Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Mice, Inbred DBAChromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Mice, Inbred C57BLMice, Inbred C3HQuantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Mice, Inbred AKRPhenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Mice, Inbred AInbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Muridae: A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Mice, Inbred BALB CGenetics, Behavioral: The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Animals, Outbred Strains: Animals that are generated from breeding two genetically dissimilar strains of the same species.Mice, Congenic: Mouse strains constructed to possess identical genotypes except for a difference at a single gene locus.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Mice, Inbred CBAAlleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Flurothyl: A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Rats, Inbred BNNucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Leukemia Virus, Murine: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.

Standardized nomenclature for inbred strains of mice: sixth listing. (1/15570)

Rules for designating inbred strains of mice are presented, along with a list of strains with their origins and characteristics, a table of biochemical polymorphisms, and standard subline designations.  (+info)

Features of the immune response to DNA in mice. I. Genetic control. (2/15570)

The genetic control of the immune response to DNA was studied in various strains of mice F1 hybrids and corresponding back-crosses immunized with single stranded DNA complexed to methylated bovine serum albumin. Anti-DNA antibody response was measured by radioimmuno-logical technique. High responder, low responder, and intermediate responder strains were found and the ability to respond to DNA was characterized as a dominant genetic trait which is not linked to the major locus of histocompatibility. Studies in back-crosses suggested that this immune response is under multigenic control. High responder mice produce both anti-double stranded DNA and anti-single stranded DNA 7S and 19S antibodies, while low responder mice produce mainly anti-single stranded DNA 19S antibodies.  (+info)

Antitumor effect of allogenic fibroblasts engineered to express Fas ligand (FasL). (3/15570)

Fas ligand is a type II transmembrane protein which can induce apoptosis in Fas-expressing cells. Recent reports indicate that expression of FasL in transplanted cells may cause graft rejection and, on the other hand, tumor cells may lose their tumorigenicity when they are engineered to express FasL. These effects could be related to recruitment of neutrophils by FasL with activation of their cytotoxic machinery. In this study we investigated the antitumor effect of allogenic fibroblasts engineered to express FasL. Fibroblasts engineered to express FasL (PA317/FasL) did not exert toxic effects on transformed liver cell line (BNL) or colon cancer cell line (CT26) in vitro, but they could abrogate their tumorigenicity in vivo. Histological examination of the site of implantation of BNL cells mixed with PA317/FasL revealed massive infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and mononuclear cells. A specific immune protective effect was observed in animals primed with a mixture of BNL or CT26 and PA317/FasL cells. Rechallenge with tumor cells 14 or 100 days after priming resulted in protection of 100 or 50% of animals, respectively. This protective effect was due to CD8+ cells since depletion of CD8+ led to tumor formation. In addition, treatment of pre-established BNL tumors with a subcutaneous injection of BNL and PA317/FasL cell mixture at a distant site caused significant inhibition of tumor growth. These data demonstrate that allogenic cells engineered with FasL are able to abolish tumor growth and induce specific protective immunity when they are mixed with neoplastic cells.  (+info)

Phenotype of mice and macrophages deficient in both phagocyte oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase. (4/15570)

The two genetically established antimicrobial mechanisms of macrophages are production of reactive oxygen intermediates by phagocyte oxidase (phox) and reactive nitrogen intermediates by inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). Mice doubly deficient in both enzymes (gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-)) formed massive abscesses containing commensal organisms, mostly enteric bacteria, even when reared under specific pathogen-free conditions with antibiotics. Neither parental strain showed such infections. Thus, phox and NOS2 appear to compensate for each other's deficiency in providing resistance to indigenous bacteria, and no other pathway does so fully. Macrophages from gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-) mice could not kill virulent Listeria. Their killing of S. typhimurium, E. coli, and attenuated Listeria was markedly diminished but demonstrable, establishing the existence of a mechanism of macrophage antibacterial activity independent of phox and NOS2.  (+info)

Enhanced Th1 activity and development of chronic enterocolitis in mice devoid of Stat3 in macrophages and neutrophils. (5/15570)

