Mice, Inbred C57BLMice, Inbred C3HAnimals, Outbred Strains: Animals that are generated from breeding two genetically dissimilar strains of the same species.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Animal Care Committees: Institutional committees established to protect the welfare of animals used in research and education. The 1971 NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals introduced the policy that institutions using warm-blooded animals in projects supported by NIH grants either be accredited by a recognized professional laboratory animal accrediting body or establish its own committee to evaluate animal care; the Public Health Service adopted a policy in 1979 requiring such committees; and the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act mandate review and approval of federally funded research with animals by a formally designated Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).IndianaAnimals, LaboratoryDiscrimination Learning: Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.Laboratory Animal Science: The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Gossypium: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.Chemistry, Analytic: The branch of chemistry dealing with detection (qualitative) and determination (quantitative) of substances. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Mycobacterium: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Leucine Zippers: DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Toll-Like Receptors: A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Signaling proteins which function as master molecular switches by activating Rho GTPases through conversion of guanine nucleotides. Rho GTPases in turn control many aspects of cell behavior through the regulation of multiple downstream signal transduction pathways.ADP-Ribosylation Factors: MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47ras Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: A family of GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS that are specific for RAS PROTEINS.ADP-Ribosylation Factor 1: ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 is involved in regulating intracellular transport by modulating the interaction of coat proteins with organelle membranes in the early secretory pathway. It is a component of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Guanine NucleotidesGuanosine Diphosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor: Specific molecular sites or structures on cell membranes that react with FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS (both the basic and acidic forms), their analogs, or their antagonists to elicit or to inhibit the specific response of the cell to these factors. These receptors frequently possess tyrosine kinase activity.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Fibroblast Growth Factor 1: A 17-kDa single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. It binds to HEPARIN, which potentiates its biological activity and protects it from proteolysis. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages, and also has chemotactic and mitogenic activities. It was originally named acidic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from basic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2).Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Hemochromatosis: A disorder of iron metabolism characterized by a triad of HEMOSIDEROSIS; LIVER CIRRHOSIS; and DIABETES MELLITUS. It is caused by massive iron deposits in parenchymal cells that may develop after a prolonged increase of iron absorption. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Syndromes & Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed)Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Iron Overload: An excessive accumulation of iron in the body due to a greater than normal absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract or from parenteral injection. This may arise from idiopathic hemochromatosis, excessive iron intake, chronic alcoholism, certain types of refractory anemia, or transfusional hemosiderosis. (From Churchill's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1989)Hepcidins: Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.Receptors, Transferrin: Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.

Effect of sex difference on the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by the rat. (1/92290)

Hepatic microsome-catalyzed metabolism of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) to aflatoxin M1 and aflatoxin Q1 and the "metabolic activation" of AFB1 to DNA-alylating metabolite(s) were studied in normal male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, in gonadectomized animals, and in castrated males and normal females treated with testosterone. Microsomes from male animals formed 2 to 5 times more aflatoxin M1, aflatoxin Q1, and DNA-alkylating metabolite(s) than those from females. Castration reduced the metabolism of AFB1 by the microsomes from males by about 50%, whereas ovariectomy had no significant effect on AFB1 metabolism by the microsomes from females. Testosterone treatment (4 mg/rat, 3 times/week for about 6 weeks) of castrated immature males and immature females enhanced the metabolism of AFB1 by their microsomes. A sex difference in the metabolism of AFB1 by liver microsomes was also seen in other strains of rats tested: Wistar, Long-Evans, and Fischer. The activity of kidney microsomes for metabolic activation was 1 to 4% that of the liver activity and was generally lower in microsomes from male rats as compared to those from female rats of Sprague-Dawley, Wistar, and Long-Evans strains. The in vitro results obtained with hepatic microsomes correlated well with the in vivo metabolism of AFB1, in that more AFB1 became bound in vivo to hepatic DNA isolated from male rats and from a female rat treated with testosterone than that isolated from control female rats. These data suggest that the differences in hepatic AFB1 metabolism may be the underlying cause of the sex difference in toxicity and carcinogenicity of AFB1 observed in rats.  (+info)

Tissue pharmacokinetics, inhibition of DNA synthesis and tumor cell kill after high-dose methotrexate in murine tumor models. (2/92290)

In Sarcoma 180 and L1210 ascites tumor models, the initial rate of methotrexate accumulation in tumor cells in the peritoneal cavity and in small intestine (intracellularly) after s.c. doses up to 800 mg/kg, showed saturation kinetics. These results and the fact that initial uptake in these tissues within this dosage range was inhibited to the expected relative extent by the simultaneous administration of leucovorin suggest that carrier mediation and not passive diffusion is the major route of drug entry at these extremely high doses. Maximum accumulation of intracellular drug occurred within 2 hr and reached much higher levels in small intestine than in tumor cells at the higher dosages. At a 3-mg/kg dose of methotrexate s.c., intracellular exchangeable drug levels persisted more than four times longer in L1210 cells than in small intestine, but differences in persistence (L1210 cell versus gut) diminished markedly with increasing dosage. At 96 mg/kg, the difference in persistence was less than 2-fold. In small intestine and L1210 cells, theduration of inhibition of DNA synthesis at different dosages correlated with the extent to which exchangeable drug was retained. Toxic deaths occurred when inhibition in small intestine lasted longer than 25 to 30 hr. Recovery of synthesis in small intestine and L1210 cells occurred synchronously and only below dosages of 400 mg/kg. Within 24 hr after dosages of greater than 24 mg/kg, the rate of tumor cell loss increased to a point characterized by a single exponential (t1/2=8.5 hr). The total cell loss, but not the rate of cell loss, was dose dependent.  (+info)

