Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more chlorine atoms.
Gradual bilateral hearing loss associated with aging that is due to progressive degeneration of cochlear structures and central auditory pathways. Hearing loss usually begins with the high frequencies then progresses to sounds of middle and low frequencies.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The disintegration and assimilation of the dead FETUS in the UTERUS at any stage after the completion of organogenesis which, in humans, is after the 9th week of GESTATION. It does not include embryo resorption (see EMBRYO LOSS).
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Early pregnancy loss during the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN stage of development. In the human, this period comprises the second through eighth week after fertilization.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Hearing loss due to exposure to explosive loud noise or chronic exposure to sound level greater than 85 dB. The hearing loss is often in the frequency range 4000-6000 hertz.
An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.
Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.
The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.
A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.
Sensorineural hearing loss which develops suddenly over a period of hours or a few days. It varies in severity from mild to total deafness. Sudden deafness can be due to head trauma, vascular diseases, infections, or can appear without obvious cause or warning.
Partial hearing loss in both ears.
Part of an ear examination that measures the ability of sound to reach the brain.
Measurement of hearing based on the use of pure tones of various frequencies and intensities as auditory stimuli.
A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.
Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.
Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
Mesodermal tissue enclosed in the invaginated portion of the epithelial enamel organ and giving rise to the dentin and pulp.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.
The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
Two offspring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from two OVA, fertilized at about the same time by two SPERMATOZOA. Such twins are genetically distinct and can be of different sexes.
Two off-spring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from a single fertilized OVUM that split into two EMBRYOS. Such twins are usually genetically identical and of the same sex.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
A syndrome characterized by abdominal wall musculature deficiency, cryptorchism, and urinary tract abnormalities. The syndrome derives its name from its characteristic distended abdomen with wrinkled skin.
Anemia characterized by larger than normal erythrocytes, increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH).
A dioxygenase with specificity for the oxidation of the indoleamine ring of TRYPTOPHAN. It is an extrahepatic enzyme that plays a role in metabolism as the first and rate limiting enzyme in the kynurenine pathway of TRYPTOPHAN catabolism.
A dioxygenase with specificity for the oxidation of the indoleamine ring of TRYPTOPHAN. It is a LIVER-specific enzyme that is the first and rate limiting enzyme in the kynurenine pathway of TRYPTOPHAN catabolism.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.

Donor MHC and adhesion molecules in transplant arteriosclerosis. (1/5044)

Transplant-associated arteriosclerosis remains an obstacle to long-term graft survival. To determine the contribution to transplant arteriosclerosis of MHC and adhesion molecules from cells of the donor vasculature, we allografted carotid artery loops from six mutant mouse strains into immunocompetent CBA/CaJ recipients. The donor mice were deficient in either MHC I molecules or MHC II molecules, both MHC I and MHC II molecules, the adhesion molecule P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, or both P-selectin and ICAM-1. Donor arteries in which ICAM-1, MHC II, or both MHC I and MHC II were absent showed reductions in neointima formation of 52%, 33%, and 38%, respectively, due primarily to a reduction in smooth muscle cell (SMC) accumulation. In P-selectin-deficient donor arteries, neointima formation did not differ from that in controls. In donor arteries lacking both P-selectin and ICAM-1, the size of the neointima was similar to that in those lacking ICAM-1 alone. In contrast, neointima formation increased by 52% in MHC I-deficient donor arteries. The number of CD4-positive T cells increased by 2.8-fold in MHC I-deficient arteries, and that of alpha-actin-positive SMCs by twofold. These observations indicate that ICAM-1 and MHC II molecules expressed in the donor vessel wall may promote transplant-associated arteriosclerosis. MHC I molecules expressed in the donor may have a protective effect.  (+info)

A new element within the T-cell receptor alpha locus required for tissue-specific locus control region activity. (2/5044)

Locus control regions (LCRs) are cis-acting regulatory elements thought to provide a tissue-specific open chromatin domain for genes to which they are linked. The gene for T-cell receptor alpha chain (TCRalpha) is exclusively expressed in T cells, and the chromatin at its locus displays differentially open configurations in expressing and nonexpressing tissues. Mouse TCRalpha exists in a complex locus containing three differentially regulated genes. We previously described an LCR in this locus that confers T-lineage-specific expression upon linked transgenes. The 3' portion of this LCR contains an unrestricted chromatin opening activity while the 5' portion contains elements restricting this activity to T cells. This tissue-specificity region contains four known DNase I hypersensitive sites, two located near transcriptional silencers, one at the TCRalpha enhancer, and another located 3' of the enhancer in a 1-kb region of unknown function. Analysis of this region using transgenic mice reveals that the silencer regions contribute negligibly to LCR activity. While the enhancer is required for complete LCR function, its removal has surprisingly little effect on chromatin structure or expression outside the thymus. Rather, the region 3' of the enhancer appears responsible for the tissue-differential chromatin configurations observed at the TCRalpha locus. This region, herein termed the "HS1' element," also increases lymphoid transgene expression while suppressing ectopic transgene activity. Thus, this previously undescribed element is an integral part of the TCRalphaLCR, which influences tissue-specific chromatin structure and gene expression.  (+info)

Enhanced Th1 and dampened Th2 responses synergize to inhibit acute granulomatous and fibrotic responses in murine schistosomiasis mansoni. (3/5044)

In murine schistosomiasis mansoni, CD4(+) Th1 and Th2 cells participate in the ovum-induced granulomatous inflammation. Previous studies showed that the interleukin-12 (IL-12)-induced Th1 response strongly suppressed the Th2-cell-mediated pulmonary granuloma development in naive or primed mice. However, liver granulomas were only moderately suppressed in egg-vaccinated, recombinant IL-12 (rIL-12)-treated infected mice. The present study shows that repeated rIL-12 injections given during early granuloma development at 5 to 7 weeks after infection prolonged the Th1 phase and resulted in gamma interferon-mediated suppression of liver granulomas. The timing is crucial: if given at 6 to 8 weeks, during the Th2-dominated phase of florid granuloma growth, the treatment is ineffective. Daily injections of rIL-12 given between 5 and 7.5 weeks during the period of granuloma growth achieved a somewhat-stronger diminution in granuloma growth with less deposition of collagen but caused 60% mortality and liver pathology. In contrast, combined treatment with rIL-12 and anti-IL-4-anti-IL-10 monoclonal antibody (MAb) injections given during the Th2 phase strongly inhibited liver granuloma growth without mortality. The diminished inflammatory response was accompanied by less deposition of collagen in the liver. Moreover, neutralization of endogenous IL-12 by anti-IL-12 MAbs effectively decreased the early Th1 phase (between 5 and 6 weeks after infection) but not the developing Th2 phase (5 to 7 weeks) of granuloma development. These studies indicate that the granulomatous response in infected mice can be manipulated by utilizing the Th1-Th2-subset antagonism with potential salutary results in the amelioration of fibrous pathology.  (+info)

Differential transcriptional activity associated with chromatin configuration in fully grown mouse germinal vesicle oocytes. (4/5044)

It was previously shown that fully grown ovarian germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes of adult mice exhibit several nuclear configurations that differ essentially by the presence or absence of a ring of condensed chromatin around the nucleolus. These configurations have been termed, respectively, SN (surrounded nucleolus) and NSN (nonsurrounded nucleolus). Work from our and other laboratories has revealed ultrastructural and functional differences between these two configurations. The aims of the present study were 1) to analyze the equilibrium between the SN and the NSN population as a function of the age of the mice and the time after hCG-induced ovulation and 2) to study the polymerase I (pol I)- and polymerase II (pol II)-dependent transcription in both types of oocytes through the detection of bromouridine incorporated into nascent RNA. We show 1) that ovarian GV oocytes exhibiting the SN-type configuration can be found as soon as 17 days after birth in the C57/CBA mouse strain and 2) that the SN:NSN ratio of ovarian GV oocytes is very low just after hCG-induced ovulation and then increases progressively with the time after ovulation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the SN configuration correlates strictly with the arrest of both pol I- and pol II-dependent transcription in mice at any age. Finally, we show that ribosomal genes are located at the outer periphery of the nucleolus in the NSN configuration and that pol I-dependent perinucleolar transcription sites correspond to specific ultrastructural features of the nucleolus. Altogether, these results provide clear-cut criteria delineating transcriptionally active GV oocytes from those that are inactive, and confirm that the SN-type configuration is mostly present in preovulatory oocytes.  (+info)

Interaction of B cells with activated T cells reduces the threshold for CD40-mediated B cell activation. (5/5044)

CD154-CD40 interactions are of central importance for the induction of antibody responses to T-dependent antigens. Since most anti-CD40 mAb are only weak B cell mitogens, it is believed that under physiological conditions, signals through CD40 synergize with those from other receptors on B cells to induce B cell activation. We show here that the interaction of either normal B cells, or those from CBA/N (xid) mice, with CD3-activated primary T cells in whole spleen cell cultures markedly reduces the threshold for B cell activation via CD40. Hence, these pre-activated cells undergo vigorous proliferation when stimulated with either optimal or suboptimal concentrations of weakly mitogenic anti-CD40 mAb, or with soluble CD40 ligand. Blocking experiments indicate that the establishment of this priming effect requires stimulation via CD40 itself, plus T cell-derived IL-2. In support of this concept, only CD3/CD28-pre-activated, but not CD3-pre-activated T cells induce this effect, unless the co-cultures of B cells with the latter T cells are supplemented with IL-2. Although B cells activated in this fashion do express higher levels of CD40 than naive cells, we believe that this is insufficient to explain the observed dramatic effects on their proliferative capacity. Rather we propose that T cell-dependent B cell activation induces fundamental changes in the signalling machinery invoked by ligation of CD40. It is likely that this amplification loop could play an important role during the initiation of antibody responses to T-dependent antigens, when activated CD4 T cells only express low levels of CD154.  (+info)

Terreic acid, a quinone epoxide inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase. (6/5044)

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) plays pivotal roles in mast cell activation as well as in B cell development. Btk mutations lead to severe impairments in proinflammatory cytokine production induced by cross-linking of high-affinity IgE receptor on mast cells. By using an in vitro assay to measure the activity that blocks the interaction between protein kinase C and the pleckstrin homology domain of Btk, terreic acid (TA) was identified and characterized in this study. This quinone epoxide specifically inhibited the enzymatic activity of Btk in mast cells and cell-free assays. TA faithfully recapitulated the phenotypic defects of btk mutant mast cells in high-affinity IgE receptor-stimulated wild-type mast cells without affecting the enzymatic activities and expressions of many other signaling molecules, including those of protein kinase C. Therefore, this study confirmed the important roles of Btk in mast cell functions and showed the usefulness of TA in probing into the functions of Btk in mast cells and other immune cell systems. Another insight obtained from this study is that the screening method used to identify TA is a useful approach to finding more efficacious Btk inhibitors.  (+info)

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue conjugates with strong selective antitumor activity. (7/5044)