We have generated mice with a cell type-specific disruption of the Stat3 gene in macrophages and neutrophils. The mutant mice are highly susceptible to endotoxin shock with increased production of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF alpha, IL-1, IFN gamma, and IL-6. Endotoxin-induced production of inflammatory cytokines is augmented because the suppressive effects of IL-10 on inflammatory cytokine production from macrophages and neutrophils are completely abolished. The mice show a polarized immune response toward the Th1 type and develop chronic enterocolitis with age. Taken together, Stat3 plays a critical role in deactivation of macrophages and neutrophils mainly exerted by IL-10.  (+info)

Thymic selection by a single MHC/peptide ligand: autoreactive T cells are low-affinity cells. (6/15570)

In H2-M- mice, the presence of a single peptide, CLIP, bound to MHC class II molecules generates a diverse repertoire of CD4+ cells. In these mice, typical self-peptides are not bound to class II molecules, with the result that a very high proportion of H2-M- CD4+ cells are responsive to the various peptides displayed on normal MHC-compatible APC. We show here, however, that such "self" reactivity is controlled by low-affinity CD4+ cells. These cells give spectacularly high proliferative responses but are virtually unreactive in certain other assays, e.g., skin graft rejection; responses to MHC alloantigens, by contrast, are intense in all assays. Possible explanations for why thymic selection directed to a single peptide curtails self specificity without affecting alloreactivity are discussed.  (+info)

High-linoleate and high-alpha-linolenate diets affect learning ability and natural behavior in SAMR1 mice. (7/15570)

Semipurified diets incorporating either perilla oil [high in alpha-linolenate, 18:3(n-3)] or safflower oil [high in linoleate, 18:2(n-6)] were fed to senescence-resistant SAMR1 mouse dams and their pups. Male offspring at 15 mo were examined using behavioral tests. In the open field test, locomotor activity during a 5-min period was significantly higher in the safflower oil group than in the perilla oil group. Observations of the circadian rhythm (48 h) of spontaneous motor activity indicated that the safflower oil group was more active than the perilla oil group during the first and second dark periods. The total number of responses to positive and negative stimuli was higher in the safflower oil group than in the perilla oil group in the light and dark discrimination learning test, but the correct response ratio was lower in the safflower oil group. The difference in the (n-6)/(n-3) ratios of the diets reflected the proportions of (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids, rather than those of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the brain total fatty acids, and in the proportions of (n-6) and (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the total polyunsaturated fatty acids of the brain phospholipids. These results suggest that in SAMR1 mice, the dietary alpha-linolenate/linoleate balance affects the (n-6)/(n-3) ratio of brain phospholipids, and this may modify emotional reactivity and learning ability.  (+info)

Cardiomegaly in the juvenile visceral steatosis (JVS) mouse is reduced with acute elevation of heart short-chain acyl-carnitine level after L-carnitine injection. (8/15570)

The long-term administration of L-carnitine was very effective in preventing cardiomegaly in juvenile visceral steatosis (JVS) mice, which was confirmed by heart weight as well as the lipid contents in heart tissue. After i.p. injection of L-carnitine, the concentration of free carnitine in heart remained constant, although serum free carnitine level increased up to 80-fold. On the other hand, a significant increase in short-chain acyl-carnitine level in heart was observed. These results suggest that increased levels of short-chain acyl-carnitine, not free carnitine, might be a key compound in the protective effect of L-carnitine administration in JVS mice.  (+info)