Explanations for the clinical and microscopic localization of lesions in pemphigus foliaceus and vulgaris. (3/92290)

Patients with pemphigus foliaceus (PF) have blisters on skin, but not mucous membranes, whereas patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV) develop blisters on mucous membranes and/or skin. PF and PV blisters are due to loss of keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion in the superficial and deep epidermis, respectively. PF autoantibodies are directed against desmoglein (Dsg) 1; PV autoantibodies bind Dsg3 or both Dsg3 and Dsg1. In this study, we test the hypothesis that coexpression of Dsg1 and Dsg3 in keratinocytes protects against pathology due to antibody-induced dysfunction of either one alone. Using passive transfer of pemphigus IgG to normal and DSG3(null) neonatal mice, we show that in the areas of epidermis and mucous membrane that coexpress Dsg1 and Dsg3, antibodies against either desmoglein alone do not cause spontaneous blisters, but antibodies against both do. In areas (such as superficial epidermis of normal mice) where Dsg1 without Dsg3 is expressed, anti-Dsg1 antibodies alone can cause blisters. Thus, the anti-desmoglein antibody profiles in pemphigus sera and the normal tissue distributions of Dsg1 and Dsg3 determine the sites of blister formation. These studies suggest that pemphigus autoantibodies inhibit the adhesive function of desmoglein proteins, and demonstrate that either Dsg1 or Dsg3 alone is sufficient to maintain keratinocyte adhesion.  (+info)

Bone resorption induced by parathyroid hormone is strikingly diminished in collagenase-resistant mutant mice. (4/92290)

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates bone resorption by acting directly on osteoblasts/stromal cells and then indirectly to increase differentiation and function of osteoclasts. PTH acting on osteoblasts/stromal cells increases collagenase gene transcription and synthesis. To assess the role of collagenase in the bone resorptive actions of PTH, we used mice homozygous (r/r) for a targeted mutation (r) in Col1a1 that are resistant to collagenase cleavage of type I collagen. Human PTH(1-34) was injected subcutaneously over the hemicalvariae in wild-type (+/+) or r/r mice four times daily for three days. Osteoclast numbers, the size of the bone marrow spaces and periosteal proliferation were increased in calvariae from PTH-treated +/+ mice, whereas in r/r mice, PTH-induced bone resorption responses were minimal. The r/r mice were not resistant to other skeletal effects of PTH because abundant interstitial collagenase mRNA was detected in the calvarial periosteum of PTH-treated, but not vehicle-treated, r/r and +/+ mice. Calcemic responses, 0.5-10 hours after intraperitoneal injection of PTH, were blunted in r/r mice versus +/+ mice. Thus, collagenase cleavage of type I collagen is necessary for PTH induction of osteoclastic bone resorption.  (+info)

GM-CSF-deficient mice are susceptible to pulmonary group B streptococcal infection. (5/92290)

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene-targeted mice (GM-/-) cleared group B streptococcus (GBS) from the lungs more slowly than wild-type mice. Expression of GM-CSF in the respiratory epithelium of GM-/- mice improved bacterial clearance to levels greater than that in wild-type GM+/+ mice. Acute aerosolization of GM-CSF to GM+/+ mice significantly enhanced clearance of GBS at 24 hours. GBS infection was associated with increased neutrophilic infiltration in lungs of GM-/- mice, while macrophage infiltrates predominated in wild-type mice, suggesting an abnormality in macrophage clearance of bacteria in the absence of GM-CSF. While phagocytosis of GBS was unaltered, production of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide was markedly deficient in macrophages from GM-/- mice. Lipid peroxidation, assessed by measuring the isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2alpha, was decreased in the lungs of GM-/- mice. GM-CSF plays an important role in GBS clearance in vivo, mediated in part by its role in enhancing superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production and bacterial killing by alveolar macrophages.  (+info)

A new element within the T-cell receptor alpha locus required for tissue-specific locus control region activity. (6/92290)

Locus control regions (LCRs) are cis-acting regulatory elements thought to provide a tissue-specific open chromatin domain for genes to which they are linked. The gene for T-cell receptor alpha chain (TCRalpha) is exclusively expressed in T cells, and the chromatin at its locus displays differentially open configurations in expressing and nonexpressing tissues. Mouse TCRalpha exists in a complex locus containing three differentially regulated genes. We previously described an LCR in this locus that confers T-lineage-specific expression upon linked transgenes. The 3' portion of this LCR contains an unrestricted chromatin opening activity while the 5' portion contains elements restricting this activity to T cells. This tissue-specificity region contains four known DNase I hypersensitive sites, two located near transcriptional silencers, one at the TCRalpha enhancer, and another located 3' of the enhancer in a 1-kb region of unknown function. Analysis of this region using transgenic mice reveals that the silencer regions contribute negligibly to LCR activity. While the enhancer is required for complete LCR function, its removal has surprisingly little effect on chromatin structure or expression outside the thymus. Rather, the region 3' of the enhancer appears responsible for the tissue-differential chromatin configurations observed at the TCRalpha locus. This region, herein termed the "HS1' element," also increases lymphoid transgene expression while suppressing ectopic transgene activity. Thus, this previously undescribed element is an integral part of the TCRalphaLCR, which influences tissue-specific chromatin structure and gene expression.  (+info)

