaczynska M, Shoelson SE, Van Remmen H, Chen HI, Chen Y, Liang H, Musi N. Sustained NFκB inhibition improves insulin sensitivity but is detrimental to muscle health. Aging Cell. 2017 Aug;16(4):847-58. PMCID:PMC5506420. Selected Publications. Masser DR, Clark NW, Van Remmen ...
The ability to genetically modify mice is a powerful tool used in basic and applied research with many applications for the study of gene function and human disease. A current world-wide initiative is generating a knockout mouse strain for every protein coding gene using embryonic stem (ES) cells. Mouse strains and ES cells from these initiatives are made available to the worldwide research community via public repositories.. Once phenotyped, mouse models provide invaluable insights into human gene function with wide-ranging clinical implications, including better understanding of diseases and discovering gene targets for therapeutic agents.. The Embryonic Stem (ES) cell to Mouse (ES2M) service is a core APN facility which provides ready access to the global initiative to discover functional insight for every gene by generating and systematically phenotyping 20,000+ knockout mouse strains. The ES2M service enables Australian researchers to choose the genetically modified ES cell line(s) or mice ...
Sakellariou, GK,McDonagh, B,Porter, H,Giakoumaki, II,Earl, KE,Nye, GA,Vasilaki, A,Brooks, SV,Richardson, A,Van Remmen, H,McArdle, A,Jackson, MJ (2018) Comparison of Whole Body SOD1 Knockout with Muscle-Specific SOD1 Knockout Mice Reveals a Role for Nerve Redox Signaling in Regulation of Degenerative Pathways in Skeletal Muscle. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, 28 :275-295 [DOI] [Details] ...
PTK787 2HCl and -7 (Lakhani et al. 2006 offers contributed to your knowledge of the physiological tasks of the caspases significantly. Oddly enough C57BL/6 mice deficient for both caspase-3 and -7 perish shortly after delivery while mice missing only caspase-3 or -7 have a normal life span and display a limited apoptotic phenotype in this genetic background (Lakhani et al. 2006 Leonard et al. 2002 This points to the functional redundancy between caspase-3 and -7 during embryogenesis. However several observations suggest that this overlap is not complete and that caspase-3 and -7 also fulfill non-redundant roles in apoptosis. For instance eye lenses of caspase-7 knockout mice are grossly normal whereas those of caspase-3 deficient mice display marked cataracts at the anterior lens pole (Zandy et al. 2005 Further support for this notion stems from biochemical studies demonstrating that caspase-3 and -7 exhibit differential activities toward multiple protein substrates with caspase-7 being more ...
J. K. White, Gerdin, A. - K. , Karp, N. A. , Ryder, E. , Buljan, M. , Bussell, J. N. , Salisbury, J. , Clare, S. , Ingham, N. J. , Podrini, C. , Houghton, R. , Estabel, J. , Bottomley, J. R. , Melvin, D. G. , Sunter, D. , Adams, N. C. , Tannahill, D. , Logan, D. W. , Macarthur, D. G. , Flint, J. , Mahajan, V. B. , Tsang, S. H. , Smyth, I. , Watt, F. M. , Skarnes, W. C. , Dougan, G. , Adams, D. J. , Ramirez-Solis, R. , Bradley, A. , and Steel, K. P. , "Genome-wide generation and systematic phenotyping of knockout mice reveals new roles for many genes.", Cell, vol. 154, no. 2, pp. 452-64, 2013. ...
In previous studies using a Cdc42GAP knockout, Cdc42 gain-of-activity mouse model, we have shown that constitutively increased Cdc42-GTP species can lead to defective hematopoietic stem/progenitor survival, adhesion, and actin cytoskeleton that may contribute to an engraftment defect in hematopoietic stem/progenitors.20 Cdc42GAP−/− mice also displayed mild anemia and deficiencies in erythroid progenitors. While this animal model provides valuable information for a possible involvement of Cdc42 activity in hematopoiesis, there are inherent weaknesses of the gain-of-activity approach that complicate interpretation of the data as they relate to the physiologic role of Cdc42. For example, this animal model cannot reveal the requirement of Cdc42 in hematopoiesis nor rebut a valid criticism that Cdc42GAP knockout may also bring about Cdc42-independent effects.. To understand the physiological role of Cdc42, we have recently generated a Cdc42-conditional knockout mouse model that uses the loxP/Cre ...
Caspr3-Deficient Mice Exhibit Low Motor Learning during the Early Phase of the Accelerated Rotarod Task. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Estrogen Receptor-α Knock-Out Mouse Model is an eagle-i resource of type Mus musculus at Charles Drew University of Medicine and Science.
We offer a unique portfolio of transporter humanized and knockout mouse models which can be used for different in vivo applications.
Hus1 inactivation results in abnormal accumulation of γH2AX on autosomes, an extended sex body domain, inclusion of autosomes within the sex body, and X-autoso
The goal of this RFA is to produce the largest number of null mutants possible for the dollars available. NIH recognizes that the dollar figure given in the RFA will demand applicants to propose very aggressive programs that minimize cost while still providing a quality product. We aim to maximize the use of NIH dollars and intend to fund a balanced program that may include a set of applications performing different types of knockout mutations in order to cover as much of the genome as possible with the dollars available. Applicants should propose the best approach they can for accomplishing the goals of maximizing the number of null mutations, cost reduction and quality. The actual balance of the program and costs per knockout will be determined as a result of peer review, Council discussion and staff negotiation with the applicants before funding ...
FUNCTION: This gene encodes a member of the DnaJ or Hsp40 (heat shock protein 40 kD) family of proteins. The encoded protein is a molecular chaperone that stimulates the ATPase activity of Hsp70 heat-shock proteins in order to promote protein folding and prevent misfolded protein aggregation. The encoded protein may also inhibit apoptosis. Peritoneal macrophages derived from homozygous knockout mice for this gene exhibit impaired heat tolerance. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015 ...
Albinism is the best-known of a group of rare genetic disorders that can affect both eyes and skin. Some genes have been identified that are linked to these conditions, but many remain mysterious. Now a team led by UC Davis researchers has identified dozens of these genetic mutations in a screen of gene-targeted "knockout" mice. The authors hope the work, published Aug. 1 in Scientific Reports, will be a resource for clinicians specializing in genetic disorders.. "This mouse data may be of interest to clinicians, especially for patients with no known genetic cause for their condition," said Ala Moshiri, associate professor of ophthalmology in the UC Davis School of Medicine and corresponding author on the paper.. Skin, eyes and nerve tissue are linked because they all develop from the same early embryonic tissue. Another group of rare eye and skin disorders distinct from albinism, called phakomatoses, are also caused by genetic alterations inherited from parents or that occur by accident early ...
Genetic exploration of novel behavioral phenotypes in interleukin-7 and interleukin-18 receptor knockout mice. by Amy F. Eisener-Dorman full download exe or rar online without authorization for free.
Fast delivery of LRRC8B knockout Human Cell Lines for the study of gene function. Created by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing. Includes matched wildtype control.
Fast delivery of DNMT3B knockout Human Cell Lines for the study of gene function. Created by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing. Includes matched wildtype control.
Safe Knockout to generate both conventional and tissue-specific Knockout mice from a single project, and substantially save time and cost.
Accelerate your research with custom-engineered knockout mouse models. Design your own conditional and constitutive knockout mice or use existing strains.
MyD88-dependent signaling in myo-/fibroblasts (MFs) is involved in epithelial barrier restoration and tolerance. However, the role of MyD88-dependent signaling by MFs in the regulation of inflammatory responses by macrophages in the colonic mucosa is poorly understood. Because colonic MFs respond to MyD88 activation with production of molecules involved in the regulation of macrophages (PGE2, PD-L1, etc.), we hypothesize that MF mediated MyD88 signaling regulates inflammatory responses from macrophages in the colon. Tamoxifen inducible Col1α2Cre Myd88 floxed mice (fibroblast and myofibroblast-specific MyD88 deletion) and α-SMACre MyD88 floxed mice (myo-fibroblast and smooth muscle cell-specific MyD88 deletion) on the same genetic background (C57BL/6) were used in this study. We observed that deletion of MyD88 within MFs resulted in the inflammatory changes and infiltration of lymphocytes within colonic mucosa and moderately aggravated DSS induced acute colitis. Activation of the lymphocyte ...
What is the advantage of knockout over gene therapy in mice model in order to st - posted in General Lab Techniques: Hi, Am going through the literature of TFPI-2 protein, where some people have studied its role in apoE knockout mice by replacing TFPI-2 gene by gene therapy..thereby upregulating its expression, and later also downregulating it via respective vector constructs. Of approximately, 10 years of study of this protein no one introduced any knockout mice...
PANcreatic-DERived Factor (PANDER), or FAM3B, is a 235-amino acid protein strongly expressed within and secreted from the endocrine pancreas. Research surrounding PANDER has revealed a large role for the protein in maintaining glucose homeostasis, as evidenced by several Ad-PANDER overexpressing murine models, our labs pancreas-specific PANDER transgenic overexpressor, and most recently our mixed genetic C57/129J PANDER knockout (PANKO) mouse. However, PANDERs overall role in glycemic regulation and glucose homeostasis has yet to be studied in a purebred C57BL/6J PANDER knockout model. Here we present the first phenotypic characterization of our global PANDER knockout mouse on a C57BL/6J background (PANKO-C57) where we examined metabolics through glucose/insulin tolerance testing, fasting glycemia, and body weights, the concentrations of hormonal analytes along with lipids and corticosterones, and full elucidation of hepatic insulin signaling through the insulin signaling cascade. Overall, the PANKO
Knockout mouse: Knockout mouse, genetically engineered laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) in which a specific gene has been inactivated, or
Animals. Construction of K19-C2mE transgenic mice was described previously ( 3). Mice homozygous null for TNF-α (Tnf), interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor α chain (Il1r1), and Rag2 were purchased from Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME (Tnf and Il1r1) and from Taconic, Germantown, NY (Rag2). The K19-C2mE mice were crossed with respective knockout mouse strains to generate Tnf (−/−) K19-C2mE, Il1r1 (−/−) K19-C2mE, and Rag2 (−/−) K19-C2mE mice. Littermate simple K19-C2mE transgenic mice were used as controls. Compound mutants and control mice were examined histologically at 20 weeks of age (n = 10 for each genotype). For treatment with meloxicam (Daiichi Pharmaceutical, Tokyo, Japan), K19-C2mE mice were dosed with 10 mg/kg/d of the compound by oral administration for 3 weeks in mice that were 78 to 80 weeks of age. All animal experiments were carried out according to the protocol approved by the Ethical Committee at Kyoto University.. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Tissues were ...
Ready-to-use Knockout mouse models for target discovery and confirmation, in vivo compound specificity, MOA and clinical studies.
Publication: McCarthy DM, Gioioso V, Zhang X, Sharma N, Bhide PG (2012b) Neurogenesis and neuronal migration in the forebrain of the TorsinA knockout mouse embryo. Developmental neuroscience 34:366-378.. Additional Information. ...
