Mice, Inbred C57BLAnimal Care Committees: Institutional committees established to protect the welfare of animals used in research and education. The 1971 NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals introduced the policy that institutions using warm-blooded animals in projects supported by NIH grants either be accredited by a recognized professional laboratory animal accrediting body or establish its own committee to evaluate animal care; the Public Health Service adopted a policy in 1979 requiring such committees; and the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act mandate review and approval of federally funded research with animals by a formally designated Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).IndianaAnimals, LaboratoryDiscrimination Learning: Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.Laboratory Animal Science: The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Animal Experimentation: The use of animals as investigational subjects.Generalization, Stimulus: The tendency to react to stimuli that are different from, but somewhat similar to, the stimulus used as a conditioned stimulus.Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Mice, Inbred C57BLGossypium: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.Chemistry, Analytic: The branch of chemistry dealing with detection (qualitative) and determination (quantitative) of substances. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Mice, Inbred C3HBehavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Dominance-Subordination: Relationship between individuals when one individual threatens or becomes aggressive and the other individual remains passive or attempts to escape.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor: Specific molecular sites or structures on cell membranes that react with FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS (both the basic and acidic forms), their analogs, or their antagonists to elicit or to inhibit the specific response of the cell to these factors. These receptors frequently possess tyrosine kinase activity.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Fibroblast Growth Factor 1: A 17-kDa single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. It binds to HEPARIN, which potentiates its biological activity and protects it from proteolysis. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages, and also has chemotactic and mitogenic activities. It was originally named acidic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from basic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2).Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 1: A fibroblast growth factor receptor with specificity for FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS; HEPARAN SULFATE PROTEOGLYCAN; and NEURONAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES. Several variants of the receptor exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 is a tyrosine kinase that transmits signals through the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM.Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 2: A fibroblast growth factor receptor that is found in two isoforms. One receptor isoform is found in the MESENCHYME and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2. A second isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 is found mainly in EPITHELIAL CELLS and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 7 and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 10. Mutation of the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 can result in craniosynostotic syndromes (e.g., APERT SYNDROME; and CROUZON SYNDROME).Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Harmaline: A beta-carboline alkaloid isolated from seeds of PEGANUM.Struthioniformes: An order of flightless birds comprising the ostriches, which naturally inhabit open, low rainfall areas of Africa.Anthropology, Physical: The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor: A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.Anthropology, Medical: Field of social science that is concerned with differences between human groups as related to health status and beliefs.Anthropology, Cultural: It is the study of social phenomena which characterize the learned, shared, and transmitted social activities of particular ethnic groups with focus on the causes, consequences, and complexities of human social and cultural variability.American Native Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continents of the Americas.Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive: A group of malignant tumors of the nervous system that feature primitive cells with elements of neuronal and/or glial differentiation. Use of this term is limited by some authors to central nervous system tumors and others include neoplasms of similar origin which arise extracranially (i.e., NEUROECTODERMAL TUMORS, PRIMITIVE, PERIPHERAL). This term is also occasionally used as a synonym for MEDULLOBLASTOMA. In general, these tumors arise in the first decade of life and tend to be highly malignant. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2059)Neural Stem Cells: Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.Rhabdoid Tumor: A rare but highly lethal childhood tumor found almost exclusively in infants. Histopathologically, it resembles RHABDOMYOSARCOMA but the tumor cells are not of myogenic origin. Although it arises primarily in the kidney, it may be found in other parts of the body. The rhabdoid cytomorphology is believed to be the expression of a very primitive malignant cell. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2210)Neuroectodermal Tumors: Malignant neoplasms arising in the neuroectoderm, the portion of the ectoderm of the early embryo that gives rise to the central and peripheral nervous systems, including some glial cells.Boronic Acids: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain the basic structure RB(OH)2.PyrazinesBrain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive, Peripheral: A group of highly cellular primitive round cell neoplasms which occur extracranially in soft tissue and bone and are derived from embryonal neural crest cells. These tumors occur primarily in children and adolescents and share a number of characteristics with EWING SARCOMA.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Proteasome Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit the function or proteolytic action of the PROTEASOME.

Effect of sex difference on the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by the rat. (1/92290)

Hepatic microsome-catalyzed metabolism of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) to aflatoxin M1 and aflatoxin Q1 and the "metabolic activation" of AFB1 to DNA-alylating metabolite(s) were studied in normal male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, in gonadectomized animals, and in castrated males and normal females treated with testosterone. Microsomes from male animals formed 2 to 5 times more aflatoxin M1, aflatoxin Q1, and DNA-alkylating metabolite(s) than those from females. Castration reduced the metabolism of AFB1 by the microsomes from males by about 50%, whereas ovariectomy had no significant effect on AFB1 metabolism by the microsomes from females. Testosterone treatment (4 mg/rat, 3 times/week for about 6 weeks) of castrated immature males and immature females enhanced the metabolism of AFB1 by their microsomes. A sex difference in the metabolism of AFB1 by liver microsomes was also seen in other strains of rats tested: Wistar, Long-Evans, and Fischer. The activity of kidney microsomes for metabolic activation was 1 to 4% that of the liver activity and was generally lower in microsomes from male rats as compared to those from female rats of Sprague-Dawley, Wistar, and Long-Evans strains. The in vitro results obtained with hepatic microsomes correlated well with the in vivo metabolism of AFB1, in that more AFB1 became bound in vivo to hepatic DNA isolated from male rats and from a female rat treated with testosterone than that isolated from control female rats. These data suggest that the differences in hepatic AFB1 metabolism may be the underlying cause of the sex difference in toxicity and carcinogenicity of AFB1 observed in rats.  (+info)

Tissue pharmacokinetics, inhibition of DNA synthesis and tumor cell kill after high-dose methotrexate in murine tumor models. (2/92290)

In Sarcoma 180 and L1210 ascites tumor models, the initial rate of methotrexate accumulation in tumor cells in the peritoneal cavity and in small intestine (intracellularly) after s.c. doses up to 800 mg/kg, showed saturation kinetics. These results and the fact that initial uptake in these tissues within this dosage range was inhibited to the expected relative extent by the simultaneous administration of leucovorin suggest that carrier mediation and not passive diffusion is the major route of drug entry at these extremely high doses. Maximum accumulation of intracellular drug occurred within 2 hr and reached much higher levels in small intestine than in tumor cells at the higher dosages. At a 3-mg/kg dose of methotrexate s.c., intracellular exchangeable drug levels persisted more than four times longer in L1210 cells than in small intestine, but differences in persistence (L1210 cell versus gut) diminished markedly with increasing dosage. At 96 mg/kg, the difference in persistence was less than 2-fold. In small intestine and L1210 cells, theduration of inhibition of DNA synthesis at different dosages correlated with the extent to which exchangeable drug was retained. Toxic deaths occurred when inhibition in small intestine lasted longer than 25 to 30 hr. Recovery of synthesis in small intestine and L1210 cells occurred synchronously and only below dosages of 400 mg/kg. Within 24 hr after dosages of greater than 24 mg/kg, the rate of tumor cell loss increased to a point characterized by a single exponential (t1/2=8.5 hr). The total cell loss, but not the rate of cell loss, was dose dependent.  (+info)

Explanations for the clinical and microscopic localization of lesions in pemphigus foliaceus and vulgaris. (3/92290)

Patients with pemphigus foliaceus (PF) have blisters on skin, but not mucous membranes, whereas patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV) develop blisters on mucous membranes and/or skin. PF and PV blisters are due to loss of keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion in the superficial and deep epidermis, respectively. PF autoantibodies are directed against desmoglein (Dsg) 1; PV autoantibodies bind Dsg3 or both Dsg3 and Dsg1. In this study, we test the hypothesis that coexpression of Dsg1 and Dsg3 in keratinocytes protects against pathology due to antibody-induced dysfunction of either one alone. Using passive transfer of pemphigus IgG to normal and DSG3(null) neonatal mice, we show that in the areas of epidermis and mucous membrane that coexpress Dsg1 and Dsg3, antibodies against either desmoglein alone do not cause spontaneous blisters, but antibodies against both do. In areas (such as superficial epidermis of normal mice) where Dsg1 without Dsg3 is expressed, anti-Dsg1 antibodies alone can cause blisters. Thus, the anti-desmoglein antibody profiles in pemphigus sera and the normal tissue distributions of Dsg1 and Dsg3 determine the sites of blister formation. These studies suggest that pemphigus autoantibodies inhibit the adhesive function of desmoglein proteins, and demonstrate that either Dsg1 or Dsg3 alone is sufficient to maintain keratinocyte adhesion.  (+info)

Bone resorption induced by parathyroid hormone is strikingly diminished in collagenase-resistant mutant mice. (4/92290)

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates bone resorption by acting directly on osteoblasts/stromal cells and then indirectly to increase differentiation and function of osteoclasts. PTH acting on osteoblasts/stromal cells increases collagenase gene transcription and synthesis. To assess the role of collagenase in the bone resorptive actions of PTH, we used mice homozygous (r/r) for a targeted mutation (r) in Col1a1 that are resistant to collagenase cleavage of type I collagen. Human PTH(1-34) was injected subcutaneously over the hemicalvariae in wild-type (+/+) or r/r mice four times daily for three days. Osteoclast numbers, the size of the bone marrow spaces and periosteal proliferation were increased in calvariae from PTH-treated +/+ mice, whereas in r/r mice, PTH-induced bone resorption responses were minimal. The r/r mice were not resistant to other skeletal effects of PTH because abundant interstitial collagenase mRNA was detected in the calvarial periosteum of PTH-treated, but not vehicle-treated, r/r and +/+ mice. Calcemic responses, 0.5-10 hours after intraperitoneal injection of PTH, were blunted in r/r mice versus +/+ mice. Thus, collagenase cleavage of type I collagen is necessary for PTH induction of osteoclastic bone resorption.  (+info)

GM-CSF-deficient mice are susceptible to pulmonary group B streptococcal infection. (5/92290)

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene-targeted mice (GM-/-) cleared group B streptococcus (GBS) from the lungs more slowly than wild-type mice. Expression of GM-CSF in the respiratory epithelium of GM-/- mice improved bacterial clearance to levels greater than that in wild-type GM+/+ mice. Acute aerosolization of GM-CSF to GM+/+ mice significantly enhanced clearance of GBS at 24 hours. GBS infection was associated with increased neutrophilic infiltration in lungs of GM-/- mice, while macrophage infiltrates predominated in wild-type mice, suggesting an abnormality in macrophage clearance of bacteria in the absence of GM-CSF. While phagocytosis of GBS was unaltered, production of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide was markedly deficient in macrophages from GM-/- mice. Lipid peroxidation, assessed by measuring the isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2alpha, was decreased in the lungs of GM-/- mice. GM-CSF plays an important role in GBS clearance in vivo, mediated in part by its role in enhancing superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production and bacterial killing by alveolar macrophages.  (+info)

A new element within the T-cell receptor alpha locus required for tissue-specific locus control region activity. (6/92290)

Locus control regions (LCRs) are cis-acting regulatory elements thought to provide a tissue-specific open chromatin domain for genes to which they are linked. The gene for T-cell receptor alpha chain (TCRalpha) is exclusively expressed in T cells, and the chromatin at its locus displays differentially open configurations in expressing and nonexpressing tissues. Mouse TCRalpha exists in a complex locus containing three differentially regulated genes. We previously described an LCR in this locus that confers T-lineage-specific expression upon linked transgenes. The 3' portion of this LCR contains an unrestricted chromatin opening activity while the 5' portion contains elements restricting this activity to T cells. This tissue-specificity region contains four known DNase I hypersensitive sites, two located near transcriptional silencers, one at the TCRalpha enhancer, and another located 3' of the enhancer in a 1-kb region of unknown function. Analysis of this region using transgenic mice reveals that the silencer regions contribute negligibly to LCR activity. While the enhancer is required for complete LCR function, its removal has surprisingly little effect on chromatin structure or expression outside the thymus. Rather, the region 3' of the enhancer appears responsible for the tissue-differential chromatin configurations observed at the TCRalpha locus. This region, herein termed the "HS1' element," also increases lymphoid transgene expression while suppressing ectopic transgene activity. Thus, this previously undescribed element is an integral part of the TCRalphaLCR, which influences tissue-specific chromatin structure and gene expression.  (+info)

Prolonged eosinophil accumulation in allergic lung interstitium of ICAM-2 deficient mice results in extended hyperresponsiveness. (7/92290)

ICAM-2-deficient mice exhibit prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium concomitant with a delayed increase in eosinophil numbers in the airway lumen during the development of allergic lung inflammation. The ICAM-2-dependent increased and prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium results in prolonged, heightened airway hyperresponsiveness. These findings reveal an essential role for ICAM-2 in the development of the inflammatory and respiratory components of allergic lung disease. This phenotype is caused by the lack of ICAM-2 expression on non-hematopoietic cells. ICAM-2 deficiency on endothelial cells causes reduced eosinophil transmigration in vitro. ICAM-2 is not essential for lymphocyte homing or the development of leukocytes, with the exception of megakaryocyte progenitors, which are significantly reduced.  (+info)

Phenotype of mice and macrophages deficient in both phagocyte oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase. (8/92290)

The two genetically established antimicrobial mechanisms of macrophages are production of reactive oxygen intermediates by phagocyte oxidase (phox) and reactive nitrogen intermediates by inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). Mice doubly deficient in both enzymes (gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-)) formed massive abscesses containing commensal organisms, mostly enteric bacteria, even when reared under specific pathogen-free conditions with antibiotics. Neither parental strain showed such infections. Thus, phox and NOS2 appear to compensate for each other's deficiency in providing resistance to indigenous bacteria, and no other pathway does so fully. Macrophages from gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-) mice could not kill virulent Listeria. Their killing of S. typhimurium, E. coli, and attenuated Listeria was markedly diminished but demonstrable, establishing the existence of a mechanism of macrophage antibacterial activity independent of phox and NOS2.  (+info)

*William J. Schwartz

Schwartz WJ, Zimmerman P. Circadian timekeeping in BALB/c and C57BL/6 inbred mouse strains. J Neurosci. 1990; 10: 3685-3694. ...