  • This family of strains, all derived from crosses between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J (BXD) parents, represents a unique, community resource with approximately 40years of assembled phenotype data that can be exploited to explore and test causal relationships in silico. (elsevier.com)
  • The LXS panel has a genetic structure consistent with random segregation and subsequent fixation of alleles, the expected 3-4 × map expansion, a low level of nonsyntenic association among loci, and complete independence among all 77 strains. (deepdyve.com)
  • We examined correlations of strain means to see whether patterns of strain differences were stable across time and across different test variants assessing the same behavioral construct. (springer.com)
  • All 5-HT measures proved highly heritable in each region, although both gender and region significantly impacted between-strain correlations. (elsevier.com)
  • These studies and the preparation of this manuscript were supported by NIH grants AA19760, AA12714, AA13519, NSERC grant 45825, the Mouse Phenome Project, and the Department of Veterans Affairs. (springer.com)
  • Although the parental inbred strains-Inbred Long-Sleep (ILS) and Inbred Short-Sleep (ISS)-were derived originally by selection from an 8-way heterogeneous stock selected for differential sensitivity to sedative effects of ethanol, the LXS panel is also segregating for many other traits. (deepdyve.com)
  • Strains also have been found to differ in the new LRR test, as well as in the development of acute functional tolerance (AFT) to this response. (springer.com)
  • It should be borne in mind that genetic drift means that there may still be unknown genetic differences between individuals within strains. (jax.org)
  • FVB/N mice offer a system suitable for most transgenic experiments and subsequent genetic analyses. (pnas.org)
  • Genetic markers of the FVB/N strain have been analyzed for 44 loci that cover 15 chromosomes and were compared with those of commonly used inbred strains. (pnas.org)
  • Genetic comparison between subspecies' groups and common inbred strains (CIS) have revealed that the genetic background of CIS is derived mainly from DOM. (go.jp)
  • This shows the importance of non-DOM wild mice as valuable genetic resources. (go.jp)
  • Extensive genetic analyses of chromosome C-banding pattern, biochemical markers and microsatellite DNA (MIT) markers of this strain have demonstrated the characteristics of MUS. (go.jp)
  • In recent years, many genetic mouse models of autism and related disorders have been developed, based on candidate genes for disease susceptibility. (nih.gov)
  • We have previously reported profiles for sociability, preference for social novelty, and resistance to changes in a learned pattern of behavior, as well as other functional domains, for 10 inbred mouse strains of divergent genetic backgrounds. (nih.gov)
  • A natural mouse model reveals genetic determinants of systemic capillary leak syndrome (Clarkson disease). (harvard.edu)
  • In genetic crosses between mouse strains with low and high solubilities of hemoglobin, solubility segregated as a Mendelian unit and appeared to be determined by the alleles controlling α-chain structure. (sciencemag.org)
  • Together, these show that genetically inbred mouse strains consistently differ in phenotypic robustness against environmental variation, suggesting that genetic factors contribute to variation in robustness. (uva.nl)
  • Cohen, H. , Geva, A.B. , Matar, M.A. , Zohar, J. & Kaplan, Z. ( 2008 ) Post-traumatic stress behavioural responses in inbred mouse strains: can genetic predisposition explain phenotypic vulnerability? (wiley.com)
  • Recombinant inbred (RI) strains are a powerful tool for analyzing not only single genetic traits but also multifactorial genetic traits. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • For minimizing the variation of glucose tolerance in each strain, all mice were fed the high-carbohydrate diet and subjected to phenotypic and genetic analyses. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Inbred strains are genetically homogeneous, and the genetic and environmental components can be strictly controlled in the experimental setting. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The genetic analysis of a multifactorial disease in experimental animals such as mice and rats is much more revealing than that of a similar disease in human subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This thesis focuses on the genetic analysis of resistance to murine malaria induced by the lethal Plasmodium berghei ANKA using a wild-derived-inbred strain (WDIS). (diva-portal.org)
  • These features of mMSCs greatly limited the ability to test the cells in the large number of interesting genetic models that are now available as transgenic mice. (bloodjournal.org)
  • This indicates that cardiovascular phenotypes are unlikely to segregate according to global phylogeny, but rather be governed by smaller, local differences in the genetic architecture of the various strains. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To identify genes involved in cerebral infarction we have employed a forward genetic approach in inbred mouse strains, using quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for cerebral infarct volume after middle cerebral artery occlusion. (fondationleducq.org)
  • The genetic background influences the responses of mineralized tissues to fluoride, such as dental fluorosis, observed in A/J and 129P3/J mice. (figshare.com)