The data presented here indicate that inhibition of β- or γ-secretase in neurons can compromise cell viability. In three different neuronal phenotypes, the pharmacological knock-down of amyloidogenic secretase activity resulted in cell death.. Is the toxicity of these compounds attributable to inhibition of Aβ production? There are several lines of evidence that suggest this to be the case. First, these compounds have been shown to produce a profound inhibition of Aβ production at the concentrations used in this study. Greater than 99% inhibition of de novo Aβ production would be expected at γ-IV concentrations used here (Beher et al., 2001), and our own immunocytochemical data would appear to confirm this. Second, the production of Aβ has been prevented in two ways via the pharmacological inhibition of two distinct and separate enzymes. Importantly, all compounds used were structurally different, suggesting that toxicity was not the nonspecific result of a particular chemical moiety. ...
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Transcriptome data from the gene knockout experiment in mouse is widely used to investigate functions of genes and relationship to phenotypes. When a gene is knocked out, it is important to identify which genes are affected by the knockout gene. Existing methods, including differentially expressed gene (DEG) methods, can be used for the analysis. However, existing methods require cutoff values to select candidate genes, which can produce either too many false positives or false negatives. This hurdle can be addressed either by improving the accuracy of gene selection or by providing a method to rank candidate genes effectively, or both. Prioritization of candidate genes should consider the goals or context of the knockout experiment. As of now, there are no tools designed for both selecting and prioritizing genes from the mouse knockout data. Hence, the necessity of a new tool arises. In this study, we present CLIP-GENE, a web service that selects gene markers by utilizing differentially expressed genes
Publikations-Datenbank der Fraunhofer Wissenschaftler und Institute: Aufsätze, Studien, Forschungsberichte, Konferenzbeiträge, Tagungsbände, Patente und Gebrauchsmuster
Faced with continuing constraints, companies need more flexible options to find capacity in a dynamic transportation environment.
Faced with continuing constraints, companies need more flexible options to find capacity in a dynamic transportation environment.
Attached ako sa bagay-bagay. Nawala yung eraser ko dati. Faber-Castell pa naman yun. ilang araw akong balisa, hindi ko matanggap na nawala na sya, iniwan na ako! Mas malupit dati, noong Grade 3 ako. Naiwan ko yung pencil case ko na bagong bili. yung maraming pindutan, pindutan para lumabas yung sharpener, eraser at kung ano-ano pa. usong-uso noon yun, kaya naman tuwang-tuwa ako ng binili ako ng nanay ko. Dumayo kami ng Math contest, tapos yun nga, naiwan ko yung pencil case, naalala ko na lang, nasa byahe na kami pauwi.. tapos nung naalala ko, bigla na lang ako napaiyak, hindi pala iyak, napahagulgol ako sa lungkot. para tumugil ako sa paghagulgol, ibibili na lang daw ako ulit.. eh sa hirap ng buhay, hindi na ako nabili ulet. Ganun ako ka-senti ...
HeLa cell lines were engineered into double-knockout lines by CRISPR technology. The double knockout genotype was verified by PCR followed by sequencing. The SMURF2 knockout cell lysate are the cell homogenate in RIPA buffer made from the KO cell lines. A vial of lysate from the parental cell line was also provided as an internal control.
HeLa cell lines were engineered into double-knockout lines by CRISPR technology. The double knockout genotype was verified by PCR followed by sequencing. The LGALS3 knockout cell lysate are the cell homogenate in RIPA buffer made from the KO cell lines. A vial of lysate from the parental cell line was also provided as an internal control.
Background ELF2 (E74-like aspect 2) also known as NERF (brand-new (E-twenty-six) family members of transcription elements, characterised by the existence of an evolutionarily conserved 85 amino acidity (aa) DNA-binding domains, utilises a range of elements to govern focus on specificity. redundant guests might occur in sites throughout the genome [7]. Simple distinctions in sites, tissue-specific reflection of elements and their co-factors, and differential signalling replies might all lead to their distinctive features, but makes determining accurate goals both challenging and complicated [8, 9]. Particular protein are known to KRN 633 play essential tasks in haemopoietic advancement via transcriptional legislation. Knockout mouse versions possess helped unravel the practical importance of protein in haemopoiesis. Reduction of PU.1 (SPI1) has a profound impact on haemopoietic development by affecting myeloid and B cell development [10, 11]. Additional gene knockout mouse versions with problems ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Limited Competition: Knockout Mouse Production and Phenotyping Project (UM1) RFA-RM-15-017. Roadmap
Background ELF2 (E74-like aspect 2) also known as NERF (brand-new (E-twenty-six) family members of transcription elements, characterised by the existence of an evolutionarily conserved 85 amino acidity (aa) DNA-binding domains, utilises a range of elements to govern focus on specificity. redundant guests might occur in sites throughout the genome [7]. Simple distinctions in sites, tissue-specific reflection of elements and their co-factors, and differential signalling replies might all lead to their distinctive features, but makes determining accurate goals both challenging and complicated [8, 9]. Particular protein are known to KRN 633 play essential tasks in haemopoietic advancement via transcriptional legislation. Knockout mouse versions possess helped unravel the practical importance of protein in haemopoiesis. Reduction of PU.1 (SPI1) has a profound impact on haemopoietic development by affecting myeloid and B cell development [10, 11]. Additional gene knockout mouse versions with problems ...
Find your COUNCIL TOOL BACK-OUT PUNCH,W/ HANDLE,7/8 X 15 I at Acklands-Grainger. We have been Canadas premiere industrial supplier for over 125 years with superior service and quality.
These |i| Xrcc5|/i| knock-out mice exhibit growth deficiency including decreased size of spleen, lymph nodes and thymus with curtailed T cell and B cell development.
J:60742 Rosenfeld ME, Prichard L, Shiojiri N, Fausto N, Prevention of hepatic apoptosis and embryonic lethality in RelA/TNFR-1 double knockout mice. Am J Pathol. 2000 Mar;156(3):997-1007 ...
Cell Biologics provides custom services to our customers upon request. On request, we will isolate cells of any description from specific murine organs or tissues designated by our customers. For example, we are well versed in isolating endothelial cells from wild-type and knock-out murine strains from any desired tissue. Customer may ship to Cell Biologics either the mouse or the already excised murine tissue, and we will isolate the desired cell type and return a vial to Customer containing the prepared cells ready to use. If you have any special needs in isolation of endothelial cells, macrophages, bone marrow derived cells or other cell types from wild type or knockout or other genetically modified mice, please contact us for this special service. Let us know what you need and we will accommodate you. For details regarding these special services contact us at [email protected] or submit Custom Inquiry Form on our website http://www.cellbiologics.com. We will contact you as soon as ...
Cell Biologics provides custom services to our customers upon request. On request, we will isolate cells of any description from specific organs or tissues (any animal or human tissues) designated by our customers. For example, we are well versed in isolating endothelial cells and epithelial cells from animals (wild-type and knock-out murine strains, rat strains) from any desired tissue. Customer may ship to Cell Biologics either the already excised tissues or live mice or rats, and we will isolate the desired cell type and return a vial to Customer containing the prepared cells ready to use. If you have any special needs in isolation of endothelial cells, epithelial cells, macrophages, bone marrow derived cells or other cell types from animal or human tissues, please contact us for this special service. Let us know what you need and we will accommodate you. ...
Hmm, vidím že birdzáci sú tu nejakí bars výberaví.. (?) (hehe) ...ja mám vysokú školu a ako bolo by to krásne a pekné mať plat ako chcela väčšina 1200€ v hrubom, ale kto mi tu v tejto oblasti takú dá, keď by som musel robiť vrcholovú pozíciu a som študent bez praxe, čo ma aj štve, ale tak aj vizitka školy je to.. :-/ ...darmo, robil som zatiaľ v robote, kde to bolo v hrubom za 750€ a bol som rad, že som rád a každý vysokoškolák by sa na takú robotu najradšej vykašľal.. (sorry ...
We offer a unique portfolio of transporter humanized and knockout mouse models which can be used for different in vivo applications.
Based on automated MP annotations supported by experiments on knockout mouse models. Click on icons to go to all Slc5a5 data for that phenotype. ...
Based on automated MP annotations supported by experiments on knockout mouse models. Click on icons to go to all Dnase1 data for that phenotype. ...
In a world characterized by rapid change and increasing levels of complexity and uncertainty, asset management companies see new threats of disruption on the horizon.
Trouvez tous les livres de Giamila Fantuzzi (Editor) - Cytokine Knockouts. Sur eurolivre.fr,vous pouvez commander des livres anciens et neufs.COMPARER ET acheter IMMÉDIATEMENT au meilleur prix. 9781617374159
Trenorol je trenbolon podobný vzorec steroid, ktorý pomáha človeku zvýšiť na budovanie svalov bez vzniklo akékoľvek riziko pre zdravie. Výrobok by mal byť sprevádzaný niekoľkými cvičenia a iných fyzických cvičení pre lepšie výsledky, ktoré sa majú uskutočniť počas krátkej doby. Pri používaní tohto výrobku, tam je takmer sto percent zárukou bezpečnosti používania a účinnosti. Je vyrábaný, vlastnil a distribuovaný pomocou Spojených štátov amerických založená spoločnosť známu ako bláznivý Hrčka, ktorý vyniká vo výrobe športových a fitnes doplnkov, ktoré sú lákavé a zdravé na použitie.. ...
ahoj kočky, v stredu idem na kyret. Doktorka my to aja vysvetlila aj všetko, len som bola v takom stave, že som ju aninevnímala, poradte mi, čo si mám vziať so sebou, ako dlho to bude trvať a na čo si mám dať pozor? za všetky odp. dakujem
In Sidering Knockout, you goal is to knock all your opponents out cold and get the championship belt! Try to use combinations and dodge the opponents punches. A good tip would be to find the best key combination and use it all the time. Try not to get hit by spamming punches. Note: we are not responsible for any damage you may do to your keyboard! Show them whos boss in the ring. ...
Important facts & side effect information that you must know. See what the science says in our Instant Knockout Review. Read now.
In truth, Tottenham never really looked like taking all three points and this defeat means they face a battle to reach the knockout stages -with their next home game against PAOK Salonika on 30 November likely to prove decisive. ...
We take a look back at 2017 to determine the best of the best in MMA. What was the top fight? Who had the top knockout? Who performed the best submission?
Sastojci: 200g pecene soje, 130ml vode + jos ako je potrebno, 1/4 kasicice soli (samo ako koristite neslanu soju), 2 kasike kokosovog ulja ili ulje od uljane repice ili maslinovog ulja, 1 kasika agava sirupa. Priprema: 1. U ciniju staviti soju, preliti vodom i ostaviti da nabubri. 2. U blender staviti soju (i vodu ako je…
Ywhae knockout mouse is useful for pathophysiological analyses of neuropsychiatric disorders caused by defects during neurodevelopment ...
Plody su velmi vyzivne a bohate na vitamin C (je dolezitym antioxidantom, ktory chrani telesne tkaniva a ostatne vitaminy. Je potrebny pre regulaciu normalneho telesneho rastu, hojenie ran a reakcii na stres a stimuluje tvorbu bielych krviniek). Obsah vitaminu C je nizsi ako v guave, ale vyssi ako v citrusoch a jablkach. Plody su dalej bohate na ...
