Mice, Inbred Strains
Rats, Inbred Strains
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Animals, Outbred Strains
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
Disease Models, Animal
Molecular Sequence Data
Bacterial Typing Techniques
Quantitative Trait, Heritable
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Amino Acid Sequence
Nucleic Acid Hybridization
Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
Standardized nomenclature for inbred strains of mice: sixth listing. (1/15570)Rules for designating inbred strains of mice are presented, along with a list of strains with their origins and characteristics, a table of biochemical polymorphisms, and standard subline designations. (+info)
Features of the immune response to DNA in mice. I. Genetic control. (2/15570)The genetic control of the immune response to DNA was studied in various strains of mice F1 hybrids and corresponding back-crosses immunized with single stranded DNA complexed to methylated bovine serum albumin. Anti-DNA antibody response was measured by radioimmuno-logical technique. High responder, low responder, and intermediate responder strains were found and the ability to respond to DNA was characterized as a dominant genetic trait which is not linked to the major locus of histocompatibility. Studies in back-crosses suggested that this immune response is under multigenic control. High responder mice produce both anti-double stranded DNA and anti-single stranded DNA 7S and 19S antibodies, while low responder mice produce mainly anti-single stranded DNA 19S antibodies. (+info)
Antitumor effect of allogenic fibroblasts engineered to express Fas ligand (FasL). (3/15570)Fas ligand is a type II transmembrane protein which can induce apoptosis in Fas-expressing cells. Recent reports indicate that expression of FasL in transplanted cells may cause graft rejection and, on the other hand, tumor cells may lose their tumorigenicity when they are engineered to express FasL. These effects could be related to recruitment of neutrophils by FasL with activation of their cytotoxic machinery. In this study we investigated the antitumor effect of allogenic fibroblasts engineered to express FasL. Fibroblasts engineered to express FasL (PA317/FasL) did not exert toxic effects on transformed liver cell line (BNL) or colon cancer cell line (CT26) in vitro, but they could abrogate their tumorigenicity in vivo. Histological examination of the site of implantation of BNL cells mixed with PA317/FasL revealed massive infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and mononuclear cells. A specific immune protective effect was observed in animals primed with a mixture of BNL or CT26 and PA317/FasL cells. Rechallenge with tumor cells 14 or 100 days after priming resulted in protection of 100 or 50% of animals, respectively. This protective effect was due to CD8+ cells since depletion of CD8+ led to tumor formation. In addition, treatment of pre-established BNL tumors with a subcutaneous injection of BNL and PA317/FasL cell mixture at a distant site caused significant inhibition of tumor growth. These data demonstrate that allogenic cells engineered with FasL are able to abolish tumor growth and induce specific protective immunity when they are mixed with neoplastic cells. (+info)
Phenotype of mice and macrophages deficient in both phagocyte oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase. (4/15570)The two genetically established antimicrobial mechanisms of macrophages are production of reactive oxygen intermediates by phagocyte oxidase (phox) and reactive nitrogen intermediates by inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). Mice doubly deficient in both enzymes (gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-)) formed massive abscesses containing commensal organisms, mostly enteric bacteria, even when reared under specific pathogen-free conditions with antibiotics. Neither parental strain showed such infections. Thus, phox and NOS2 appear to compensate for each other's deficiency in providing resistance to indigenous bacteria, and no other pathway does so fully. Macrophages from gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-) mice could not kill virulent Listeria. Their killing of S. typhimurium, E. coli, and attenuated Listeria was markedly diminished but demonstrable, establishing the existence of a mechanism of macrophage antibacterial activity independent of phox and NOS2. (+info)
Enhanced Th1 activity and development of chronic enterocolitis in mice devoid of Stat3 in macrophages and neutrophils. (5/15570)We have generated mice with a cell type-specific disruption of the Stat3 gene in macrophages and neutrophils. The mutant mice are highly susceptible to endotoxin shock with increased production of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF alpha, IL-1, IFN gamma, and IL-6. Endotoxin-induced production of inflammatory cytokines is augmented because the suppressive effects of IL-10 on inflammatory cytokine production from macrophages and neutrophils are completely abolished. The mice show a polarized immune response toward the Th1 type and develop chronic enterocolitis with age. Taken together, Stat3 plays a critical role in deactivation of macrophages and neutrophils mainly exerted by IL-10. (+info)