*Pregnanolone (disambiguation)

... of the Discriminative Stimulus Effects of the Neuroactive Steroid Pregnanolone in DBA/2J and C57BL/6J Inbred Mice". Journal of ...

*Diet-induced obesity model

"Differential effect of inbred mouse strain (C57BL/6, DBA/2, 129T2) on insulin secretory function in response to a high fat diet ... In the strain of mice most commonly used for DIO models, C57BL/6J, mice who started the diet at 10 weeks old showed lower ... For example, mice were put on a high-fat diet, but given either tap water, green tea, or Goishi tea to drink. The mice who ... West, D. B.; Boozer, C. N.; Moody, D. L.; Atkinson, R. L. (1992-06-01). "Dietary obesity in nine inbred mouse strains". The ...

*List of MeSH codes (B01)

... mice, inbred balb c MeSH B01.050.157.520.388 --- mice, inbred c3h MeSH B01.050.157.520.420 --- mice, inbred c57bl MeSH B01.050. ... mice, inbred balb c MeSH B01.050.199.520.520.388 --- mice, inbred c3h MeSH B01.050.199.520.520.420 --- mice, inbred c57bl MeSH ... mice, inbred hrs MeSH B01.050.157.520.510 --- mice, inbred icr MeSH B01.050.157.520.555 --- mice, inbred mrl lpr MeSH B01.050. ... mice, inbred hrs MeSH B01.050.199.520.520.510 --- mice, inbred icr MeSH B01.050.199.520.520.555 --- mice, inbred mrl lpr MeSH ...

*C57BL/6

The inbred strain of C57BL mice was created in 1921 by C. C. Little at the Bussey Institute for Research in Applied Biology. ... The C57BL/6 mouse was the second-ever mammalian species to have its entire genome published. The dark coat make the mouse ... In 2013 C57BL/6 mice were flown into space aboard Bion-M No.1. In 2015 C57BL/6NTac females provided by Taconic Biosciences were ... is a common inbred strain of laboratory mouse. It is the most widely used "genetic background" for genetically modified mice ...

*Jan Klein

... be alleviated by transferring a sample of H2 haplotypes from wild mice onto inbred (C57BL/10 or B10) background and thus ... Typing of inbred strains suggested that the Mhc might manifest unusually high variability (polymorphism). Inbred strains were, ... The karyotype of the house mouse normally consists of 40 telocentric chromosomes, but in certain regions in Europe, mice with ... Genetic mapping of the loci controlling the class I and class II antigens of the mouse showed them to be part of a cluster, ...

*B6

... a subgroup of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System C57BL/6, an inbred mouse strain B6 (musician), a ...

*Major urinary proteins

Some inbred laboratory mouse strains, such as BALB/c and C57BL/6, also have different proteins expressed in their urine. ... using white-footed mice, it was found that when mice derived from wild populations were inbred there was reduced survival when ... Wild mice breeding freely in semi-natural enclosures showed inbreeding avoidance. This avoidance resulted from a strong deficit ... These findings suggest that inbreeding reduces fitness, and that scent signal recognition has evolved in mice as a means of ...

*BALB/c

... mice are useful for research into both cancer and immunology. According to Michael Festing's Inbred Strains of Mice, ... Animal model Animal testing on rodents C57BL/6 Jackson Laboratory's mouse strains Taconic Bioscience's BALB/c model "BALB/c". ... Now over 200 generations from New York in 1920, BALB/c mice are distributed globally, and are among the most widely used inbred ... Inbred Strains of Mice. Jackson Laboratory. Retrieved 2007-04-16. Potter M. History of the BALB/c family, pp 1-5. In: The BALB/ ...

*Coisogenic strain

C57BL/6J) mouse. The offspring of the mutated mouse with the inbred strain has a 50% chance of carrying the mutation. From this ... To create a coisogenic strain through breeding, a mouse with the specific mutation on a locus is mated to an inbred strain (e.g ... There are numerous ways to create an inbred strain and each of these strains are unique. Genetically engineered mice can be ... Bult, CJ; Eppig, JT; Blake, JA; Kadin, JA; Richardson, JE; Mouse Genome Database, Group. (4 January 2016). "Mouse genome ...

*Recombinant inbred strain

... and a male C57BL/6By mouse in the 1960s. The small panel of 8 CXB strains was originally used to determine if the Major ... Recombinant inbred strains or lines were first developed using inbred strains of mice but are now used to study a wide range of ... pairs of the F2 progeny are then mated to establish inbred strains through long-term inbreeding. Families of recombinant inbred ... In the case of a typical mouse recombinant inbred strain made by crossing maternal strain BALB/cBy (C) with paternal strain ...

*C57

... a common inbred strain of lab mouse C-57D, a fictional spaceship from the movie Forbidden Planet. ... 1936 code Malignant neoplasms of other and unspecified female and genital organs ICD-10 code C57BL/6, often referred to as "C57 ...

*Laboratory mouse

... inbred mouse strain and initiated the systematic generation of inbred strains. The mouse has since been used extensively as a ... were C57BL/6 laboratory mice. Sequencing of the laboratory mouse genome was completed in late 2002 using the C57BL/6 strain. ... "BALB/c". Inbred Strains of Mice. Jackson Laboratory. Retrieved 2007-04-16. "BALB/cByJ". Jax Mice Data Sheet. Jackson Laboratory ... As a general rule, inbred mice tend to have longer gestation periods and smaller litters than outbred and hybrid mice. The ...

*Mouse models of breast cancer metastasis

N.M Haldane identified first linkage in mouse between Albino mice and pink eye dilution on chromosome seven. In 1921, C57BL ... In 1909, Clarence C. Little developed the first inbred strain, the DBA (Dilute, brown non-Agouti) mouse. In 1915, ... Mice have relatively short gestation periods. Mice take a brief time to reach sexual maturity. Mice have large litter sizes. ... The number of mouse genes without a corresponding human homologue is less than 1%. 90% of the human and mouse genomes are ...

*Abbie Lathrop

He trained C. C. Little who bred C57BL/6J ("Black 6") from Lathrop's mouse number 57. Black 6 became the most frequently used ... his own DBA strain was probably derived from her partially inbred silver fawn mice. Karin Knorr Cetina wrote in 2009 that at ... She bred Japanese waltzing mice as well as fancy mice. The mice had straw bedding and lived in wooden boxes. They were fed a ... Lathrop started out with a pair of waltzing mice she obtained in Granby and her farm grew to hold over 11,000 mice at one point ...

*Inbred strain

C57BL, C57BR and C57L). Many of the most popular strains of mice were developed during the next decade, and some are closely ... and only three un-pedigreed mice remained alive. Soon after World War I, inbreeding in mice was started on a much larger scale ... A/J C3H C57BL/6 CBA DBA/2 BALB/c G.M. Rommel first started conducting inbreeding experiments on guinea-pigs in 1906. Strain 2 ... Evidence from the uniformity of mitochondrian DNA suggests that most of the common inbred mouse strains were probably derived ...

*Justin Rhodes

Rhodes, JS; Ford, MM; Yu, CH; Brown, LL; Finn, DA; Garland Jr, T; Crabbe, JC (2007). "Mouse inbred strain differences in ... "Acute effects of acamprosate and MPEP on ethanol Drinking-in-the-Dark in male C57BL/6J mice". Alcoholism: Clinical and ... Rhodes was one of the developers of the Drinking in the Dark model in mice. In this model, a specific mouse strain is found to ... "Acute effects of naltrexone and GBR 12909 on ethanol drinking-in-the-dark in C57BL/6J mice". Psychopharmacology. 192 (2): 207- ...

*NOG mouse

The NOG mouse was generated in CIEA in 2000 by back-cross mating of C57BL/6J-IL-2Rγnull mouse that was originally developed by ... The NOD/Shi inbred strain was first discovered by Makino et al. as autoimmune non-obese-type diabetes mice. Lack of functional ... Cancer Infectious Diseases Regenerative Medicine Hematology Humanized mouse Nude mouse SCID mouse M. Ito and, et al. (2002). " ... nude mouse and NOD/scid mouse. Thus, the mouse can be the best model as a highly efficient recipient of human cells to engraft ...

*Helicobacter bilis

nov., a novel Helicobacter species isolated from bile, livers, and intestines of aged, inbred mice". Journal of Clinical ... "Concurrent Helicobacter bilis Infection in C57BL/6 Mice Attenuates Proinflammatory H. pylori-Induced Gastric Pathology". ... 2000]. H. rappini has also been isolated from the feces of healthy people, dogs, and mice, as well as from patients with ... Like Helicobacter hepaticus, it colonizes the bile, liver, and intestine of mice, and is associated with multifocal chronic ...

*National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad

... and Leads to Adverse Gestational Outcome in Female C57BL/6 Mice". Frontiers in Nutrition. 3 (1): 1-10. doi:10.3389/fnut. ... NCLAS also came into the limelight due to the WNIN/Ob obese rat strain which is the heaviest inbred rat model available. It has ... "Mice to reveal key to human obesity - The Times of India". The Times Of India. "Australia-India food research partnerships on ...