Občianske združenie IPASK (Iniciatíva pôrodných asistentiek Slovenska) je dobrovoľnou spoločenskou mimovládnou organizáciou, ktorá vznikla z potreby zviditeľniť a posilniť profesijný status, uplatnenie kompetencií a všetkých rolí pôrodnej asistentky (PA) v praxi ako zdravotníckej profesionálky, ako rovnocenného poskytovateľa zdravotnej starostlivosti s autonómnym a regulovaným povolaním v súlade s právnymi normami SR, direktívami EÚ, odporúčaniami Svetovej zdravotníckej organizácie (WHO) a ostatných medzinárodných zdravotníckych inštitúcií (FIGO, ICM, EMA…)
OriGene offers the most comprehensive source for human proteins and lysates, including purified proteins and corresponding MS standard, over expression lysates, cancer cell lysates and knockout cell lysates.
Ako už názov napovedá, značka Royal Canin sľubuje vášmu psíkovi a mačičke kráľovské pochutnávanie. U nás kompletná ponuka skladom.
Approach and Results-SR-BI/LDLR double knockout and control LDLR knockout mice were fed atherogenic diets containing different amounts of fat, cholesterol, and sodium cholate. Double knockout mice fed atherogenic diets high in cholesterol exhibited significantly reduced survival compared with LDLR knockout mice fed the same diets. In addition to increased diet-accelerated aortic sinus atherosclerosis, we observed significant diet-induced CA atherosclerosis in double knockout mice and diet-dependent accumulation of platelets in CA atherosclerotic plaques. This was accompanied by substantial myocardial fibrosis in double knockout mice fed high cholesterol diets. Atherogenic diet fed double knockout mice also exhibited higher circulating cytokine levels, monocytosis with increased proportions of Ly6Chi and Ly6Cint monocytes, and higher adhesion molecule expression in CA endothelial cells compared with control LDLR knockout mice.. ...
Background and aims: Perilipin1 (PLIN1), a lipid droplet-associated protein, plays an important role in the regulation of lipolysis and lipid storage in adipocytes. PLIN1 has recently been reported to be expressed in macrophages within atheroma plaques, suggesting PLIN1 may play a role in the accumulation of lipids at the arterial wall and in the development of atherosclerosis. To clarify the role of PLIN1 in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, we assessed the progression of atherosclerosis in PLIN1 transgenic mice (Plin1Tg). Methods: Plin1Tg were crossed with apolipoprotein E knockout mice (ApoeKO). C57BL/6J mice, ApoeKO and Plin1Tg/ApoeKO received a normal chow diet for 20 weeks. Body weight, gonadal fat mass and plasma lipid concentrations were measured. Aortas were collected for quantification of atheroma lesions and histological analysis by Oil Red O staining. Results: Body weight, gonadal adipose mass and plasma triglyceride concentrations were not significantly different among the ...
Mice with homologous disruption of the interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) gene on the C57BL/6 background were infected with Leishmania major and the immune response assessed. In contrast to wild-type or heterozygous knockout mice, deficient animals were unable to restrict growth of the parasite and suffered lethal infection over 6-8 wk. Although wild-type and heterozygous littermates developed CD4+ cells that contained transcripts for IFN-gamma and lymphotoxin, typical of T helper type 1 (Th1) cells, the knockout mice developed CD4+ cells that contained transcripts for interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-5, and IL-13, typical of Th2 cells. ELISPOT assays confirmed the reciprocal patterns of IFN-gamma or IL-4 production by T cells in similar frequencies in the respective groups of mice, and antibody analysis confirmed the presence of Th2-mediated isotype switching in the knockout mice. These data suggest that CD4+ T cells that normally respond to antigens by differentiation to Th1 cells default to the Th2 pathway ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - b1-Adrenoceptors compensate for b3-adrenoceptors in ileum from b3-adrenoceptor knock-out mice. AU - Hutchinson, Dana Sabine. AU - Evans, Bronwyn A. AU - Summers, Roger J. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. M3 - Article. VL - 132. SP - 433. EP - 442. JO - British Journal of Pharmacology. JF - British Journal of Pharmacology. SN - 1476-5381. IS - 2. ER - ...
Aim: To determine whether high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) drive the inflammatory cascade that promotes intimal hyperplasia (IH) following acute vascular injury. Methods and Results: Carotid artery wire injury in C57BL/6 mice induced a significant increase in intima to media (I/M) ratio at four weeks. Global deletion of HMGB1 using an inducible knockout mouse strain caused prevention of IH. IH was decreased by over 50% in WT mice treated with HMGB1 neutralizing antibody. Of knockout mouse strains deficient in putative receptors for HMGB1, TLR4-/- mice showed the greatest inhibition of IH. Both anti-HMGB1 treated mice and TLR4-/- mice exhibited a marked decrease in monocytic recruitment. Mice with selective depletion of TLR4 from macrophage exhibited a similar level of inhibition of IH to that seen in the global TLR4-/-. In vitro, dithiol HMGB1 dose-dependently promoted SMC migration and MCP-1/CCR2 expression, which was abolished by TLR4 inhibitory peptide. ...
Is it possible to get the striatum astrocyte-specific Cre recombinase-mediated knockout of XX gene knockout mice? Any one understand how to make the knockout locate in striatum or any other good ideas to knockout one gene in one special cell from one..
TY - JOUR. T1 - PKCδ Knockout Mice Are Protected from Dextromethorphan-Induced Serotonergic Behaviors in Mice. T2 - Involvements of Downregulation of 5-HT1A Receptor and Upregulation of Nrf2-Dependent GSH Synthesis. AU - Tran, Hai Quyen. AU - Lee, Youngho. AU - Shin, Eun Joo. AU - Jang, Choon Gon. AU - Jeong, Ji Hoon. AU - Mouri, Akihiro. AU - Saito, Kuniaki. AU - Nabeshima, Toshitaka. AU - Kim, Hyoung Chun. PY - 2018/10/1. Y1 - 2018/10/1. N2 - We investigated whether a specific serotonin (5-HT) receptor-mediated mechanism was involved in dextromethorphan (DM)-induced serotonergic behaviors. We firstly observed that the activation of 5-HT1A receptor, but not 5-HT2A receptor, contributed to DM-induced serotonergic behaviors in mice. We aimed to determine whether the upregulation of 5-HT1A receptor induced by DM facilitates the specific induction of certain PKC isoform, because previous reports suggested that 5-HT1A receptor activates protein kinase C (PKC). A high dose of DM (80 mg/kg, i.p.) ...
Previous studies in male AT2R knockout mice suggest that this receptor contributes to BP control.6 Compared with their wild-type littermates, male AT2R knockout mice exhibit slightly higher systolic BP and induce a more rapid and pronounced increase in BP in secondary models of hypertension, such as volume-expansion-induced hypertension produced by deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt. Controversy exists, however, over the role of the AT2R in modulating the effectiveness of AT1R blockade at lowering BP in male rat models of renin-dependent (eg, 2-kidney, 1-clip) and -independent (eg, the spontaneously hypertensive rat) hypertension, because Ang II hypersensitivity in the absence of the AT2R may simply reflect AT1R upregulation. It is indeed a pity that female AT2R knockouts were not investigated in these studies, because one might predict that they would exhibit an even greater difference in BP and a greater degree of Ang II hypersensitivity compared with their wild-type littermates than the males, ...
Authors: Melissa M Thomas, David C Wang, Donna M DSouza, Matthew P Krause, Andrew S Layne, David S Criswell, Hayley M ONeill, Michael K Connor, Judy E Anderson, Bruce E Kemp, Gregory R Steinberg, Thomas J Hawke
The use of animal models led to great progresses in understanding the role of the endosomal adaptor Lamtor2 in endosomal/lysosomal trafficking. In a first approach LAMTOR2 knockout mice were generated, but severe defects during embryogenesis resulted in no viable offspring (Teis et al., 2006). During this time, 4 patients, all siblings, suffering from a primary immunodeficiency syndrome, due to a hypomorph LAMTOR2 allele, were identified and demanded for further investigations on the function of LAMTOR2 for the immune system (Bohn et al., 2007). Therefore, we have established conditional knockout mouse models to investigate the role of LAMTOR2 for the immune system. A special interest was put on antigen presenting cells including macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). The correct uptake and processing of pathogens and antigen presentation in the context of the immune response is strictly regulated by the endosomal/lysosomal system. Using a mouse model where Lamtor2 was specifically depleted in ...
Experimental and clinical studies suggest that the vascular endothelium may play an important role in modulating the progression of ventricular and vascular remodeling in heart failure (HF). Impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation caused by decreased endothelial NO has been demonstrated in hypertension and HF in humans and in experimental animals.1,2⇓ NO can be produced by essentially all cell types in the heart and is known to have profound effects on cardiac function. It is synthesized from l-arginine by the catalytic reaction of 3 different isoforms of NO synthase (NOS): neuronal or type 1 NOS (nNOS), inducible or type 2 NOS (iNOS), and endothelial or type 3 NOS (eNOS). nNOS and eNOS are constitutively expressed and Ca2+-dependent enzymes, whereas iNOS is essentially expressed in macrophages and leukocytes in response to appropriate stimuli. All 3 NOS isoforms are expressed in the heart.3 NO is a potent endogenous vasodilator that is responsible for the maintenance of basal vascular tone ...
Animals. The contractile performance was studied in five young (9-14 wk of age) male TR-α1-deficient mice and five wild-type control animals of the same age and weight (28-35 g). The force-frequency relationship (see below) was studied also in muscles from four female TR-α1-deficient mice and four wild-type control mice of the same age and weight. The TR-α1-deficient mice represent a cross between the SV-129/OLa and BALB/c (30). Contractile studies were performed on four male TR-β-deficient (12) and four control mice of the same age and weight as above. This group of mice has a mixed 129/Sv and C57Bl/6J genetic background, and was generated from TR-β+/ − heterozygote backcrosses. The wild-type mice were obtained from crosses of heterozygote TR-α1- or TR-β-deficient mice. The two homozygote wild-type strains were bred in parallel with the respective knockout strains. Thus the knockout strains have the same genetic background as their respective knockout strains: 129/Ola and BALB/c for ...
The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that cardiomyocyte-specific loss of the electrogenic NBCe1 Na+-HCO3- cotransporter is cardioprotective during in vivo ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. An NBCe1 (Slc4a4 gene) cardiac conditional knockout mouse (KO) model was prepared by gene targeting. Cardiovascular performance of wild-type (WT) and cardiac-specific NBCe1 KO mice was analyzed by intraventricular pressure measurements, and changes in cardiac gene expression were determined by RNA Seq analysis. Response to in vivo I/R injury was analyzed after 30 minutes occlusion of the left anterior descending artery followed by 3 hours of reperfusion. Loss of NBCe1 in cardiac myocytes did not impair cardiac contractility or relaxation and caused only limited changes in gene expression patterns, such as those for electrical excitability. However, following ischemia and reperfusion, KO heart sections exhibited significantly fewer apoptotic nuclei than WT sections. These studies indicate that
This work establishes an impact of cavin‐1 on pressure regulation in the pulmonary circulation. Right ventricular systolic pressure was robustly increased compared to WT littermate controls and accompanied by an increased right ventricular mass and remodeling of airway‐associated blood vessels. Because PAH is a progressive disease and we used younger animals, one may predict a more full‐blown PAH phenotype with aging. Since expression of caveolin‐1 was partly maintained, cavin‐1‐knockout mice may constitute a more adequate model of heritable PAH due to mutations in caveolin‐1 than do caveolin‐1‐knockout mice. This is because the disease‐causing mutations cause a partial reduction of caveolin‐1 (Austin et al. 2012), contrasting with the situation in caveolin‐1‐knockout mice where the protein is completely lacking.. In agreement with our current findings, thicker alveolar septa, hypercellularity, and elevated pulmonary pressure have been reported in ...