Conjugation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues GnRH-III, MI-1544, and MI-1892 through lysyl side chains and a tetrapeptide spacer, Gly-Phe-Leu-Gly (X) to a copolymer, poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone-co-maleic acid) (P) caused increased antiproliferative activity toward MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast, PC3 and LNCaP prostate, and Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell lines in culture and against tumor development by xenografts of the breast cancer cells in immunodeficient mice. MCF-7 cells treated with P-X-1544 and P-X-1892 displayed characteristic signs of apoptosis, including vacuoles in the cytoplasm, rounding up, apoptotic bodies, bleb formation, and DNA fragmentation. Conjugates, but not free peptides, inhibited cdc25 phosphatase and caused accumulation of Ishikawa and PC3 cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle after 24 h at lower doses and in the G1 and G2 phases after 48 h. Since P-X-peptides appear to be internalized, the increased cytotoxicity of the conjugates is attributed to protection of peptides from proteolysis, enhanced interaction of the peptides with the GnRH receptors, and/or internalization of P-X-peptide receptor complexes so that P can exert toxic effects inside, possibly by inhibiting enzymes involved in the cell cycle. The additional specificity of P-X-peptides compared with free peptides for direct antiproliferative effects on the cancer cells but not for interactions in the pituitary indicates the therapeutic potential of the conjugates.  (+info)

Adhesive and mammalian transglutaminase substrate properties of Candida albicans Hwp1. (8/5044)

The pathogenesis of candidiasis involves invasion of host tissues by filamentous forms of the opportunistic yeast Candida albicans. Morphology-specific gene products may confer proinvasive properties. A hypha-specific surface protein, Hwp1, with similarities to mammalian small proline-rich proteins was shown to serve as a substrate for mammalian transglutaminases. Candida albicans strains lacking Hwp1 were unable to form stable attachments to human buccal epithelial cells and had a reduced capacity to cause systemic candidiasis in mice. This represents a paradigm for microbial adhesion that implicates essential host enzymes.  (+info)