Thymic selection by a single MHC/peptide ligand: autoreactive T cells are low-affinity cells. (6/15570)In H2-M- mice, the presence of a single peptide, CLIP, bound to MHC class II molecules generates a diverse repertoire of CD4+ cells. In these mice, typical self-peptides are not bound to class II molecules, with the result that a very high proportion of H2-M- CD4+ cells are responsive to the various peptides displayed on normal MHC-compatible APC. We show here, however, that such "self" reactivity is controlled by low-affinity CD4+ cells. These cells give spectacularly high proliferative responses but are virtually unreactive in certain other assays, e.g., skin graft rejection; responses to MHC alloantigens, by contrast, are intense in all assays. Possible explanations for why thymic selection directed to a single peptide curtails self specificity without affecting alloreactivity are discussed. (+info)
High-linoleate and high-alpha-linolenate diets affect learning ability and natural behavior in SAMR1 mice. (7/15570)Semipurified diets incorporating either perilla oil [high in alpha-linolenate, 18:3(n-3)] or safflower oil [high in linoleate, 18:2(n-6)] were fed to senescence-resistant SAMR1 mouse dams and their pups. Male offspring at 15 mo were examined using behavioral tests. In the open field test, locomotor activity during a 5-min period was significantly higher in the safflower oil group than in the perilla oil group. Observations of the circadian rhythm (48 h) of spontaneous motor activity indicated that the safflower oil group was more active than the perilla oil group during the first and second dark periods. The total number of responses to positive and negative stimuli was higher in the safflower oil group than in the perilla oil group in the light and dark discrimination learning test, but the correct response ratio was lower in the safflower oil group. The difference in the (n-6)/(n-3) ratios of the diets reflected the proportions of (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids, rather than those of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the brain total fatty acids, and in the proportions of (n-6) and (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the total polyunsaturated fatty acids of the brain phospholipids. These results suggest that in SAMR1 mice, the dietary alpha-linolenate/linoleate balance affects the (n-6)/(n-3) ratio of brain phospholipids, and this may modify emotional reactivity and learning ability. (+info)
Cardiomegaly in the juvenile visceral steatosis (JVS) mouse is reduced with acute elevation of heart short-chain acyl-carnitine level after L-carnitine injection. (8/15570)The long-term administration of L-carnitine was very effective in preventing cardiomegaly in juvenile visceral steatosis (JVS) mice, which was confirmed by heart weight as well as the lipid contents in heart tissue. After i.p. injection of L-carnitine, the concentration of free carnitine in heart remained constant, although serum free carnitine level increased up to 80-fold. On the other hand, a significant increase in short-chain acyl-carnitine level in heart was observed. These results suggest that increased levels of short-chain acyl-carnitine, not free carnitine, might be a key compound in the protective effect of L-carnitine administration in JVS mice. (+info)
There are several types of disease susceptibility, including:
1. Genetic predisposition: This refers to the inherent tendency of an individual to develop a particular disease due to their genetic makeup. For example, some families may have a higher risk of developing certain diseases such as cancer or heart disease due to inherited genetic mutations.
2. Environmental susceptibility: This refers to the increased risk of developing a disease due to exposure to environmental factors such as pollutants, toxins, or infectious agents. For example, someone who lives in an area with high levels of air pollution may be more susceptible to developing respiratory problems.
3. Lifestyle susceptibility: This refers to the increased risk of developing a disease due to unhealthy lifestyle choices such as smoking, lack of exercise, or poor diet. For example, someone who smokes and is overweight may be more susceptible to developing heart disease or lung cancer.
4. Immune system susceptibility: This refers to the increased risk of developing a disease due to an impaired immune system. For example, people with autoimmune disorders such as HIV/AIDS or rheumatoid arthritis may be more susceptible to opportunistic infections.
Understanding disease susceptibility can help healthcare providers identify individuals who are at risk of developing certain diseases and provide preventive measures or early intervention to reduce the risk of disease progression. Additionally, genetic testing can help identify individuals with a high risk of developing certain diseases, allowing for earlier diagnosis and treatment.
In summary, disease susceptibility refers to the predisposition of an individual to develop a particular disease or condition due to various factors such as genetics, environment, lifestyle choices, and immune system function. Understanding disease susceptibility can help healthcare providers identify individuals at risk and provide appropriate preventive measures or early intervention to reduce the risk of disease progression.
1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.
2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.
3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.
4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.
5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.
6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.
7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.
8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.
9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.
10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.