The WT Group provides clients with a single-source engineering solution to help maintain the integrity of all projects from start to finish. With nearly 50 years of experience, WT Groups highly skilled engineering, design and consulting teams ensure consistency, clarity, and accuracy in the most cost and time-efficient manner ...
Several protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) have been proposed to act as negative regulators of insulin signaling. Recent studies have shown increased insulin sensitivity and resistance to obesity in PTP1B knockout mice, thus pointing to this enzyme as a potential drug target in diabetes. Structure-based design, guided by PTP mutants and x-ray protein crystallography, was used to optimize a relatively weak, nonphosphorus, nonpeptide general PTP inhibitor (2-(oxalyl-amino)-benzoic acid) into a highly selective PTP1B inhibitor. This was achieved by addressing residue 48 as a selectivity determining residue. By introducing a basic nitrogen in the core structure of the inhibitor, a salt bridge was formed to Asp-48 in PTP1B. In contrast, the basic nitrogen causes repulsion in other PTPs containing an asparagine in the equivalent position resulting in a remarkable selectivity for PTP1B. Importantly, this was accomplished while retaining the molecular weight of the inhibitor below 300 g/mol. ...
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We study the molecular alterations of human rhabdomyosarcoma and other musculo-skeletal sarcomas, to dissect the mechanisms leading to unrestricted cell growth and to the inhibition of terminal differentiation. We have also developed a transgenic/knockout mouse that spontaneously develops pelvic rhabdomyosrcomas, allowing the study of early events in the natural history of ...
Transcription regulator protein BACH2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BACH2 gene. It contains a BTB/POZ domain at its N-terminus which forms a disulphide-linked dimer and a bZip_Maf domain at the C-terminus. Model organisms have been used in the study of BACH2 function. A conditional knockout mouse line called Bach2tm1a(EUCOMM)Wtsi was generated at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. Male and female animals underwent a standardized phenotypic screen to determine the effects of deletion. Additional screens performed: - In-depth immunological phenotyping - in-depth bone and cartilage phenotyping GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000112182 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000040270 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Sasaki S, Ito E, Toki T, Maekawa T, Kanezaki R, Umenai T, Muto A, Nagai H, Kinoshita T, Yamamoto M, Inazawa J, Taketo MM, Nakahata T, Igarashi K, Yokoyama M (Aug 2000). "Cloning and expression of human B ...
I am seeking to hire an individual to conduct activities for a lab that is creating animal models of learning and memory -- generating knock-out constructs, as well as, utilizing molecular biology skills to perform Cloning, Plasmid and Phage Preparation, PCR, making cDNA Libraries, Library Screening, Southern and Northern Blot Analyses, Western Blotting. Good communication and organizational skills are a plus. A likely candidate would possess a B.S., M.S. or MD degree. I represent a leading bio-tech company with research facilities in New York and can provide excellent benefits (health insurance, dental, and vision plan, paid vacation and more). A high impact, high profile position with excellent opportunity for advancement. If you know anyone that might be interested please forward this to them or contact: Stan Saxton Voice: 609-584-8733 Ext. 218 Fax: 609-584-9575 E-Mail: sis at candseek.com ...
Mice have been used as models of human disease because of their physiological and genetic similarities to humans 1. Since the development of the transgenic mouse in 1982 2, numerous manipulations of the mouse genome have been created to ultimately increase the understanding of human cancer. An initial study performed by Donehower et al. 3 introduced a null mutation of the human p53 suppressor gene into a normal p53 gene using homologous recombination. This was performed in mice embryonic stem cells to determine the role of the p53 in tumorigenesis and human malignancies.. The gene encoding p53 is considered a tumor suppressor gene when it appears in its non-mutated form. However, when mutation or deletion of the gene occurs, it is thought to act as an oncogene, inducing the formation of tumors 4. Mutations and loss of the p53 gene have been linked to human tumor formations in a number of organs such as the lung, breast, colon, esophagus, liver, bladder, ovary and brain 5. Findings of p53 gene ...
When bred to mice with a Cre recombinase gene, exon 1 of the targeted gene is deleted in the |i|cre|/i| expressing tissue(s); these conditional knockout mice may be useful in generating early neural progenitor cell-specific mutants. This mutant strain may be useful in studies such as apoptosis in neural development and loss of Notch1 heterozygosity.
T cell emigration from the thymus is essential for immunological homeostasis. While stromal cell-produced sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has been shown to promote thymocyte egress via the S1P receptor, S1PR1, the significance of S1P/S1PR1 signaling in the thymic stromal cells that surround T cells remains unclear. To address this issue, we developed conditional knockout mice (Lyve1-CRE/S1pr1f/f mice) in which S1pr1 was selectively targeted in cells expressing the lymphatic endothelial cell marker, Lyve1. In these mice, T cells were significantly reduced in secondary lymphoid tissues, and CD62L+ mature CD4 and CD8 single-positive (SP) T cells accumulated in the medulla failed to undergo thymus egress. Using a Lyve1 reporter strain in which Lyve1 lineage cells expressed tdTomato fluorescent protein, we unexpectedly found that a considerable proportion of the thymocytes were fluorescently labeled, indicating that they belonged to the Lyve1 lineage. The CD4 and CD8 SP thymocytes in Lyve1-CRE/S1pr1f/f mice
Local purinergic signals modulate renal tubular transport. Acute activation of renal epithelial P2 receptors causes inhibition of epithelial transport and thus, should favor increased water and salt excretion by the kidney. So far only a few studies have addressed the effects of extracellular nucleotides on ion transport in the thick ascending limb (TAL). In the medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL), basolateral P2X receptors markedly (~25%) inhibit NaCl absorption. Although this segment does express both apical and basolateral P2Y2 receptors, acute activation of the basolateral P2Y2 receptors had no apparent effect on transepithelial ion transport. Here we studied, if the absence of the P2Y2 receptor causes chronic alterations in mTAL NaCl absorption by comparing basal and AVP-stimulated transepithelial transport rates. We used perfused mouse mTALs to electrically measure NaCl absorption in juvenile (,35 days) and adult (,35 days) male mice. Using microelectrodes, we determined the ...
BACKGROUND: Dents disease, an X-linked renal tubular disorder, is characterized by low-molecular-weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, and progressive renal failure. Dents disease results from mutations of the voltage-gated chloride channel CLC-5. METHODS: We studied the effect of zero and high citrate diet on renal function of ClC-5 knockout mice and wild-type mice. The mice were placed in metabolic cages from which the urine was collected. Mice were sacrificed to obtain serum and tissues for analysis. RESULTS: ClC-5 knockout mice fed zero or high citrate diet had significantly increased urinary calcium excretion compared with wild-type mice fed the same diets. Nine-month-old ClC-5 knockout mice on a zero citrate diet had significantly decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR), whereas 9-month-old ClC-5 knockout mice on a high citrate diet had normal renal function. ClC-5 knockout mice fed a zero citrate diet had significantly increased tubular atrophy, ...
Background: Air pollution is associated with significant adverse health effects including increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However research on the cardiovascular effect of "real-world" exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) in susceptible animal model is very limited. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between Beijing ambient particle exposure and the atherosclerosis development in the apolipoprotein E knockout mice (ApoE-/-mice).. Methods: Two parallel exposure chambers were used for whole body exposure among ApoE knockout mice. One of the chambers was supplied with untreated ambient air (PM group) and the other chamber was treated with ambient air filtered by high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter (FA group). Twenty mice were divided into two groups and exposed to ambient PM (n = 10 for PM group) or filtered air(n = 10 for FA group) for two months from January 18th to March 18th, 2010. During the exposure, the mass concentrations of PM2.5 and ...
Dual specificity phosphatase DUSP1 (otherwise known as mitogen-activated phosphatase 1 or MKP-1) dephosphorylates MAPKs, particularly p38, and negatively regulates innate immunity. Recent studies have shown that the DUSP1 gene is transcriptionally up-regulated by glucocorticoids (GCs) and that the antiinflammatory action of GCs is impaired in DUSP1-/- mice. Here we show that GC-mediated dephosphorylation of ERK-1 and ERK-2 activated by IgE receptor cross-linking is unimpaired in bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) of DUSP1-/- mice. Dephosphorylation of phospho-p38 MAPK is impaired but only at early times of GC treatment. Proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine gene expression (CCL2, IL-6, TNFalpha) is still down-regulated by GCs in BMMCs from DUSP1-/- mice, suggesting a compensatory mechanism for the GC action in these mice. In both DUSP1+/+ and DUSP1-/- BMMCs, GC up-regulated the expression of several phosphatase genes (DUSP2, DUSP4, DUSP9, and PEST domain-enriched tyrosine phosphatase). DUSP1-/-
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are important regulators of signal transduction processes mediated by cAMP and cGMP. One PDE family member, PDE3B, plays an important role in the regulation of a variety of metabolic processes such as lipolysis and insulin secretion. In this study, the cellular localization and the role of PDE3B in the regulation of triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose metabolism in hepatocytes were investigated. PDE3B was identified in caveolae, specific regions in the plasma membrane, and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. In caveolin-1 knock out mice, which lack caveolae, the amount of PDE3B protein and activity were reduced indicating a role of caveolin-1/caveolae in the stabilization of enzyme protein. Hepatocytes from PDE3B knock out mice displayed increased glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol levels, which was associated with increased expression of gluconeogenic and lipogenic genes/enzymes including, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, peroxisome ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neural stem cell transplantation in the stomach rescues gastric function in neuronal nitric oxide synthase-deficient mice. AU - Micci, Maria Adelaide. AU - Kahrig, Kristen M.. AU - Simmons, Rochelle S.. AU - Sarna, Sushil K.. AU - Espejo-Navarro, M. Rosario. AU - Pasricha, Pankaj Jay. PY - 2005/12. Y1 - 2005/12. N2 - Background & Aims: Nitric oxide is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the enteric nervous system. Loss or dysfunction of nitrinergic neurons is associated with serious disruptions of motility, intractable symptoms, and long-term suffering. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of intrapyloric transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) on gastric emptying and pyloric function in nNOS-/- mice, a well-established genetic model of gastroparesis. Methods: NSCs were isolated from embryonic mice transgenically engineered to express green fluorescent protein and transplanted into the pylorus of nNOS-/- mice. Grafted cells were visualized in pyloric sections ...
p,Hyperproduced prostaglandin E,sub,2,/sub, by cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 evokes several pathophysiological responses such as inflammation and carcinogenesis. Our recent study demonstrated that ,i,Dioscorea japonica,/i, extract suppressed the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 and induced apoptosis in lung carcinoma A549 cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ,i,Dioscorea japonica,/i, on squamous cell carcinoma of mouse skin. ,i,Dioscorea japonica,/i, feeding and ,i,Dioscorea japonica,/i, extract topical application suppressed the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 and inhibited tumor formation, hyperplasia and inflammatory cell infiltration. Immunohistochemical analyses showed the immunoreactivities of cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 in tumor keratinocytes and stronger immunoreactivities of cyclooxygenase-2 ...