*History of model organisms

The idea of inbreeding to achieve this goal of a 'pure strain' in mice was one that may have created a negative response to the ... C57BL/6 (lab mice), etc. These organisms have led to many advances in the past century. Some of the first work with what would ... 30-35 Rader, Making Mice Rader, Making Mice, pp. 190-195 Rader, Making Mice, p. 252 Allen, Garland E. Thomas Hunt Morgan: The ... He would continue his work with these mice and used his research to demonstrate that inbreeding is an effective way of ...
Subjects. Twelve DBA/2J male mice, 13 DBA/2J female mice, 12 C57BL/6J male mice, and 12 C57BL/6J female mice were obtained from The Jackson Laboratories (Bar Harbor, ME). The animals were 9 to 10 weeks old at the beginning of discrimination training and were individually housed on a 12-h light/12-h dark cycle. The mice were weighed and allowed to acclimate to the laboratory for 2 weeks before training began. All mice were fed enough rodent chow (Harlan, Indianapolis, IN) at least 1 h postsession to maintain a body weight between 20 and 30 g. The Wake Forest University School of Medicine Animal Care and Use Committee approved all procedures involving these mice and procedures were conducted in accordance with the National Institutes of Health Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.. Apparatus. Drug discrimination sessions took place in standard two lever mouse operant-conditioning chambers (MED Associates, St. Albans, VT). Each chamber was equipped with two levers on the front wall of ...
Barski, G and Cassingena, R, "Malignant transformation in vitro of cells from c57bl mouse normal pulmonary tissue." (1963). Subject Strain Bibliography 1963. 73 ...
Animals. The contractile performance was studied in five young (9-14 wk of age) male TR-α1-deficient mice and five wild-type control animals of the same age and weight (28-35 g). The force-frequency relationship (see below) was studied also in muscles from four female TR-α1-deficient mice and four wild-type control mice of the same age and weight. The TR-α1-deficient mice represent a cross between the SV-129/OLa and BALB/c (30). Contractile studies were performed on four male TR-β-deficient (12) and four control mice of the same age and weight as above. This group of mice has a mixed 129/Sv and C57Bl/6J genetic background, and was generated from TR-β+/ − heterozygote backcrosses. The wild-type mice were obtained from crosses of heterozygote TR-α1- or TR-β-deficient mice. The two homozygote wild-type strains were bred in parallel with the respective knockout strains. Thus the knockout strains have the same genetic background as their respective knockout strains: 129/Ola and BALB/c for ...
Both the factors inducing Foxp3, and induced by Foxp3, are under intense investigation. Identifying factors that specifically induce Foxp3 expression is particularly challenging because distinguishing between a direct role in Foxp3 induction versus a role in promoting Treg expansion and survival through other mechanisms is often difficult. Foxp3 expression and Treg cell health and function typically go together. Nonetheless, reports indicate that among the factors that may regulate Foxp3 expression are CD28, IL-2, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and TCR/MHC interactions (Figure 4). CD28 has been shown to be required for the survival and proliferation of Treg cells (35). Further work using mixed bone marrow chimeras containing wild type- and Cd28-/--derived donor cells, has provided support for the conclusion that CD28-mediated signaling during thymic development is required specifically for normal Foxp3 expression in CD4+CD25+ cells (36). IL-2 is absolutely required for Treg cell expansion ...
MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) regulates antitumor immune responses. However, its specific functions within distinct immune cell types have not been delineated in conditional knockout (KO) mouse models. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-155 specifically within T cells during the immune response to syngeneic tumors. We found that miR-155 expression within T cells is required to limit syngeneic tumor growth and promote interferon gamma (IFNγ) production by T cells within the tumor microenvironment. Consequently, we found that miR-155 expression by T cells is necessary for proper tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) expression of IFNγ-inducible genes ...
Sugar is a key contributor to many of our diet-related diseases and conditions, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure and cancer.
Analysis of polyclonal C57BL/6 repertoires. In 2 independent analyses, C57BL/6 splenocytes were sorted into CD4+GFP-Foxp3- and CD4+GFP-Foxp3+ populations and th
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TY - JOUR. T1 - CD34 expression on long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells changes during developmental stages. AU - Matsuoka, Sahoko. AU - Ebihara, Yasuhiro. AU - Xu, Ming Jiang. AU - Ishii, Takefumi. AU - Sugiyama, Daisuke. AU - Yoshino, Hiroshi. AU - Ueda, Takahiro. AU - Manabe, Atsushi. AU - Tanaka, Ryuhei. AU - Ikeda, Yasuo. AU - Nakahata, Tatsutoshi. AU - Tsuji, Kohichiro. PY - 2001/1/15. Y1 - 2001/1/15. N2 - The CD34 antigen serves as an important marker for primitive hematopoietic cells in therapeutic transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and gene therapy, but it has remained an open question as to whether or not most HSC express CD34. Using a competitive long-term reconstitution assay, the results of this study confirm developmental changes in CD34 expression on murine HSC. In fetuses and neonates, CD34 was expressed on Lin-c-Kit+ long-term repopulating HSC of bone marrow (BM), liver, and spleen. However, CD34 expression on HSC decreased with aging, and in mice older ...
The transplantation of spleen cells from old NZB/Bl mice with renal disease induced both the structural and the functional changes of membranous glomerulonephritis in young NZB/Bl mice within a few weeks and well in advance of its usual spontaneous occurrence. The development of hypergammaglobulinemia and lymphoid cell hyperplasia in the young mice indicated that immunologically competent cells, derived from either the transplant or the recipient, proliferated during this process. These experiments, together with other findings, provide further support for the view that membranous glomerulonephritis in NZB/Bl mice is produced by immunological, and probably autoimmune, mechanisms and that the renal disease is apparently almost wholly unrelated to the hemolytic process.. ...
The numbers of obese people and diabetic patients are ever increasing. Obesity and diabetes are high-risk conditions for chronic diseases, including certain types of cancer, such as colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to develop a novel animal model in order to clarify the pathobiology of CRC development in obese and diabetic patients. We developed an animal model of obesity and colorectal cancer by breeding the C57BL/KsJ-db/db (db/db) mouse, an animal model of obesity and type II diabetes, and the C57BL/6J-ApcMin/+ (Min/+) mouse, a model of familial adenomatous polyposis. At 15 weeks of age, the N9 backcross generation of C57BL/KsJ-db/db-ApcMin/+ (db/db-Min/+) mice developed an increased incidence and multiplicity of adenomas in the intestinal tract when compared to the db/m-Min/+ and m/m-Min/+ mice. Blood biochemical profile showed significant increases in insulin (8.3-fold to 11.7-fold), cholesterol (1.2-fold to 1.7-fold), and triglyceride (1.2-fold to 1.3-fold) in the db/db-Min/+ mice
The CD105 MultiSort Kit (PE), mouse has been developed for the isolation of CD105+ cells or cell subsets, including vascular endothelial cells from mouse tissue or cell cultures long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (LTR-HSCs) from mouse bone marrow when used in combination with the Anti-Sca-1 MicroBead Kit (FITC). - USA
This study characterizes the high-fat diet-fed mouse as a robust model for IGT and early type 2 diabetes. This model was initially described by Surwit et al. in 1988 (8), and the model has been shown to be most efficient in C57BL/6J mice compared with other strains (20-22). We show here by accumulated data on a large number of animals belonging to this strain that a high-fat diet results in increased body weight gain and over time a stable hyperglycemia but a progressively increased hyperinsulinemia, indicating progressive worsening of insulin resistance. Furthermore, already after 1 week on the diet, baseline plasma glucose and insulin were significantly elevated and IVGTTs showed reduced glucose elimination and impaired insulin secretion (particularly the AIR). The model thus shows two important mechanistic characteristics for IGT and type 2 diabetes: insulin resistance and islet dysfunction.. The growth curves for this 1-year study could be divided into two phases-one initial phase with more ...
This study characterizes the high-fat diet-fed mouse as a robust model for IGT and early type 2 diabetes. This model was initially described by Surwit et al. in 1988 (8), and the model has been shown to be most efficient in C57BL/6J mice compared with other strains (20-22). We show here by accumulated data on a large number of animals belonging to this strain that a high-fat diet results in increased body weight gain and over time a stable hyperglycemia but a progressively increased hyperinsulinemia, indicating progressive worsening of insulin resistance. Furthermore, already after 1 week on the diet, baseline plasma glucose and insulin were significantly elevated and IVGTTs showed reduced glucose elimination and impaired insulin secretion (particularly the AIR). The model thus shows two important mechanistic characteristics for IGT and type 2 diabetes: insulin resistance and islet dysfunction.. The growth curves for this 1-year study could be divided into two phases-one initial phase with more ...
LLN=lower limit of normal; ULN=upper limit of normal; BL=baseline. Sodium, serum (mEq/L):low if ,0.95*BL and BL,LLN or ,LLN and BL,ULN or ,0.95*LLN when BL missing or LLN ≤BL≤ULN, high if ,1.05*BL and BL,ULN or ,ULN and BL,LLN or ,1.05*ULN when BL missing or LLN≤BL≤ULN; potassium(mEq/L):low if ,0.90*BL and BL,LLN or ,LLN and BL,ULN or ,0.90*LLN if BL missing or LLN≤BL≤ULN, high if ,1.10*BL and BL,ULN or,ULN and BL,LLN or ,1.10*ULN when BL missing or LLN≤BL≤ULN; chloride(mEq/L):low if ,0.90*BL and BL,LLN or ,LLN and BL,ULN or ,0.90*LLN if BL missing or LLN≤BL ≤ULN, high if ,1.10*BL and BL,ULN or ,ULN and BL,LLN or ,1.10* ULN if BL missing or LLN≤BL≤ULN; calcium(mg/dL):low if ,0.75*BL and BL,LLN or ,LLN and BL,ULN or ,0.80*LLN if BL missing or LLN≤BL≤ULN, high if ,1.25*BL and BL,ULN or ,ULN if BL,LLN or ,1.20*ULN if BL missing or LLN≤BL≤ULN ; bicarbonate(mEq/L):low if ,0.75*BL when BL,LLN or ,LLN when BL,ULN or ,0.75*LLN if BL missing or LLN≤BL≤ULN, high if ...
OBJECTIVES The extent of autophagy in myocardium following persistent ischemia and the effects of insulin resistance and diabetes on cardiac autophagy following myocardial infarction (MI) have not been well elucidated. It is generally thought that autophagy reflects the nutritional status of cells, presumably alterable by diabetes. It has been conjectured that diminution of autophagy early after the onset of MI may preserve jeopardized myocardium thereby improving prognosis. METHODS Ten-week-old nondiabetic C57BL6 mice, 20-week-old diabetic and nondiabetic C57BL6 mice were subjected to MI for 4 weeks. Hearts from these mice were harvested and assayed for markers of autophagy. RESULT Hearts of 10-week-old C57BL6 mice subjected to 4 weeks of MI had similar levels of LC3-II, a protein indicator of autophagy, as measured by western blotting compared with hearts from sham operated controls. In 20-week-old C57BL6 mice rendered diabetic by feeding a high-fat diet, the amounts of autophagy were comparable
Controlled regulation of T cell activation in the context of inflammation has been the topic of numerous investigations through the years. The data presented in this study provide evidence that effective targeting of the Kv channel Kv1.3 on CD4+ T cells could result in the development of T cells with decreased proliferative capacity and a regulatory phenotype that would be beneficial for controlling unwanted immune responses.. We used Kv1.3 KO mice to determine the specific contribution of the Kv1.3 channel to T cell activation and differentiation during the course of MOG-induced EAE. We found that Kv1.3 KO mice were resistant to the development of EAE with significantly decreased incidence and severity of disease compared with WT controls. Upon further examination, we found that CD4+ T cells isolated from lymph nodes of immunized mice were refractory to restimulation with MOG 35-55 peptide in vitro and maintained more of a naive phenotype than WT counterparts. The resistance of Kv1.3 KO mice to ...
Incidence and severity of K/BxN serum transfer-induced arthritis are not reduced in IL-36 receptor (R) knockout (KO) mice. Incidence of arthritis (A), arthritis
Rodents of an inbred strain display large variations in several behaviors: sucrose preference (Strekalova & Steinbusch, 2010), fear conditioning (Siegmund, Kaltwasser, Holsboer, Czisch, & Wotjak., 2009), decrease in social interaction after social defeat (Krishnan et al., 2007), ambulation in the open-field and the elevated plus-maze (Vidal, 2015). Variations of physiological variables (weight, course of infection, stress response) in inbred animals have also been reported (Gärtner, 2012). This variability, which is not readily explained by genetics or environment, has been termed intangible variation, developmental noise (Blewitt, Chong, & Whitelaw, 2004; Falconer, 1989) or third component (Gärtner, 2012). The author of the present report could not find studies documenting individual differences in the antibody response within an inbred mouse strain; therefore, one goal of this report was to find out if such differences occurred in mice of the C57Bl/6J inbred strain.. A set of correlated ...
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Certain pathogens, including HIV and hepatitis viruses, that lead to persistent infections are often associated with suboptimal antibody responses. Using LCMV infection in mice, Fallet et al., Moseman et al., and Sammicheli et al. report that up-regulation of type I interferon (IFN-I) in the early phase of infection is a key contributor to premature deletion of virus-specific B cells. Blockade of IFN-I prevents B cell deletion. Although the studies agree that IFN-I does not act directly on B cells, they found that distinct immune cells mediate IFN-I-dependent deletion of B cells, depending on the system examined. Targeting of the IFN-I pathway could be used to restore B cell responses during persistent viral infections in humans. ...
15-Lipoxygenase-2 (ALOX15B), an oxidoreductase in the metabolism of arachidonic acid, is a functional tumor suppressor whose expression is reduced in a variety of human cancers. To determine the roles of ALOX15B in carcinogenesis, we generated transgenic mice with ALOX8, the murine homolog of ALOX15B, knocked out. ALOX8 expression at mRNA level was abolished in homozygous knockout mice and reduced to half of wild type in heterozygous knockout mice. Its observed that homozygous female ALOX8 knockout mice are infertile but male ALOX8 knockout mice are fertile. Increased incidence of tumor as uni or multimass was found in the lung, prostate and in the mesentery region of homozygous and heterozygous ALOX8 knockout mice, when compared with little mate wild type mice. Histological evaluations showed an increase in secondary tumors and inflammation in different tissues like lung and large intestine in mice with ALOX8 knocked out. The transgenic mice could be a good model to study the role of ...