  • The quality of the strain produced was assessed by the probability of an undetected region of heterozygosity (i.e., "gaps") in the recipient genetic background, while maintaining the desired donor-derived interval. (deepdyve.com)
  • Genetic structure of the LXS panel of recombinant inbred mouse strains: a powerful resource for. (deepdyve.com)
  • To characterize the genetic architecture of this new set of RI strains, we genotyped 330 MIT microsatellite markers distributed on all autosomes and the X Chromosome and assembled error-checked meiotic recombination maps that have an average F2-adjusted marker spacing of ∼4 cM. (deepdyve.com)
  • The LXS panel has a genetic structure consistent with random segregation and subsequent fixation of alleles, the expected 3-4 × map expansion, a low level of nonsyntenic association among loci, and complete independence among all 77 strains. (deepdyve.com)
  • To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted high-throughput sequencing of IGH gene rearrangements to document IGH variable (IGHV), joining (IGHJ) and diversity (IGHD) genes in four inbred wild-derived mouse strains (CAST/EiJ, LEWES/EiJ, MSM/MsJ and PWD/PhJ) and a single disease model strain (NOD/ShiLtJ), collectively representing genetic backgrounds of several major mouse subspecies. (garvan.org.au)
  • In order to obtain mice more suitable for genetic analyses of tumor susceptibility and tissue transplantation studies, several inbred lines of mice were derived from the SENCAR stock. (oup.com)
  • Focusing on genetic diversity in a mouse model of disease may be putting the cart before the horse in many cases. (uconn.edu)
  • Banbury Conference on Genetic Background in Mice (1997). (uconn.edu)
  • Mutant mice and neuroscience: recommendations concerning genetic background. (uconn.edu)
  • Mouse models, subjected to fewer nonheritable factors than humans, allow the identification of genetic factors that shape the immune system. (edu.au)
  • We characterized immunological trait variability in the Collaborative Cross (CC), a powerful genetic resource of recombinant inbred mouse strains derived from eight diverse founder strains. (edu.au)
  • Of the 18 immunological traits studied in more than 60 CC strains, eight showed genome-wide significant linkage, revealing new genetic loci linked to specific immune traits. (edu.au)
  • However, genetic association studies in inbred model organisms are confronted by the problem of complex population structure among strains. (genetics.org)
  • However, genetic association studies in inbred model organisms are confronted by the problem of inflated false positive rates due to population structure and genetic relatedness among inbred strains caused by the complex genealogical history of most model organism strains. (genetics.org)
  • Advances in genetic methods and the completed sequencing of the human and mouse genomes make it feasible to detect, genetically map and identify the genes underlying these complex disorders. (jax.org)
  • The SMSR is a resource of special strains of mice that are important tools for genetic analysis of such complex diseases. (jax.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS-Strain-dependent differences exist in four inbred mouse strains frequently used for genetic manipulation and study of glucose metabolism. (elsevier.com)
  • The existence of genetic differences raises the possibility that there exist, or can be developed, strains with extremely low or high levels of these peptides that would aid research directed at elucidating the physiology of opioid peptides. (elsevier.com)
  • We use two highly related strains (DBA/1J and DBA/2J) to investigate the genetic basis of collagen induced arthritis susceptibility. (haldanessieve.org)
  • In this chapter, we suggest that mouse models are useful for studying genetic background effects for acquired hearing loss. (intechopen.com)
  • The genetic analysis of mouse models identified the genetic modifiers. (intechopen.com)
  • We review the genetic research in mouse models for acquired hearing loss to identify and confirm the modifiers by both forward and reverse genetics approaches. (intechopen.com)
  • We discovered that the genetic strain background on which TTA is expressed dramatically influenced neurodegeneration caused by TTA protein. (jneurosci.org)
  • Strain distribution patterns of microsatellite marker genotypes, weight, and other phenotypes are available on WebQTL (http://www.webqtl.org/search.html ) and allow genetic mapping of any heritable quantitative phenotype measured in these strains. (colorado.edu)
  • Large reference panels of RI strains, such as the LXS, are invaluable for identifying genetic correlations, GXE (Gene X Environment) interactions, and replicating previously identified QTLs. (colorado.edu)
  • However, the phenotypes of mutant mice are strongly influenced by genetic background, including flanking alleles, as well as the targeted genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Genetic analysis of 117 albino rat strains collected from all parts of the world carried out by a team led by Takashi Kuramoto at Kyoto University in 2012, showed that the albino rats descended from hooded rats and all the albino rats descended from a single ancestor. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was the first in a series of development that have begun to make rats tractable as genetic research subjects, although they still lag behind mice, which lend themselves better to the embryonic stem cell techniques typically used for genetic manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many investigators who wish to trace observations on behavior and physiology to underlying genes regard aspects of these in rats as more relevant to humans and easier to observe than in mice, giving impetus to the development of genetic research techniques applicable to rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the last few years, we have typed the hybrid mouse diversity panel (HMDP) strains for a variety of clinical traits as well as intermediate phenotypes and have shown that the HMDP has sufficient power to map genes for highly complex traits with resolution that is in most cases less than a megabase. (springer.com)