Purpose : To examine the effects on embryonic development of eyelids and orbicularis oculi muscles and meibomian glands in Six1 and Six4 (Six1/4) double knockout mice. Methods : Six1/4-double knockout (dKO) and littermate wild-type (WT) embryos were used. Paraffin sections or whole-mounted specimens of eyelids were examined at embryonic day (E)15.5 (n = 4), E16.5 (n = 4) and E17.5 (n = 4). Paraffin sections were processed for hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining or immunohistochemistry for a-smooth muscle actin. Whole-mount eyelid specimens were processed for phalloidin staining and observed under confocal microscopy. Results : A dKO mouse died just after birth due to a breathing problem. At and after E16.5 the morphogenesis of eyelid was found to be severely impaired in dKO embryos. Histology and immunohistochemistry showed disturbance of the development of meibomian glands and orbicularis oculi muscles in dKO embryos. Eye including intraocular structures were well formed. Confocal microscopy ...
A conditional knockout mouse line, called Myh9tm1a(EUCOMM)Wtsi[78][79] was generated as part of the International Knockout ... Gerdin AK (2010). "The Sanger Mouse Genetics Programme: High throughput characterisation of knockout mice". Acta ... and mice specifically ablated for NM IIA in the mouse trophoblast-lineage cells demonstrate placental defects similar to mice ... Dolgin E (June 2011). "Mouse library set to be knockout". Nature. 474 (7351): 262-3. doi:10.1038/474262a. PMID 21677718.. ...
A conditional knockout mouse line, called Pnpt1tm1a(KOMP)Wtsi[12][13] was generated as part of the International Knockout Mouse ... Gerdin AK (2010). "The Sanger Mouse Genetics Programme: High throughput characterisation of knockout mice". Acta ... Dolgin E (June 2011). "Mouse library set to be knockout". Nature. 474 (7351): 262-3. doi:10.1038/474262a. PMID 21677718.. ... "A conditional knockout resource for the genome-wide study of mouse gene function". Nature. 474 (7351): 337-42. doi:10.1038/ ...
A conditional knockout mouse line, called Gap43tm1a(EUCOMM)Wtsi[16][17] was generated as part of the International Knockout ... Gerdin AK (2010). "The Sanger Mouse Genetics Programme: High throughput characterisation of knockout mice". Acta ... Dolgin E (Jun 2011). "Mouse library set to be knockout". Nature. 474 (7351): 262-3. doi:10.1038/474262a. PMID 21677718.. ... Studies on another homozygous GAP43 knockout mouse line found it to be lethal days after birth because it plays a critical role ...
Gerdin AK (2010). "The Sanger Mouse Genetics Programme: high throughput characterisation of knockout mice". Acta ... A conditional knockout mouse line called Sqletm1a(EUCOMM)Wtsi was generated at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. Male and ... Dolgin E (Jun 2011). "Mouse library set to be knockout". Nature. 474 (7351): 262-3. doi:10.1038/474262a. PMID 21677718. Collins ... "A conditional knockout resource for the genome-wide study of mouse gene function". Nature. 474 (7351): 337-42. doi:10.1038/ ...
A conditional knockout mouse line called Krt31tm1e(KOMP)Wtsi was generated at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. Male and ... Dolgin E (Jun 2011). "Mouse library set to be knockout". Nature. 474 (7351): 262-3. doi:10.1038/474262a. PMID 21677718. Collins ... "A conditional knockout resource for the genome-wide study of mouse gene function". Nature. 474 (7351): 337-42. doi:10.1038/ ... "Genome-wide generation and systematic phenotyping of knockout mice reveals new roles for many genes". Cell. 154 (2): 452-64. ...
Berthet C, Aleem E, Coppola V, Tessarollo L, Kaldis P (octubre de 2003). «Cdk2 knockout mice are viable». Curr. Biol. 13 (20): ... de 1996). «A distinct cyclin A is expressed in germ cells in the mouse». Development (ENGLAND) 122 (1): 53-64. ISSN 0950-1991. ...
Knockout Mice [online]. Nation Human Genome Research Institute, 2009. Dostupné online. (anglicky). Je zde použita šablona {{ ... Petr, J. Nobelova cena za genový knockout. OSEL.cz [online]. 2007-10-10 [cit. 2011-08-01]. Dostupné online.. ... Experimenty se ztrátou funkce (genový knockout) jsou experimenty, při kterých je organismus modifikovaný tak, aby některé jeho ... Jaenisch, R., Mintz, B. Simian virus 40 DNA sequences in DNA of healthy adult mice derived from preimplantation blastocysts ...
Genetic knockout mice lacking the gene for orexin were also reported to exhibit narcolepsy.[17] Transitioning frequently and ... Obesity in orexin knockout mice is a result of inability of brown preadipocytes to differentiate into brown adipose tissue (BAT ... BAT differentiation can be restored in these knockout mice through injections of orexin. Deficiency in orexin has also been ... Obesity in orexin-knockout mice is associated with impaired brown adipose tissue thermogenesis.[13] ...
Matalon R, Michals-Matalon K, Surendran S, Tyring SK (2006). Canavan disease: studies on the knockout mouse. Advances in ... While results in mice have been encouraging (via stem cell transplantation), whether this technique can be effective in ... The shiverer mouse represents one animal model of dysmyelination. Human diseases where dysmyelination has been implicated ... Glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibitors such as lithium chloride have been found to promote myelination in mice with damaged ...
Lum knockout mice also have abnormal collagen in their heart tissue, with fewer and thicker fibrils.[13] Mice deficient in both ... Chakravarti S (2002). "Functions of lumican and fibromodulin: lessons from knockout mice". Glycoconjugate Journal. 19 (4-5): ... Mice that have the lumican gene knocked out (Lum-/-) develop opacities of the cornea in both eyes and fragile skin.[11] The ... Mienaltowski MJ, Birk DE (2014). "Mouse models in tendon and ligament research". Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology ...
Taya Y, O'Kane S, Ferguson MW (Sep 1999). "Pathogenesis of cleft palate in TGF-beta3 knockout mice". Development. 126 (17): ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:".. *^ a b Bandyopadhyay B, Fan J, Guan S, Li Y, Chen M, Woodley DT, Li W (Mar 2006). "A "traffic ... A mouse fibrosis model". Journal of Cellular Physiology. 181 (1): 153-9. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4652(199910)181:1,153::AID- ... "Chromosomal mapping of genes for transforming growth factors beta 2 and beta 3 in man and mouse: dispersion of TGF-beta gene ...
... although the ducts remain narrower than those of wild-type mice. In any case, female GHR knockout mice can lactate normally. As ... the GHR knockout mouse, shows severely impaired ductal outgrowth at 11 weeks of age. However, by 15 weeks, ductal development ... it is said that the phenotypes of women with Laron syndrome and GHR knockout mice are identical, with diminished body size and ... In any case, mice engineered to have lower circulating levels of IGF-1 show a lower risk of developing various cancers, ...
Mice with knockouts for GPX3 (GPX3−/−) or GPX2 (GPX2−/−) also develop normally [5][6] ... However, glutathione peroxidase 4 knockout mice die during early embryonic development.[2] Some evidence, though, indicates ... Mice genetically engineered to lack glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1−/− mice) are grossly phenotypically normal and have normal ... thresholds than control mice. After 110 dB noise exposure for one hour, Gpx1 −/− mice had up to 15 dB greater noise-induced ...
12-lipoxygenase-knockout mice (i.e., mice genetically manipulated to remove the Alox12 [i.e. 12-lipoxygenase gene, see ... "Resistance to type 1 diabetes induction in 12-lipoxygenase knockout mice". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 103 (10): 1431-6 ... sequence indetity to mouse Arachidonate 8-lipoxygenase. Mouse e-12LO metabolizes arachidonic acid predominantly to 12(S)-HETE ... Mice also express an epidermal type 15-lipoxygenase (e-12LO) which has 50.8% amino acid sequence identity to human 15-LOX-2 and ...
Hayashi M, Lee JD (Dec 2004). "Role of the BMK1/ERK5 signaling pathway: lessons from knockout mice". Journal of Molecular ... Mice that were genetically engineered to lack a functional JNK3 gene - the major isoform in brain - display enhanced ischemic ... that conditional knockout of ERK5 in adult animals is also lethal, due to the widespread disruption of endothelial barriers.[15 ... "Erk5 null mice display multiple extraembryonic vascular and embryonic cardiovascular defects". Proceedings of the National ...
The two most common types of genetically modified mice are knockout mice and oncomice. Knockout mice are a type of mouse model ... "Knockout Mice". National Human Genome Research Institute. August 27, 2015. Genetically modified mouse#cite note-8 Venken, K. J ... In order to create knockout mice, a transgene with the desired sequence is inserted into an isolated mouse blastocyst using ... Mouse cells were first transformed in 1979, followed by mouse embryos in 1980. Most of the very first transmutations were ...
The technology has also been used to generate mice with genes knocked out. The first recorded knockout mouse was created by ... "Knockout Mice". National Human Genome Research Institute. Hanahan, D.; Wagner, E. F.; Palmiter, R. D. (2007). "The origins of ... The mice appeared normal, but after using radioactive probes he discovered that the virus had integrated itself into the mice ... However the mice did not pass the transgene to their offspring. In 1981 the laboratories of Frank Ruddle, Frank Constantini and ...
"Knockout Mice". Nation Human Genome Research Institute. 2009. "GM pigs best bet for organ transplant". Medical News Today. 21 ... Gain of function experiments, the logical counterpart of knockouts. These are sometimes performed in conjunction with knockout ... In a simple knockout a copy of the desired gene has been altered to make it non-functional. Embryonic stem cells incorporate ... As well as inserting genes, the process can be used to remove, or "knock out", genes. The new DNA can be inserted randomly, or ...
Knockout mice also exhibit cerebellar abnormalities and an increase in the number of sympathetic neurons.[17] ... The phenotype for BDNF knockout mice can be severe, including postnatal lethality. Other traits include sensory neuron losses ... Similar effects could be obtained in BDNF knockout mice, but these effects were reversed by local application of BDNF.[51] This ... "Studies on the physiological role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 in knockout mice". The International ...
Successful efforts have been made to create knockout mice without α1,3GT; the resulting reduction in the highly immunogenic ... Latemple, D. C.; Galili, U. (1998). "Adult and neonatal anti-Gal response in knock-out mice for alpha1,3galactosyltransferase ... Xenotransplantation of human tumor cells into immunocompromised mice is a research technique frequently used in pre-clinical ... Bols, P. E.; Aerts, J. M.; Langbeen, A; Goovaerts, I. G.; Leroy, J. L. (2010). "Xenotransplantation in immunodeficient mice to ...
"Comparison of citrus coumarins on carcinogen-detoxifying enzymes in Nrf2 knockout mice". Toxicol. Lett. 185 (3): 180-6. doi: ...
... knockout mice develop progressive myopathy and show deficits in muscle force generation.[41] In platelets, conditional knockout ... Conditional knockout of talin-1 in cardiomyocytes shows that mice have normal cardiac function at baseline, but improved ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:".. *^ Gilmore AP, Ohanian V, Spurr NK, Critchley DR (Aug 1995). "Localisation of the human gene ... Studies employing the conditional knockout of talin 1 in skeletal muscle have demonstrated its role in maintaining integrin ...
Also, BLT2 knockout mice exhibited a greatly enhanced response to ovalabumin challenge. Finally, BLT2 receptor expression was ... thromboxane synthase knockout, and BLT2 receptor knockout but not TXA2 receptor knockout impair keratinocyte-based re- ... mice while a synthetic BLT2 receptor agonist accelerats wound closure not only in this mouse model but also in the db/db mouse ... Topical treatment of mouse skin with a BLT2 receptor antagonist, LY255283, protects against UVB radiation-induced apoptosis and ...