Nucleotide sequences of the four genes composing the T15 heavy chain variable region (VH) family of the CBA/J mouse have been determined. Comparison of these sequences with their published BALB/c and C57BL/10 homologues reveals that nucleotide differences found between given alleles of two strains, i.e., CBA/J and BALB/c, are observed in other family members of the same strain. We suggest that these patterns of sequence variation are most readily explained by gene interaction (conversion). Additionally, the sequence of a CBA/J hybridoma, 6G6, proposed to have been generated by gene conversion, is directly encoded by the CBA/J V11 gene indicating that the putative conversion has occurred meiotically in the germline. These results are consistent with the premise that gene correction is occurring frequently among members of this family and that such processes may contribute significantly to the evolution of Ig variable region genes even in the relatively short time frame of inbred strain derivation ...
CBA/N mice carry a recessive mutation at the X-linked immune deficiency (xid) locus that precludes their response to certain thymus-independent (TI) antigens. We have determined that xid is situated on the X-chromosome between the genes Ta (tabby) and Hyp (hypophosphatemia), genetic distances being Ta-6.6 +/- 1.8-xid-12.2 +/- 2.3-Hyp. ...
GtkWidget *dialog; dialog = gtk_recent_chooser_dialog_new (Recent Documents, parent_window, GTK_STOCK_CANCEL, GTK_RESPONSE_CANCEL, GTK_STOCK_OPEN, GTK_RESPONSE_ACCEPT, NULL); if (gtk_dialog_run (GTK_DIALOG (dialog)) == GTK_RESPONSE_ACCEPT) { GtkRecentInfo *info; info = gtk_recent_chooser_get_current_item (GTK_RECENT_CHOOSER (dialog)); open_file (gtk_recent_info_get_uri (info)); gtk_recent_info_unref (info); } gtk_widget_destroy (dialog ...
I am also making a similar change for input methods. If a user is using ibus, they should not have to manually install ibus-gtk (the gtk2 version) if they later install a gtk2 app. And I dont think its a good idea to have gtk2 recommend every gtk2 theme engine and input method. , I see two possibilities in this case (feel free to add more, of course): The problem here is a bit theoretical since there doesnt seem to be any gtk3 version of Oxygen (at least not in Debian) and therefore, the package is not very useful since most maintained gtk apps use gtk3 now. So let me substitute with a better example: c) In the near future, it will be possible to install Debian GNOME without gtk2 pre-installed. A Debian GNOME user installs the Numix theme and makes it their default theme. A few weeks later, the user decides to install a gtk2 app like Inkscape. I think its wrong to require the user to manually install a theoretical numix-gtk2-theme package to fix their theming. I also think its wrong to ...
Kinetic analysis of virus titers in newborn inoculated CBA/J mice. Spleens from neonatally infected mice were harvested, homogenized, and titered for polyoma vi
Most of us are familiar with this phenomenon of travel: ear-popping usually happens during takeoffs and landings.大多数坐过飞机的人都熟知这样的现象:飞机降落或落地时我们的耳朵不会有胀胀的感觉。
One year out from the expiration of the NHLs collective-bargaining agreement, theres both optimism and uncertainty among the two sides that will be looking to reach a deal. The NHL, for its part, met with club general managers this summer in a number of individual meetings and CBA work
With 373 games remaining in the regular season, the CBA is on track to break last years attendance record of 1.8M. This years numbers are 8,118 ahead of last seasons average of 3,895 per game, a
Segment what are the various participants in the foreign exchange market Gambar ProfitCLicking Matrix:, bitcoin leverage trading equity definition
Saat modal utama Animation Portfolio Workshop through life without, Free automated forex trading system , A Manipulative Trading Strategy
Tcl script which is executed in the global scope if the show-help signal is received, which is normally the case if the user presses F1 or Ctrl-F1. Before evaluation the following percent strings are substituted: %w widget ...
Lewis, R. and Behnke, Jerzy M. and Cassidy, J.P. and Stafford, P. and Murray, N. and Holland, Celia V. (2007) The migration of Ascaris suum larvae, and the associated pulmonary inflammatory response in susceptible C57BL/6j and resistant CBA/Ca mice. Parasitology, 134 (9). pp. 1301-1314. ISSN 0031-1820 ...
With the Cellometer Vision CBA, just 20 microliter of sample is added to the Cellometer Counting Chamber. Imaging and analysis of GFP expression is completed in less than 60 seconds.
Dear CBAers, TT Ari is continuing to decline towards its historical V=15.5 low state, and in fact might be already there. Some data has trickled in - just a little, but enough to make me awfully greedy for more. As usual, being a CBAer deep in my heart, Im most desirous of long nightly time series - which, after being spliced together around the globe, will yield a superb record of periodic signals in the light curve. Naturally thatll take a while to assemble. But Im already surprised to see the very strong flickering/QPOs that continues in the light curve. Its not obvious where this flickering arises. The accretion rate must be much lower now, but the hot WD should still be plenty luminous - itll take months/years/decades for the WD, heated by centuries (at least) of accretion, to cool off. So why doesnt the WD now (presumably a more or less constant source) dominate the faded disk? This question will perhaps be best addressed by spectrophotometry, which can parse the secondary+disk+WD ...
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struct GtkBindingEntry { /* key portion */ guint keyval; GdkModifierType modifiers; GtkBindingSet *binding_set; guint destroyed : 1; guint in_emission : 1; guint marks_unbound : 1; GtkBindingEntry *set_next; GtkBindingEntry *hash_next; GtkBindingSignal *signals ...
Determines the tooltips and the widget they belong to from the window in which they are displayed. This function is mostly intended for use by accessibility technologies; applications should have little use for it.. ...
The local lymph node assay using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) with flow cytometry (LLNA: BrdU-FCM) is a modified LLNA that is used to identify skin sensitizers by counting BrdU-incorporated lymph node cells (LNCs) with flow cytometry. Unlike other LLNA methods (OECD TG 429, 442A and 442B) in which the CBA/J mouse strain is used, LLNA: BrdU-FCM was originally designed to be compatible with BALB/c, a mouse strain that is more widely used in many countries. To justify the substitution of CBA/J for BALB/c, the equivalence of the test results between two strains shall be established prior to the official implementation of LLNA: BrdU-FCM. This study aims to compare the test results of LLNA: BrdU-FCM produced in BALB/c mice with those in CBA/J mice for 18 reference substances, including 13 sensitizers and 5 non-sensitizers, listed in OECD Test Guideline 429. Based on the LLNA: BrdU-FCM test procedure, we selected an appropriate solvent and then performed preliminary tests to determine the ...
Myeloid leukemia (ML) is one of the major health concerns from exposure to radiation. However, the risk assessment for developing ML after exposure to space radiation remains uncertain. To reduce the uncertainty in risk prediction for ML, a much increased understanding of space radiation-induced changes in the target cells, i.e., hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), is critically important. We used the label-free quantitative mass spectrometry (LFQMS) proteomic approach to determine the expression of protein in HSPC-derived myeloid colonies obtained at an early time-point (one week) and a late time-point (six months) after an acute whole body exposure of CBA/CaJ mice to a total dose of 0, 0.1, 0.25, or 0.5 Gy of heavy-ion titanium (48Ti ions), which are the important component of radiation found in the space environment. Mice exposed to 0 Gy of 48Ti ions served as non-irradiated sham controls. There were five mice per treatment groups at each harvest time. The Trans-Proteomic Pipeline ...
Publications. Cynthia Prosen (Graduate Studies, Research and Continuing Education) and former NMU student Sarah Kimar, who now attends graduate school at Wayne State University, co-authored an article titled Auditory filter shapes of CBA/CaJ mice: Behavioral assessments. It was published in the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. The article highlighted results of a study that suggested auditory filtering effects in adult CBA/CaJ mice are similar to normal processes in other mammalian species and provide an excellent model of human presbycusis, or age-related hearing loss.. Two articles by Neil Cumberlidge (Biology) were published in the Rapid Assessment Program (RAP) Bulletin of Biological Assessment by Conservation International in Washington, DC. The articles relay the results of a three-week biodiversity survey conducted by Cumberlidge last year of the decapod crustaceans of mangrove and freshwater ecosystems in Guinea, West Africa. The RAP Bulletin is in French and the title of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - T cell abnormalities in NZB mice occur independently of autoantibody production. AU - Taurog, J. D.. AU - Raveche, E. S.. AU - Smathers, P. A.. AU - Glimcher, L. H.. AU - Huston, D. P.. AU - Hansen, C. T.. AU - Steinberg, A. D.. PY - 1981/5/15. Y1 - 1981/5/15. N2 - By means of a series of crosses and backcrosses, ZB.CBA/N mice were prepared bearing largely NZB autosomal genes, but having X chromosomes derived only from CBA/N mice. The CBA/N X chromosome carries a gene, xid, that is associated with the lack of a B cell subset necessary for most of the spontaneous autoantibody production by NZB mice. These ZB.CBA/N mice failed to develop autoantibodies to T cells, erythrocytes, or DNA. The availability of mice that were mostly NZB, but which failed to make autoantibodies, especially anti-T cell antibodies, allowed us to study possible T cell regulatory defects in NZB mice in the absence of either antibodies reactive with such T cells or other autoantibodies. We found that such mice ...
Allergenicity and immunotoxicity of oscillococcinum preparation was experimentally studied. Immunization of guinea pigs with oscillococcinum in doses of 100 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg according to a standard scheme or mixed with complete Freund s adjuvant ( CFA) did not provoke a systemic anaphylactic reactions or delayed allergenic reactions in animals. A single administration of oscillococcinum per os in doses of 100 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg to CBA strain mice did not cause significant changes in comparison with the control in the inflammation response to concanavalin A (Con.A). To assess oscillococcinum immunotoxic properties, the preparation was perorally administrated to mice in doses of 100 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg for 14 days. Delivery of oscillococcinum in the dose of 500 mg/kg to F1 mice resulted in an authentic increase by 25.1% of thymus mass index. In F1 hybrid mice (CBA x C57BL/6), a course delivery of oscillococcinum induced an expressed increase of peritoneal macrophage phagocytic activity , in ...
Downloadable! Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is often used when many transport investments need to be ranked against each other, for example in national investment planning. However, results are often questioned on claims that the ranking depends crucially on uncertain assumptions about the future, and on methodologically or ethically contestable trade-offs of different types of benefits relative to each other. This paper explores the robustness of CBA rankings of transport investments with respect to two types of uncertainties: relative benefit valuations and scenario assumptions related to car ownership, characteristics and costs. The study is based on CBAs of 479 suggested road and rail investments in Sweden that have been shortlisted for possible inclusion in the national transport investment plan. The CBA ranking turns out to be robust to variations in the studied scenario assumptions. The CBA ranking also turns out to be robust to changes in the relative valuations of different types of benefits -
This course helps the energy industry managers and executives to better use the tool commonly referred to as cost-benefit analysis or CBA. As a formal assessment of an organizations project costs and benefits, CBA attempts to measure and compare the efficiency of project options. This type of analysis has become standard practice in project analysis and program evaluation-particularly in cases where there are new strategic or capital investments. The goal of the course is to provide the participants with the conceptual foundations and practical skills they will need to be thoughtful consumers and producers of CBA.. The class will draw on qualitative, quantitative, and analytic skills. As a practical matter, a basic familiarity with the energy industry, microeconomic theory, statistics, and algebra is assumed.. ...
Brilliant Violet 421™ anti-mouse CD45.2 Antibody - CD45.2 is an alloantigen of CD45, expressed by Ly5.2 bearing mouse strains (e.g., A, AKR, BALB/c, CBA/Ca, CBA/J, C3H/He, C57BL, C57BR, C57L, C58, DBA/1, DBA/2, NZB, SWR, 129).
Caj z Hlohu information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Megafyt-R, Caj z Hlohu indications, usages and related health products lists
View Wfs1/Wfs1 Tg(Ins2-cre)23Herr/0 involves: 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6J * CBA/J: phenotypes, images, diseases, and references. provides essay writing service at reasonable price. Get customized essay online and help you to get good grades.
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With a plug widget a process can be embedded in another process using the XEMBED protocol. The GUI of the other process does not have to be written in GTK+ or Gnocl. Qt, Tcl/Tk or pure X should work just fine. If the other side uses Gnocl, it should use the socket widget. The plug widget can either be embedded by setting the -socketID option, or by setting the -plugID option of the socket. REMARK: embedding in Tk does not work. Any hint why would be appreciated ...
A GtkCellRendererPixbuf can be used to render an image in a cell. It allows to render either a given GdkPixbuf (set via the pixbuf property) or a named icon (set via the icon-name property).. To support the tree view, GtkCellRendererPixbuf also supports rendering two alternative pixbufs, when the is-expander property is ...