  • In addition, we performed RNA sequencing for brain tissue of CAST/EiJ and WSB/EiJ mice and identified 79 candidate genes mapping in one of the four intervals showing strain-specific differences in expression. (fondationleducq.org)
  • The genomes of classical inbred mouse strains include genes derived from all three major subspecies of the house mouse, Mus musculus. (garvan.org.au)
  • To study the physiological functions of Gbp family members, the most commonly chosen in vivo models are mice harbouring loss-of-function mutations in either individual Gbp genes or the entire Gbp gene cluster on mouse chromosome 3. (crick.ac.uk)
  • DBA/2J mice also mount a hyper-inflammatory response with much stronger up-regulation of many immune response-dependent genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Few genes exhibited a significant strain-specific expression pattern, whereas a large number of genes exhibited brain region-specific patterns. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The trees based on the expression of strain-specific genes were constant across brain regions and mirrored DNA-level variation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the trees based on region-specific genes exhibited a different set of strain relationships, depending on the brain region. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An eQTL analysis showed enrichment of cis -acting regulators among strain-specific genes, whereas brain region-specific genes appear to be mainly regulated by trans -acting elements. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, we were interested in localizing regulatory elements of genes with either strain- or brain region-specific expression patterns by eQTL analyses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Upstream haplotype differences between the parental strains suggested that 30-43% of differentially expressed genes were differentially expressed because of cis haplotype differences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We independently estimated from the congenic mice that 71-85% of genes were trans regulated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phenotypic correlation of some immune genes with male mice behaviors and brain morphology was analyzed in mouse phenome database (MPD) with the Pearson's method. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using these tests, and variants of them, investigators have clearly demonstrated that genes influence aggressive behavior in mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • Despite the limited power of inbred mouse association mapping due to the limited number of available inbred strains, we are able to identify significantly associated SNPs, which fall into known QTL or genes identified through previous studies while avoiding an inflation of false positives. (genetics.org)
  • The SMSR imports, cryopreserves and distributes RI and CS strain panels that are vital to discovery of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and ultimately genes responsible for complex diseases. (jax.org)
  • QTL and genes identified by QTL analysis in mouse models often correlate with homologous regions in the human genome. (jax.org)
  • Thus, connecting phenotype and genotype in mice may translate into identification of genes responsible for human complex diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, obesity, asthma, autoimmunity and hypertension. (jax.org)
  • These ES cells will be useful for testing candidate genes in co-isogenic strain backgrounds, cellular phenotyping, and in vitro modeling of quantitative traits. (jax.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that chemical mutagenesis of mice combined with advances in hematopoietic stem cell reagents and genome resources can efficiently recover recessive mutations and identify genes essential for generation and proliferation of definitive hematopoietic stem cells and/or their progeny. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We studied the onset of the V(D)J recombination and transcription of the TCR Vα3 and Vβ11 genes during ontogeny in Balb-c, C57B1/6 and CBA inbred mouse strains. (ovid.com)
  • 6 ] have employed gene expression array analysis of the dissected embryonic (16.5d) mouse cerebral cortex to expand the list of genes regionally expressed, and noted that regional differences in expression of genes in the cortical plate should eventually convert into functionally distinct cortical areas with anatomically distinguishable borders after birth. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The laboratory mouse genome has been sequenced and many mouse genes have human homologues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Remarkable advances in molecular genetics have provided powerful tools to investigate the relationships between genes and behaviors in mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • Also, the International Mouse Knockout Consortium (IKMC) ( http://www.knockoutmouse.org/ ) has amassed a large collection of conditional knockout alleles for mouse genes, allowing neuroscientists and other researchers to avoid having to go through the labor intensive process of generating null mutant mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mice from eight inbred strains were studied for their acute sensitivity to ethanol as indexed by the degree of hypothermia (HT), indexed as the reduction from pre-injection baseline of their body temperature. (springer.com)