Latemple, D. C.; Galili, U. (1998). "Adult and neonatal anti-Gal response in knock-out mice for alpha1,3galactosyltransferase ... An early major breakthrough was the 1,3 galactosyl transferase gene knockout.[69] ...
"Defective neurogenesis in citron kinase knockout mice by altered cytokinesis and massive apoptosis". Neuron. 28 (1): 115-27. ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.. ... Recessive mutations in Citron-K cause severe microcephaly both in rats and mice. In humans and rodents, loss of Citron-K ...
Dependency on the IRGs is best exemplified in mouse studies. Multiple studies have been done using mouse knockout models to ... Irg1 knockout mice infected with Mycobacterium resulted in pancytopenia as a result of inadequate hematopoietic stem cell ... Studies in mice have characterized the importance of the type 2 effector molecule IFNγ in various cell types and gone on to ... The C57BL/6 mouse has 23 IRG genes of which 21 may be functional in resistance to pathogens (6 are well characterized), whereas ...
J. Sprent: Migration and Lifespan of Circulating B-Lymphocytes of Nude (nu/nu) Mice. In: Proc. First Intern. Workshop Nude Mice ... Knockout-Mäuse mit einer Deletion in FOXN1 zeigen den gleichen Phänotyp. Nacktmaus-Weibchen haben unterentwickelte Brustdrüsen ... B. J. Braakhuis u. a.: The potential of the nude mouse xenograft model for the study of head and neck cancer. In: Archives of ... S. Loisel u. a.: Establishment of a novel human B-CLL-like xenograft model in nude mouse. In: Leukemia Research 29/2005, S. ...
Wersinger SR, Caldwell HK, Martinez L, Gold P, Hu SB, Young WS (August 2007). "Vasopressin 1a receptor knockout mice have a ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:".. *^ Anderson DA (2012). Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary (32nd ed.). Elsevier. ISBN 978-1- ... "Profound impairment in social recognition and reduction in anxiety-like behavior in vasopressin V1a receptor knockout mice". ... "Social motivation is reduced in vasopressin 1b receptor null mice despite normal performance in an olfactory discrimination ...
A knockout mouse or knock-out mouse is a genetically modified mouse (Mus musculus) in which researchers have inactivated, or " ... Creating Knockout Mice for Targeting Vector from Knockout Mice Research(KMR) - A website for ordering embryonic stem cells, ... The Knock Out Mouse Project (KOMP) Repository website - The website for ordering ES cells, vectors, and mice generated by the ... There are several thousand different strains of knockout mice.[3] Many mouse models are named after the gene that has been ...
Knockout mouse, genetically engineered laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) in which a specific gene has been inactivated, or ... Knockout mouse models also give a better understanding of the role of similar genes involved in human diseases. Knockout mouse ... Generation of knockout mice. Technologies used to generate knockout mice include homologous recombination (or gene targeting) ... In order to generate a pair of true knockout mice (homologous knockouts), the mice must be bred over several generations. ...
... we generated Cdk2 knockout mice. Surprisingly, these mice are viable, and therefore Cdk2 is not an essential gene in the mouse ... Cdk2 knockout mice are viable.. Berthet C1, Aleem E, Coppola V, Tessarollo L, Kaldis P. ... Although Cdk2 is not an essential gene in the mouse, it is required for germ cell development and meiosis. Loss of Cdk2 affects ... However, Cdk2 is required for germ cell development; both male and female Cdk2(-/-) mice are sterile. Immunoprecipitates of ...
Deltagen and Lexicon Knockout Mice The NIH has recently announced an agreement that will allow the distribution of mutant mice ... Mouse Genome Database (MGD), Gene Expression Database (GXD), Mouse Tumor Biology (MTB), Gene Ontology (GO), MouseCyc ... private collections of knockout mice. These stocks have been created and characterized by Deltagen Incorporated and Lexicon ...
... consortium of researchers report today in Nature that they have knocked out almost 40 percent of the genes in the mouse genome ... A knockout resource for mouse genetics Mouse gene knockout resource will empower mammalian gene studies for a generation ... Program Director of the Knock Out Mouse Program at the National Institutes of Health, a part of the international knockout ... A knockout resource for mouse genetics. Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. Journal. Nature. Funder. Wellcome Trust Sanger ...
The Knockout Mouse Phenotyping Program (KOMP2) collaborates with the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) to ... Mouse Data Could Help Wildlife Conservation. Learn how mouse genetic data may help in wildlife conservation efforts ... knockout and characterize all protein-coding genes in the mouse genome. Knocking out the activity of a gene provides valuable ... clues about what that gene normally does but creating mice with gene knockouts is a time-consuming and difficult process, and ...
Functional muscle analysis of the Tcap knockout mouse.. Markert CD1, Meaney MP, Voelker KA, Grange RW, Dalley HW, Cann JK, ... To provide a model for preclinical trials and for mechanistic studies, we generated knockout (KO) mice carrying a null mutation ... We are the first to establish a viable KO mouse model of Tcap deficiency and our model mice demonstrate a dystrophic phenotype ... and 12-month-old mice. Muscle histology of Tcap-null mice revealed abnormal myofiber size variation with central nucleation, ...
When the researchers tested the bladders of the integrin knockout mice, they found the bladders were constantly squeezing and ... They also found that the mice overfilled their bladders and took much longer to urinate than the normal mice. ... while the second group of mice was normal. Both groups of mice had normal appearing bladders, but the group without the ... The research team tested two groups of mice. One group were genetically modified to be missing an important member of the ...
... the HFE gene knockout mouse has the advantage that only the HFE gene function is disrupted. The β2M knockout mouse also has ... The HFE knockout model we report here resembles the β2M knockout mouse, which also has excessive iron storage, and provided ... 1 A and B). Heterozygous matings of the F1 mice were carried out to produce homozygous F2 mutant mice. Mice were fed with a ... HFE gene knockout produces mouse model of hereditary hemochromatosis. Xiao Yan Zhou, Shunji Tomatsu, Robert E. Fleming, Seppo ...
... Frauke Nitzki,1 Marco Becker,1 Anke Frommhold,1 Walter Schulz-Schaeffer, ... "Ultraviolet and ionizing radiation enhance the growth of BCC and trichoblastomas in Patched heterozygous knockout mice," Nature ... Z. J. Li and C. C. Hui, "BCC and the secret lives of Patched: insights from Patched mouse models," in Basal Cell Carcinoma, V. ... T. Ellis, I. Smyth, E. Riley et al., "Patched 1 conditional null allele in mice," Genesis, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 158-161, 2003. ...
... Hiroshi Nagahisa,1 Kazuma Okabe,1 Yoshihito Iuchi,2 Junichi ... "Characteristics of Skeletal Muscle Fibers of SOD1 Knockout Mice," Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2016, Article ...
2007 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine: Knockout Mice. Posted by Nick Anthis on October 8, 2007 ... Since then, the number of reported knockout mouse strains has risen exponentially. Gene targeting has developed into a highly ... Ongoing international efforts will make "knockout mice" for all genes available within the near future. ... all for their work contributing to knockout (and knock-in) mice becoming one of the most powerful scientific tools available to ...
... mice. Before the onset of diabetes, Pdx1 was reduced in islets from Irs2-/- mice, whereas it was expressed normally in islets ... mice. By contrast, transgenic expression of Pdx1 restored β cell mass and function in Irs2-/- mice and promoted glucose ... To investigate whether β cell failure in Irs2-/- mice might be related to dysfunction of MODY-related transcription factors, we ... Whereas male Irs2-/-Pdx1+/+ mice developed diabetes between 8 and 10 weeks of age, haploinsufficiency for Pdx1 caused diabetes ...
... with the help of gene knockout mice from the UC Davis ... Similarly, mice with a genetic knockout of the mouse equivalent ... with the help of gene knockout mice from the UC Davis Mouse Biology Program. The results are published Dec. 18 in the journal ... Knockout mice help find gene for bad breath. December 19, 2017. ScienceBlog.com ... "While we didnt put our noses up to the mices mouths, we did measure high amounts of some of these odor-forming chemicals in ...
Mice. Irs1 knockout (2), Irs2 knockout (2), Pdx1 knockout (8), and wild-type Pdx1 transgene (16) mice were maintained on a ... mice with Pdx1tg mice to increase the Pdx1 gene dosage in the Irs2-/- mice. As previously described, Pdx1tg mice have multiple ... To test the role of Pdx1 in Irs2-/- mice, we intercrossed Irs2+/- mice with Pdx1+/- mice and backcrossed the compound ... mice were slightly smaller by comparison with littermates (Figure 2a). Irs2-/-Pdx1+/- mice and mice lacking Pdx1 (Pdx1-/-, Irs2 ...
... the NIH launched the Knockout Mouse Program (KOMP) to generate knockout (null) mutations in 8,500 genes in C57BL/6 knockout ... 6.I.1. Importation of knockout mice and germplasm. The applicant should describe past and current efforts to import mice from ... collection of mouse knockout mutants, i.e. a library containing a null mutation in every gene in the mouse genome (Austin, C.P ... large-scale knockout efforts in the U.S., with international mouse knockout projects, and with the larger biological research ...
International Knockout Mouse Consortium Knockout Mouse Project (KOMP) Repository North American Conditional Mouse Mutagenesis ( ... The International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) is a scientific endeavour to produce a collection of mouse embryonic stem ... International Mouse Knockout Consortium (2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018 ... 2011). "A conditional knockout resource for the genome-wide study of mouse gene function". Nature. 474 (7351): 337-42. doi: ...
Double mutant mice were generated and compared with the single knockouts. Loss of both E2F1 and E2F2 revealed a more striking ... mice. During lactation we noted that E2F3b transcript levels were increased in the E2F2-/- mice. Given that E2Fs have ... QRT-PCR on mammary glands during pregnancy demonstrated increases in E2F2 and E2F3a in the E2F1-/- mice and an increase in E2F2 ... To test this hypothesis, we generated RNA from E2F1-/-, E2F2-/- and E2F3+/- mouse mammary glands. ...
The amounts of wake and sleep in orexin knock-out mice were nearly normal. Compared with WT littermates, orexin KO mice had the ... We found that orexin KO mice remained awake just as long as WT mice, and their sleep latency was quite similar to WT mice in ... WT mice also have rebound REM sleep, primarily during the dark period. B, Orexin knock-out mice have normal rebound of NREM ... Behavioral State Instability in Orexin Knock-Out Mice. Takatoshi Mochizuki, Amanda Crocker, Sarah McCormack, Masashi Yanagisawa ...
... blood pressure variance was significantly larger in eNOS knockout mice than in controls, and only 2 out of 10 knockout mice had ... During resting conditions, blood pressure variability was markedly enhanced in knockout mice compared with wild-type mice (10.5 ... Statistical comparisons between eNOS knockout mice and wild-type mice were performed by unpaired t tests. ... amount of sequences in the eNOS knockout mice would suggest that the larger blood pressure variability in eNOS knockout mice is ...