Prolonged eosinophil accumulation in allergic lung interstitium of ICAM-2 deficient mice results in extended hyperresponsiveness. (7/92290)

ICAM-2-deficient mice exhibit prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium concomitant with a delayed increase in eosinophil numbers in the airway lumen during the development of allergic lung inflammation. The ICAM-2-dependent increased and prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium results in prolonged, heightened airway hyperresponsiveness. These findings reveal an essential role for ICAM-2 in the development of the inflammatory and respiratory components of allergic lung disease. This phenotype is caused by the lack of ICAM-2 expression on non-hematopoietic cells. ICAM-2 deficiency on endothelial cells causes reduced eosinophil transmigration in vitro. ICAM-2 is not essential for lymphocyte homing or the development of leukocytes, with the exception of megakaryocyte progenitors, which are significantly reduced.  (+info)

Phenotype of mice and macrophages deficient in both phagocyte oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase. (8/92290)

The two genetically established antimicrobial mechanisms of macrophages are production of reactive oxygen intermediates by phagocyte oxidase (phox) and reactive nitrogen intermediates by inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). Mice doubly deficient in both enzymes (gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-)) formed massive abscesses containing commensal organisms, mostly enteric bacteria, even when reared under specific pathogen-free conditions with antibiotics. Neither parental strain showed such infections. Thus, phox and NOS2 appear to compensate for each other's deficiency in providing resistance to indigenous bacteria, and no other pathway does so fully. Macrophages from gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-) mice could not kill virulent Listeria. Their killing of S. typhimurium, E. coli, and attenuated Listeria was markedly diminished but demonstrable, establishing the existence of a mechanism of macrophage antibacterial activity independent of phox and NOS2.  (+info)