  • Mice of the eight inbred strains differing in their susceptibility to radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis, and in the duration of asymptomatic survival, received 18 Gy whole thorax irradiation and were killed 6 h, 24 h, or 7 days later. (physiology.org)
  • We report a detailed analysis of polymorphism distribution in multiple inbred mouse strains over a 4.8-megabase region containing a QTL influencing anxiety. (pnas.org)
  • Because of the importance and potential power of eQTL studies in identifying regulatory networks, we analyzed gene expression patterns in different brain regions from multiple inbred mouse strains and investigated the implications for the design and analysis of eQTL studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mice and rats used in the laboratory derive from a variety of sources. (jax.org)
  • Little and Castle collaborated closely with Abbie Lathrop who was a breeder of fancy mice and rats which she marketed to rodent hobbyists and keepers of exotic pets, and later began selling in large numbers to scientific researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inductions of FABP in hepatic cytosol by administration of tiadenol and clofibric acid were studied in rats, mice and guinea-pigs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In rats and mice, [1-14C]oleic acid-binding capacity of hepatic cytosol was increased, in association with induction of peroxisomal beta-oxidation, by the administration of either the two peroxisome proliferators. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The peroxisome proliferators caused an induction of acyl-CoA hydrolase of lower-molecular-weight form alone in hepatic cytosol of mice, although inductions of two long-chain acyl-CoA hydrolases (higher- and lower-molecular-weight form) were brought about in hepatic cytosol of rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • While less commonly used for research than mice , rats have served as an important animal model for research in psychology and biomedical science . (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists have bred many strains or "lines" of rats specifically for experimentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other common strains are the Sprague Dawley, Fischer 344, Holtzman albino strains, Long-Evans, and Lister black hooded rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of these alleles have avoided selection during breeding as either fancy mice or laboratory mice. (go.jp)
  • Marker-assisted breeding may decrease the number of backcross generations required to generate a congenic strain, but only additional backcrossing will guarantee a reduction in the number and length of undetected gaps harboring contaminating donor alleles. (deepdyve.com)
  • In inbred mouse strains, seven Hh-1 alleles representing combinations of five different Hh-1 antigenic determinants are described. (elsevier.com)
  • Despite the previous development of single-gene knock-out mice that exhibit alterations in aggressive behavior, very little progress has been made toward identifying the natural gene variants (alleles) that contribute to individual or strain differences in aggression. (jneurosci.org)
  • The mapping of these QTLs is a step toward the definitive identification of mouse alleles that affect aggression and may lead, ultimately, to the discovery of homologous alleles that affect individual differences in aggression within other mammalian species. (jneurosci.org)
  • Despite the success in creating single-gene mutations that affect mouse aggression, little progress has been made toward identifying the naturally occurring alleles that account for the differences in aggression among inbred mouse strains. (jneurosci.org)
  • Female and male mice 8 to 10 weeks old were used, and they were individually killed by CO 2 . (bloodjournal.org)
  • confounding variables, and male mice happen to be less valuable. (bio.net)
  • The 129P3/J mouse strain was least affected with negligible dental fluorosis. (iupui.edu)
  • The aim of the present study was to map the protein profile of enamel matrix from A/J and 129P3/J strains. (figshare.com)
  • Enamel matrix samples were obtained from A/J and 129P3/J mice and analyzed by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. (figshare.com)
  • A total of 341 germline IGHV sequences were inferred in the wild-derived strains, including 247 not curated in the international ImMunoGeneTics information system. (garvan.org.au)
  • These features make the FVB/N strain advantageous to use for research with transgenic mice. (pnas.org)
  • The protocol should make it possible to undertake a large number of experiments with MSCs in transgenic mice that have previously not been possible. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 5 ] demonstrated changes in the position and or size of primary sensory visual, somatosensory, and auditory cortical regions in transgenic mice over expressing the transcription factor Emx2 . (beds.ac.uk)
  • By this point, approximately 60% of surviving mice show tumors/lesions. (wikipedia.org)