Over the past few years, multiple UT knockout mouse models have been generated enabling us to explore the physiological roles ... This review summarizes the new insights of urea transporter functions in different organs from UT knockout mice. Finally, we ... This review summarizes the new insights of urea transporter functions in different organs from UT knockout mice. Finally, we ... Since UT-B has a wide distribution, multiple phenotypic abnormalities were found in UT-B null mice, such as defective urine ...
Knockout Mouse Phenotyping (KOMP2). The NIH Common Fund. Trans-NIH Mouse Initiatives. The NIH Web site for the Knockout Mouse ... Knockout Mouse Phenotyping (KOMP2). The NIH Common Fund. Trans-NIH Mouse Initiatives. The NIH Web site for the Knockout Mouse ... List of Available Knockout Mice [nih.gov]. All knockout lines that have been obtained, with links to how to obtain the mice and ... Knockout Mouse Project Meetings, Papers and News. *Nature News: Mouse Library Set to be Knockout. June 15, 2011 ...
Serotonin-Deficient Knock-out Mouse. Serotonin is an important modulator of many developmental, behavioral, and physiological ... These mice represent a powerful tool for the investigation of behavioral and neuropsychiatric disorders, and development of ... These mice represent a powerful tool for the investigation of behavioral and neuropsychiatric disorders, and development of ...
... say esearchers writing in BMC Neuroscience who applied a battery of behavioral tests to the PKCI/HINT1 knockout animals, ... Mice who had the PKCI/HINT1 gene removed had an anti-depressant-like and anxiolytic-like effect, ... In addition, the knockout mice might be useful as a model to study mania, as there is no other animal model available yet. ... Wang, the corresponding author of the paper, said, "The knockout mice displayed behaviors indicative of changes in mood ...
Humans share many genes with mice. Consequently, observing the characteristics of knockout mice gives researchers information ... Knockout Mouse - Use. Use. Knocking out the activity of a gene provides information about what that gene normally does. ... Knockout mice also offer a biological and scientific context in which drugs and other therapies can be developed and tested. ... Examples of research in which knockout mice have been useful include studying and modeling different kinds of cancer, obesity, ...
  • Methods: ApoE knockout mice (30-week) were exposed to DE (at 200 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of particulate matter) or filtered-air (control) for 7 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week). (osti.gov)
  • Exposed ApoE knockout mice (30-week) to diesel exhaust (DE) for 7 weeks. (osti.gov)
  • We divided 48 apolipoprotein E (apoE) (-/-) mice into 4 groups: apoE (-/-), apoE (-/-) with PIO, diabetic apoE (-/-), and diabetic apoE (-/-) with PIO. (bionity.com)
  • The mutant ApoE-/-/LDL receptor-/- double knockout mouse model provides a considerable homology to human atherosclerosis with an additional reduction of the total testicular and total vascular volume, evidence of testicular mixed atrophy, decreased number of sperms in the cauda epididymidis and serum testosterone deficiency. (uni-giessen.de)
  • We consider the ApoE-/-/LDL receptor-/- double knockout mouse model as an ideal tool to investigate unexplained infertility with its special relationship to germ cell defects in association of local vascular lesions. (uni-giessen.de)
  • Mice carrying an altered IR gene with exon 4 flanked by loxP sites were generated and bred with transgenic mice that express the Cre recombinase under the control of the muscle creatine kinase promoter/enhancer. (jci.org)
  • To determine whether insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 is essential for the insulin-sensitizing effect of CR, we measured in vitro 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) uptake in the presence and absence of insulin by skeletal muscle isolated from wild-type (WT) mice and transgenic mice lacking IRS-1 (knockout [KO]) after either ad libitum (AL) feeding or 20 days of CR (60% of ad libitum intake). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Here, I review the application of a complementary approach, gene knockout technology, to the problem of understanding insulin resistance and its sequelae. (jci.org)
  • Gene knockout technology allows the investigator to generate homozygous null mutant mice and to examine the effects of a total lack of a particular gene product. (jci.org)
  • Compared with wild-type (WT) littermates, orexin KO mice had essentially normal amounts of sleep and wake, but wake and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) bouts were very brief, with many more transitions between all behavioral states. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we subjected male and female 5-HT(3A) knockout mice and their non-transgenic littermates to several tests of social behavior. (uva.nl)
  • These knockout mice for p66Shc (p66Shc(-/-)) have been shown to be thinner, to exhibit an increased metabolic rate, and to have less body fat than their wild-type littermates. (fightaging.org)
  • interestingly, PT rates appeared dependent on both CFTR and infection status, with uninfected CFTR +/+ animals demonstrating higher rates of PT than their -/- littermates, while CFTR +/+ P. aeruginosa-infected mice demonstrated lower PT than knockout mice. (ersjournals.com)
  • CB1 knockout mice display increased bone mineral density as compared with normal littermates. (sciencemag.org)
  • In addition, CB1 knockouts were found to eat less than wild-type littermates after temporary food restriction, a behavior linked to the leptin-responsive neural circuitry. (sciencemag.org)
  • In the present study Epac1-/- mice were compared to their reference wild type (WT) littermates, during baseline conditions as well as after per oral water load with and without presence of the antidiuretic vasopressin analog desmopressin. (uib.no)
  • However, when compared with wild-type littermates, heterozygous 5-HTT knockout mice experiencing high levels of stressful life events showed significantly depressed locomotor activity and increased social avoidance toward an unfamiliar male in a novel environment. (biologists.org)
  • Heterozygous 5-HTT knockout mice exposed to high stress also showed significantly lower levels of serotonin turnover than wild-type littermates, selectively in the frontal cortex, which is a structure that is known to control fear and avoidance responses, and that is implicated in susceptibility to depression. (biologists.org)
  • The HFE-deficient mice showed profound differences in parameters of iron homeostasis. (pnas.org)
  • The findings that β 2 M-deficient mice developed progressive iron overload similar to that seen in HH patients initially suggested the involvement of a major histocompatibility complex class I gene in HH ( 15 - 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • HFE-deficient mice exhibit profound abnormalities in iron homeostasis. (pnas.org)
  • To address its functions in normal cellular and systemic physiology we have generated TPPII-deficient mice. (pnas.org)
  • We have generated TPPII-deficient mice and provide here genetic evidence that TPPII is important for proliferative survival of nonmalignant cells. (pnas.org)
  • The SAP-deficient mouse model recapitulates several features of XLP: hyperproliferative T cell response following infections, impaired NK and CD8 cell cytotoxicity, defective humoral immune responses, abnormal germinal center formation, reduction in IgG+ memory B cell numbers, and the absence of NKT and other innate T cells. (taconic.com)
  • The aim of this study is to determine (1) whether CD36 is required for the maintenance of the corneal epithelial barrier to infection, and (2) whether CD36-deficient mice present with an increased susceptibility to bacterial keratitis. (arvojournals.org)
  • Both male and female cKO mice were FSH deficient, secondary to diminished pituitary Fshb mRNA production. (ovid.com)
  • UCP1 activity) in the brown adipose tissue (BAT) of wild-type mice, or by ATP-dependent muscular shivering thermogenesis in mice deficient for UCP1. (biologists.org)
  • When exposed to cold, mice deficient for UCP1 showed an increase of 20.2% in plasmatic reactive oxygen metabolites, 81.8% in muscular oxidized glutathione and 47.1% in muscular protein carbonyls. (biologists.org)
  • The goal of this FOA is to provide informatics support to NIH funded projects that are performing high-throughput broad based phenotyping of mouse knock-out (KO) lines (see RFA-RM-15-017) and to coordinate with international efforts so as to integrate all data into a common database under the auspices of the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC). (nih.gov)
  • Here we present the first report of a Tcap KO mouse model for LGMD2G and the results of an investigation into the effects of Tcap deficiency on skeletal muscle function in 4- and 12-month-old mice. (nih.gov)
  • Despite impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, these mice have elevated fat mass, serum triglycerides, and FFAs, but their blood glucose, serum insulin, and glucose tolerance are normal. (jci.org)
  • Moreover, knockout mice have reduced circulating glucose and insulin levels and enhanced insulin sensitivity in metabolic tissues, consistent with elevated IL-10 in skeletal muscle and serum. (fightaging.org)
  • Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in skeletal muscle of knockout mice suffering Duchenne muscular dystrophy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Calorie restriction increases insulin-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle from IRS-1 knockout mice. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Skeletal muscle IRS-2 protein expression was significantly lower in WT compared with KO mice. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cdk2 knockout mice are viable. (nih.gov)
  • Surprisingly, these mice are viable, and therefore Cdk2 is not an essential gene in the mouse. (nih.gov)
  • CaBP2 KO mice were viable and did not show any apparent physiological deficits or breeding problems. (arvojournals.org)
  • Recently, we reported that CIB1 is not required for developmental angiogenesis, as CIB1-KO mice are viable and female mice are fertile [ 9 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This mouse is viable and develops normally with the exception of having an enlarged thymus. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we used hyperpolarized (HP) 13 C-magnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the impact of a PDK2/PDK4 double knockout (DKO) on pyruvate metabolism in perfused livers from lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and validated the HP observations with high-resolution 13 C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of tissue extracts and steady-state isotopomer analyses. (nature.com)
  • Stainable hepatic iron in the HFE mutant mice was predominantly in hepatocytes in a periportal distribution. (pnas.org)
  • This FOA issued by the Office of Strategic Coordination, Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health, solicits grant applications from institutions/ organizations that propose to perform broad phenotyping of the International Knockout Mouse Consortium's (IKMC) mutant mice. (nih.gov)
  • In these mutant mice, the amounts of glycogen synthase messenger RNA were 50 to 70 percent of normal and the transcriptional induction of the genes for two gluconeogenic enzymes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase, was delayed. (sciencemag.org)
  • The hepatocytes and adipocytes of the mutant mice failed to accumulate lipid and the expression of the gene for uncoupling protein, the defining marker of brown adipose tissue, was reduced. (sciencemag.org)
  • The plaque burden in the cortex more than quadrupled in J20/PS1 mutant mice, as compared with J20 mice. (alzforum.org)
  • All of the knockout mice lines were initially screened to identify potential defects involved in metabolism, bone metabolism, or the development of cancer, as well as to establish whether the knocked out genes had a function in the cardiovascular, immune or neurological systems. (genome.gov)
  • The researchers further characterized the knockout mice to identify critical biological processes in which the secreted and transmembrane proteins were involved, such as metabolism, neurology development and angiogenesis, the process of growing new blood vessels in the body. (genome.gov)
  • Our findings indicate that combining real-time hyperpolarized 13 C NMR spectroscopy and 13 C isotopomer analysis provides quantitative insights into intermediary metabolism in PDK-knockout mice. (nature.com)
  • Conclusion: Body weight is potentially a latent variable in about a third of experiments that use knockout mice and should be considered in interpreting experimental outcomes, e.g., in studies of hypertension, drug and hormone metabolism, organ development, cell proliferation and apoptosis, digestion, heart rate, or atherosclerosis. (ebscohost.com)
  • to discover the wealth of mouse behavioral tasks and to get the guidance you need to select the best methods and necessary controls. (wiley.com)
  • Examples of behavioral tasks successfully applied to transgenic and knockout mouse models are provided, as well as references to the primary literature and step-by-step methods protocols. (wiley.com)
  • The NIH also awarded cooperative agreements to the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia and to the Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute of Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto to improve the efficiency of methods for creating knockout lines. (komp.org)
  • Methods: The behavioural analysis for the Car9-/- knock-out mice was done with a slightly modified SHIRPA protocol using wild-type mice as controls. (uta.fi)