  • A quasi-congenic QTL introgression strain carrying a low alcohol consumption gene from BALB/c has lower voluntary alcohol consumption than C57BL/6, with 96% of loci in common ( Vadasz et al, 1996 ). (jax.org)
  • The results indicate that 1 or more genetic loci influence the value of tau DD, and a large (50 min) difference in mean tau DD between 2 of the strains, BALB/cByJ and C57BL/6J, allowed further characterization of the origins and inheritance of the polymorphic expression of this circadian pacemaker property. (umassmed.edu)
  • this discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable in BALB/c than in C57BL/6 mice, though the interstrain difference in mean tau DD could not be attributed entirely to this effect. (umassmed.edu)
  • Reciprocal F1 hybrids of BALB/c x C57BL/6 matings revealed dominance of the C57BL/6 genotype, no sex linkage, and a significant (but small) maternal effect. (umassmed.edu)
  • Further study of inherited differences in the BALB/c and C57BL/6 strains may be a useful noninvasive experimental approach for investigation of the neurobiological substrates of circadian rhythmicity. (umassmed.edu)
  • BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice were purchased from CLEA Japan. (genetics.org)
  • We studied LT toxicity in BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J mice. (jci.org)
  • BALB/cJ mice became terminally ill earlier and with higher frequency than C57BL/6J mice. (jci.org)
  • The vagus nerve was isolated in Balb/c and B6.129S mice, and placed either on a hook or cuff electrode. (springer.com)
  • Analysis of vagus neurograms in different mouse strains (Balb/c and C57BL/6) reveal no significant differences in baseline activity. (springer.com)
  • BALB/c (BALB) mice are considered an anxious strain in comparison to C57BL/6 (B6) mice in behavioral models of anxiety. (frontiersin.org)
  • For example, BALB mice are described as poor mothers and B6 mice as good mothers and mothering behavior in rodents has been reported to affect both anxiety and stress behaviors in offspring. (frontiersin.org)
  • By contrast, BALB/c mice are highly susceptible to infection with these organisms (12,13). (scielo.br)
  • Most of these genes do not map within the MHC systems of either humans or mice, including the SCL-1 gene implicated in the high susceptibility of BALB/c mice to infection with L. major (14). (scielo.br)
  • By contrast, BALB/c mice develop a typical Th2 response. (scielo.br)
  • In addition, targeted disruption of the IL-4 gene in BALB/c mice causes these animals, which are otherwise susceptible to infection with L. major , to become highly resistant to these organisms (19). (scielo.br)
  • However (and surprisingly), genetic disruption of the IL-4 gene of BALB/c mice can also generate animals that are as susceptible to infection with L. major as are wild-type conventional BALB/c mice (20). (scielo.br)
  • The reasons for this discrepancy depend on some circumstances such as infection with particular L. major sub-strains, due to the fact that IL-4 and/or IL-4 receptor signaling is not required to promote Th2 cell development and susceptibility in BALB/c mice (21). (scielo.br)
  • Briefly one hundred and twenty Balb/c mice were randomly divided into four groups as LT, LB, LBT and control groups. (omicsonline.org)
  • Strikingly, across a multidimensional set of 115 behavioral parameters, several strains consistently ranked high in within-strain variability (DBA/2J, 129S1/Sv A/J and NOD/LtJ), whereas other strains ranked low (C57BL/6J and BALB/c). (deepdyve.com)
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: We first investigate the metabolism of -shogaol in mouse urine, and then investigate the biotransformation of shogaols in human urine. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To study the physiological functions of Gbp family members, the most commonly chosen in vivo models are mice harbouring loss-of-function mutations in either individual Gbp genes or the entire Gbp gene cluster on mouse chromosome 3. (crick.ac.uk)
  • Here, we compare findings from two large genetic crosses between mouse strains C3H/HeJ and C57BL/6J to evaluate the reliability of distal eQTL detection, including "hotspots" influencing the expression of multiple genes in trans . (genetics.org)
  • 6 ] have employed gene expression array analysis of the dissected embryonic (16.5d) mouse cerebral cortex to expand the list of genes regionally expressed, and noted that regional differences in expression of genes in the cortical plate should eventually convert into functionally distinct cortical areas with anatomically distinguishable borders after birth. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Genetic engineering of the mouse genome identified many genes that are essential for embryogenesis. (pnas.org)
  • The laboratory mouse genome has been sequenced and many mouse genes have human homologues. (wikipedia.org)
  • RATIONALE: Changing the genes in laboratory mice to create a living model of human breast cancer may help doctors learn more about breast cancer. (bioportfolio.com)
  • of these, 11 were expressed in the skin (5 epidermic cytokeratin and 6 hard keratin genes), but none were mutated in hague mice. (genetics.org)
  • One possible approach to the understanding of the molecular events involved in the development and cyclic life of these tiny organs might be to generate knockout mice for the genes that are known to be expressed in the hair follicle ( Y amanishi 1998 ) and then to observe carefully the consequences, if any, of these engineered mutations. (genetics.org)
  • Another approach is to identify at the molecular level, by positional cloning, the genes that are affected in the many mouse hair mutations available. (genetics.org)
  • The positional cloning of mutant alleles, even if it requires the breeding of a large quantity of mice, is more general and results in many instances in the identification of previously unknown genes. (genetics.org)
  • Remarkable advances in molecular genetics have provided powerful tools to investigate the relationships between genes and behaviors in mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, the phenotypes of mutant mice are strongly influenced by genetic background, including flanking alleles, as well as the targeted genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • To investigate the roles of the Period genes in photic entrainment, we constructed phase response curves (PRC) to light pulses for C57BL/6J wild-type, Per1 −/− , Per2 −/− , and Per3 −/− mice and tested whether the PRCs accurately predict entrainment to non-24 light-dark cycles (T-cycles) and constant light (LL). (jneurosci.org)