In this report, we show that overexpression of scurfin in FoxP3 Tg mice results in the inability to mount an effective humoral immune response. FoxP3 Tg mice displayed lower levels of circulating IgG when compared with their nontransgenic littermates, and had a dramatically reduced response when challenged with a specific Ag. However, B cells from FoxP3 Tg mice produced normal levels of Ig when stimulated in vitro, suggesting that a defect in T cell-derived help was responsible for the phenotype seen in these mice. Three additional lines of evidence support this hypothesis. First, T cells from FoxP3 Tg mice failed to provide help to B cells from NLC mice. Second, CD4+ T cells from FoxP3 Tg mice failed to up-regulate CD40L and CD69 expression when stimulated. Finally, significantly fewer IL-4- and IFN-γ-producing splenic T cells were generated in immunized FoxP3 Tg mice as compared with NLC mice. Overall, these findings suggest that the poor Ag-specific Ab response generated by FoxP3 Tg mice ...
Primary Sjögrens syndrome (pSS) is characterized by a panel of autoantbodies, while it is not clear whether B cells and autoantibodies play an essential role in pathogenesis of the disease. Here we report a novel mouse model for pSS which is induced by immunization with the Ro60_316-335 peptide containing a predominant T cell epitope. After immunization, mice developed several symptoms mimicking pSS, including a decreased secretion of tears, lymphocytic infiltration into the lacrimal glands, autoantibodies and increased levels of inflammatory cytokines. Disease susceptibility to this novel mouse model varies among strains, where C3H/HeJ (H2-k) and C3H/HeN (H2-k) are susceptible while DBA/1 (H2-q) and C57BL/6 (H2-b) are resistant. Depletion of B cells using anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies prevented C3H/HeN mice from development of the pSS-like disease. In addition, HLA-DRB1*0803, a pSS risk allele, was predicted to bind to the hRo60_308-328 which contains a predominant T cell epitope of human Ro60.
Results The wild-derived mouse strain PWD/Ph was highly susceptible to CAIA induced arthritis, whereas the classical laboratory strain C57BL/6J was resistant. Mice carrying chromosomes 5 or 12 from PWD on a B6 background display a B6-like phenotype in the CAIA model as well as the F1 hybrids (B6xPWD and PWDxB6) implicating the presence of dominant resistance modifiers in the C57BL/6J genetic background. The two mouse strains differ highly in their autoantigenic profile. Injecting specific monoclonal ACPAs reactive with the citrullintated H1 and H4 were able to block the CAIA induced arthritis. This inhibition can be explained in part by a Toll 9 dependent inhibition of osteoclasts. Moreover TLR2 activation via P.gingivalis LPS and lipomannan treated animals show a 80% reduction of arthritis score compared to E. coli LPS in a C57BL/6J CAIA model. Anti-collagen specific antibodies are increased in both strains B6 and PWD when arthritis is induced. Commercial CCP2 ELISA detected ACPA in animals ...
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Quinacrine dihydrochloride (0.12-0.15 per cent of diet) decreased the rate of growth of a granulosa-cell tumor in CHI mice and of a fibrosarcoma and a carcinoma in C57BL mice to values of 1/3 - 1/2 the rate of growth of these tumors in control mice. These inhibitions are less than those reported by Lewis and Goland. There was a small prolongation of life of the treated mice, a small increase in the incidence of recoveries of treated C57BL mice bearing the carcinoma, and an appreciable decrease in the incidence and severity of external necrosis of the tumors. Normal growth also was inhibited, as shown by a decrease or cessation of the gain in body weight of immature mice.. The relative concentrations of quinacrine in the tissues of tumor-bearing mice receiving this compound in the diet were in the following descending order: liver , pituitary , adrenal , spleen , kidney ⋝ lung , thymus , pancreas ⋝ heart , tumor , testis , blood , brain. There was a decrease in the concentrations of ...
Figure 5. Pretreatment of donor T cells with a c-Rel antagonist does not impair GVT activity. A, lethally irradiated C57BL/6 recipients received C57BL/6 TCD BM cells with 2 × 106 C57BL/6 WT or c-Rel−/− T cells (syngeneic HSCT). Control mice received BM only. All groups received 1 × 105 luciferase-expressing EL4-TGL tumor cells on day 0. Survival curve is shown (n = 5-8). B, lethally irradiated C57BL/6 recipients received 5 × 106 C57BL/6 WT or c-Rel−/− T cells (syngeneic HSCT). All groups received 1 × 106 EL4 tumor cells on day 0. Expression level of CD25 in donor-derived splenic CD8+ T cells on day 7 is shown. C, lethally irradiated BALB/c recipients were transplanted with C57BL/6 TCD BM cells with 2 × 106 C57BL/6 WT or c-Rel−/− T cells (allo-HSCT). Expression level of CD25 in donor-derived splenic CD8+ T cells on day 7 is shown. D, lethally irradiated C57BL/6 recipients received C57BL/6 TCD BM cells with 1 × 106 C57BL/6 Pmel1+/+ T cells (syngeneic HSCT). T cells were ...
PRF readers can get free access to a selected Journal of Pain paper each month, thanks to the American Pain Society. Get the free full text of the selection from the November 2017 issue here.. ...
CD4 and CD8 T cells are constantly exposed to inflammatory signals that influence diverse functional outcomes during infections and certain autoimmune disorders. One of the signals controlling CD4 and CD8 T cell functions is the inflammatory cytokine IL-12. Previous studies have focused on how IL-12 regulates CD4 and CD8 T cell functions when present during or after the activation of the T cell receptor (TCR). However, based on murine studies, we have only recently begun to appreciate that exposure to inflammatory signals, driven in part by IL-12, could alter how CD4 and CD8 T cells respond to TCR stimulation. Although intriguing, these studies have left several questions unanswered. Does IL-12 similarly regulate the function of human T cells? If so, what is the exact molecular mechanism by which IL-12 mediates these effects? To address these critical questions, we examined how IL-12 pretreatment altered human CD4 and CD8 T cell responses to subsequent TCR stimulation. In CHAPTER III, we examined how
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Immune cells constantly circulate in the body in search of pathogens or tissue damage. Because they move autonomously, immune cell trafficking must be tightly controlled and coordinated by extracellular cues. The main signals that guide immune cells are chemokines, small polypeptides that modulate the migratory behavior of cells. Remarkably, most chemokines are not only sensed but also secreted by immune cells, indicating that immune cells might either attract more of their own kind or trigger complex patterns of feedbacks between different cell populations. Such cascades might allow different immune cell types to orchestrate their sequential arrival at a site of infection (1). On page 1071 of this issue, Lim et al. (2) show that this is indeed the case with neutrophils and cytotoxic T cells, the former leaving a trail of cues for the latter to follow during the eradication of a viral infection. ...
After automated particle preselection, manual verification, and selection by cross-correlation, 18,801 particles were chosen for the vacant 40S subunit, 20,939 particles for the IRES-40S complex, and 13,613 particles for the IRES dII-40S complex. ...
Format of Logitech Mouse parameter table: Offset Size Description ) 00h WORD baud rate divided by 100 (serial mouse only) 02h WORD emulation (serial mouse only) 04h WORD report rate (serial mouse only) 06h WORD firmware revision (serial mouse only) 08h WORD 00h (serial mouse only) 0Ah WORD port (serial mouse only) 0Ch WORD physical buttons 0Eh WORD logical buttons ...
2017 Norsk Helseinformatikk AS. Alle rettigheter er reservert. All informasjon på NHI.no er laget for å gi deg generell kunnskap og er ingen erstatning for innhenting av medisinsk råd eller behandling hos helsepersonell. Dersom du er syk eller trenger medisinsk hjelp av andre grunner, bør du oppsøke lege. NHI er uten ansvar for innholdet på eksterne websteder det er lenket til. Vi tillater ikke reklame for behandlere/ behandlingsmetoder i kommentarfeltene. Alle slike innlegg vil bli slettet.. ...
Before 2009 Before2009 2008 Chahrour M, Jung SY, Shaw C, Zhou XB, Wong STC, Qin J, and Zoghbi HY. MeCP2, a Key Contributor to Neurological Disease, Activates and Represses Transcription. Science, 2008 May 30, Vol. 320. no. 5880, pp. 1224 - 1229 Jin, GX, Zhou, XB, Wang, HH; Zhao, H,
Whether expected to be key contributors or free agency afterthoughts, these NBA players did not measure up during the 2011-2012 season. Disappointment comes in many various forms...
chr13:75746446-75830032, - strand. Annotation of mouse strain C3H/HeJ genome assembly provided by GENCODE consortium. Distributed via Ensembl Release 92. Gene type: protein coding gene; Gene Name: Rhobtb3 ...
chr7:30055097-30066539, - strand. Annotation of mouse strain C3H/HeJ genome assembly provided by GENCODE consortium. Distributed via Ensembl Release 92. Gene type: protein coding gene; Gene Name: Haus5 ...
Validate the conditional Knockout efficacy by measuring a reporter gene expression and quantify the deletion in a specific tissue or cell.
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pET47b proteins not expressing in BL21 (DE3) - posted in Protein Expression and Purification: Hi there, I have a gene for a 25 kDa bacterial metallo protein placed into pET47b / BL21 (DE3). Ive done an expression trial and I cant see any bands for expression-- what are some of the options I can do to play around with to see if it can express?
Coughing sometimes serves an important protective function by expelling materials from the airways so they do not reach the lungs. However, a cough is also a troubling symptom and represents one of the most common reasons why patients seek a physicians help.
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rapid, warn and up-to-day. The new supervisor is de facto around the ball. op en wakker, aan die brand name, wakker يَقِظ، مُنْتَبِه، واعٍ бърз alerta na výši auf Draht på mærkerne; hurtig i vendingen; kvik γρήγορος, ενημερωμένος, σε ετοιμότητα estar al tanto, estar alerta tasemel هشیار و کاردان بودن ajan tasalla à la hauteur לִהְיוֹת בָּעִנייָנִים सावधान, किसी स्थिति से पूर्ण सम्पर्क रखना pripravan gyors siap siaga klár, með á nótunum aggiornato 有能である 빈틈 없이 kupinas naujų idėjų maleīgs; veikls peka bijdehand rask i vendingen/avtrekket; med på lekenbystry, zorientowany هوښيار او كارپوه alerta prompt, pe fază толковый na úrovni na nivoju u toku på alerten ตื่นตัว; กระตือรือร้น uyanık, olup bitenden haberdar 戰戰競競 спритний چاق ...
Knockout mouse: Knockout mouse, genetically engineered laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) in which a specific gene has been inactivated, or
The HuGEMM PD-1 mouse model is a chimeric tumor model where the mouse immune system is functional and the PD-1 receptors have been humanized.
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Genetic information processingProtein synthesisRibosomal proteins: synthesis and modificationribosomal protein bL36 (TIGR01022; HMM-score: 82.8) ...
Genetic information processingProtein synthesisRibosomal proteins: synthesis and modificationribosomal protein bL34 (TIGR01030; HMM-score: 69) ...
Looking for Major histocompatability complex? Find out information about Major histocompatability complex. In vertebrates, a family of genes that encode cell surface glycoproteins that regulate interactions among cells of the immune system, some components of the... Explanation of Major histocompatability complex
Spino-Cerebellar-Ataxia type 38 (SCA38) is caused by missense mutations in the very long chain fatty acid elongase 5 gene, ELOVL5. The main clinical findings in this disease are ataxia, hyposmia and cerebellar atrophy. Mice in which Elovl5 has been knocked out represent a model of the loss of function hypothesis of SCA38. In agreement with this hypothesis, Elovl5 knock out mice reproduced the main symptoms of patients, motor deficits at the beam balance test and hyposmia. The cerebellar cortex of Elovl5 knock out mice showed a reduction of thickness of the molecular layer, already detectable at 6 months of age, confirmed at 12 and 18 months. The total perimeter length of the Purkinje cell layer was also reduced in Elovl5 knock out mice. Since Elovl5 transcripts are expressed by Purkinje cells, whose dendrites are a major component of the molecular layer, we hypothesized that an alteration of their dendrites might be responsible for the reduced thickness of this layer. Reconstruction of the dendritic
Quiescent long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs) are efficiently activated by type I interferon (IFN-I). However, this effect remains poorly investigated in the context of IFN-I-inducing virus infections. Here we report that both vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection induce LT-HSC activation that substantially differs from the effects triggered upon injection of synthetic IFN-I-inducing agents. In both infections, inflammatory responses had to exceed local thresholds within the bone marrow to confer LT-HSC cell cycle entry, and IFN-I receptor triggering was not critical for this activation. After resolution of acute MCMV infection, LT-HSCs returned to phenotypic quiescence. However, non-acute MCMV infection induced a sustained inflammatory milieu within the bone marrow that was associated with long-lasting impairment of LT-HSC function. In conclusion, our results show that systemic virus infections fundamentally affect LT-HSCs and that also non-acute ...
Our studies demonstrate the possibility of inhibiting development of atherosclerosis by activation of atheroprotective immune responses against apoB-100 peptide sequences. The existence of atheroprotective immune response has previously been suggested by studies demonstrating that treatment with cyclosporin accelerates atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits26 and mice27 and by the observation of increased atherosclerosis in major histocompatability complex class I-deficient C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet.28 B cell reconstitution inhibits development of atherosclerosis in splenectomized apoE-null mice,29,30⇓ as well as neointima formation after carotid injury in RAG-1 mice.31 The latter studies suggest that humoral immune responses are particularly important for atheroprotection, a notion that is further supported by studies demonstrating that repeated injections of immunoglobulins reduce atherosclerosis in apoE-null mice.32. High levels of IgG and IgM against both apoB-100 peptide ...
Warden, S. J., Galley, M. R., Hurd, A. L., Richard, J. S., George, L. A., Guildenbecher, E. A., Barker, R. G. and Fuchs, R. K. (2014), Cortical and Trabecular Bone Benefits of Mechanical Loading Are Maintained Long Term in Mice Independent of Ovariectomy. J Bone Miner Res, 29: 1131-1140. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.2143 ...
The major histocompatability complex (MHC) includes a variety of genes in vertebrates, which are responsible for the histocompatibility of (Resources #630)
BioAssay record AID 319416 submitted by ChEMBL: Effect on triglyceride level in 5-week old apoE-/- C57BL/6J mouse fed on western diet and 15 mg/kg/day, po drug simultaneously in 5-11 week early intervention study.
It is hypothesized that delta-tocotrienol (δT3) reduces adiposity, insulin resistance and hepatic triglycerides through its anti-inflammatory properties. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6J male mice were fed a high-fat diet (HF) with or without supplementation of δT3 (HF+δT3) at 400 mg/kg and 1600 mg/kg for 14 weeks, and they were compared to mice fed a low-fat diet (LF) or HF supplemented with metformin as an antidiabetic control. Glucose tolerance tests were administered 2 weeks prior to the end of treatments. Histology, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and protein analyses were performed to assess inflammation and fatty acid metabolism in adipose and liver tissues. Significant improvements in glucose tolerance, and reduced hepatic steatosis and serum triglycerides were observed in δT3-supplemented groups compared to the HF group. Body and fat pad weights were not significantly reduced in HF+δT3 groups; however, we observed smaller fat cell size and reduced macrophage infiltration in ...