struct AgsConfigClass { GObjectClass object; void (*load_defaults)(AgsConfig *config); void (*set_value)(AgsConfig *config, gchar *group, gchar *key, gchar *value); gchar* (*get_value)(AgsConfig *config, gchar *group, gchar *key ...
In a local lymph node assay according to OECD guideline 426 the skin senitisation potential of NaFeEDTA was evaluated. Three concentrations of FeNaEDTA (10%, 25% and 50%, w/w) dissolved in acetone/olive oil (4:1 v/v) were tested in six female CBA mice per group and compared to a vehicle control group. In addition, a positive control group (30% solution v/v of hexyl cinnamic aldehyde in acetone/olive oil (4:1 v/v)) was employed. Open application of 25 μL of the appropriate dilution of the test item, the vehicle alone or the positive control (as appropriate) were administered to the dorsum of each ear on 3 consecutive days. On test day 4 lymph node cell count, ear weight (punch biopsies), ear swelling and weight of the lymph nodes were measured. The positive control group caused the expected increases in lymph node cell count and ear weights (statistically significant at p ≤ 0.01). The values for the stimulation index of lymph node cell count and ear weight were 1.5 and 1.2, respectively. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of adriamycin (ADR) on a human bladder cell line (MGH-U1) grown as a monolayer, as spheroids and in immune-deprived mice. AU - Erlichman, C.. AU - Vidgen, D.. AU - Tannock, I. F.. PY - 1982/1/1. Y1 - 1982/1/1. UR - UR - M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0020063457. VL - Vol. 23. JO - Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research. JF - Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research. ER - ...
Theres a weird sort of dissonance in todays Australian Financial Review.. On the front page, CBA CEO Ian Narev argues that CBA culture is strong.. Meanwhile, a detailed Neil Chenoweth feature breaks down how AUSTRAC thinks CBA was regularly breaching the very well-known legal requirement to report all cash transactions above $10,000. AUSTRAC has counted 53,506 breaches, an amount which in technical banking language is known as a truckload. Real crooks seem to have been behind a number of these breaches, using techniques such as cuckoo smurfing. And six of the breaches related to customers the bank itself had identified as posing terrorism risks.. The most damning aspect of the chronology is how long it took the CBA to react once problems in its systems became clear. The AUSTRAC account suggests that after realising its errors in April 2015, CBA went on failing to report suspicious transfers until January of this year. All this screams governance failure.. In The CEO Magazine today I ...
Clearance of various bacteria isolated from portal and systemic blood of mice was evaluated and compared. All portal blood strains, including Escherichia coli and enterococci were eliminated more rapidly from the circulation than were strains isolated from systemic blood, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. With mannose-type lectin, mannose or fucose residues that mediated lectinophagocytosis were detected on the surfaces of most portal strains by agglutination tests. Blood clearance of Esch. coli H21 was inhibited by prior injection of mannose into mice, suggesting that the clearance of this strain was mediated by mannose-type lectin on the surface of tissue macrophages. However, no inhibition of clearance of any other strains was observed by the injection of mannose, galactose, or fucose into mice, nor by pre-incubation of bacteria with mannose. Blood clearance of some portal strains was significantly faster in CBA/J mice than in CBA/N mice with B cell immune deficiency, indicating that immunoglobulin
The in vitro induction of high zone tolerance to polymerized flagellin of S. adelaide in CBA mouse spleen cells consists of two stages: (a) Attachment of tolerance inducing concentrations of antigen to the surface of immunocompetent cells. (b) Inactivation of the immunocompetent cells by the
BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE----- Hash: SHA1 Format: 1.8 Date: Fri, 20 May 2011 10:13:26 +0200 Source: gtk2-engines-oxygen Binary: gtk2-engines-oxygen Architecture: source amd64 Version: 1.0.5-1 Distribution: unstable Urgency: low Maintainer: Debian KDE Extras Team ,[email protected], Changed-By: Kai Wasserbäch ,[email protected], Description: gtk2-engines-oxygen - Oxygen widget theme for GTK+-based applications Changes: gtk2-engines-oxygen (1.0.5-1) unstable; urgency=low . * New upstream version. * debian/gbp.conf: Make signed tags the default behaviour. * debian/control: Bumped Standards-Version to 3.9.2, no further changes required. * debian/copyright: Added myself to the Debian packaging section. Checksums-Sha1: b66dc390c9088531f574f87689d9a5e759f52d33 1905 gtk2-engines-oxygen_1.0.5-1.dsc e10b89352441d0de1b57c18581984483b3064d04 133854 gtk2-engines-oxygen_1.0.5.orig.tar.bz2 9007c32f794c893ac208f2d0e3afb6ea2b043be3 2901 gtk2-engines-oxygen_1.0.5-1.debian.tar.bz2 ...
Abstract: Сhronic g-radiation (1 - 16 sGr/day) of mice there is the increase of antioxidant activity and the decrease of lipid peroxidation. The wasa correlation between investigated parameters and the dose of irradiation. The results suggest, that chronic g-radiation causes damage of processes in spleen of CBA mice accompanied by subseguent augmentation of reparative processess ...
Muller, M and Welcker, E, Akzeleration von mammakarzinomtransplantaten bei cba/bln-mausen durch vorbehandlung mit kleinen dosen vitaler isologer tumorzellen. (1965). Subject Strain Bibliography 1965. 1099 ...
ISOLUTE® CBA is a weak cation exchange sorbent, used to extract strongly basic (e.g. quaternary amines) and polybasic analytes from aqueous samples.
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imp_entry-,signal_connect( scroll-event =, sub { my $eventscroll = Gtk2-,get_current_event ; my $scrolldirection = $eventscroll-,direction() ; if( $scrolldirection eq up ) { $imp_entry-,set_text( $imp_entry-,get_text() - 1 ) ; } elsif( $scrolldirection eq down ) { $imp_entry-,set_text( $imp_entry-,get_text() + 1 ) ; } return FALSE ...
Emitted right before the printing will start. You should read the information from the widget and update the content based on it if necessary. The widget is not guaranteed to be valid at a later time.. ...
AgsExpander is a composite widget containing a GtkTable. It is mainly used to layout childs in rows and columns that can be expanded.. ...
Return the number of the mouse button that triggered the navigation, or 0 if the navigation was not started by a mouse event.. ...
Lukashevich IS, Malkovský M, Schorlemmer HU, Bobé P, Artym J. "Mice, Inbred CBA". WikiGenes. Leijen S, Burgers SA, Baas P, ...
... in SWR and CBA inbred mice". Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 26 (2): 381-7. doi:10.1016/0091-3057(87)90133-X. PMID ... Hood HM, Metten P, Crabbe JC, Buck KJ (February 2006). "Fine mapping of a sedative-hypnotic drug withdrawal locus on mouse ... Metten, Pamela; Crabbe, John C (1999). "Genetic Determinants of Severity of Acute Withdrawal from Diazepam in Mice". ...
... mice, inbred mdx MeSH B01.050.157.520.440 - mice, inbred cba MeSH B01.050.157.520.445 - mice, inbred cftr MeSH B01.050.157.520. ... mice, inbred mdx MeSH B01.050.199.520.520.440 - mice, inbred cba MeSH B01.050.199.520.520.445 - mice, inbred cftr MeSH B01.050. ... mice, inbred a MeSH B01.050.157.520.318 - mice, inbred akr MeSH B01.050.157.520.338 - mice, inbred balb c MeSH B01.050.157.520. ... mice, inbred a MeSH B01.050.199.520.520.318 - mice, inbred akr MeSH B01.050.199.520.520.338 - mice, inbred balb c MeSH B01.050. ...
... and only three un-pedigreed mice remained alive. Soon after World War I, inbreeding in mice was started on a much larger scale ... A/J C3H C57BL/6 CBA DBA/2 BALB/c G.M. Rommel first started conducting inbreeding experiments on guinea pigs in 1906. Strain 2 ... A genealogical chart of mouse inbred strains can be found here on the Jackson Laboratory website and is currently being ... Evidence from the uniformity of mitochondrian DNA suggests that most of the common inbred mouse strains were probably derived ...
... of worms required by C57BL/6 mice to establish the same level of protection as CBA/J mice was double that needed by CBA/J mice ... After patency the degree of resistance observed in CBA/J mice was related to the adult worm burden harbored by the mice. The ... which C57BL/6 mice developed maximum granuloma formation and subsequent modulation was identical to that observed in CBA/J mice ... C57BL/6 granulomas were consistently half the volume of their counterpart lesions in CBA/J mice. ...
... mice during young adulthood (1.5-2 months) when hearing is optimal, and at 3, 6, and 12 months of age, a period during which ... Mice, Inbred C57BL * Mice, Inbred CBA * Neuronal Plasticity / physiology* Grant support * 1R37 AG07554/AG/NIA NIH HHS/United ... Maps were also obtained from CBA/CaJ mice which retain good hearing as they age. In AI of young adult C57 mice and CBA mice, ... Similar age-related changes were not observed in normal-hearing CBA mice. These findings indicate that plasticity in the ...
The mouse tongue develops a regular papilla pattern and provides a good model to study pattern formation. We examined the ... Mice, Inbred CBA * Mice, Inbred Strains * Proteins / analysis * Proteins / metabolism* * Signal Transduction ... Shh, Bmp-2, Bmp-4 and Fgf-8 are associated with initiation and patterning of mouse tongue papillae Mech Dev. 1999 Mar;81(1-2): ... The mouse tongue develops a regular papilla pattern and provides a good model to study pattern formation. We examined the ...
1.1 Mice. 1.2 Rats. 2. Laboratory codes. 3. Inbred Strains and Hybrids. 3.1 Definition 3.2 Nomenclature of Inbred Strains. 3.3 ... B6.CBA-(D4Mit25-D4Mit80)/Lt A similar congenic strain in which the donor chromosomal segment comes from the CBA/J strain. ... Recombinant inbred strains: use in gene mapping. In Origins of Inbred Mice, Morse, HC. (eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. ... Nomenclature for inbred strains of mice preserved by freezing. Mouse News Lett 54:2-3. Committee on Standardized Genetic ...
We quantitated the content of the fatty acyl groups of sciatic nerves from normal and Trembler mice between the postnatal ages ... Mice. Mice, Inbred CBA. Mice, Neurologic Mutants / growth & development, metabolism*. Molecular Weight. Myelin Sheath / ... In good agreement, the synthesis of palmitic acid by the fatty acid synthetase was normal in the PNS of 9-d-old Trembler mice ... We quantitated the content of the fatty acyl groups of sciatic nerves from normal and Trembler mice between the postnatal ages ...
In vitro treatment (100 micrograms of 566C80 per ml for 3 days) of cysts isolated from brains of mice infected for 1, 2 ... Mice. Mice, Inbred CBA. Naphthoquinones / therapeutic use*. Toxoplasmosis, Animal / drug therapy*, pathology. ... the effect of prolonged treatment with 200 mg of 566C80 per kg of body weight per day on cysts in brains of CBA/Ca mice ... In vitro treatment (100 micrograms of 566C80 per ml for 3 days) of cysts isolated from brains of mice infected for 1, 2, 3, 4, ...
mouse. Strain:. CBA. Sex:. female. Details on test animals and environmental conditions:. Species. Mouse, CBA strain, inbred, ... In this study, performed in March 2004, females ofthe CBA mouse strain (from Charles River France, LArbresle Cedex, France) ... mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA). Specific details on test material used for the study:. Vehicle. Acetone/Olive oil (4:1 v/v ... Assessment for Contact Hypersensitivity to naphthalene-1,5-diol in the Mouse (Local Lymph Node Assay). ...
Subline divergence within L.C. Strongs C3H and CBA inbred mouse strains. A review. ... Correlation of FAD-monooxygenase activity with corticosterone levels in inbred mice.. Padilla GM, Rauckman EJ, Whitmore AC, ... Bayesian Diallel Analysis Reveals Mx1-Dependent and Mx1-Independent Effects on Response to Influenza A Virus in Mice. ... Dendritic cell immunoreceptor regulates Chikungunya virus pathogenesis in mice.. Long KM, Whitmore AC, Ferris MT, Sempowski GD ...
Mice, Inbred BALB C. *Mice, Inbred CBA. *Pneumococcal Infections (immunology, prevention & control) ... In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of immunizing mice with caseinolytic protease (ClpP) protein antigen whose ...
Lukashevich IS, Malkovský M, Schorlemmer HU, Bobé P, Artym J. "Mice, Inbred CBA". WikiGenes. Leijen S, Burgers SA, Baas P, ...
Cellular fractions in PPD bead granulomas at 2 and 4 days of granuloma formation in thirty CBA/J mice quantified by multi-color ... Mice, Inbred CBA. *Mycobacterium tuberculosis. *Protein Binding. *Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor/metabolism ... pcbi-1000778-g004: Cellular fractions in PPD bead granulomas at 2 and 4 days of granuloma formation in thirty CBA/J mice ... pcbi-1000778-g004: Cellular fractions in PPD bead granulomas at 2 and 4 days of granuloma formation in thirty CBA/J mice ...
This inbred strain carries the spontaneous flexed-tail mutation and mice are characterized by a transitory siderocytic ... The following inbred strains are known to be homozygous for Pde6b. : C3H sublines, CBA/J, FVB/NJ, PL/J, SB, SJL/J, and SWR/J.. ... This inbred strain carries the spontaneous flexed-tail mutation and mice are characterized by a transitory siderocytic ... Mice strains as well as the genotypes of strains with identified molecular mutations. JAX® Mice strains are only made available ...
Inbred Strains of Mice: LDJ. LDJ Inbr (Le) 72. Black or very black: a,mg/+. Also carries ldJ/+. Origin: ldJ arose spontaneously ... in CBA/Ca-se stock (M.C.Green) 1959. One cross to C57BL/10Gn, bxs to F3, outcrossed to an inbred mg/mg stock (F27), and bxs as ... INBRED STRAINS OF MICE. Updated 9 Apr. 1998. Michael FW Festing. MRC Toxicology Unit, Hodgkin Building,. University of ... Mouse Genome Database (MGD), Gene Expression Database (GXD), Mouse Tumor Biology (MTB), Gene Ontology (GO), MouseCyc ...