  • To understand the roles of the Per genes in the entrainment mechanism, we obtained complete PRCs to light pulses from C57BL/6J Per mutant mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we utilized an integrated approach of mRNA-seq and miRNA-seq to investigate the transcriptome expression and regulation of host genes in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mouse strains during influenza virus infection. (springer.com)
  • With the introduction of temporal expression pattern analysis, we demonstrated that host factors responsible for influenza virus replication and host-virus interaction were significantly enriched in genes exhibiting distinct temporal dynamics between different inbred mouse lines. (springer.com)
  • Supplementary Fig. S2 showed the differential expression levels (log2-fold change) of 10 interferon-stimulated genes between infected and mock-treated mice at day 3. (springer.com)
  • Supplementary Fig. S3 showed the characteristics of genes differentially expressed between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J over time. (springer.com)
  • A) Heatmap of genes differentially expressed between strains (strain-specific DEGs) showed distinct expression patterns between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice. (springer.com)
  • Expression array analysis was performed on endothelial cell RNA isolated from control and hyperlipidemic prelesion mouse aortas, and 797 differentially expressed genes were identified. (ahajournals.org)
  • Responses were compared with those in mice deficient in the cold/menthol receptor, TRPM8, expressed in trigeminal sensory neurons innervating the oral cavity. (bmj.com)
  • In a transgenic mouse model of measles virus (MV) infection of neurons, we have previously shown that the host T-cell response was required for resolution of infection in susceptible adult mice. (asm.org)
  • In humans and mice alike, GBPs restrict the intracellular replication of invasive microbes and promote inflammation. (crick.ac.uk)
  • Acute exercise induces FGF21 expression in mice and in healthy humans. (mendeley.com)
  • Mice belong to the Euarchontoglires clade, which includes humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • This close relationship, the associated high homology with humans, their ease of maintenance and handling, and their high reproduction rate, make mice particularly suitable models for human-oriented research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice are mammals of the Glires clade ( a group consisting of an ancestor and all its descendants), which means they are amongst the closest relatives of humans along with lagomorphs, treeshrews, flying lemurs and other primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibitory receptors specific for MHC class I molecules have been identified in mice and humans. (pnas.org)
  • To investigate the behavioral characteristics of C57BL/6 substrains, we subjected C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, and C57BL/6C mice to a behavior test battery. (frontiersin.org)
  • We performed both a regular scale analysis, in which experimental conditions were tightly controlled, and large-scale analysis from large number of behavioral data that we have collected so far through the comprehensive behavioral test battery applied to 700-2,200 mice in total. (frontiersin.org)
  • Characterization of these two mouse inbred strains over the course of pregnancy and in the postpartum period for behavioral and neuroendocrine changes may provide useful information by which to inform human studies, leading to advances in our understanding of the etiology of anxiety and depression and the role of genetics and the environment. (frontiersin.org)
  • When singly hemizygous or homozygous for the MCK-Cre transgene, mice are viable, fertile, normal in size and do not display any gross physical or behavioral abnormalities. (jax.org)
  • Different laboratories often use different strains of inbred animals, but one cannot make behavioral comparisons and assume that their reaction to interventions will necessarily be similar. (sciencemag.org)
  • We have previously shown that there is no sex difference in the digit ratios of inbred mice, but found behavioral evidence to suggest that higher 2Dratio4D is associated with more masculinized behaviors. (jove.com)
  • Digit ratios also did not correlate with mice behavioral traits. (jove.com)
  • Strain rankings of within-strain variability in behavior were confirmed in an independent, previously published behavioral dataset using conventional behavioral tests administered to different mice from the same breeding colonies. (deepdyve.com)
  • Twelve male and female DBA/2J mice and 12 male and female C57BL/6J mice were trained to discriminate 10 mg/kg pregnanolone from saline. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The male C57BL/6J mice had to be removed from the study due to increased seizures apparently associated with the chronic intermittent pregnanolone administration used in drug discrimination. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Male and female mice of the C57Bl/6J strain were purchased from Harlan Iberica (Barcelona, Spain). (elsevier.es)
  • Seven C57Bl/6J females were mated with three C57Bl/6J males according to this distribution: one male with two females, another male with two other females, and another male with the remaining three females: the offspring were the subjects of this experiment. (elsevier.es)
  • In an ongoing quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping study designed to reveal genomic loci showing genetic linkage to HP sensitivity, a putative QTL on chromosome 4 (50-80 cM from the centromere) has been identified that appears to account for variability in this trait in male, but not female mice. (elsevier.com)
  • The C57BL/6J was developed by Little in 1921, after crossing the female N.57 with the male N.52, and is the most widely used inbred strain. (frontiersin.org)
  • Male and female mice were 79.9 ± 35.4 d old (mean ± SD) at the beginning of the experiments (the number and sex of mice used for each experiment is provided in the supplemental material, available at www.jneurosci.org ). (jneurosci.org)
  • To generate the global knock-out allele Fxn null ( Fxn em2.1Lutzy ), male mice carrying the floxed exon 2 allele (from Stock No. 028520) were bred to female B6N.Cg-Tg(Sox2-cre)1Amc/J (Stock No. 014094 ). (jax.org)