Dendritic cells are the messengers of the immune system, transporting antigens from sites of inflammation to the lymph organs that serve as central hubs for immune activation. Ufer et al. have identified a neuronal plasticity molecule-activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein/activity-regulated gene 3.1 (Arc/Arg3.1)-that is expressed in migratory dendritic cells in the skin. Arc/Arg3.1 regulates cytoskeletal changes in dendritic cells, accelerating migration in response to inflammation. Moreover, Arc/Arg3.1 was required for inducing T cell responses in two different disease models-experimental autoimmune encephalitis and allergic contact dermatitis. Targeting Arc/Arg3.1 may therefore be a therapeutic strategy to modify dendritic cell immunotherapy. ...
In this study, we investigated the interactions of Staphylococcus aureus with mast cells, which are multifunctional sentinels lining the surfaces of the body. We found that bone marrow-derived murine mast cells (BMMC) exerted a powerful phagocytosis-independent antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. Both the release of extracellular traps as well as discharge of antimicrobial compounds were the mechanisms used by the BMMC to kill extracellular S. aureus. This was accompanied by the secretion of mediators such as TNF-α involved in the recruitment of effector cells. Interestingly, S. aureus subverted the extracellular antimicrobial activity of the BMMC by internalizing within these cells. S. aureus was also capable to internalize within human mast cells (HMC-1) and within murine skin mast cells during in vivo infection. Bacteria internalization was, at least in part, mediated by the α5β1 integrins expressed on the surface of the mast cell. In the intracellular milieu, the bacterium survived ...
In this study, we investigated the interactions of Staphylococcus aureus with mast cells, which are multifunctional sentinels lining the surfaces of the body. We found that bone marrow-derived murine mast cells (BMMC) exerted a powerful phagocytosis-independent antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. Both the release of extracellular traps as well as discharge of antimicrobial compounds were the mechanisms used by the BMMC to kill extracellular S. aureus. This was accompanied by the secretion of mediators such as TNF-α involved in the recruitment of effector cells. Interestingly, S. aureus subverted the extracellular antimicrobial activity of the BMMC by internalizing within these cells. S. aureus was also capable to internalize within human mast cells (HMC-1) and within murine skin mast cells during in vivo infection. Bacteria internalization was, at least in part, mediated by the α5β1 integrins expressed on the surface of the mast cell. In the intracellular milieu, the bacterium survived ...
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Regularly, we identified that host macrophages engulfed alloreactive T cells in between and h of in vitro culture and, as a result, way more effectively than host DC . To examine regardless of whether host macrophages may also engulf donor T cells in vivo, we traced the fate of alloreactive T cells for the duration of the h just after their injection in lethally irradiated recipient mice. Alloreactive T cells accumulated close to the spleen marginal zone shortly after adoptive transfer and steadily shifted toward the T cell area . A substantial amount of donor T cells had been trapped in the red pulp in close contact with host macrophages at early time points after their transfer . Steady with effects obtained in cultures, CFSE labeled donor T cells have been engulfed by splenic macrophages in the course of the 1st day of transplant and ahead of the initiation of donor T cell proliferation in vivo ...
IL-13 is an immunoregulatory cytokine produced primarily by activated Th2 cells, and also by mast cells and NK cells. Targeted deletion of IL-13 in mice resulted in impaired Th2 cell development and indicated an important role for IL-13 in the expulsion of gastrointestinal parasites. IL-13 exerts anti-inflammatory effects on monocytes and macrophages and it inhibits the expression of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8. IL-13 has also been shown to enhance B cell proliferation and to induce isotype switching resulting in increased production of IgE. Blocking of IL-13 activity inhibits the pathophysiology of asthma. Human and murine IL-13 is cross-species reactive. Recombinant murine IL-13 is a 12.3 kDa protein consisting of 111 amino acid residues. ...
Aims - Aortic adaptive immunity plays a crucial role in atherosclerosis; however, the precise mechanisms leading to T cell activation in the arterial wall remain poorly understood. Methods and Results - Here we have identified naïve T cells in the aorta of wild-type and TCR transgenic mice and we demonstrate that naïve T cells can be primed directly in the vessel wall with a similar activation profile to splenic and lymphoid T cells. Aortic homing of naïve T cells is regulated at least in part by the P-selectin glycosylated ligand-1 (PSGL-1) receptor. In experimental atherosclerosis the aorta supports CD4+ T cell activation selectively driving Th1 polarization. By contrast, secondary lymphoid organs display Treg expansion. Conclusions - Our results demonstrate that the aorta can support T cell priming and that naïve T cells traffic between the circulation and vessel wall. These data underpin the paradigm that local priming of T cells specific for plaque antigens contributes to atherosclerosis
Riley KG, Pasek RC, Maulis MF, Dunn JC, Bolus WR, Kendall PL, Hasty AH, Gannon M.. Mol Metab. 2015 May 19;4(8):584-91. doi: 10.1016/j.molmet.2015.05.002. eCollection 2015 Aug.. Activation of FoxM1 Revitalizes the Replicative Potential of Aged β-Cells in Male Mice and Enhances Insulin Secretion.. Golson ML, Dunn JC, Maulis MF, Dadi PK, Osipovich AB, Magnuson MA, Jacobson DA, Gannon M.. Diabetes. 2015 Nov;64(11):3829-38. doi: 10.2337/db15-0465. Epub 2015 Aug 6.. High-fat diet-induced β-cell proliferation occurs prior to insulin resistance in C57Bl/6J male mice.. Mosser RE, Maulis MF, Moull VS, Dunn JC, Carboneau BA, Arasi K, Pappan K, Poitout V, GannonM.. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Apr 1;308(7):E573-82. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00460.2014. Epub 2015 Jan 27.. Activated FoxM1 attenuates streptozotocin-mediated β-cell death.. Golson ML, Maulis MF, Dunn JC, Poffenberger G, Schug J, Kaestner KH, Gannon MA.. Mol Endocrinol. 2014 Sep;28(9):1435-47. doi: 10.1210/me.2014-1024. Epub 2014 Jul ...
The role of MC in non-allergic inflammatory responses has been a subject of many recent investigations. Although in vitro evidence of T cell-MC interactions exists, as does proof that MC are normally present in secondary lymphoid organs, little is known about the in vivo contribution of these cells to adaptive immune responses 28-31. The availability of the W/Wv mouse model has been pivotal in definitively establishing a role for MC in innate immune responses that confer, for example, resistance to bacterial infection 32. However, because the c-kit mutations present in this mouse can affect the development of other hematopoietic cell lineages, the use of this model requires stringent proof that MC are responsible for any phenotypic differences observed between W/Wv mice and their WT counterparts. This is particularly true in instances such as the present study of EAE where MC effects on T cell function are being investigated. Despite the widespread use of W/Wv mice, a careful analysis of ...
Abstract: Interleukin-17 is a proinflammatory cytokine that is produced by a variety of cells, including a newly identified subset of activated CD4+ T cells (Th17 cells), gd T cells, CD8+ cells and NKT cells. Th17 cells are thought to be a distinct lineage of Th cells that mainly produce IL-17, IL-22 and other cytokines which are involved in inflammatory response. gd T cells have also been shown to be a potent source of IL-17 and, in some cases, produce more IL-17 than ab T cells. IL-17-producing T cells are important in the host defense against acute pulmonary infection during the early immune response, also have the potential to elicit detrimental responses during chronic infection-related inflammatory conditions. This review will introduce recent research progress on the role of IL-17-producing T cells in the pulmonary bacterial infection ...
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) accumulate within tumors and inhibit antitumor immune responses. However, the effects of tumor-induced stress responses on MDSC function remain unclear. Thevenot and colleagues found that expression of the cellular stress sensor C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) was increased in tumor-infiltrating MDSCs compared with other immune cell types. Stromal deletion of CHOP or generation of CHOP-deficient bone marrow chimeras reduced tumor growth in mice, suggesting a role for CHOP in the promotion of tumor growth. CHOP-deficient MDSCs exhibited enhanced accumulation in tumors, increased proliferation, and decreased apoptosis compared with wild-type MDSCs. In addition, CHOP deletion diminished the capacity of tumor-infiltrating MDSCs to inhibit activated T-cell proliferation and IFNγ production and resulted in reduced levels of molecules essential for MDSC activity. Moreover, CHOP-deficient MDSCs failed to induce T-cell tolerance in vivo and induced antitumor ...
Caspr3-Deficient Mice Exhibit Low Motor Learning during the Early Phase of the Accelerated Rotarod Task. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Cell culture and reagents. Ten CRC cell lines were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection, and HCA-7 cells were a gift from Susan Kirkland (University of London, London, United Kingdom). All cells were maintained in McCoys 5A medium with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). AM251 and R-1 methanandamide (R-1) were purchased from Cayman Chemical. 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) and 8-(6-aminohexyl)amino cyclic AMP (8-AHA-cAMP) were obtained from Sigma. PD98059, LY294002, and H-89 were obtained from Calbiochem. A negative control small interfering RNA (siRNAC) and a CB1-selective siRNA (siRNACB1) were purchased from Ambion.. Animals. CB1- and CB2-deficient mice on a C57BL/6J genetic background were generated as previously described ( 19, 20). CB1-deficient ApcMin/+ mice (Cnr1−/−/ApcMin/+), CB2-deficient ApcMin/+ mice (Cnr2−/−/ApcMin/+), and their controls (Cnr1+/+/Cnr2+/+/ApcMin/+) were derived from same littermates by breeding Cnr1−/− or Cnr2−/− mice with ApcMin/+ mice on a ...
This study establishes a role for IgE in experimental AAAs. Using Ang‐II infusion‐induced experimental AAAs in Apoe−/− mice, FcεR1‐deficient mice, adoptive transfer of leukocyte populations, and anti‐IgE mAb administration, we demonstrated that IgE actions on CD4+ T cells, MCs, and macrophages, and possibly other inflammatory and vascular cells contribute to AAA pathogenesis. This study implicates release of pro‐inflammatory cytokines after IgE activation of leukocytes a major mechanism for affecting AAAs among other possible pathways.. The present observations show a direct role of IgE in T cells. T‐cell functions in AAAs have been controversial, although, it is difficult to compare results obtained from different mouse models of AAA and in different experimental settings. In peri‐aortic CaCl2 injury‐induced experimental AAAs, absence of CD4+ T cells or Th1 cytokine IFN‐γ suppressed AAA formation. Intraperitoneal administration of IFN‐γ partially reversed AAA ...
Selathurai, Ahrathy, Deswaerte, Virginie, Kanellakis, Peter, Tipping, Peter, Toh, Ban-Hock, Bobik, Alex and Kyaw, Tin 2014, Natural killer (NK) cells augment atherosclerosis by cytotoxic-dependent mechanisms, Cardiovascular research, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 128-137, doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvu016. ...
While much is understood about dendritic cells and their role in the immune system, the study of these cells is critical to gain a more complete understanding of their function. Dendritic cell isolation from mouse body tissues can be difficult and the number of cells isolated small. This protocol describes the growth of large number of dendritic cells from the culture of mouse
The rules by which naïve T cells decide whether and how to respond to antigenic stimuli are incompletely understood. Using multiphoton intravital microscopy (MP-IVM) in lymph nodes (LNs), we have shown that CD8+ T cells are primed by antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) in three consecutive phases. During phase one, T cells undergo brief serial contacts with many DCs for several hours after homing into the LNs. Subsequently, during phase two, T cells engage in prolonged stable interactions with DCs. Finally, in the third phase, T cells return to transient interactions with DCs as they begin to proliferate and eventually leave the LNs. We have examined the influence of antigen dose on the duration of phase one by systematically varying both the number of cognate peptide-major histocompatability (pMHC) complexes per DC and the density of cognate pMHC complex-presenting DCs per LN. The duration of phase one and the kinetics of CD8+ T cell activation were inversely correlated with both ...
In this paper, we have shown that CpG-matured murine PDCs efficiently prime antigen-specific CTLs in vivo from naive nontransgenic precursors. PDC-primed CTLs display cytolytic activity in vivo against target cells expressing the relevant antigen and are capable of protecting mice from a subsequent challenge with a tumor recombinant for the immunizing peptide. CTL priming occurs after injection of peptide-pulsed PDCs, but more importantly, we demonstrated that PDCs present endogenous antigens for which the density of MHC-peptide complexes at the cell surface is much lower than after peptide pulsing. However, PDCs are not able to present exogenous antigens, in contrast to MDCs, thus underlining the heterogeneity within the DC populations.. Previous works showed that, upon in vitro maturation, PDCs develop into potent immunostimulatory cells, although not to the same extent as control MDCs (8, 10, 12-14). In our in vivo experiments, mature PDCs and MDCs injected at high numbers elicited comparable ...
Animal subjects. The AT1ALepR-KO colony was maintained on a C57BL/6J background by iterative breeding of a male mouse expressing Cre recombinase under control of the Lepr promoter (12) with a female mouse with loxP sites flanking the AT1a allele (JAX-016211; The Jackson Laboratory) (45). The AT1AAgRP-KO colony was maintained on a C57BL/6J background by iterative breeding of a male mouse expressing Cre recombinase under control of the Agrp promoter (JAX-012899; The Jackson Laboratory) with a female mouse with loxP sites flanking the AT1a allele. Experiments were conducted in 10- to 15-week-old male and female mice. Littermate controls were used throughout, and no differences for any endpoint were discovered when comparing among littermate controls of various genotypes (see the Supplemental Data for additional details regarding the littermate controls). Mice were housed at 25°C on a standard 12-hour light/12-hour dark cycle with ad libitum access to water and standard chow (18% kcal from fat; ...