  • By contrast, transgenic expression of Pdx1 restored β cell mass and function in Irs2-/- mice and promoted glucose tolerance throughout life, as these mice survived for at least 20 months without diabetes. (jci.org)
  • The researchers found that their new knockout mouse, when compared with the original knockout mouse, survived better, had higher glucose tolerance and was less likely to develop metabolic disorders. (asbmb.org)
  • The investigators also noted that the knockout mice showed improved glucose tolerance compared with wild-type mice when fed a normal diet. (asbmb.org)
  • They found that the changes in bile acid makeup and glucose tolerance in the knockout mice mimicked the results in wild-type mice. (asbmb.org)
  • Also, specific bile acids enriched in the pure-background knockout mice may have triggered cellular signaling in the body, causing improved glucose tolerance. (asbmb.org)
  • recently reported that targeting PDK with 2-[(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)sulfonyl] isoindoline-4,6-diol (designated PS10) resulted in improved glucose tolerance in mice 16 . (nature.com)
  • By causing a specific gene to be inactive in the mouse, and observing any differences from normal behaviour or physiology, researchers can infer its probable function. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are widely used in knockout experiments, especially those investigating genetic questions that relate to human physiology . (wikipedia.org)
  • The first recorded knockout mouse was created by Mario R. Capecchi , Martin Evans , and Oliver Smithies in 1989, for which they were awarded the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine . (wikipedia.org)
  • Such gene "knockout" experiments have elucidated the roles of numerous genes in embryonic development, adult physiology, aging and disease. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Apart from a decreased sensitivity to formalin induced pain, 5-HT 3A knockout mice did not exhibit abnormalities in body weight, food, or water intake, sexual behavior, or motor function during rotarod performance. (frontiersin.org)
  • These mice do, however, exhibit a moderate polydipsia and polyuria due to a perturbation of the effect of vasopressin on tubular water reabsorption. (uib.no)
  • Conclusions: Our results suggest that MAL gene knockout mouse significantly increased the susceptibility of cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The susceptibility of MT-null mice to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity was not due to the increased acetaminophen bioactivation, as cytochrome P-450 enzymes, and acetaminophen-reactive metabolites in bile and urine were not increased in MT-null mice. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Dissemination of Chlamydia to the spleen and lungs occurred to a greater extent in iNOS −/− than in iNOS +/+ mice, which correlated with a marginal increase in the susceptibility of macrophages from iNOS −/− mice to chlamydial infection in vitro. (asm.org)
  • Mice lacking Na v 1.7 had much more efficient signaling by the opioid arm, shifting the balance such that the neurons were much less responsive to pronociceptive signals and much more responsive to antinociceptive signals. (sciencemag.org)
  • To provide a model for preclinical trials and for mechanistic studies, we generated knockout (KO) mice carrying a null mutation in the Tcap gene. (nih.gov)
  • Gene targeting has already produced more than five hundred different mouse models of human disorders, including cardiovascular and neuro-degenerative diseases, diabetes and cancer. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Speaking about these results, Wang said, "Although we don't yet know why the deletion of the gene altered the mood status of the mice, what we have learned about the importance of this gene in mood function and its involvement in human mental disorders is interesting. (science20.com)
  • These mice represent a powerful tool for the investigation of behavioral and neuropsychiatric disorders, and development of drug treatments for these disorders. (federallabs.org)
  • Of 472 genes knocked out in the mice, 98 overlap with human genes for rare single gene genetic disorders in the Online Mendelian Inheritance of Man, a database operated by the NIH National Library of Medicine that describes rare single gene disorders. (genome.gov)
  • Sharing resources and information among members of the biomedical research community has been a core component of NIH's Knockout Mouse Project," said National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Director James Battey, M.D., Ph.D., who is chairman of the Trans-NIH Mouse Initiative. (genome.gov)
  • When fed a Western diet, the mice likely reasbored the bile acids and avoided metabolic disorders and diabetes. (asbmb.org)
  • In the future, this new Cyp7a1 knockout mouse could be used to examine how bile acid composition may help protect the body from metabolic disorders. (asbmb.org)
  • For example, the p53 knockout mouse is named after the p53 gene which codes for a protein that normally suppresses the growth of tumours by arresting cell division and/or inducing apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both groups of mice had normal appearing bladders, but the group without the integrin protein had very little bladder control. (redorbit.com)
  • Similarly, mice with a genetic knockout of the mouse equivalent of SELENBP1 had low levels of the protein and high levels of methanethiol and other volatile sulfur compounds in their blood. (scienceblog.com)
  • Researchers from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have found a protein that is a critical regulator in the development of fatty liver disease in mice, according to a study published in the journal Nature Communications. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Scientists from the UNC School of Medicine discovered that the anti-inflammatory protein NLRP12 normally helps protect mice against obesity and insulin resistance when they are fed a high-fat diet. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Mice homozygous for the targeted deletion of the c/ebp alpha gene, which expresses the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBP alpha), did not store hepatic glycogen and died from hypoglycemia within 8 hours after birth. (sciencemag.org)
  • SAP protein is not present in these mice. (taconic.com)
  • The mouse will likely produce the protein from the wild-type copy of the gene, but depending on how the gene is regulated it is likely that expression of the protein will be below wild-type levels. (biology-online.org)
  • If there is some of the protein made, the mouse is a knock-down and not a knock-out. (biology-online.org)
  • In addition, genes encoding tumor necrosis factor (TNF), TNF receptor 2 (TNFR2), and the signaling proteins stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)/Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK), were downregulated, and phosphorylated levels of SAPK/JNK/c-Jun were decreased in Retn −/− mice. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Peripheral tolerance could be established in microMT mice with a single dose of deaggragated protein. (rupress.org)
  • Consistent with previous studies in rats, IRS-1 protein expression in muscle was reduced in WT-CR compared with WT-AL mice, and muscle IRS-2 abundance was unchanged by diet. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • No shed virus protein was detected in vaginal secretions 3 days after challenge in any immune mouse, whereas titres were 1400 and 1700 in the two groups of non-immune mice. (ovid.com)
  • Acetaminophen injection depleted cellular glutathione similarly in both control and MT-null mice, but produced more lipid peroxidation in MT-null mice, as evidenced by the abundance of thiobarbiturate-reactive substances, and by immunohistochemical localization of 4-hydroxynonenal and malondialdehyde protein adducts. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Because SETD5 is expressed in the brain over the course of the entire life, Novarino's group will also assess the temporal development of ASD-related phenotypes in these mice and determine the potential for rescuing behavioral phenotypes in adulthood. (sfari.org)
  • This is supported by the observation that activation of the STAT3/SOCS3 pathway was strongly decreased in the pancreas of PAP/HIP −/− mice and by the reversion of the apoptotic and inflammatory phenotypes upon administration of recombinant PAP/HIP to PAP/HIP −/− mice. (bmj.com)
  • Since UT-B has a wide tissue distribution, multiple phenotypic abnormalities have been found in UT-B null mice, such as defective urine concentration, exacerbated heart blockage with aging, depression-like behavior, and earlier male sexual maturation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Usp18 knockout mice on a C57Bl6 background developed neurological abnormalities and exhibited 100% mortality within 5 months. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Examples of research in which knockout mice have been useful include studying and modeling different kinds of cancer , obesity , heart disease , diabetes , arthritis , substance abuse , anxiety , aging and Parkinson's disease . (wikipedia.org)
  • Before the onset of diabetes, Pdx1 was reduced in islets from Irs2-/- mice, whereas it was expressed normally in islets from wild-type or Irs1-/- mice, which do not develop diabetes. (jci.org)
  • Whereas male Irs2-/-Pdx1+/+ mice developed diabetes between 8 and 10 weeks of age, haploinsufficiency for Pdx1 caused diabetes in newborn Irs2-/- mice. (jci.org)
  • Knockout mouse lines have served as valuable models to study a range of human conditions, from obesity and heart disease to diabetes and substance abuse. (genome.gov)
  • Targeted disruption of the transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) gene in mice results in the development of a massive multifocal inflammatory disease in many tissues. (bloodjournal.org)
  • To better understand the role of DR5 in development and in adult tissues, we have created a knockout mouse lacking DR5. (asm.org)
  • Previously Car9-/- knock-out mice have been stated to be aggressive and hyperactive and their brain tissues showed vacuolar changes. (uta.fi)
  • Their insulin levels are not significantly different from those of wild-type mice ( 5 ), although Brüning et al. (jci.org)
  • Gene expression in the MOE from AC3 −/− mice was significantly altered, compared to AC3 +/+ mice. (mdpi.com)
  • Comparing in vitro maturation rate of oocytes, we found oocytes collected from AR −/− mice have a significantly poor maturating rate with 60% reached metaphase II and 30% remained in germinal vesicle breakdown stage, whereas 95% of wild-type AR ( AR +/+ ) oocytes had reached metaphase II. (mdpi.com)
  • Allografted melanoma tumors that developed in CIB1-KO mice were smaller in volume, had a distinct necrotic appearance, and had significantly less intra-tumoral microvessel density. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • But in the essential step to realize its ambitions of a comprehensive, freely available resource, the team designed and delivered a 'pipeline' that systematically designs and constructs the vectors, and efficiently introduces the engineered DNA molecules into the mouse embryonic stem cell line developed specifically for these projects. (eurekalert.org)
  • One group were genetically modified to be missing an important member of the integrin family in the epithelium, while the second group of mice was normal. (redorbit.com)
  • In recent years, the contribution that different glutamate receptor subtypes and subunits make to spatial learning and memory has been studied extensively using genetically modified mice in which key proteins are knocked out. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Instead, the fragmented behavior of orexin KO mice may be best described as behavioral state instability, with apparently low thresholds to transition between states. (jneurosci.org)
  • Mice who had the PKCI/HINT1 gene removed had an anti-depressant-like and anxiolytic-like effect, say esearchers writing in BMC Neuroscience who applied a battery of behavioral tests to the PKCI/HINT1 knockout animals, concluding that the deleted gene may have an important role in mood regulation. (science20.com)
  • how do I run behavioral assays to find out what's wrong with my mouse? (wiley.com)
  • Neurodevelopment and Neurodegeneration" discusses mouse behavioral tasks relevant to neurodevelopmental diseases, such as mental retardation and autism, and to neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimers, Parkinsons, Huntingtons, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (wiley.com)
  • Behavioral Phenotyping of Transgenic and Knockout Mice, Second Edition has been written in Dr. Crawley's private capacity, outside of her professional position at the National Institutes of Health. (wiley.com)
  • The Cftr knockout mouse: This particular strain has helped advance research into cystic fibrosis, the most common fatal genetic disease in the United States today, occurring in approximately one of every 3,300 live births. (avroarrow.org)
  • In this study, we examined whether mucociliary clearance differed between cystic fibrosis (CF) knockout mice and wildtype controls. (ersjournals.com)
  • Measurements were made from uninfected cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) knockout (-/-) mice and littermate controls (+/+) and compared to measurements from infected animals. (ersjournals.com)
  • These data demonstrate differences in mucociliary clearance between cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator knockout mice and controls, and further that Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection affects mucociliary clearance in the peripheral airways of mice. (ersjournals.com)
  • Additionally, the observed differences in particle transport suggest that cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator knockout mice demonstrate different mucociliary responses to infection. (ersjournals.com)