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- The study was done in mice, not humans, but the genes that determine sex are similar in mammals, so the results might be applicable, especially in males with Klinefelter's syndrome, who are genetically XXY. (foxnews.com)
- To control for the effect of the mice's genetic background, both strains are crosses of inbred lines, which generally have identical copies of genes on each chromosome. (spectrumnews.org)
- The subtypes, which had shown no pathogenicity in laboratory mice, were forced to evolve by serial passaging. (cdc.gov)
- Elissa Chesler, Ph.D., a behavioral genomicist at The Jackson Laboratory, further commented: "For behavior and many other biomedically relevant fields we can't simply generalize from "mouse" to "human"--we must ask which mice, and which human. (jax.org)
- Whether this is a specific phenomenon to mice, or even to this particular inbred background strain of laboratory mice, is still an open question, but we did find similar results in two different genetic models of mice," study researcher Paul Bonthuis, a graduate student at the University of Virginia, told LiveScience in an email. (foxnews.com)
- Strains of laboratory mice that are inbred for higher metabolic rates show stronger immune responses to immune challenge with stronger antigen-specific IgM production than strains bred for lower metabolic rates. (cdc.gov)
- Gene for ovarian granulosa cell tumor susceptibility, get, in SWX5 recombinant inbred strains of mice revaled by dehydroepiandrosterone. (who.int)
- Total lung OH-proline was significantly increased in silica -exposed mice from both stains at both time points. (cdc.gov)
- Although both adapted viruses evoked diffuse alveolar damage and showed a similar 50% mouse lethal dose and the same peak lung concentration, each had a distinct pathologic signature and caused a different course of acute respiratory distress syndrome. (cdc.gov)
- Moreover, mice infected with the 1918 influenza virus or with a recent subtype H5N1 human isolate also show considerable similarities in overall lung cellularity, composition of lung immune cell subpopulation, and cellular immune temporal dynamics ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
- It is now well known that some inbred mouse strains, such as the C57BL/6J (B6 for short) strain used, are resistant to septic shock. (jax.org)
- the mouse strain used in the study (C57BL/6) is representative of a single individual and doesn't cover the diversity in the mouse population. (jax.org)
- Some heterozygotes, either with an inbred 129/Ola or mixed C57BL/6-129/Ola background, show signs of HHT, such as telangiectases or recurrent nosebleeds. (jci.org)
- Women may not be known as the gender with the highest sex drive, but it turns out, at least in mice, males with an extra "girly" sex chromosome seemed to have an insatiable appetite for sex. (foxnews.com)
- In another genetically engineered mouse model the researchers linked the X and Y chromosome so this pair could be matched up with an X chromosome, resulting in genetically XXY males. (foxnews.com)
- The second model would reveal how an extra X chromosome affected the male mice. (foxnews.com)
- These results indicate that there may be an undiscovered gene on the X chromosome that affects sexual behaviors in mice and perhaps in other mammals, the researchers say. (foxnews.com)
- If this holds true, they could be under the influence of the same mysterious X chromosome factor as the mice. (foxnews.com)
- Because one copy of the X chromosome is randomly inactivated in females, researchers predicted that MeCP2 expression in female mice might lead to inconsistent symptoms. (spectrumnews.org)
- Rats and mice : their biology and control / A. P. Meehan. (who.int)
- Adult male CD-1 mice were subjected to controlled cortical impacts to simulate moderate TBI in humans. (nih.gov)
- The main point of the article is valid, which is that a recent study in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ( PNAS ) shows using mice for research into response to sepsis, burns and trauma (collectively called "shock") has not translated into useful medicines for humans. (jax.org)
- Both strains of mutant mice are less anxious than controls at 5 weeks of age. (spectrumnews.org)
- These "5XFAD" transgenic mice overexpress both mutant human APP(695) with the Swedish (K670N, M671L), Florida (I716V), and London (V717I) Familial Alzheimer's Disease (FAD) mutations and human PS1 harboring two FAD mutations, M146L and L286V. (mmrrc.org)
- A transgene was designed with a mutant human amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein ( APP ) cDNA sequence (altered to include the APP K670N/M671L (Swedish) + I716V (Florida) + V717I (London) Familial Alzheimer's Disease (FAD) mutations) inserted into exon 2 of the mouse Thy1 gene. (mmrrc.org)