While previous studies have extensively documented protumor functions of NF-κB (22, 23, 36-40), our results indicate a potential tumor suppressor function of NF-κB that is mediated by enhancement of T cell-induced antitumor responses. In mouse studies, we found that NF-κB activation renders immunogenic tumors susceptible to T cell rejection. A key mechanism of rejection is increased infiltration of T cells into tumors through NF-κB-induced expression of T cell chemokines. We found an especially important role for the T cell chemokine CCL2 in tumor rejection in mice, high expression of which was also associated with improved survival in human lung cancer. However, it is likely that other NF-κB-induced T cell chemokines, such as CCL5, also play a crucial role in T cell recruitment and tumor rejection in other tumor models. Studies by Schreiber and colleagues have defined distinct phases of the immune response against tumors (18). In light of these studies, we believe the impact of ...
Tumor cells are generally regarded as poor stimulators of naive T cells. In contrast, dendritic cells (DCs) are highly specialized in this function, and are therefore likely to be important intermediaries in the process of stimulating T cell responses to tumors. While providing solid evidence that DCs participate in antitumor immunity has proved difficult, several lines of evidence point in this direction. First, animal models involving bone marrow chimeras have shown that cells of hematopoeitic origin are required to elicit T cell responses to whole-tumor vaccines. Second, compared with other cells of hematopoeitic origin, DCs are particularly well-equipped to cross-present exogenous antigens to CD8+ T cells, a critical function if intermediary cells are involved. Third, tumor-infiltrating DCs purified from tumor samples have the capacity to cross-present tumor antigens in vitro. Finally, priming of anti-tumor T cell responses can be abrogated in new in vivo models in which DCs can be ...
The interleukin (IL)-13 receptor alpha2 (IL-13Ralpha2) chain is a primary binding and internalization subunit for a Th2-derived immune regulatory cytokine, IL-13. Although extremely high levels of IL-13Ralpha2 chain are expressed on a variety of human tumor cells and specimens, its precise role in tumor immunology has not been defined. To investigate the role of IL-13Ralpha2 in tumor immunity, we used D5 melanoma cells stably transfected with the human IL-13Ralpha2 gene (D5alpha2) to assess the effect of an IL-13Ralpha2 DNA vaccine in immunocompetent animals. Prophylactic immunization of mice with the IL-13Ralpha2 DNA vaccine resulted in protection against D5alpha2 tumor development. In vivo depletion experiments in C57BL/6 and RAG-2 knockout mice indicated that both T and B cells, but not natural killer cells, were required for the tumor protection. In addition, antibody induced by the IL-13Ralpha2 DNA vaccine showed a modest but significant inhibitory effect on D5alpha2 cells in vitro, ...
Morgan, E L. and Weigle, W O., "The immune response in aged c57bl/6 mice. II. Characterization and reversal of a defect in the ability of aged spleen cells to respond to the adjuvant properties of fc fragments." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 558 ...
Mouse genotyping. Null and wild-type mice were obtained from heterozygous p27Kip1 breeding pairs (in a mixed genetic background of C57BL/6 and B6SJL) (Kiyokawa et al., 1996). The genotype was determined by PCR analysis of genomic tail DNA. Briefly, tails were digested in lysis buffer (100 mm NaCl, 10 mm Tris, pH 8.0, 0.5% SDS, 25 mm EDTA, 148 μg/ml proteinase K stock) for 14-18 hr at 55°C. Genomic DNA was isolated and amplified by PCR using the following primers: 5′-CGCCCCGACTGCATCTGCGTGTTCGAA-3′ and 5′-TCAAACGTGAGAGTGTCTAACGG-3′ directed against thep27Kip1 gene and 5′-AGGGCTTATGATTCTGAAAGTCG-3′ corresponding to the neo sequence. After a 35 cycle reaction (denaturation at 94°C for 45 sec, annealing at 62°C for 1 min, extension at 72°C for 1 min), the wild-type allele yielded a 210 bp PCR product and the null allele yielded a longer 290 bp product because of neo insertion in the first exon.. Whole-mount bromodeoxyuridine incorporation.Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, Sigma, St. Louis, ...
Male and Female Mice: 129S1/SvImJ; Male and Female Mice: A/J; Male and Female Mice: AKR/J; Male and Female Mice: B6C3F1; Male and Female Mice: BALB/cByJ; Male and Female Mice: BTBR T+ tf/J 2; Male and Female Mice: C3H/HeJ; Male and Female Mice: C57BL/6; Male and Female Mice: CAST/EiJ (M. m. castaneus); Male and Female Mice: DBA/2 Jackson; Male and Female Mice: FVB/NJ; Male and Female Mice: KK/HIJ; Male and Female Mice: MOLF/EiJ (M. m. molossinus); Male and Female Mice: NOD/LtJ; Male and Female Mice: NZW/LacJ; Male and Female Mice: PWD/PhJ (M. m. musculus); Male and Female Mice: WSB/EiJ (M. m. domesticus ...
Tumor-infiltrating dendritic cell subsets of progressive or regressive tumors induce suppressive or protective immune responses. - Yongqing Liu, Xuguang Bi, Shulin Xu, Jim Xiang
In the last part the differential response of splenic mature B cells to the mitogen lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was investigated. It was known that frequencies of LPS-reactive B cells in C57BL/6 mice is higher than in BALB/c mice. In this study, it could be shown that actually the FOB cells of C57BL/6 respond stronger to LPS in vitro than FOB cells of the BALB/c strain. In addition, MZB cells of both mouse strains showed a stronger response to LPS than the FOB cells. However, in contrast to the observation in FOB cells, MZB cells of both tested strains responded equally strong. A genetic approach did not lead to the identification of a responsible locus for the observed differential response in FOB cells, but indicated that most probably multiple genes control the response in a differential fashion in FOB cells in the tested mouse strains. Furthermore, the results suggest that the stronger response of FOB cells from C57BL/6 mice either involves components within the MyD88-dependent pathway or ...
Experimental mouse models are widely used for preclinical research on dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and cardiometabolic diseases
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Effective immunity to pathogens requires that coordinated, multi-cellular responses emerge from a myriad of "conversations" that take place between cells of the innate and adaptive immune compartments. My lab is working to understand the molecular mechanism that mediate the conversations that occur between antigen-presenting cells and T cells that determine if and how a T cell responds to antigen. We are using a variety of classic molecular, cellular, and biochemical techniques, as well as more modern live cell imaging approaches, to probe these processes. We are also developing mouse model systems to determine how individual mechanisms contribute to T cell responses during pathogenic infection or autoimmunity. Altogether, our work is aimed at increasing our basic and practical understanding of T cell activation and regulation.. ...
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We use adult or fetal mouse hematopoietic stem cells or defined immature cell types from the thymus and grow them in culture dishes to control the developmental environment of HSCs. These cells can develop into T cells if and only if the environment expresses Notch ligands.. ...
The conventional dendritic cell (cDC) II (CD8- 33D1+) subset is more efficient in processing antigens for presentation by MHC II than the cDC I (CD8+CD205+) subset ...
The deletion mutation was introduced into the ABI 2.1 embryonic stem (ES) cell line (Soriano et al., 1991) and transmitted to the germline as described previously (Bullard et al., 1996). Chimeric mice were bred with C57BL/6J mice, and the mice used in these studies were maintained on a mixed 129/SvEv and C57BL/6J background. The mutation is being back-crossed on the C57BL/6J background for future work.. Southern, Northern, and Western analyses. Southern blot hybridization was performed according to standard methods (Sambrook et al., 1989) using a hybridization solution of 0.125m NaPO4, pH 7.0, 0.25 mNaCl, 1 mm EDTA, 10% polyethylene glycol (PEG-8000), 7% SDS, and 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) at 65°C overnight followed by washing to a final stringency of 0.2× SSC/0.1% SDS at 65°C and autoradiography at −80°C.. Total RNA was isolated from brain after homogenization in Ultraspec II (Tel Test, Houston, TX). Total RNA was resolved on a 1.2% agarose gel in 10 mm NaPO4 buffer, pH 6.8, after ...
Ageing arises with the exhaustion of SC pools, with respect to both the amount of SCs and, importantly, SC functionality (Rossi et al, 2008). Hence, one explanation for the prenatal effect on ageing could be that the stress to which the embryos are exposed limits SC function, thereby also limiting the regenerative capacity of the tissues of the offspring. In this manner, the path to ageing would be shortened ab initio. The stress could directly affect the SCs, SC niches or both. In the particular case of replicative damage, it is probable that the niches would be the affected target, rather than the SCs, owing to the low cycling activity of SCs-a feature which is frequently used as a characteristic to identify them in vivo (Fuchs, 2009). Accordingly, the bone marrow of Seckel animals can reconstitute the haematopoietic pool of irradiated wild‐type animals to a large extent, whereas the opposite is not true. This means that there is an inherent dysfunction of the Seckel haematopoietic SC niche, ...
The TRAMP-C1 (ATCC- CRL-2730), TRAMP- C2 (ATCC-CRL-2731) and TRAMP-C3 (ATCC CRL-2732) cell lines were derived in 1996 from a heterogeneous 32 week primary tumor in the prostate of a PB-Tag C57BL/6 (TRAMP) mouse.
Methods and Results-To explore the issue of macrophage IKKβ involvement of atherogenesis, we generated myeloid-specific IKKβ-deficient low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice (IKKβ∆MyeLDLR−/−). Deficiency of IKKβ in myeloid cells did not affect plasma lipid levels but significantly decreased diet-induced atherosclerotic lesion areas in the aortic root, brachiocephalic artery, and aortic arch of low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice. Ablation of myeloid IKKβ attenuated macrophage inflammatory responses and decreased atherosclerotic lesional inflammation. Furthermore, deficiency of IKKβ decreased adhesion, migration, and lipid uptake in macrophages.. ...
Radix Glycyrrhizae polysaccharide (GP), the most important component of Radix Glycyrrhizae, has been reported to have many immunopharmacological activities. However, the mechanism by which GP affects dendritic cells (DCs) has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of GP on murine bone marrow-derived DCs and the potential pathway through which GP exerts this effect. Mononuclear cells (MNCs) were isolated from murine bone marrow and induced to become DCs by culturing with GM-CSF and IL-4. Six days later, DCs were divided into three groups: control group, GP group and LPS group. After 48 h of treatment, phenotypic figures and antigen uptake ability were determined by FACS analysis. The proliferation of DC-stimulated allogenic CD3+ T cells was detected by WST-1. IL-12 p70 and IFN-γ, which are secreted by DCs and CD3+ T cells respectively, were quantified by ELISA. Additionally, IL-12 p40 mRNA expression was determined by real-time PCR. Alterations in TLR4-related signaling pathways
TY - JOUR. T1 - Some fine-structural fi ndings on the thyroid gland in Apc1638T/1638T mice that express a C-terminus lacking truncated Apc. AU - Yokoyama, Atsushi. AU - Nomura, Ryuji. AU - Kurosumi, Masafumi. AU - Shimomura, Atsushi. AU - Onouchi, Takanori. AU - Iizuka-Kogo, Akiko. AU - Smits, Ron. AU - Fodde, Riccardo. AU - Itoh, Mitsuyasu. AU - Senda, Takao. PY - 2012/6/1. Y1 - 2012/6/1. N2 - Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) is a multifunctional protein as well as a tumor suppressor. To determine the functions of the C-terminal domain of Apc, we examined Apc1638T/1638T mice that express a truncated Apc lacking the C-terminal domain. The Apc1638T/1638T mice were tumor free and exhibited growth retardation. We recently reported abnormalities in thyroid morphology and functions of Apc1638T/1638T mice, although the mechanisms underlying these abnormalities are not known. In the present study, we further compared thyroid gland morphology in Apc1638T/1638T and Apc+/+ mice. The diameters of thyroid ...
BACKGROUND: Glucose homeostasis is distorted by defects of the PI3K/AKT and AMPK pathways in insulin-sensitive tissues, allowing the accumulation of glucose in the blood. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects and mechanisms by which ethanol extract of Caulerpa lentillifera (CLE) regulates glucose metabolism in C57BL/KsJ-db/db (db/db) mice. METHODS: Mice were administered CLE (250 or 500 mg/kg BW) or rosiglitazone (RSG, 10 mg/kg BW) for 6 weeks. Then, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test (IPITT) were performed, and blood glucose was measured in db/db mice. Levels of insulin and insulin resistance factors in plasma, glycogen content in the liver, and IRS, PI3K, AKT, and GLUT4 expressions in skeletal muscles were measured in db/db mice. Glucose uptake and insulin signaling molecules were measured in L6 myocytes, using fluorometry and Western blotting. RESULTS: CLE significantly decreased fasting blood glucose, glucose level in OGTT and IPITT, ...
Phytosterols, the plant analogues of cholesterol, widely occur in the human diet. In this study, we investigated and compared the effects of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol (both with purities ≥95%) on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in C57BL/6J male mice fed a high fat Western-style diet. Mice tr
Glycolipid ligands for invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) are loaded onto CD1d molecules in the late endosome/lysosome. Accumulation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) in lysosomal storage diseases could potentially influence endogenous and exogenous lipid loading and/or presentation and, thus, affect iNKT cell selection or function. The percentages and frequency of iNKT cells were reduced in multiple mouse models of lysosomal GSL storage disease, irrespective of the specific genetic defect or lipid species stored. Reduced numbers of iNKT cells resulted in the absence of cytokine production in response to alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) and reduced iNKT cell-mediated lysis of wild-type targets loaded with alpha-GalCer. The reduction in iNKT cells did not result from defective expression of CD1d or a lack of antigen-presenting cells. Although H-2 restricted CD4(+) T cell responses were generally unaffected, processing of a lysosome-dependent analogue of alpha-GalCer was impaired in all the
The EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinase is a major regulator of axonal growth and astrocyte reactivity and is a possible inflammatory mediator. Given that multiple sclerosis (MS) is primarily an inflammatory demyelinating disease and in mouse models of MS, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), axonal degeneration and reactive gliosis are prominent clinical features, we hypothesised that endogenous EphA4 could play a role in modulating EAE. EAE was induced in EphA4 knockout and wildtype mice using MOG peptide immunisation and clinical severity and histological features of the disease were then compared in lumbar spinal cord sections. EphA4 knockout mice exhibited a markedly less severe clinical course than wildtype mice, with a lower maximum disease grade and a slightly later onset of clinical symptoms. Numbers of infiltrating T cells and macrophages, the number and size of the lesions, and the extent of astrocytic gliosis were similar in both genotypes; however, EphA4 knockout mice ...