Most inbred mouse strains (e.g., C57BL/6, CBA/J, C3H, B10D2) are resistant to infection with Leishmania major. Upon intradermal ... 3. Effects of thymectomy on the course of infection of CBA mice with Leishmania tropica. Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ... By contrast, BALB/c mice are highly susceptible to infection with these organisms (12,13). These mice fail to control the ... Interestingly, for reasons not yet understood, lymph node cells from the mice infected with this mutant, in contrast to mice ...
As shown experimentally, several inbred mouse strains (e.g., C57BL/6, CBA/J, C3H, and B10D2) are resistant to Leishmania major ... suggested the role of IL-10 by using IL-10 gene deficient mice of both Balb/c mice and C57BL/6 mice. These mice were resistant ... Most inbred mouse strains (e.g., C57BL/6, CBA/J, C3H, B10D2) are resistant to the infection with Leishmania major. Upon ... IL-10 in the male mice (25.27 pg/ml) was higher than female mice (23.67 pg/ml) (Tables 1 and 2). Correlation between IL-10 and ...
... to generally slower responding in the CBA/Ca mice. Tukeys post hoc tests showed that CBA/Ca mice were also distinct in terms ... we exploited the isogenic nature of inbred mice, in combination with a tractable mouse model of delayed reinforcement, to look ... In this study, we took advantage of the isogenic nature of inbred strains of mice to determine the contribution of genes to ... Kopp C (2001) Locomotor activity rhythm in inbred strains of mice: implications for behavioural studies. Behav Brain Res 125: ...
Mice are also reported to have high serum complement activity. BUB/BnJ mice are homozygous for the ,i,Mass1,sup,frings,/sup,,/i ... BUB/BnJ mice carry a specific T cell receptor V beta mutation, making this strain highly susceptible to collagen-induced ... The following inbred strains are known to be homozygous for Pde6b. : C3H sublines, CBA/J, FVB/NJ, PL/J, SB, SJL/J, and SWR/J.. ... JAX® Mice, Products & Services Conditions of Use. "MICE" means mouse strains, their progeny derived by inbreeding or ...
CBK transgenic mice express an H-2Kb transgene on the inbred CBA strain genetic background (14). BM3 (14) and A1 (15) ... A total of 107 splenocytes from BM3 mice in 200 μl of PBS were injected into the tail veins of recipient mice. Mice were ... T cells on the inbred CBA strain genetic background. IDO-transgenic mice were generated by the staff of the Medical College of ... CBA mice or from mice exposed to vector-transfected MC57G tumor cells. This suggested that IDO expression by MC57G cells was a ...
Mice received BrdU (1 mg/ml) in their drinking water for the indicated times. Splenic B ce ... Kinetics of BrdU labeling of B lymphocytes of normal and mutant mice. ... Mice, Inbred CBA. *Mice, Knockout. *Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1 ... The CBA/N mouse had 2.4 × 106 labeled B cells on day 1 and 3.2 × 106 on day 3. Only 0.1 × 106 cells were still labeled after ...
... in SWR and CBA inbred mice". Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 26 (2): 381-7. doi:10.1016/0091-3057(87)90133-X. PMID ... Hood HM, Metten P, Crabbe JC, Buck KJ (February 2006). "Fine mapping of a sedative-hypnotic drug withdrawal locus on mouse ... Metten, Pamela; Crabbe, John C (1999). "Genetic Determinants of Severity of Acute Withdrawal from Diazepam in Mice". ...
... differs by several logs in inbred strains of mice (e.g., C57BL/6, CBA/J, BALB/c). Type I is the most virulent (LD100 of 1-10 ... cachectic mice were more susceptible to LPS challenge than mice that recovered weight (170). Recently, mice deficient in the IL ... In vitro investigation of host resistance to Toxoplasma gondii infection in microglia of BALB/c and CBA/Ca mice. Infect Immun. ... in mice) and NLRP3 (in mice and humans) have been shown to process and release IL-1β in response to T. gondii infection (Figure ...
Animals used in this study were CBA/J (in-bred strain) mice. Maintenance of animals and protocols used were approved by the ... CBA/J mice died at 3000 mg/kg eosin B and could tolerate 1500 mg/kg. However, at 2000 mg/kg, half the population of mice died. ... Figure 1: Mortality test on CBA/J mice in group A(ip) administered drugs once daily ip for four consecutive days (5 mice per ... Figure 2: Mortality test on CBA/J mice in group A(op) administered drugs once daily op for four consecutive days (5 mice per ...
Recently, Johnson has developed two relevant congenic mouse strains. In the congenic C57B ... identified a single genetic locus (Ahl) that could explain the early presbycusis observed in the inbred C57BL/6J mouse strain. ... the Ahl locus has been replaced by the wild-type locus from the inbred CBA/CaJ strain (strain B6.CBA). In the congenic CBA/CaJ ... identified a single genetic locus (Ahl) that could explain the early presbycusis observed in the inbred C57BL/6J mouse strain. ...
The experimental design used CBA mice as recipients and a second genetically distinct inbred strain A as cell and skin graft ... it was rejected in the other two mice. Skin grafts from a different mouse strain, AU, were always rejected by the mouse exposed ... Adult unmanipulated CBA mice rejected A strain skin grafts within 11 d, as expected; if a second A strain graft was ... Next, they injected each of the six fetuses in a CBA female mouse in day 15 or 16 of pregnancy with 10 μμl of A strain adult ...
"Effect of 5-azadeoxycytidine and retinoic acid on expression of genomic imprinting in parthenogenetic mouse embryos, Russian ... Study of Development of Diploid Parthenogenetic Embryos of Inbred C57BL/6 and CBA Mice ... The effect of 5-azadeoxycytidine on hybrid mice (CBA × C57BL/6)F1 in vitro for 6 h, in the presence of single cell ... The effect of 5-azadeoxycytidine on hybrid mice (CBA × C57BL/6)F1 in vitro for 6 h, in the presence of single cell ...
A single intramuscular dose of GEO-LM01 protected 100% of CBA/J mice challenged with a lethal dose of ML29, a Mopeia/Lassa ... Immunogenicity and efficacy of GEO-LM01 was tested in a mouse challenge model. ... administered ML29 virus was tested in several inbred mouse models and CBA/J mice were the most sensitive to challenge. ML29 is ... Control mice (naïve adult CBA/J). 4. 0. 1 All mice were challenged with a lethal dose of ML29 to see if the original vaccinated ...
Festings List of Inbred Strains. ...
mouse. Strain:. CBA. Sex:. female. Details on test animals and environmental conditions:. Species: Mouse, CBA/J strain, inbred ... In the main study, three experimental groups of five female CBA/J mice were treated with test substance concentrations of 10, ... In a LLNA study (OECD 429), three experimental groups of five female CBA/J mice were treated with test substance concentrations ... mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA). Species:. ...
... mice. The same workers have recently (40) identified μ-, δ-, and κ-type heroin responders among inbred mouse strains. Vaccarino ... Also potentially enlightening is our ongoing mapping study of supraspinal morphine analgesia in (AKR × CBA) F2 mice, focusing ... 1978) in Origin of Inbred Mice, ed Morse H C III(Academic, New York), pp 423-428. ... We recently tested 11 inbred strains on 12 separate measures of nociception in common use in the mouse (59, 60). The assays ...
Vulnerability to noise-induced hearing loss in middle-aged and young adult mice: A dose-response approach in CBA, C57BL, and ... Genetics of age-related hearing loss in mice. III. Susceptibility of inbred and F1 hybrid strains to noise-induced hearing loss ... Other studies in mice indicate that a genetic basis for resistance to noise-induced hearing loss may exist as well (Yoshida et ... Acoustic injury in mice: 129/SvEv is exceptionally resistant to noise-induced hearing loss. Hearing Research 141(1-2):97-106. ...
  • Further, a nonsense mutation (C-to-A transversion) in codon 347 that results in a truncation eliminating more than half of the predicted encoded protein, including the catalytic domain, has been identified in all rd1 strains of mice. (
  • In this study, we took advantage of the isogenic nature of inbred strains of mice to determine the contribution of genes to impulsive behaviors by examining the performance of four separate mouse strains in a novel murine delayed-reinforcement paradigm, during which the animals had to choose between rewards that were relatively small but available immediately and larger but progressively delayed rewards. (
  • Maternal Behavior of Primiparous Females in Inbred Strains of Mice: a Detailed Descriptive Analysis Physiology & Behavior. (
  • Pubmed ID: 16842828 In the present study, we compared the maternal and non-maternal behaviors of primiparous females in both the light and dark phases during 3 weeks postpartum in five inbred strains of mice (BALB/c, CBA/Ca, C3H/He, C57BL/6, and DBA/2) to examine the strain differences in the behaviors in detail. (
  • Inbred strains of mice can be classified into 3 categories according to their resistance to infection with S.typhimurium: susceptible (BALB/c, C57BL/6, C3H/He), intermediate (DBA/2, C75L) and resistant (A, CBA). (
  • Quantitative measure of genetic differences in susceptibility to noise -induced hearing loss in two strains of mice. (
  • The CBA/CaJ (CB) and C57BL/6J (B6) inbred strains of mice were exposed for 1 h to noise intensities between 98 and 119 dB SPL. (
  • The current study was designed to determine dose-response curves for NIHL over the ranges of intensities of noise that would characterize the B6 and CB inbred strains of mice. (
  • Nine inbred strains of mice were infected intranasally with Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 and BALB/c and CBA/Ca were found to be resistant and susceptible respectively. (
  • The total population of single cell types differ as much as twofold between inbred strains of mice. (
  • The major QTL on chromosome 14 overlaps with a locus that was already found in our previous study, using different strains of mice. (
  • This investigation explores the basis of the susceptibility to hearing loss from a neurobiological stand point, in different genetically modified and inbred strains of mice: CBA/Ca (CBA), C57BL/6J (C57), Kv2.2 knock-out (Kv2.2 KO) and USP42 KO. (
  • Strain differences were also apparent in that the number of worms required by C57BL/6 mice to establish the same level of protection as CBA/J mice was double that needed by CBA/J mice. (
  • The representation of frequency was mapped in the primary auditory cortex (AI) of C57BL/6J (C57) mice during young adulthood (1.5-2 months) when hearing is optimal, and at 3, 6, and 12 months of age, a period during which progressive, high frequency, sensorineural hearing loss occurs in this strain. (
  • Therefore, they should not be referred to by species name, but rather as laboratory mice or by use of a specific strain or stock name. (
  • Mouse strain names should be registered through the Mouse Genome Database (MGD) at . (
  • A key feature of mouse and rat nomenclature is the Laboratory Registration Code or Laboratory code, which is a code of usually three to four letters (first letter uppercase, followed by all lowercase) that identifies a particular institute, laboratory, or investigator that produced, and may hold stocks of, a mouse or rat strain. (
  • Strains can be termed inbred if they have been mated brother x sister for 20 or more consecutive generations, and individuals of the strain can be traced to a single ancestral pair at the 20th or subsequent generation. (
  • An inbred strain should be designated by a unique brief symbol made up of uppercase, Roman, letters, or a combination of letters and numbers beginning with a letter. (
  • e.g. , mouse strain 129P1/J). (
  • Care should be taken that mouse and rat strains do not overlap in strain designations. (
  • Note: a few historical examples exist of similar mouse and rat strain designations and these are allowed to stand, with their substrain designations identifying them as unique). (
  • In vivo experiments to determine the effect of prolonged treatment with 200 mg of 566C80 per kg of body weight per day on cysts in brains of CBA/Ca mice infected with strain ME49 revealed a steady and significant decline in the numbers of cysts compared with the numbers in untreated controls. (
  • Genomic profiling of collaborative cross founder mice infected with respiratory viruses reveals novel transcripts and infection-related strain-specific gene and isoform expression. (
  • This inbred strain carries the spontaneous flexed-tail mutation and mice are characterized by a transitory siderocytic hypochromic anemia due to defective heme synthesis in fetal but not adult reticulocytes. (
  • The FL/1Re inbred strain, homozygous for f and wildtype for Kit , was generated in the laboratory of Elizabeth Russell from a female WB/Re heterozygous for Kit W bred to a male heterozygous for f from a partially inbred stock derived from crosses between C3H/J and Snell?s WA linkage-testing stock (Russell and McFarland, 1966). (
  • BUB/BnJ mice carry a specific T cell receptor V beta mutation, making this strain highly susceptible to collagen-induced arthritis. (
  • The BUB/BnJ inbred strain originated from randomly bred albino mice of unknown ancestry. (
  • To control for maternal effects, all the mice were cross-fostered to a common strain immediately after birth. (
  • identified a single genetic locus (Ahl) that could explain the early presbycusis observed in the inbred C57BL/6J mouse strain. (
  • In the congenic C57BL/6J strain, the Ahl locus has been replaced by the wild-type locus from the inbred CBA/CaJ strain (strain B6.CBA). (
  • In the congenic CBA/CaJ strain the wild-type locus has been replaced by the mutant Ahl locus (strain CBA.B6). (
  • Generally, pre-exposure the B6.CBA congenics started out with more sensitive ABR thresholds than the CBA.B6s (strain differences were statistically significant at all frequencies pre-exposure. (
  • They argued that if a fetal mouse from one inbred strain was inoculated in utero with a suspension of living cells from an adult mouse from a different inbred strain, as the fetal mouse grew into an adult, it would be completely or partially tolerant to a skin graft from the original cell donor. (
  • The experimental design used CBA mice as recipients and a second genetically distinct inbred strain A as cell and skin graft donors. (
  • if a second A strain graft was transplanted at any time up to 60 d later, it was rejected by the mice now sensitized to strain A Ags much more rapidly, within 6 d. (
  • This accelerated immune response could be transferred to a normal CBA adult by implanting pieces of lymph node into the peritoneal cavity, thus demonstrating that lymphocytes, rather than serum factors, were responsible for this "active immunisation" against the foreign Ags of the A strain. (