- lab: LICR-m lab description: Ren - Ludwig Institue for Cancer Research datatype: ChipSeq datatype description: Chromatin IP Sequencing cell: Cerebellum cell organism: mouse cell description: Cerebellum cell sex: M antibody: H3K27ac antibody antibodydescription: rabbit polyclonal. (nih.gov)
- Engrafting human immune tissue into an experimental mouse system provides a much better platform for translational research: it tests a real human immune system in a whole organism rather than in a test tube. (jax.org)
- Orthotopic tumors were assessed by histopathology and metastasis by strain specific qPCR against 4t1 cell and host gDNA. (biorxiv.org)
- In the present study, the authors characterized the temporal and spatial changes in the expression of postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95), a key scaffolding protein implicated in excitatory synaptic signaling, after controlled cortical impacts in mice. (nih.gov)
- Compendious survey of protein tandem repeats in inbred mouse strains. (bvsalud.org)
- In addition, these mice have reduced synaptic marker protein levels, increased p25 levels, neuron loss, and memory impairment in the Y-maze test. (mmrrc.org)
- Annotation of mouse strain AKR/J genome assembly provided by GENCODE consortium. (jax.org)
- J:259852 Mouse Genome Informatics and the WTSI Mouse Genomes Project, MGI Strain Genome Feature and Gene Model Load. (jax.org)
- The effect of pineal gland status on 4t1 cell allografts was tested in C3Sn mice ( Mus Musculus ) with either an intact pineal (control) or surgical removal of the pineal causing a ~50% deficit in plasma melatonin. (biorxiv.org)
- The Mouse Online: Open Mouse Biology and Pathology Data Resources for Biomedical Research. (jax.org)
- 5XFAD transgenic mice rapidly recapitulate major features of Alzheimer's Disease amyloid pathology and may be useful models of intraneuronal Abeta-42 induced neurodegeneration and amyloid plaque formation. (mmrrc.org)
- In fact, the researchers showed that the genetic response to the narrow spectrum of maladies under discussion had very little correlation at all between mouse and human. (jax.org)
- The researchers studied two special lines of mice. (foxnews.com)
- Although Rett syndrome presents almost entirely in girls, researchers have thus far relied mostly on male mice to model the disorder. (spectrumnews.org)
- In the new study, researchers characterized two strains of mice lacking MeCP2. (spectrumnews.org)
- By making use of quantitative chemical cross-linking technologies, we show that changes in the muscle mitochondrial interactome contribute to mitochondrial functional decline in aging in female mice. (nature.com)
- Quantitative proteome analysis of age-related changes in mouse gastrocnemius muscle using mTRAQ. (nature.com)
- We show that a commercially available strain of outbred mice, MF1, can be treated as an ultrafine mosaic of standard inbred strains and accordingly used to dissect a known quantitative trait locus influencing anxiety. (inserm.fr)
- The diversity outbred cross (as previously discussed in this blog) and collaborative cross mice are mouse populations specifically developed to provide wide genetic variability, and both have been developed mainly within the past decade. (jax.org)
- the Oxford Wellcome Trust Genome Viewer retrieves mapping data for many mouse experimental mapping populations including the Heterogenous Stock, the Pre-Collaborative Cross mice, and Mouse Diversity Panel. (genenetwork.org)
- The study describes a single-cell analysis of the mammalian ovary in young, adult, and old mice, and is an important contribution to the field identifying clusters of immune cell populations across the different ages. (elifesciences.org)
- Mice from this founder line have high APP expression correlating with high burden and accelerated accumulation of the 42 amino acid species of beta-amyloid (Abeta-42). (mmrrc.org)
- Female mice of two different genetic backgrounds consistently model the behavioral features of Rett syndrome, according to a study published 9 October in Human Molecular Genetics 1 . (spectrumnews.org)
- They are very useful for immune response studies, partly for the very reasons documented by the PNAS study authors-mouse and human immune responses differ. (jax.org)
- Camera settings, lighting and treadmill speed (20 cm/s for all studies) are preset and background images including distance calibration are captured, prior to introduction of the mouse. (jax.org)
- On the B6SJLF1 genetic background (this strain), intraneuronal Abeta-42 accumulation is observed starting at 1.5 months of age, just prior to amyloid deposition and gliosis, which begins at two months of age. (mmrrc.org)
- Genetics of age-related hearing loss in mice. (cdc.gov)
- To generate a disease model and ascertain the role of endoglin in development, we generated mice lacking 1 or both copies of the gene. (jci.org)
- New mini-grids have been added to MMHCdb on select Reference Summary pages for studies that emphasize the differences in tumor frequencies observed in mice with the same genotype on a variety of genetic backgrounds. (jax.org)