Experts and Doctors on inbred c57bl mice in Indianapolis, United StatesExperts and Doctors on inbred c57bl mice in Indianapolis, United States

Research Topics about Experts and Doctors on inbred c57bl mice in Indianapolis, United States ... You are here: Locale , United States , Indiana , Experts and Doctors on inbred c57bl mice in Indianapolis, United States ... Experts and Doctors on inbred c57bl mice in Indianapolis, United States. Summary. Locale: Indianapolis, United States ... exposure is linked to hyperdynamic circulation in wild-type mice and increased hepatic resistance in eNOS(-/-) mice. .. ...
more infohttp://www.labome.org/locale/united/indiana/experts-and-doctors-on-inbred-c57bl-mice-in-indianapolis--united-states-27004.html

Quantitative trait loci analysis for plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations and atherosclerosis susceptibility between inbred...Quantitative trait loci analysis for plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations and atherosclerosis susceptibility between inbred...

The C57BL/6 (B6) and 129 mouse inbred strains differ markedly in plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations and atherosclerosis ... loci analysis for plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations and atherosclerosis susceptibility between inbred mouse strains C57BL/ ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14592847

Mice, Inbred C57BL | Profiles RNSMice, Inbred C57BL | Profiles RNS

Mice, Inbred Strains [B01.050.150.900.649.865.635.505.500.400]. *Mice, Inbred C57BL [B01.050.150.900.649.865.635.505.500.400. ... Inbred C57BL" by people in this website by year, and whether "Mice, Inbred C57BL" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Mice, Inbred C57BL" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Mice, Inbred C57BL*Mice, Inbred C57BL. *C57BL Mice, Inbred. *Inbred C57BL Mice ...
more infohttps://profiles.uchicago.edu/profiles/display/17193

Individual differences in the antibody response of inbred C57Bl/6J mice and their relation to individual differences in open...Individual differences in the antibody response of inbred C57Bl/6J mice and their relation to individual differences in open...

Mice of the inbred C57Bl/6J strain displayed high variability in the antibody response of the IgG class to heat-aggregated ... Individual differences in the antibody response of inbred C57Bl/6J mice and their relation to individual differences in open- ... Male and female mice of the C57Bl/6J strain were purchased from Harlan Iberica (Barcelona, Spain). Seven C57Bl/6J females were ... one goal of this report was to find out if such differences occurred in mice of the C57Bl/6J inbred strain. ...
more infohttp://www.elsevier.es/es-revista-anuario-psicologia-the-ub-199-articulo-individual-differences-in-antibody-response-S0066512617300041

C57BL/6 Mice | Black 6 Inbred Mouse Strain | Taconic BiosciencesC57BL/6 Mice | Black 6 Inbred Mouse Strain | Taconic Biosciences

... is among the most versatile inbred mouse strains and the preferred genetic background for several applications. ... 2006). Taconics C57BL mice, including C57BL/6JBomTac, C57BL/6NTac and C57BL/10SgSnAiTac, or our B6D2F1 and B6129F1, do not ... A Comparison of Metabolic Characteristics Among C57BL/6NTAC, C57BL/6J, and C57BL/6JBOM DIO Mice With Environmental Conditioning ... One of the most used inbred mouse models, the C57BL/6 is used in nearly every research application, and its commonly used as ...
more infohttps://www.taconic.com/mouse-model/black-6-b6ntac

Characterization of the Discriminative Stimulus Effects of the Neuroactive Steroid Pregnanolone in DBA/2J and C57BL/6J Inbred...Characterization of the Discriminative Stimulus Effects of the Neuroactive Steroid Pregnanolone in DBA/2J and C57BL/6J Inbred...

Subjects. Twelve DBA/2J male mice, 13 DBA/2J female mice, 12 C57BL/6J male mice, and 12 C57BL/6J female mice were obtained from ... Pregnanolone. DBA/2J male mice (n = 12), DBA/2J female mice (n = 13), and C57BL/6J female mice (n = 12) acquired the ... Notably, in this study there were differences between male DBA/2J and C57BL/6J mice, where the male C57BL/6J mice displayed ... for the male mice and 24% for the female mice. The highest dose tested in the female C57BL/6J mice (1.7 mg/kg) only produced 32 ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/314/2/675

C57BL/6 and 129 inbred mouse strains differ in Gbp2 and Gbp2b expression in response to inflammatory stimuli in vivo. | CrickC57BL/6 and 129 inbred mouse strains differ in Gbp2 and Gbp2b expression in response to inflammatory stimuli in vivo. | Crick

C57BL/6 and 129 inbred mouse strains differ in Gbp2 and Gbp2b expression in response to inflammatory stimuli in vivo. ... Results: We show that C57BL/6J relative to 129/Sv mice display moderately elevated expression of Gbp2, but more prominently, ... we studied the expression of Gbps in both C57BL/6J and 129/Sv mice following in vivo stimulation with adjuvants and after ... We further find that the higher expression of Gbp2b mRNA in 129/Sv mice correlates with a gene duplication event at the Gbp2b ...
more infohttps://www.crick.ac.uk/research/publications/c57bl/6-and-129-inbred-mouse-strains-differ-in-gbp2-and-gbp2b-expression-in-response-to-inflammatory-stimuli-in-vivo

Circadian timekeeping in BALB/c and C57BL/6 inbred mouse strains by William J. Schwartz and Pamela Zimmerman"Circadian timekeeping in BALB/c and C57BL/6 inbred mouse strains" by William J. Schwartz and Pamela Zimmerman

Reciprocal F1 hybrids of BALB/c x C57BL/6 matings revealed dominance of the C57BL/6 genotype, no sex linkage, and a significant ... this discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable in BALB/c than in C57BL/6 mice, though the interstrain difference ... Further study of inherited differences in the BALB/c and C57BL/6 strains may be a useful noninvasive experimental approach for ... Examination of CXB recombinant inbred strains provided no support for the hypothesis of monogenic inheritance. ...
more infohttps://escholarship.umassmed.edu/oapubs/1184/

Variation in the cortical area map of C57BL/6J and DBA/2J inbred mice predicts strain identity | BMC Neuroscience | Full TextVariation in the cortical area map of C57BL/6J and DBA/2J inbred mice predicts strain identity | BMC Neuroscience | Full Text

Here we describe differences in the cortical area map of two commonly used inbred strains of laboratory mice, C57BL/6J and DBA/ ... Inbred strains of laboratory mice can be exploited to study cortical area map formation if there are significant phenotypic ... C57BL/6J and DBA/2J have markedly different cortical area maps, suggesting that inbred strains harbor enough phenotypic ... The sample of C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice can be discriminated with 90% accuracy on the basis of these three size dimensions. ...
more infohttps://0-bmcneurosci-biomedcentral-com.brum.beds.ac.uk/articles/10.1186/1471-2202-6-18

MGI
 - Inbred Strains: C57BLMGI - Inbred Strains: C57BL

New microsatellite polymorphisms identified between C57BL-6, C57BL- 10, and C57BL-KsJ inbred mouse strains. Immunogenet. 43, 72 ... Inbred Strains of Mice: C57BL. C57BL Black, a. Origin: Little 1921 from the mating of female 57 with male 52 from Miss Abbie ... McClive P. J., Huang D., and Morahan G. (1994) C57BL/6 and C57BL/10 inbred mouse strains differ at multiple loci on chromosome ... Ks resumed inbreeding. To J 1948. Differs from C57BL/6 and C57BL/10 at the Bgls, Bglt, cdm and H2 loci as a result of a genetic ...
more infohttp://www.informatics.jax.org/inbred_strains/mouse/docs/C57BL.shtml

Acute exercise induces FGF21 expr... preview & related info | MendeleyAcute exercise induces FGF21 expr... preview & related info | Mendeley

Mice. *Mice, Inbred C57BL. *PPAR alpha. *PPAR alpha: metabolism. *Physical Conditioning, Animal ... Here, we showed that serum FGF21 level is increased in mice after a single bout of acute exercise, and that this is accompanied ... FGF21 gene expression was induced in the liver but not in skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue of mice after acute exercise ... Acute exercise induces FGF21 expression in mice and in healthy humans.. *Kim K ...
more infohttps://www.mendeley.com/research-papers/acute-exercise-induces-fgf21-expression-mice-healthy-humans/

Daniel O. Schmitt, Professor of Evolutionary Anthropology and Associate of the Duke Initiative for Science & SocietyDaniel O. Schmitt, Professor of Evolutionary Anthropology and Associate of the Duke Initiative for Science & Society

MiceMice, Inbred C57BLMice, Transgenic • Middle Aged • Mobility Limitation • Models, Biological • Monoamine Oxidase ... Inbred Lew • Rats, Sprague-Dawley • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II • Reference Values • Regression Analysis • Risk ...
more infohttps://fds.duke.edu/db/aas/BAA/faculty%20all/daniel.schmitt

Daniel O. Schmitt, Professor of Evolutionary Anthropology and Associate of the Duke Initiative for Science & SocietyDaniel O. Schmitt, Professor of Evolutionary Anthropology and Associate of the Duke Initiative for Science & Society

MiceMice, Inbred C57BLMice, Transgenic • Middle Aged • Mobility Limitation • Models, Biological • Monoamine Oxidase ... Inbred Lew • Rats, Sprague-Dawley • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II • Reference Values • Regression Analysis • Risk ...
more infohttps://fds.duke.edu/db/aas/BAA/faculty%2520all/daniel.schmitt

The expression of the PIWI family members miwi and mili in mice testis is negatively affected by estrogen. - NextBio articleThe expression of the PIWI family members miwi and mili in mice testis is negatively affected by estrogen. - NextBio article

Mice Mice, Inbred C57BL RNA, Messenger Testis Time Factors Substances Argonaute Proteins Estrogens Piwil1 protein, mouse Piwil2 ... The expression of the PIWI family members miwi and mili in mice testis is negatively affected by estrogen. Yi Pan, Min Hu, Hao ... The expression of the PIWI family members miwi and mili in mice testis is negatively affected by estrogen. Cell and tissue ... In this study, we expose mouse testis relative cells or tissues in different concentrations and a continuous time series, using ...
more infohttp://www.nextbio.com/b/search/article.nb?id=22628161

Characterization of thiol-conjugated metabolites of ginger components shogaols in mouse and human urine and modulation of the...Characterization of thiol-conjugated metabolites of ginger components shogaols in mouse and human urine and modulation of the...

Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Molecular Structure. Sulfhydryl Compounds / metabolism, urine. Tandem Mass Spectrometry. ... Previously, we reported the mercapturic acid pathway as a major metabolic route for [6]-shogaol in mice. However, it is still ... Our results clearly indicate the mercapturic acid pathway is a major metabolic route for [10]-shogaol in mice and for shogaols ... Our results show that eight major thiol-conjugated metabolites of [10]-shogaol were detected in mouse urine, while six major ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Characterization-thiol-conjugated-metabolites-ginger/23322393.html

Stress presents a problem for dendritic cells: corticosterone and the fate of MHC class I antigen processing and presentation.Stress presents a problem for dendritic cells: corticosterone and the fate of MHC class I antigen processing and presentation.

Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Stress, Physiological / immunology*. T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Virus Diseases / immunology. ... 6201725 - Idiotypic studies of monoclonal anti-tobacco mosaic virus antibodies from one mouse.. 8880505 - Glpq: an antigen for ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Stress-presents-problem-dendritic-cells/16504465.html

Mouse models of Loa loa.Mouse models of Loa loa.