  • Next, they injected each of the six fetuses in a CBA female mouse in day 15 or 16 of pregnancy with 10 μμl of A strain adult tissue (experiment 37 reported in detail in the article). (
  • Species: Mouse, CBA/J strain, inbred, SPF-Quality, recognized by the international guidelines as the recommended test system (e.g. (
  • Half of the mouse cohorts were subjected to homologous parasite strain reinfection after drug treatment to assess protective effects of ART therapy. (
  • Studies on chemotherapy of parasitic helminths: efficacy of artemether on Japanese strain of Schistosoma japonicum in mice. (
  • Resistance to T. cruzi infection in humans as well as mice may vary according to the genetic background of the host and the virulence of the parasite strain [ 23 , 24 ]. (
  • To investigate the roles of the espin class of actin-bundling protein, we used a genetic approach that benefited from a judicious selection of mouse background strain and an examination of the effects of heterozygosity. (
  • A congenic jerker mouse line was prepared by repeated backcrossing into the inbred CBA/CaJ strain, which is known for excellent hearing and minimal age-related hearing loss. (
  • This gene emerged as a negative regulator of TLR2-mediated interleukin (IL)-6 production in MOLF/Ei mice, which expressed IRAK1BP1 mRNA in an allele-specific manner when crossed with the C57BL/6J strain. (
  • A significantly greater proportion of day 3.5 p.c. mouse embryos from the inbred 129/Sv- CP strain yielded ES cell lines compared to crossbred F 2 (C57BL/6 X CBA/Ca) embroys. (
  • The brief exposure of day 3.5 p.c. embryos from the 129/Sv- CP mouse strain to treatments expected to perturb gene expression, heat shock or puromycin-containing medium, significantly increased the frequency of ES cell isolation. (
  • B6 is an important inbred strain in hearing research and the entire genome sequence is available for this strain as well. (
  • We plan to generate proteome atlas for other inbred strain CBA/CaJ as well, because this strain is considered to be a 'good' hearing strain of mice and it is used extensively by investigators in the field. (
  • A large ( n = 815) murine advanced intercross line (G 4 ) was created from a reciprocal cross between a high-running line and the inbred strain C57BL/6J. (
  • Previously, we generated a moderately (G 4 ) advanced intercross line (AIL) originating from mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running and the inbred strain C57BL/6J (hereafter referred to as B6) ( 20 ). (
  • The significantly higher urinary GS excretion in CFW mice was accompanied by a 1.6-fold lower urinary γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (γ-GTP) activity in this strain. (
  • The interferon-regulated Mx1 gene of the A2G mouse strain confers a high degree of resistance against influenza A and Thogoto viruses. (
  • Here we identified two seemingly minor amino acid changes in the GTPase domain that negatively affect the enzymatic activity and metabolic stability of murine MX1 and thus dramatically reduce the influenza virus resistance of the respective mouse inbred strain. (
  • The Mx1 allele of mouse strain A2G codes for a 72-kDa GTPase, designated MX1, that accumulates in the nuclei of IFN-stimulated cells. (
  • In conclusion, pulmonary oxidative stress and antioxidant markers were more affected by inbred strain than radiation over 7 days posttreatment. (
  • Because all mice from an inbred strain are genetically identical and homozygous, these databases in conjunction with phenotypic information on corresponding strains open the opportunity for genome-wide association mapping of quantitative traits in an easy and cost-effective way ( Flint and Eskin 2012 ). (
  • Outbred Swiss-Webster or inbred CBA/Ca (H-2k), BALB/c (H-2d), and C57BL/6 (H-2b) mice injected with monoclonal antibody GK 1.5 24 h before and 24 h and 7, 15, and 21 days after oral inoculation with 10 live cysts of the low-virulence strain ME49 of T. gondii exhibited an almost complete abrogation of their antibody and cell-mediated immune responses to the parasite. (
  • Challenge of the GK 1.5-treated and chronically infected mice with the virulent RH strain of T. gondii resulted in 100% mortality, whereas 100% of chronically infected controls survived the infection. (
  • Whole cell patch clamp was used to compare VNTB neurons of the C57 with those of the CBA, a different inbred strain with an effective MOC, in order to determine if differences in excitability exist between strains that may explain the differing strength of their respective MOC systems. (
  • By contrast, BALB/c mice are highly susceptible to infection with these organisms (12,13). (
  • Most of these genes do not map within the MHC systems of either humans or mice, including the SCL-1 gene implicated in the high susceptibility of BALB/c mice to infection with L. major (14). (
  • By contrast, BALB/c mice develop a typical Th2 response. (
  • In addition, targeted disruption of the IL-4 gene in BALB/c mice causes these animals, which are otherwise susceptible to infection with L. major , to become highly resistant to these organisms (19). (
  • However (and surprisingly), genetic disruption of the IL-4 gene of BALB/c mice can also generate animals that are as susceptible to infection with L. major as are wild-type conventional BALB/c mice (20). (
  • The reasons for this discrepancy depend on some circumstances such as infection with particular L. major sub-strains, due to the fact that IL-4 and/or IL-4 receptor signaling is not required to promote Th2 cell development and susceptibility in BALB/c mice (21). (
  • Briefly one hundred and twenty Balb/c mice were randomly divided into four groups as LT, LB, LBT and control groups. (
  • To establish the role of IL-1RI signaling in protection against cryptococcal infection, we analyzed wild-type (WT) and IL-1RI-deficient (IL-1RI −/− ) mice on the BALB/c background. (
  • In conclusion, our data indicate that IL-1RI signaling is required to activate a complex series of innate and adaptive immune responses that collectively enhance host defense and survival after C. neoformans 52D infection in BALB/c mice. (
  • They began to breed mice for this purpose, and many of the modern mouse types used in laboratories today - given names such as B6, B10, C3H, CBA, and BALB/c - can be traced back to the lines bred by these scientists. (
  • Mutation rates at two expanded simple tandem repeat loci were studied in the germ line of first- and second-generation offspring of inbred male CBA/H, C57BL/6, and BALB/c mice exposed to either high linear energy transfer fission neutrons or low linear energy transfer x-rays. (
  • Comparable transgenerational effects were observed also in neutron-irradiated C57BL/6 and x-irradiated BALB/c mice. (
  • We have now mapped 5 susceptibility loci in crosses between the more susceptible BALB/c and the more resistant CBA/Ca strains. (
  • Inheritance of distinct combinations of BALB/c and CBA/Ca alleles at the susceptibility loci confer more extreme phenotypes in terms of susceptibility or resistance than observed in either of the two parental inbred strains. (
  • Many different genes spanning the mouse genome have been implicated in susceptibility/resistance to Leishmania . (
  • Several systems have been used to correlate resistance/susceptibility with Th1/Th2 responses but perhaps the most compelling one is that involving mice genetically deficient in either interferon g (IFN- g ) or interleukin 4 (IL-4), the phenotypic surrogates of the Th1 and Th2 CD4 + T cell responses, respectively. (
  • BUB/BnJ mice are homozygous for the Mass1 frings allele (monogenic, audiogenic seizure susceptibility 1) and are susceptible to audiogenic seizures prior to 25 days of age. (
  • Susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss in two congenic mouse strains. (
  • Susceptibility of IL-1RI −/− mice was associated with significant induction of a Th2-biased immune response characterized by pulmonary eosinophilia, M2 macrophage polarization, and recruitment of CD4 + IL-13 + T cells. (
  • Most other laboratory inbred mouse strains carry truncated nonfunctional Mx1 alleles and, consequently, exhibit high virus susceptibility. (
  • To determine whether the enhanced influenza virus susceptibility is due to intrinsically reduced antiviral activity of the CAST-derived Mx1 allele, we generated a congenic C57BL/6J mouse line that carries the Mx locus of CAST/EiJ mice. (
  • Thus, the enhanced influenza virus susceptibility of CAST/EiJ mice can be explained by minor alterations in the MX1 restriction factor that negatively affect its enzymatic activity and reduce its half-life. (
  • Mice of the eight inbred strains differing in their susceptibility to radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis, and in the duration of asymptomatic survival, received 18 Gy whole thorax irradiation and were killed 6 h, 24 h, or 7 days later. (
  • Following incorporation of the bone-seeking isotope, 100% of mice that harbour high-risk genotypes at all 5 susceptibility loci develop osteosarcoma with an average of 472 days latency times. (
  • We studied whether the previously observed vulnerability in mice overexpressing the 751-amino-acid isoform of human amyloid precursor protein (APP751) is regulated by human apolipoprotein E (apoE) alleles, which determine the relative risk for Alzheimer's disease and the susceptibility to various forms of acute brain damage. (
  • We compared the susceptibility to viral infection of splenocytes, isolated from young versus old CBA mice, and evaluated the antiviral actions of lactoferrin in splenocytes infected with Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). (
  • This T cell receptor V beta restriction works in concert with other uncharacterized modifying genes present in BUB/BnJ mice. (
  • Here we analyze 118 neuroanatomical parameters in 1,566 mutant mouse lines and identify 198 genes whose disruptions yield NeuroAnatomical Phenotypes (NAPs), mostly affecting structures implicated in brain connectivity. (
  • 17% of human unique orthologues of mouse NAP genes are known loci for cognitive dysfunction. (
  • The remaining 83% constitute a vast pool of genes newly implicated in brain architecture, providing the largest study of mouse NAP genes and pathways. (
  • Here we utilize a reverse-genetic screen in mice and perform a systematic and accurate assessment of neuroanatomical defects in 1566 genetic mutant lines in order to identify key genes and functional pathways modulating brain morphogenesis. (
  • The authors of that article say the main advantage of the mouse as a subject is that, while human health is determined by a combination of our genes and the surrounding environment - where even identical twins will develop different medical histories over their lifetimes - genetic alterations can be much more precisely defined in laboratory mice. (
  • An Ab production QTL marker mapping to mouse chromosome 1 (34.8 cM) significantly cosegregated with survival after acute T. cruzi infections, indicating that this region also harbors genes whose alleles modulate resistance to acute T. cruzi infection. (
  • Here we demonstrate that chemical mutagenesis of mice combined with advances in hematopoietic stem cell reagents and genome resources can efficiently recover recessive mutations and identify genes essential for generation and proliferation of definitive hematopoietic stem cells and/or their progeny. (
  • Influenza virus resistance in mice is determined largely by the Mx locus on chromosome 16, which contains two interferon (IFN)-regulated genes, designated Mx1 and Mx2 ( 1 ). (
  • The chromosomal regions that harbor genes that control this variation are being identified using recombinant inbred strains and intercross-backcross progeny. (
  • Developmental studies of inbred and recombinant inbred strains are being carried out in parallel to determine whether these genes control rates of neuron production or rates of survival. (
  • Those C57BL/6 mice which lived until a chronic state of infection were rarely well protected and harbored few female worms. (
  • In vitro treatment (100 micrograms of 566C80 per ml for 3 days) of cysts isolated from brains of mice infected for 1, 2, 3, 4, or 9 months resulted in loss of viability of the cysts and did not reveal any influence of the duration of in vivo infection on sensitivity to the drug. (
  • In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of immunizing mice with caseinolytic protease (ClpP) protein antigen whose gene sequences were shown to be highly conserved in different strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae in an invasive-disease model (intraperitoneal infection model), and protection against invasive challenge with 12 different serotypes of S. pneumoniae was assessed in two murine strains. (
  • C57BL/6, CBA/J, C3H, B10D2) are resistant to infection with Leishmania major . (
  • These mice fail to control the infection and develop extensive lesions. (
  • Upon infection with L. major , mice of the resistant phenotype clearly develop a dominant Th1 phenotype of immune response to the parasite's antigens. (
  • Thus, targeted disruption of the IFN- g gene in C57BL/6 mice causes these animals, which are otherwise resistant to infection with L. major , to become highly susceptible to these organisms (15,16). (
  • Moreover, IL-4 transgenic resistant mice expressing low levels of this cytokine fail to clear the infection (17,18). (
  • Nod1 −/− mice were shown to be very susceptible to T. cruzi, succumbing to the infection and displaying higher parasitemia and parasite loads in the spleen and heart tissues [ 10 ]. (
  • We now report that infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus at the time of transplantation prevented engraftment of allogeneic, but not syngeneic, bone marrow in similarly treated mice. (
  • We conclude that a noncytopathic viral infection at the time of transplantation can prevent engraftment of allogeneic bone marrow and result in the death of sublethally irradiated mice treated with costimulation blockade. (
  • C3HeB/FeJ mice have been increasingly used to model tuberculosis infection because they produce hypoxic, well-defined granulomas exhibiting caseous necrosis following aerosol infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (
  • The study confirmed the undisturbed viral resistance in old mice and the protective actions of lactoferrin in viral infection. (
  • Recently, however, polyomavirus (PyV) infection of T-cell-deficient (T-cell receptor beta chain [TCR-beta] -/- or TCR-betaxdelta -/-) mice was shown to elicit a protective, T-cell-independent (TI) antiviral IgM and IgG response. (
  • Germinal centers were not observed in T-cell-deficient PyV-infected mice, indicating that the germinal center pathway of B-cell differentiation is TD even in the context of a virus infection. (
  • In normal mice, mature B cells are long lived, and recent splenic immigrant B cells from the bone marrow are short lived, with a life span of 3 d after their arrival in the spleen. (
  • Flow cytometric analysis of live C57BL/6 spleen cells using CD45.2 (104) Mouse mAb (violetFluor™ 500 Conjugate) (right) compared to concentration-matched Mouse Isotype Control (violetFluor™ 500 Conjugate) (left). (
  • T cells from a mouse spleen cell suspension using CD90.2 MicroBeads, a MiniMACS™ Separator, and an MS Column. (
  • Such profiles were similar to those obtained for spleen cells from reference control CBA/N mice. (
  • Spleen cells of mice CBA produced much greater changes as compared with those produced by spleen cells of mice C57Bl/6. (
  • Inoculation into the mice brain of 10 mln of spleen cells together with tumour in a dose of 1500 cells produced a clear cut inhibitory effect on the tumour growth, this effect being more pronounced following introduction of sensitized cells of the spleen of mice CBA. (
  • The kinetics of uptake of porphyrins 7 and 8 was studied in the mouse C6 glioma model as well as in biopsy samples from normal brain, liver, spleen and blood. (
  • Mice and rats used in the laboratory derive from a variety of sources. (
  • Pineal peptide preparation epithalamin increases the lifespan of fruit flies, mice and rats // Mech. (
  • Fialuridine had previously passed preclinical toxicology tests in mice, rats, dogs and primates - where no toxic effects on the liver were reported - and had been approved for testing in humans. (
  • Adult normal mice and rats, and cyclosporin A-treated rats, received intrastriatal transplants of dissociated embryonic ventral mesencephalic pig tissue that was 27 or 29 embryonic days of age (E27 and E29). (
  • Grafts in mice were invariably rejected between 2 and 4 weeks after transplantation, while occasional grafts in untreated rats survived up to 12 weeks without signs of an ongoing rejection process. (
  • We have shown that mouse bone marrow recipients treated with sublethal irradiation plus transient blockade of the CD40-CD154 costimulatory pathway develop permanent hematopoietic chimerism across allogeneic barriers. (
  • In these studies, C57L/J, CBA/J, and C57BL/6J mice received wide field irradiation to the whole thorax with shielding of the head, abdomen, and forelimbs. (
  • Microbiological analysis showed a significant increase in the lung and brain fungal burden of IL-1RI −/− compared to WT mice beginning at weeks 1 and 4 postinfection, respectively. (
  • A comprehensive histopathological analysis revealed that C3HeB/FeJ mice develop three morphologically distinct lesion types in the lung that differ with respect to cellular composition, degree of immunopathology and control of bacterial replication. (
  • Mice displaying predominantly the fulminant necrotizing alveolitis lesion type had significantly higher pulmonary bacterial loads and displayed rapid and severe immunopathology characterized by increased mortality, highlighting the pathological role of an uncontrolled granulocytic response in the lung. (
  • Lung GPx activity, and GPx2 expression, predicted for survival from lethal pneumonitis, and serum GPx for fibrosis, in this panel of mice. (
  • The mouse CD90.2 alloantigen, also known as Thy1.2, is a pan T cell marker for the most common inbred mouse strains. (
  • For many of these investigators, the availability of a proteome atlas of the mouse cochlea at various postnatal ages' in common inbred strains would be extremely valuable (save time and resources). (
  • Cellular fractions in PPD bead granulomas at 2 and 4 days of granuloma formation in thirty CBA/J mice quantified by multi-color flow cytometry.Results are expressed as the percentage of each cell type in the total population of granuloma cells. (
  • 1975. Activities of haem synthetic enzymes in blood cells of pre-natal flexed-tailed (f/f) anaemic mice. (
  • This notion has been supported by classical experiments which established that T cell-deficient mice rapidly succumb after inoculation with any one of several species of Leishmania , and that transfer of normal T cells confers resistance to the animals (1-3). (
  • These conclusions were reached on the basis of a series of elegant experiments using mice genetically engineered to lack either major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I or class II molecules, or mice lacking CD4 + or CD8 + T cells (4-11). (
  • To directly evaluate the hypothesis that cells expressing IDO inhibit T cell responses, we prepared IDO-transfected cell lines and transgenic mice overexpressing IDO and assessed allogeneic T cell responses in vitro and in vivo. (
  • The potency of allogeneic T cell responses was reduced significantly when mice were preimmunized with IDO-transfected cells. (
  • In addition, adoptive transfer of alloreactive donor T cells yielded reduced numbers of donor T cells when injected into IDO-transgenic recipient mice. (
  • We report that the potency of allogeneic T cell responses elicited by IDO-transfected cells in vitro and in vivo was reduced significantly and that allogeneic T cell responses elicited after T cell adoptive transfer were less potent in recipient transgenic mice that overexpressed IDO in tissue microenvironments. (
  • The columns represent the percentages of BrdU-labeled B cells in normal and mutant mice analyzed 24 (stippled bars) and 72 h (gray bars) after the beginning of the BrdU administration. (
  • In the CD45−/− mouse, 35 × 106 B cells were labeled after 24 h and 37.8 × 106 after 3 d. 0.8 × 106 B cells were still labeled after the 18-d chase. (
  • The CBA/N mouse had 2.4 × 106 labeled B cells on day 1 and 3.2 × 106 on day 3. (
  • We determined the frequency and phenotypic distribution of short- and long-lived B cells in CD45 and Btk mutant mice using the BrdU labeling technique. (
  • 24 h after the beginning of the BrdU administration, the fraction of labeled cells was 4% in the spleens of normal mice (Fig. 7) and rose to a maximal 16% after 3 d of continuous treatment. (
  • In CD45−/− and CBA/N mice, about half of the splenic B cells incorporated BrdU in 24 h. (
  • Our results confirm the life span analysis of splenic B cells of normal mice but indicate that in mutant mice, labeled B cells have a life span of only 1 d. (
  • This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to violetFluor™ 500 and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells. (
  • Depletion of uterine (u) NK cells, recently achieved using gene-ablated and transgenic mice, results in pathology. (
  • In immune-competent mice, the metrial gland is associated with the maternal portion of the placenta that consists of transformed stromal cells known as the decidua. (
  • Surprisingly, the endocochlear potential that drives mechanoelectrical transduction currents in outer hair cells and hence cochlear amplification is greatly reduced in CD-1 Cx30 A88V/A88V mice. (
  • OHCs, DCs and spiral lamina cells are intact in all cochlea turns of CBA/J and CD-1 Cx30 A88V/A88V mice but not in the basal turn of CD-1 Cx30 WT/WT mice. (
  • Gene replacement of the p53 gene with the lacZ gene in mouse embryonic stem cells and mice by using two steps of homologous recombination. (
  • Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and primary macrophages from two other wild-derived mouse strains also induced IRAK1BP1 mRNA by 4 hours after stimulation with agonists of various TLRs. (
  • CD90.2 MicroBeads were developed for positive selection or depletion of mouse T cells from single-cell suspensions of lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues or from peripheral blood. (
  • We used high-throughput fluorescence-activated cell sorter to analyze 9 subsets of blood stem cells, progenitor cells, circulating red cells, and platelets in more than 1300 mouse embryos at embryonic day (E) 14.5. (
  • Furthermore, X(id)Y mice failed to respond to DNP-Lys-Ficoll and had less than 3% splenic Lyb 5.1-bearing cells. (
  • Techniques for the isolation and genetic manipulation of embryonic stem cells (ES cells) in the mouse are well established. (
  • However, little is understood regarding the mechanisms which enable pluripotent cells from the early mouse embryo to be diverted experimentally from their normal fate of differentiation in vivo and maintained instead in culture, as stable ES cell lines. (
  • Mouse genotype influences the capacity of embryos to give rise to ES cells. (
  • Although this study has shown that, in the mouse, primitive ectodermal cells influenced by endoderm can be established as ES cells in culture, the frequency is significantly lower than from the ICM. (
  • ES cell lines derived from embryos exposed to heat shock or puromycin have retained the capacity for in vivo development, as the stem cells colonised the germline in some chimaeric mice. (
  • This research focuses on four discrete neuron types in the mouse CNS that are amenable to accurate and economical quantitative analysis: retinal ganglion cells (large projection neurons), photoreceptors, horizontal cells (smaller interneurons), and neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. (
  • We will study four well-defined and interconnected cell populations in the mouse primary visual system (photoreceptors, horizontal cells, retinal ganglion cells, and neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus). (
  • Knockdown of Sorbs1 by siRNA attenuates the induction of differentiation marker gene Prl8a2 (decidual prolactin-related protein) in an in vitro model of decidualization using mouse endometrial stromal cells, suggesting that Sorbs1 may be a potential candidate gene for female infertility in mice. (
  • Pre- and postmeiotic paternal exposure resulted in similar increases in mutation rate in the germ line of both generations of CBA/H mice, which together with our previous results suggests that radiation-induced expanded simple tandem repeat instability is manifested in diploid cells after fertilization. (
  • We show that STM0557, a S. enterica subspecies I-specific gene encoding an inner membrane protein, is critical for faecal shedding and intestinal persistence of S. enterica serotype Typhimurium ATCC14028 in Salmonella-resistant mice, but mutations in this gene do not diminish short-term intestinal colonization or invasion of cultured epithelial cells. (
  • Repertoires of antibodies to culture filtrate antigens in different mouse strains infected with Mycobacterium bovis BCG. (
  • Comparison of the immunological activity of five defined antigens from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in seven inbred guinea pig strains. (
  • The RIATs developed were based on isotopic antiglobulin tests which had been used in this department to determine circulating anti¬ tumor antibodies in tumor-bearing mice. (
  • To test whether the repetitive structure of viral antigens is essential and/or sufficient for the induction of TI antibodies, we compared the abilities of three forms of PyV antigens to induce IgM and IgG responses in T-cell-deficient mice: soluble capsid antigens (VP1), repetitive virus-like particles (VLPs), and live PyV. (
  • Proliferative response to seven affinity purified mycobacterial antigens in eight strains of inbred mice. (
  • In a recent study, we presented evidence for genetic predisposition governing radiation osteosarcomagenesis in mice. (
  • Over the past 5 y, the authors have characterized systematically the temporal onset, dose-response relationship (DRR), and pathologic outcomes associated with acute, high dose radiation exposure in three diverse mouse strains. (
  • Kinetics of BrdU labeling of B lymphocytes of normal and mutant mice. (
  • Mice depleted or deficient in CD4 or CD8 lymphocytes show early mortality and increased numbers of parasites in their bloodstreams and tissues [ 19 - 21 ]. (
  • Depletion of L3T4+ (CD4+) T lymphocytes prevents development of resistance to Toxoplasma gondii in mice. (
  • The role of L3T4+ (CD4+) T lymphocytes in the resistance of mice of different haplotypes to Toxoplasma gondii was examined, using the monoclonal antibody GK 1.5. (
  • These results suggest that L3T4+ (CD4+) T lymphocytes actively participate in the development of resistance to T. gondii and in the mechanisms controlling the formation of cysts of the parasite in the brains of mice. (
  • The numbers of cysts in the brains of Swiss Webster mice infected for 3 or 6 months also significantly decreased following treatment for 15 or 30 days with the same dose of 566C80. (
  • IL-1RI −/− mice had significantly reduced survival compared to WT mice after intratracheal challenge with C. neoformans 52D. (
  • This data, obtained on significantly inbred X(id)Y NZB mice, suggests that the X(id) gene is dominant over several aspects of polyclonal B cell activation in NZB mice and indicates that seral observation of these mice will be valuable in understanding the interactions of genetic immunologic mutations and cellular function in autoimmunity. (
  • The effect of mouse genotype was first observed in the significantly greater proportion of 129/Sv- CP embryos that gave rise to ES-like colonies at the first passage, following the disaggregation of inner cell mass (ICM) outgrowths. (
  • These advances include (i) a quadrupling of the density of the genetic map of the mouse, (ii) the ease of genotyping large numbers of marker loci distributed across the entire mouse genome by the polymerase chain reaction, (iii) a far more powerful conceptual framework for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that underlie complex genetic traits, and (iv) significantly more reliable and economical ways to estimate numbers of neurons. (
  • Delayed-type hypersensitivity response and lymphocyte stimulation assays showed significantly reduced values compared with those of control mice inoculated with ME49 cysts but not treated with the monoclonal antibody. (