- There are important strain differences in view of the histological type, development and clinical evolution of the skin tumor, differences reported decades ago and confirmed by our hands‑on experience. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Information requests can also DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND A sequence-based variation map of 8.27 million SNPs in inbred mouse strains. (cdc.gov)
- Here we present a strategy to determine the genetic basis of variance in complex phenotypes that arise from natural, as opposed to induced, genetic variation in mice. (inserm.fr)
- x:map is a terrific visual display tool for exploring Affymetrix Exon array data sets for mouse and human transcriptomes. (genenetwork.org)
- MMHCdb is a comprehensive, expertly curated resource of diverse mouse models of human cancer. (jax.org)
- The New York Times article doesn't address the fact that the studies it cites used the equivalent of one mouse-a single inbred strain, to be precise-to study the correlation (or the lack of correlation) between mouse outcomes and human outcomes in sepsis and shock. (jax.org)
- These mice show severe symptoms beginning at 3 weeks, which makes them easy to study. (spectrumnews.org)
- Measurements of improper strides (e.g. paw not being tracked, mouse moving forward or back on tread) can be flagged and excluded from the data output. (jax.org)
- However, in the presence of intervening aberrant strides (e.g. jumps or partial steps), as do periods of 'stop and go' walking, data from most mice included 2 or 3 sets of consecutive strides for a given trial. (jax.org)
- Lady mouse: Female mice that model Rett syndrome show features of the disorder later than male mice do. (spectrumnews.org)
- They instead often use male mice lacking MeCP2 to model Rett syndrome. (spectrumnews.org)
- All of these symptoms appear later than they do in male mouse models of the syndrome. (spectrumnews.org)
- Let's move past the sweeping generalization of the article's title, which is belied by the fourth sentence anyway: "The study's findings do not mean that mice are useless models for all human diseases. (jax.org)
- This review outlines several aspects regarding the skin toxicity testing domain in mouse models of chemically induced skin carcinogenesis. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Using mouse models in preclinical testing is important due to the fact that, at the molecular level, common mechanisms with human cutaneous tumorigenesis are depicted. (spandidos-publications.com)
- All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation. (bvsalud.org)
- Sex hormone levels were normal in all of these special lines of mice. (foxnews.com)
- So use of a single strain will not provide representative results. (jax.org)
- Notably, these 2 manifestations are those that cause death in patients with influenza, whether seasonal or pandemic or caused by the 1918 subtype H1N1 strain or by recent subtype H5N1 strains. (cdc.gov)
- These so-called "humanized mice" have recently improved greatly in effectiveness and use, as Shultz himself documented in a recent Nature Reviews Immunology review . (jax.org)
- Alterations in human and mouse lungs have been described for fatal virus infections with pandemic virus strains (subtypes H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 strains of 1918, 1957, and 1968, respectively) or subtype H5N1 strains. (cdc.gov)
- Now, largely through Lenny Shultz's efforts, mice are also available that can host human cells. (jax.org)
- A rectangular, opaque plexiglas testing chamber (20 x 4 x 16.5 cm) is mounted over the tread and serves to keep the mouse within view of the camera. (jax.org)
- Each cDNA was then cloned independently into the mouse thymus cell antigen 1 gene, replacing a segment that contains thymus-specific elements so that expression of the transgenes is targeted only to the brain. (mmrrc.org)
- The expression of both transgenes is regulated by neural-specific elements of the mouse Thy1 promoter to drive overexpression in the brain. (mmrrc.org)
- The system is configured to allow video capture from below the mice during treadmill locomotion. (jax.org)
- Un test d'amplification en chaîne par polymérase (PCR) multiplex a également été mis au point pour identifier les isolats, et il s'est avéré que cette autre solution constituait un test diagnostique rapide, sensible et précis. (who.int)
- Naloxone effects on extinction of ethanol- and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in mice. (ohsu.edu)
- Genetic relationship between ethanol-induced conditioned place preference and other ethanol phenotypes in 15 inbred mouse strains. (ohsu.edu)
- Effects of acute withdrawal on ethanol-induced conditioned place preference in DBA/2J mice. (ohsu.edu)
- Drug-induced conditioned place preference and aversion in mice. (ohsu.edu)
- 5XFAD mice generate Abeta-42 almost exclusively and rapidly accumulate massive cerebral levels. (mmrrc.org)