  • Male and female Pomcwt/wt and Pomctm1/tm1 mice were fed low-fat (LF) (10 kcal percent fat) or HF (45 kcal percent fat) diets from weaning for 23 weeks. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • Male Pomctm1/tm1 mice develop obesity because they are hyperphagic compared with Pomcwt/wt mice when fed an LF or HF diet. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • A chronic HF diet exacerbates male Pomctm1/tm1 and Pomcwt/wt mouse obesity, and the increased energy intake fully accounts for increased weight gain. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • and the mouse and human CD94/NKG2 receptors are specific for Qa1 b or HLA-E, respectively (reviewed in refs. (pnas.org)
  • Individual Gbp deletion strains differ in their design, as some strains exist on a pure C57BL/6 genetic background, while other strains contain a 129-derived genetic interval encompassing the Gbp gene cluster on an otherwise C57BL/6 genetic background. (crick.ac.uk)
  • These data support the possibility that Oprd1 is a QTL mediating HP sensitivity in mice, and more generally illustrate the important roles of genetic background and gender in the perception of pain. (elsevier.com)
  • The B6- Krt2 SEG strain (lab code IRCS 119), an interspecific recombinant congenic strain homozygous for the chromosomal segment spanning the interval D15Mit41 to D15Mit16 and containing the keratin-2 ( Krt2 ) complex from strain SEG/Pas ( Mus spretus ) in a C57BL/6 genetic background was obtained from Xavier Montagutelli, Institut Pasteur (Paris). (genetics.org)
  • However, an issue of C57BL/6 substrains that is not always appreciated is that behaviors are known to be strongly influenced by genetic background. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Brodkin laboratory studies the neurobiology and genomics of social behavior development in mouse models relevant to autism. (upenn.edu)
  • Social behavior phenotypes in fragile X syndrome, autism, and the Fmr1 knockout mouse: Theoretical comment on McNaughton et al. (upenn.edu)
  • Mice were evaluated with respect to open-field motor activity and habituation, anxiety-related behavior, motor co-ordination and ataxia and operant performance. (wiley.com)
  • GIRK2 −/− mice, and to a lesser extent GIRK1 −/− mice, also displayed reduced anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze. (wiley.com)
  • Within-session progressive ratio scheduling, however, showed elevated lever press behavior in GIRK2 −/− mice and, to a lesser extent, in GIRK1 −/− mice. (wiley.com)
  • In this article we describe a new mutation affecting the fur that was found segregating in the C3H/HeN inbred strain of mouse. (genetics.org)
  • The mutation is found in all C57BL/6N substrains but is not present in the C57BL/6J strain or substrains. (jax.org)
  • 2013. C57BL/6N mutation in Cytoplasmic FMRP interacting protein 2 regulates cocaine response. (jax.org)
  • Mice with a targeted mutation in the pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc) gene (Pomctm1/tm1 mice) are unable to synthesize desacetyl-α-MSH and α-MSH and they develop obesity when fed chow diet. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • The goal of this RFA is to improve the efficiency of germline transmission of C57BL/6 ES lines to an extent that permits the use of C57BL/6 ES cell for high throughput gene targeting and the efficient production of C57BL/6 mice carrying a null mutation. (nih.gov)
  • Mice homozygous for the frataxin global null allele are embryonic lethal - regardless of presence or absence of the MCK-Cre transgene. (jax.org)
  • Homozygous apoE-knockout mice, hybrids of C57BL/6J and 129 Ola strains, were progeny of those described by Piedrahita et al 15 and bred in The Unidad Mixta de Investigación, Zaragoza, Spain. (ahajournals.org)
  • Little and Castle collaborated closely with Abbie Lathrop who was a breeder of fancy mice and rats which she marketed to rodent hobbyists and keepers of exotic pets, and later began selling in large numbers to scientific researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice and rats, due to their innate cautiousness, are initially slow in consuming a novel food, particularly in a novel place. (jove.com)
  • Mice and rats cannot vomit, due to the tightness of the cardiac sphincter of the stomach, so to overcome the problem of potential food toxicity they have evolved a strategy of first ingesting only very small amounts of novel substances. (jove.com)
  • We have disrupted the murine Hjv gene and shown that Hjv -/- mice have markedly increased iron deposition in liver, pancreas, and heart but decreased iron levels in tissue macrophages. (jci.org)
  • Leishmania major-infected murine langerhans cell-like dendritic cells from susceptible mice release IL-12 after infection and vaccinate against experimental cutaneous Leishmaniasis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We demonstrate that adult Loa loa worms in subcutaneous tissues, circulating microfilariae (mf) and presence of filarial biomarkers in sera occur following experimental infections of lymphopenic mice deficient in interleukin (IL)-2/7 gamma-chain signaling. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Conserved Bacterial-Binding Peptides of the Scavenger-Like Human Lymphocyte Receptor CD6 Protect From Mouse Experimental Sepsis. (nih.gov)
  • Experimental findings with Litomosoides sigmodontis in mice and Onchocerca ochengi in cattle are placed in the context of how these models can advance our ability to control the human disease. (plos.org)
  • Several studies support this notion, including reports on decreased production of inhibitory T helper type 2 (Th2) cells and inhibitory cytokines in the NOD mouse ( 18 - 20 ), hyporesponsiveness of T cells to T cell receptor (TCR) ligation ( 21 ), and impaired expression of CTLA4 upon TCR ligation ( 22 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Noncytolytic viral clearance is not restricted to the CNS: in a transgenic mouse model of hepatitis B virus infection of the liver, cytokines were also shown to be crucial for reduction of viral load ( 14 , 15 ). (asm.org)
  • Taconic Biosciences has recently added an additional 75 mouse models to the GEM Collection Repository. (taconic.com)
  • Methods: To determine whether the presence of 129 alleles of paralogous Gbps could influence the phenotypes of 129-congenic Gbp-deficient strains, we studied the expression of Gbps in both C57BL/6J and 129/Sv mice following in vivo stimulation with adjuvants and after infection with either Toxoplasma gondii or Shigella flexneri. (crick.ac.uk)
  • infection model is also achievable, utilizing immune-competent or -deficient mice infused with purified Loa mf. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In order to determine if this could stem from an impaired survival signal, we introduced Bcl-2 into RAG2 deficient Dµ transgenic mice. (diva-portal.org)