Mice, Inbred C57bl. One of the first INBRED MOUSE STRAINS to be sequenced. This strain is commonly used as genetic background ... The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice ... However, the current HF models most often use the C57BL/6 mouse strain and do not show the clinically relevant characte... ... Mice, Knockout. Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/2331079/Mouse-models-of-Loa-loa.html

Modification of the adenoviral transfer vector enhances expression of the Hantavirus fusion protein GnS0.7 and induces a strong...Modification of the adenoviral transfer vector enhances expression of the Hantavirus fusion protein GnS0.7 and induces a strong...

... vector enhances expression of the Hantavirus fusion protein GnS0.7 and induces a strong immune response in C57BL/6 mice. - Pu- ... Mice, Inbred C57BL. *Promoter Regions, Genetic. *Recombinant Fusion Proteins (genetics, immunology) *Viral Vaccines ( ... vector enhances expression of the Hantavirus fusion protein GnS0.7 and induces a strong immune response in C57BL/6 mice.. ... The expression level of the fusion protein as well as the response of mice immunized with recombinant adenoviruses containing ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/pubmed22015676.do

Platelet-derived growth factor-AB limits the extent of myocardial infarction in a rat model: feasibility of restoring impaired...Platelet-derived growth factor-AB limits the extent of myocardial infarction in a rat model: feasibility of restoring impaired...

Mice. *Mice, Inbred C57BL. *Myocardial Infarction (pathology, prevention & control) *Myocardium (cytology, metabolism, ... 2 of 17 allografts were viable in 18-month-old mice versus 19 of 20 in 3-month-old mice; P,0.01). PDGF-AB pretreatment ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/pubmed11827927.do

FK506 protects heart function via increasing autophagy after myocardial infarction in mice. - NextBio articleFK506 protects heart function via increasing autophagy after myocardial infarction in mice. - NextBio article

Mice, Inbred C57BL Myocardial Infarction Myocardium NF-kappa B Phosphorylation Survival Rate TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases ... C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into three groups: the sham group, the control group and the FK506 group. Anterior ... Mice in the sham and the control groups were intragastrical administration with saline, while the FK506 group were with FK506. ... FK506 protects heart function via increasing autophagy after myocardial infarction in mice. Yunle Wang, Jia Lu, Weili Cheng, ...
more infohttp://www.nextbio.com/b/search/article.nb?id=28965948

Notch ligands are expressed on APC during influenza inf | Open-iNotch ligands are expressed on APC during influenza inf | Open-i

C57BL/6 mice were infected intranasally with A/HK×31 influenza. (a) Five days post infection (p. ... Mice, Inbred C57BL. *Mice, Transgenic. *Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology. *Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction ... C57BL/6 mice were infected intranasally with A/HK×31 influenza. (a) Five days post infection (p.i.) expression of DLL1, DLL4, ... C57BL/6 mice were infected intranasally with A/HK×31 influenza. (a) Five days post infection (p.i.) expression of DLL1, DLL4, ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4232996_nihms633393f2&req=4

Distribution of Leishmania amastigotes in the liver.C57 | Open-iDistribution of Leishmania amastigotes in the liver.C57 | Open-i

Distribution of Leishmania amastigotes in the liver.C57BL/6 mice were infected with tdTom-L. donovani (A-F) or WT-L. donovani ... ppat-1000805-g001: Distribution of Leishmania amastigotes in the liver.C57BL/6 mice were infected with tdTom-L. donovani (A-F) ... ppat-1000805-g001: Distribution of Leishmania amastigotes in the liver.C57BL/6 mice were infected with tdTom-L. donovani (A-F) ... We first infected mice with tdTom-L. donovani and examined their distribution in the liver at day 14 p.i. (Figure 1) in ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2837408_ppat.1000805.g001&req=4

Search | IOVS | ARVO JournalsSearch | IOVS | ARVO Journals

TAGS: eye abnormalities, mice, inbred c57bl, cornea, eye, mice, population studies Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.. 2018; 59(6): ... A Population Study of Common Ocular Abnormalities in C57BL/6N rd8 Mice PDF ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/solr/searchresults.aspx?author=Bret+A.+Moore

Scientific Publications HighlightsScientific Publications Highlights

Genetic polymorphisms among C57BL/6 mouse inbred strains Transgenic Reserach Zurita E, Chagoyen M, Cantero M, Alonso R, ... González-Neira A, López-Jiménez A, López-Moreno JA, Landel CP, Benítez J, Pazos F, Montoliu L. Mice from the inbred C57BL/6 ... Immunogenic profiling in mice of a HIV/AIDS vaccine candidate (MVA-B) expressing four HIV-1 antigens and potentiation by ...
more infohttp://www.cnb.csic.es/index.php/en/research/publications?start=480

Go to The ocular anomalies in a cystinosis animal model mimic disease pathogenesis.Go to The ocular anomalies in a cystinosis animal model mimic disease pathogenesis.

Animals; Mice; Mice, Knockout; Disease Models, Animal; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Time Factors; Reproducibility of Results; Disease ... The temporospatial pattern of cystine accumulation in Ctns-/- mice parallels that of patients and validates the mice as a model ... Consistently, Ctns-/- mice had a low intraocular pressure (IOP) and seemed mildly photophobic. Retinal cystine levels were ... Consistently, the retina was intact and electroretinogram (ERG) profiles were normal in mice younger than 19 mo; beyond this ...
more infohttp://www.igmm.cnrs.fr/publication/the-ocular-anomalies-in-a-cystinosis-animal-model-mimic-disease-pathogenesis/
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: We first investigate the metabolism of -shogaol in mouse urine, and then investigate the biotransformation of shogaols in human urine. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Reciprocal F1 hybrids of BALB/c x C57BL/6 matings revealed dominance of the C57BL/6 genotype, no sex linkage, and a significant (but small) maternal effect. (umassmed.edu)
  • Twelve male and female DBA/2J mice and 12 male and female C57BL/6J mice were trained to discriminate 10 mg/kg pregnanolone from saline. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The male C57BL/6J mice had to be removed from the study due to increased seizures apparently associated with the chronic intermittent pregnanolone administration used in drug discrimination. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Seven C57Bl/6J females were mated with three C57Bl/6J males according to this distribution: one male with two females, another male with two other females, and another male with the remaining three females: the offspring were the subjects of this experiment. (elsevier.es)
  • C57BL/6J and DBA/2J have markedly different cortical area maps, suggesting that inbred strains harbor enough phenotypic variation to encourage a forward genetic approach to understanding cortical development, complementing other approaches. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The present data suggest that many of the previously documented neurosteroid-induced behavioral differences between the DBA/2J and C57BL/6J are acute effects and are not apparent in a drug discrimination procedure. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate functional differences between 129 and C57BL/6 Gbp alleles which need to be considered in the design and interpretation of studies utilizing mouse models, particularly for phenotypes influenced by Gbp2 or Gbp2b expression. (crick.ac.uk)
  • Circadian rhythms of locomotion (wheel-running activity) in 12 inbred mouse strains were recorded for interstrain differences in tau DD, the endogenous (free-running) period of the circadian pacemaker measured in constant environmental darkness. (umassmed.edu)
  • Further study of inherited differences in the BALB/c and C57BL/6 strains may be a useful noninvasive experimental approach for investigation of the neurobiological substrates of circadian rhythmicity. (umassmed.edu)
  • Inbred strains of laboratory mice can be exploited to study cortical area map formation if there are significant phenotypic differences with which to correlate gene polymorphism or expression data. (beds.ac.uk)
  • 6 ] have employed gene expression array analysis of the dissected embryonic (16.5d) mouse cerebral cortex to expand the list of genes regionally expressed, and noted that regional differences in expression of genes in the cortical plate should eventually convert into functionally distinct cortical areas with anatomically distinguishable borders after birth. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The results indicate that 1 or more genetic loci influence the value of tau DD, and a large (50 min) difference in mean tau DD between 2 of the strains, BALB/cByJ and C57BL/6J, allowed further characterization of the origins and inheritance of the polymorphic expression of this circadian pacemaker property. (umassmed.edu)
  • this discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable in BALB/c than in C57BL/6 mice, though the interstrain difference in mean tau DD could not be attributed entirely to this effect. (umassmed.edu)
  • Methods: To determine whether the presence of 129 alleles of paralogous Gbps could influence the phenotypes of 129-congenic Gbp-deficient strains, we studied the expression of Gbps in both C57BL/6J and 129/Sv mice following in vivo stimulation with adjuvants and after infection with either Toxoplasma gondii or Shigella flexneri. (crick.ac.uk)
  • infection model is also achievable, utilizing immune-competent or -deficient mice infused with purified Loa mf. (bioportfolio.com)
  • RATIONALE: Changing the genes in laboratory mice to create a living model of human breast cancer may help doctors learn more about breast cancer. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The rise of genetically engineered mouse models of pancreatitis: A review of literature. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A probe designated B6-38 to the pseudoautosomal region of the X and Y chromosome has a characteristic Pst I pattern of fragment sizes which is present only in the C57BL family of strains ( Kalcheva et al, 1995 ). (jax.org)
  • Modification of the adenoviral transfer vector enhances expression of the Hantavirus fusion protein GnS0.7 and induces a strong immune response in C57BL/6 mice. (curehunter.com)
  • Notably, Toxoplasma infections induce robust Gbp2b protein expression in both strains of mice, suggestive of a Toxoplasma-activated mechanism driving Gbp2b protein translation. (crick.ac.uk)
  • Previously, we reported the mercapturic acid pathway as a major metabolic route for -shogaol in mice. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Lin Z, Edenberg H, Carr L. A novel negative element in the promoter of the mouse alcohol dehydrogenase gene Adh-1. (labome.org)
  • Here, we show in the mouse that the paternal promoter region is marked by allelic bivalent chromatin enriched in both H3K4me2 and H3K27me3, from early embryonic stages onwards. (cnrs.fr)
  • CONCLUSION: Shogaols are metabolized extensively in mouse and human to form thiol-conjugated metabolites and GSH might play an important role in the cancer-preventive activity of ginger. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We demonstrate that adult Loa loa worms in subcutaneous tissues, circulating microfilariae (mf) and presence of filarial biomarkers in sera occur following experimental infections of lymphopenic mice deficient in interleukin (IL)-2/7 gamma-chain signaling. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Mouse models of Loa loa. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Recent advances in mouse models for systemic sclerosis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Mouse models provide powerful research tools for exploring the pathogenesis of the human diseases. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In Vivo Mouse Models to Study Pneumococcal Host Interaction and Invasive Pneumococcal Disease. (bioportfolio.com)
  • To study invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), many models using mice in particular have be. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Using sickle cell and thalassemia mouse models, researchers will evaluate the possibility of correcting these disorders by inserting healthy genetic material into the diseased blood cells. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Shown is Δ-MFI (corrected for background staining with isotype control mAb) for non-infected (white bars) and infected mice (black bars). (nih.gov)
  • Complete cortical hemispheres from adult mice were dissected and stained for the cytochrome oxidase enzyme in order to measure histochemically defined cortical areas. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Historical data shows that hydrocephaly occurs in the C57BL/6 mouse in 0.05% of the population and may not be evident until the animal is more than two months of age. (taconic.com)
  • C57BL/6 litters were received in 1991 at F151 from the NIH Animal Genetic Resource. (taconic.com)
  • Animal experiments showed that rAd-GnS0.7-pCAG induced a stronger Hantaan virus (HTNV)-specific humoral and cellular immune response in mice, with the cellular immune response to the GnS0.7 being stronger than the HFRS vaccine control. (curehunter.com)
  • In DBA/2J and C57BL/6J mice, a benzodiazepine, barbiturate, and GABAergic neuroactive steroids all substituted for the stimulus effects of pregnanolone. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Pentobarbital and midazolam were more potent in producing pregnanolone-like discriminative stimulus effects in DBA/2J mice. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Results: We show that C57BL/6J relative to 129/Sv mice display moderately elevated expression of Gbp2, but more prominently, are also defective for Gbp2b (formerly Gbp1) mRNA induction upon immune priming. (crick.ac.uk)
  • Results represent 2 (uninfected) or 4 (infected) separately processed mice from a representative of 5 experiments. (nih.gov)
  • The expression of the PIWI family members miwi and mili in mice testis is negatively affected by estrogen. (nextbio.com)
  • This elevated expression persisted on lung-derived migratory DCs (but not lymph node resident macrophages) isolated from the lung-draining mediastinal lymph nodes from infected mice (Fig. 2b and Supplementary Fig. 3b). (nih.gov)
  • Fibroblast growth factor 21 corrects obesity in mice. (labome.org)
  • For example, Fukuchi-Shimogori and Grove [ 4 ] placed an ectopic caudal source of fibroblast growth factor 8 into the developing mouse cortex and caused a caudal duplication of part of the primary somatosensory area. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Reed G, Kirchner J, Carr L. NF-Y activates mouse tryptophan hydroxylase transcription. (labome.org)
  • another cluster analysis (with difference in antibody concentration as distance) on each of the above groups disclosed small groups of mice, or individual mice, with varying antibody content. (elsevier.es)