  • The number of T. gondii cysts in the brains of GK 1.5-treated mice was significantly higher than in controls. (
  • Results - Overexpression of human APP751 significantly increased the infarct volumes in apoE KO mice. (
  • Threshold constrictor responses to All were elicited at a significantly lower dose in both vasculatures of hypertensive mice than in those of normotensive mice. (
  • 2016. Deep genome sequencing and variation analysis of 13 inbred mouse strains defines candidate phenotypic alleles, private variation and homozygous truncating mutations. (
  • Through collaboration with the Sanger Institute Mouse Genetics Project, a partner of the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC), we obtained brain samples from 4796 adult male mice for heterozygous and/or homozygous or hemizygous mutations ( Supplementary Notes ), as well as 1418 matched wild types (WTs). (
  • In the present study, we analyzed the degree of phenotypic variation in female infertility across 25 inbred mouse strains. (
  • Phenotypic data were obtained from the Mouse Phenome Database at Jackson Laboratory ( ). (
  • See article "Genetic Background Effects: Can Your Mice See? (
  • Given that combined genetic and large-scale anatomical analysis of the human brain is technically challenging at high resolution, we turned to the mouse where both the environment and genetic background are controlled and where cell-level resolution is achievable using histology. (
  • Post hearing onset, electrophysiological characteristics diverged: the VNTB neurons of the CBA were able to support higher firing rates due to slower inactivation of its voltage-gated potassium currents. (
  • Geneticists working under Castle were the first scientists to realize how inbred, genetically homogenous lines of mice could have an enormous impact on the study of genetics. (
  • The behavior of mice of two inbred strains (C57BL/6J and CBA) and their F1 hybrids was evaluated in the open field test after intraperitoneal administration of 3- methylindole (skatole) disrupting epithelium of the main olfactory system. (
  • In addition, cysts were rarely observed in treated mice, whereas extensive inflammation and large numbers of cysts were found throughout the entire brain in control mice infected for the same period. (
  • A single intramuscular dose of GEO-LM01 protected 100% of CBA/J mice challenged with a lethal dose of ML29, a Mopeia/Lassa reassortant virus, delivered directly into the brain. (
  • Background and Purpose - Epidemiological findings and experimental data on transgenic mice show that Alzheimer's disease-related changes render the brain more susceptible to ischemic damage. (
  • After patency the degree of resistance observed in CBA/J mice was related to the adult worm burden harbored by the mice. (
  • In AI of young adult C57 mice and CBA mice, characteristic frequencies (CFs) of multiple-unit clusters were easily identified with extracellular recordings, and a general tonotopic organization was observed from dorsal (high frequency) to ventral and caudal (low frequency). (
  • The p.Ala88Val (A88V) mutation in the gene coding for the gap-junction protein connexin30 (Cx30) protects the cochlear basal turn of adult CD-1 Cx30 A88V/A88V mice from degeneration and rescues hearing. (
  • Adult animals of this line were almost as susceptible to influenza virus challenge as standard C57BL/6J mice lacking functional Mx1 alleles but exhibited far more pronounced resistance to Thogoto virus. (
  • Expression in adult mice was not detected. (
  • Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines that carried a neo-tk cassette at the p53 locus on the chromosome 11 were established by nsing gene targeting. (
  • The molecular markers on the chromosome 11 on which the p53 gene is were also investigated and 4 SSLP markers have been found so far to be polymorphic between CBA and C57BL/6. (
  • NZB mice bearing the CBA/N X chromosome linked defect were generated by repetitive backcrossing and selection of the X(id) gene. (
  • Preliminary experiments were also conducted on mice treated with gold salts in order to determine the influence of macrophages in TAIg binding. (
  • The data revealed that although the pattern by which C57BL/6 mice developed maximum granuloma formation and subsequent modulation was identical to that observed in CBA/J mice, C57BL/6 granulomas were consistently half the volume of their counterpart lesions in CBA/J mice. (
  • We quantitated the content of the fatty acyl groups of sciatic nerves from normal and Trembler mice between the postnatal ages of 5 and 60 d. (
  • Recently, Johnson has developed two relevant congenic mouse strains. (
  • This would be expected based on the fact that the congenic CBA.B6 mice genotypes included the mutant Ahl locus. (
  • This presentation will compare ABR results in the two congenic strains as well as compare the present data with the previous inbred C57BL/6J and CBA/CaJ data. (
  • The relatively late occurrence of the palmitic acid deficiency compared with that of the VLCFAG and the normal palmitate synthetase activity observed in young mutant mice indicates that the former is an indirect consequence of the Trembler mutation. (
  • Study of congenitally immunologic mutant New Zealand mice. (
  • Research in the early 1990s even suggested that a rough replica of the human genome could be constructed by breaking the mouse genome into 130-170 pieces and reassembling them in a different order. (
  • One-dimensional Genome Scanning:Identification of the basis of a mouse mutation and identification of genomic changes in ovarian carcinoma. (
  • Here, we performed a genome-wide association study of female infertility in 25 inbred mouse strains by using publicly available SNP data. (
  • To complement pharmacological studies and to further address relationships between IDO activity and inhibition of T cell responses, we used two molecular genetic strategies to enhance IDO activity in transfected cell lines and in new strains of transgenic mice. (
  • A reduction in the IL-4 response to soluble worm antigen preparation (SWAP) was also seen in ART-treated mice but with no correlation to reinfection resistance. (
  • I. Effect of the activated carbon fiber adsorbent 'Aqualen' on spontaneous carcinogenesis and life-span in mice // Cancer Lett. (
  • Most laboratory mice have contributions from both Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus . (
  • In addition, some recently developed laboratory mouse strains are derived wholly from other Mus species or other subspecies, such as M. spretus ). (
  • Development of a SNP genotyping panel for genetic monitoring of the laboratory mouse. (
  • In 1902, a period of newfound popularity for the "fancy mouse" - specially bred mice as pets, rather than pantry scourge - the early geneticist William Ernest Castle introduced the fancy mouse to his laboratory at Harvard University in Cambridge, MA. (
  • Laboratory mice also live for only 2 or 3 years, giving researchers the opportunity to study the effects of treatments or genetic manipulation across a whole lifespan or even over several generations, which is not feasible in human subjects. (
  • Furthermore, these results show that the genetic diversity of wild-derived mouse strains makes them a valuable model of important human gene functions that have been lost in some laboratory-inbred strains. (
  • There is a great need to generate a comprehensive proteome atlas of the cochlea and the laboratory mouse is an excellent model for mammalian cochlea. (
  • Selection lines were initi- and fatness, the establishment of inbred lines derived from diver- ated in this laboratory in Edinburgh from a 3-way cross (two gently selected lines is an important tool (Lander and Botstein inbred [CBA, JU] and one outbred line [CFLP]) base (Sharp et al. (
  • Surprisingly, this effect of melatonin was shown to be conserved in several reproductively non-photoperiodic laboratory mouse strains that have thus become a valuable model to decipher the mechanisms through which melatonin controls the expression of TSHB, Dio2, and Dio3. (
  • Interestingly, CAST/EiJ mice, derived from wild Mus musculus castaneus , possess a seemingly intact Mx1 gene but are highly susceptible to influenza A virus challenge. (
  • abstract = "The present studies attempted to identify the mechanism for the elevated urinar excretion rate for methyl mercury (MM) previously reported in CFW Swiss mice. (
  • abstract = "CBA mice develop hypertension when placed in complex population cages that facilitate social interactions and competition for territory. (
  • Among the ∼450 established inbred mouse strains, most descended from a restricted number of founder animals derived from the Mus musculus group of subspecies, and thus have rather limited genetic diversity. (
  • There are, however, several Mus musculus wild-derived inbred strains available, which have been captured and bred in geographically and temporally distinct circumstances. (
  • The move away from these species into scientific experimentation on mice was driven by humans' desire to better understand ourselves. (
  • Mouse models have been used extensively to understand the genetic basis of hearing loss in humans. (
  • Although the genetic basis for physical activity and body weight continues to be characterized in mice ( 21 , 37 ) and humans ( 12 , 41 ), the importance of genetics in regulating the change in weight and adiposity in response to exercise is also becoming increasingly clear ( 4 , 25 , 30 , 31 ). (
  • Objective: We aimed to identify the amino acids that modulate the circadian clock and reset the light-induced circadian phase in mice and humans. (
  • Conclusion: These results suggest that L-serine enhances light-induced phase resetting in mice and humans, and it may be useful for treating circadian disturbances. (
  • Cell types in the brains of mice and humans are almost indistinguishable in structure and function, but their numbers vary over more than three orders of magnitude. (
  • A developmental study of fatty acyl group contents in the peripheral nervous system of normal and trembler mice. (
  • Mice with genetic deletions of elements participating in the B cell receptor signaling cascade display developmental arrest at the T1 or T2 stage. (
  • This view is supported by the identification of mutations in mice even before their implication in human cerebral developmental disorders, such as TUBA1A 12 and EML1 13 , demonstrating that mutations in the mouse translate to the clinic 14 . (
  • These sites of expression are consistent with a role for Hesx1 in the regulation of developmental decisions in the early mouse embryo and during fetal hematopoiesis. (
  • Studies were also performed in thymectomized and nude mice in order to assess the effect of T-cell deprivation on the in vivo binding of TAIgs. (
  • In this study, we assessed the effects of intraperitoneal melatonin injections and of their timing on the expression of TSHB, TSHR, Dio2, and Dio3 in the hypothalamo-hypophysial systems of melatonin-proficient CBA/N and melatonin-deficient C57BL/6J mice kept under long-day conditions. (
  • In CBA/N mice, Dio3 expression was induced by a daily melatonin injection at ZT14 only, whereas in C57BL/6J mice, a daily melatonin injection induced Dio3 expression at all time points investigated (ZT8, 14, and 20) without changes in TSHB expression in both strains. (
  • Dio2 expression was suppressed by a daily melatonin injection only in C57BL/6J mice and only at ZT8. (
  • h after the final injection, while in CBA/N mice melatonin levels in hypothalamus remained high for at least 1. (
  • A murine leukimia virus (Xmv-28) insertion in reverse orientation in intron 1 is found in all mouse strains with the rd1 phenotype. (
  • These studies revealed that indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) 3 activity normally contributes to maintenance of maternal T cell tolerance to fetal alloantigens because pregnant mice exposed to the IDO-specific inhibitor 1-methyl-tryptophan selectively rejected allogeneic fetuses, whereas syngeneic fetuses developed to term. (
  • In 10 mice inheriting exclusively low-risk genotypes only 1 osteosarcoma was found, arising after 733 days latency time. (
  • Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) will be mapped using both recombinant inbred strains and the maximum likelihood interval method of Lander and Botstein (1989) on intercross progeny. (
  • Recombinant mouse lactoferrin (rmLF) and bovine lactoferrin (bLF) were used. (
  • 3. Comparative assays in mice and in guinea-pigs of two tetanus toxoid preparations. (
  • Other breeding schemes are acceptable provided that the inbreeding is equivalent to 20 successive generations of sib mating ( Green 1981 ). (
  • We used the results of sensitivity analysis as a tool to identify experiments to measure critical model parameters in an artificial experimental model of a TB granuloma induced in the lungs of mice following injection of mycobacterial antigen-coated beads. (
  • Our results indicate that assays of gene function using mouse models should take into account interactions between gene and environment. (
  • We compared stereocilia in wild-type CBA/CaJ mice, jerker homozygotes that lack espin proteins owing to a frameshift mutation in the espin gene, and jerker heterozygotes that contain reduced espin levels. (
  • This scenario lends to the experimental use of evolutionarily distant mouse strains to elucidate novel regulatory gene functions. (
  • After 1 month, these mice have normal plasma renin levels, but blockade of converting enzyme lowers blood pressure to normal. (
  • Mulder, K & Kostyniak, PJ 1985, ' Involvement of glutathione in the enhanced renal excretion of methyl mercury in CFW Swiss mice ', Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology , vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 451-457. (
  • Bayesian Diallel Analysis Reveals Mx1 -Dependent and Mx1 -Independent Effects on Response to Influenza A Virus in Mice. (
  • For most of the frequencies tested after acute noise damage, however, PAC1R −/− mice showed a larger elevation of the auditory threshold than did their WT counterparts. (
  • A more thorough understanding of the pathological progression of disease in C3HeB/FeJ mice could facilitate modulation of the immune response to produce the desired pathology, increasing the utility of this animal model. (