  • To address the role of E2-2 in B cell development, we have reconstituted mice, using E2-2 deficient fetal liver cells, and analysed the B cell compartments. (diva-portal.org)
  • E2-2 deficient mouse embryos were shown to display a partial block at the DN3 stage, which was not due to proliferation or apoptosis defects. (diva-portal.org)
  • This notion has been supported by classical experiments which established that T cell-deficient mice rapidly succumb after inoculation with any one of several species of Leishmania , and that transfer of normal T cells confers resistance to the animals (1-3). (scielo.br)
  • To study LAX function in vivo, we generated LAX-deficient mice by homologous recombination. (jimmunol.org)
  • Methods and Results- Thoracic aortic segments from 8-week-old female B6 and C3H apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were transplanted into the infrarenal aorta of 10-week-old female F1 mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • Indeed, B6 mice exhibit a significant increase in apoB-containing lipoproteins in the arterial wall compared with C3H mice when fed an atherogenic diet or when deficient in apoE. (ahajournals.org)
  • 3 ApoE-deficient mice develop severe hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis on a regular low-fat/low-cholesterol diet. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this study, we report the effect of the most common oils used in human nutrition, provided in diets of low cholesterol content, on the development of atherosclerotic lesions and the regulation of apoA-I gene expression in the apoE-deficient mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • C57BL/6J mice (sIgM −/− ) that were deficient in the production of secreted IgM but capable of expressing surface IgM and secreting other immunoglobulin isotypes were vulnerable to lethal infection, even after inoculation with low doses of WNV. (rupress.org)
  • references 10 , 11 ) and B cell-deficient mice uniformly succumb to WNV infection ( 11 ). (rupress.org)
  • The importance of antibodies in the protection against WNV infection has been highlighted by recent studies in antibody-deficient mice ( 11 ). (rupress.org)
  • Our own studies with B cell-deficient mice demonstrated a ∼500-fold increase in viremia 4 d after infection, a time when only immune IgM was detected in the serum from wild-type mice ( 11 ). (rupress.org)
  • Because passive transfer of immune IgM against WNV, derived from wild-type mice 4 d after infection, prolonged survival of B cell-deficient mice and completely protected wild-type mice, natural or induced IgM could limit WNV infection by controlling viremia and/or by triggering an adaptive B or T cell response ( 23 , 24 ). (rupress.org)
  • Immune adjuvant effect of Juzentaihoto, a Japanese traditional herbal medicine, on tumor vaccine therapy in a mouse model. (nextbio.com)
  • In the Eμ-myc transgenic mouse model, single therapeutic vaccination of irradiated, α-GalCer-loaded autologous tumor cells was sufficient to significantly inhibit growth of established tumors and prolong survival. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Therapeutic vaccination strategies that incorporate immune adjuvants are likely to enhance immune recognition and targeting of hematologic cancers, an example being in mice vaccinated against mouse lymphomas with whole tumor cells loaded with CpG adjuvant. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Natural tumor surveillance capabilities of the host were investigated in six different mouse tumor models where endogenous interleukin (IL)-12 does or does not dictate the efficiency of the innate immune response. (rupress.org)
  • Gene-targeted and lymphocyte subset-depleted mice were used to establish the relative importance of natural killer (NK) and NK1.1 + T (NKT) cells in protection from tumor initiation and metastasis. (rupress.org)
  • Objective- Endothelial cells are central to the initiation of atherosclerosis, yet there has been limited success in studying their gene expression in the mouse aorta. (ahajournals.org)
  • Due to the above described properties, apoE-knockout mice are excellent animal models for evaluating the influence of pharmacological and nutritional agents on atherosclerosis development. (ahajournals.org)
  • Fibroblast growth factor 21 corrects obesity in mice. (labome.org)
  • Chronic High-Fat Diet Exacerbates Sexually Dimorphic Pomctm1/tm1 Mouse Obesity. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • In this study, we hypothesized that a chronic high-fat (HF) diet exacerbates Pomctm1/tm1 mouse obesity. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • We show that Pomctm1/tm1 mouse obesity is sexually dimorphic and exacerbated by an HF diet. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • In contrast, female Pomcwt/wt mice are protected from chronic HF diet-induced obesity because they reduce the amount of HF diet eaten, and they appear to increase their energy expenditure (no change in feed efficiency but energy intake exceeding body weight gained). (auckland.ac.nz)
  • A chronic HF diet exacerbates female Pomctm1/tm1 mouse obesity due to impaired ability to reduce the amount of HF diet eaten and apparent impaired HF diet-induced adaptive thermogenesis. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • Our data show that desacetyl-α-MSH and α-MSH are required for sexually dimorphic HF diet-induced C57BL/6J obesity. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • In conclusion, desacetyl-α-MSH and α-MSH play salutary roles in sexually dimorphic melanocortin obesity and sexually dimorphic HF diet-induced C57BL/6J obesity. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • Variations of physiological variables (weight, course of infection, stress response) in inbred animals have also been reported ( Gärtner, 2012 ). (elsevier.es)
  • Those C57BL/6 mice which lived until a chronic state of infection were rarely well protected and harbored few female worms. (ajtmh.org)
  • Mice were culled on day 7 after infection and blood and spleen cell phenotype and activation were evaluated. (hindawi.com)
  • Studying differential responses of inbred mouse lines with distinct genetic backgrounds to influenza virus infection could substantially increase our understanding of the contributory roles of host genetic factors to disease severity. (springer.com)
  • Overall, a comprehensive framework for analyzing host susceptibilities to influenza infection was established by integrating mRNA-seq and miRNA-seq data of inbred mouse lines. (springer.com)
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that the immune response plays an important role in protection against infection with Trypanosoma cruzi in mice 6 10 15 . (scielo.br)
  • C57BL/6, CBA/J, C3H, B10D2) are resistant to infection with Leishmania major . (scielo.br)
  • These mice fail to control the infection and develop extensive lesions. (scielo.br)
  • Upon infection with L. major , mice of the resistant phenotype clearly develop a dominant Th1 phenotype of immune response to the parasite's antigens. (scielo.br)
  • Thus, targeted disruption of the IFN- g gene in C57BL/6 mice causes these animals, which are otherwise resistant to infection with L. major , to become highly susceptible to these organisms (15,16). (scielo.br)
  • Moreover, IL-4 transgenic resistant mice expressing low levels of this cytokine fail to clear the infection (17,18). (scielo.br)
  • When susceptible mice were intercrossed with specific immune knockout mice, a critical role for gamma interferon (IFN-γ) was identified in protection against MV infection and CNS disease. (asm.org)
  • However, in each of these model systems, either the immune response must be adoptively transferred into persistently infected or otherwise tolerant mice, or the infection occurs in multiple cell types in which different clearance mechanisms may be operative ( 5 , 12 , 27 ). (asm.org)
  • The role of immune IgG in protection has been studied extensively in mouse models of flavivirus infection, including WNV. (rupress.org)
  • Passive transfer of polyclonal or monoclonal IgG before infection protects mice against lethal flavivirus challenge ( 11 , 13 - 21 ). (rupress.org)
  • For example, Krubitzer and Kahn [ 1 ] review that the mouse, ghost bat, and short-tailed opossum have approximately the same size cortical sheet, but differ substantially in the size of one of three primary sensory cortical areas. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Three inbred strains (C57BL/1O, DBA/1, and Bulb/c) differ with regard to this asymmetry. (sciencemag.org)
  • thus, in the present study, we performed aorta transplantation to determine atherosclerotic lesion formation of aortic grafts from B6 and C3H mice in their F1 hybrids. (ahajournals.org)
  • Angiotensin II type 1 receptor inhibition markedly improves the blood perfusion, oxygen tension and first phase of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in revascularised syngeneic mouse islet grafts. (diva-portal.org)
  • Within 96 h, markedly higher levels of infectious virus were detected in the serum of sIgM −/− mice compared with wild-type mice. (rupress.org)
  • The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Characterization of thiol-conjugated metabolites of ginger components shogaols in mouse and human urine and modulation of the glutathione levels in cancer cells by -shogaol. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Notably, Toxoplasma infections induce robust Gbp2b protein expression in both strains of mice, suggestive of a Toxoplasma-activated mechanism driving Gbp2b protein translation. (crick.ac.uk)
  • The evidence presented shows that LT kills mice through a TNF-α-independent, FasL-independent, noninflammatory mechanism that involves hypoxic tissue injury but does not require macrophage sensitivity to toxin. (jci.org)
  • Various defects in the immune system of the NOD mouse have been reported, giving rise to the prevailing view that the predisposition of NOD mice to type 1 diabetes reflects abnormalities in peripheral tolerance mechanisms ( 3 , 17 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Compared with HFL responders, HFH mice gained weight more rapidly and exhibited adipose tissue dysfunction characterized by decreased final fat mass, enhanced macrophage infiltration and inflammation, and adipose tissue remodeling. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Administration of anandamide [AEA], a member of the endocannabinoid family, into mice resulted in significant mitigation of mBSA-induced inflammation, including foot pad swelling, cell infiltration, and cell proliferation in the draining lymph nodes [LN]. AEA treatment significantly reduced IL-17 and IFN-γ production, as well as decreased RORγt expression while causing significant induction of IL-10 in the draining LNs. (nih.gov)
  • The resulting mice (exon 2 deleted from germline) were further bred to C57BL/6J to breed out the Cre recombinase transgene. (jax.org)
  • Applicants for this RFA must have a proven track record of producing or developing existing ES lines, preferably from C57BL/6 mice, and have themselves or their collaborators used such lines to create mutant germline competent ES cells by targeted, gene trap or transposon mutagenesis. (nih.gov)
  • We next analyzed miRNA from the LN cells and found that 100 out of 609 miRNA species were differentially regulated in AEA-treated mice when compared to controls. (nih.gov)
  • When performing in vivo experiments in isoflurane-anesthetized mice, it is recommended to supplement with a Na 2 CO 3 infusion to maintain a normal acid-base balance. (diva-portal.org)
  • Aorta transplantation in the mouse provides a direct means for studying the role of the vascular wall in a biological process in vivo. (ahajournals.org)
  • Approach and Results- We characterized a method for the isolation of endothelial cell RNA with high purity directly from mouse aortas and adapted this method to allow for the treatment of aortas ex vivo before RNA collection. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusions- We demonstrated that RNA can be isolated from mouse aortic endothelial cells after in vivo and ex vivo treatments of the murine vessel wall. (ahajournals.org)
  • FGF21 gene expression was induced in the liver but not in skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue of mice after acute exercise, and further, the gene expression levels of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) were also increased. (mendeley.com)
  • Timed histopathological analysis identified bone marrow, spleen, and liver as major affected organs in both mouse strains. (jci.org)
  • RESULTS Mice exhibited pronounced heterogeneity in liver histological scoring, leading to classification into four subgroups: low-fat low (LFL) responders displaying normal liver morphology, low-fat high (LFH) responders showing benign hepatic steatosis, high-fat low (HFL) responders displaying pre-NASH with macrovesicular lipid droplets, and high fat high (HFH) responders exhibiting overt NASH characterized by ballooning of hepatocytes, presence of Mallory bodies, and activated inflammatory cells. (diabetesjournals.org)