Animals that are generated from breeding two genetically dissimilar strains of the same species.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Institutional committees established to protect the welfare of animals used in research and education. The 1971 NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals introduced the policy that institutions using warm-blooded animals in projects supported by NIH grants either be accredited by a recognized professional laboratory animal accrediting body or establish its own committee to evaluate animal care; the Public Health Service adopted a policy in 1979 requiring such committees; and the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act mandate review and approval of federally funded research with animals by a formally designated Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).
Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.
The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.
The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.
Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.
A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.
The branch of chemistry dealing with detection (qualitative) and determination (quantitative) of substances. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Signaling proteins which function as master molecular switches by activating Rho GTPases through conversion of guanine nucleotides. Rho GTPases in turn control many aspects of cell behavior through the regulation of multiple downstream signal transduction pathways.
MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47
A family of GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS that are specific for RAS PROTEINS.
ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 is involved in regulating intracellular transport by modulating the interaction of coat proteins with organelle membranes in the early secretory pathway. It is a component of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
Specific molecular sites or structures on cell membranes that react with FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS (both the basic and acidic forms), their analogs, or their antagonists to elicit or to inhibit the specific response of the cell to these factors. These receptors frequently possess tyrosine kinase activity.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
A 17-kDa single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. It binds to HEPARIN, which potentiates its biological activity and protects it from proteolysis. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages, and also has chemotactic and mitogenic activities. It was originally named acidic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from basic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2).
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.

Effect of sex difference on the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by the rat. (1/92290)

Hepatic microsome-catalyzed metabolism of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) to aflatoxin M1 and aflatoxin Q1 and the "metabolic activation" of AFB1 to DNA-alylating metabolite(s) were studied in normal male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, in gonadectomized animals, and in castrated males and normal females treated with testosterone. Microsomes from male animals formed 2 to 5 times more aflatoxin M1, aflatoxin Q1, and DNA-alkylating metabolite(s) than those from females. Castration reduced the metabolism of AFB1 by the microsomes from males by about 50%, whereas ovariectomy had no significant effect on AFB1 metabolism by the microsomes from females. Testosterone treatment (4 mg/rat, 3 times/week for about 6 weeks) of castrated immature males and immature females enhanced the metabolism of AFB1 by their microsomes. A sex difference in the metabolism of AFB1 by liver microsomes was also seen in other strains of rats tested: Wistar, Long-Evans, and Fischer. The activity of kidney microsomes for metabolic activation was 1 to 4% that of the liver activity and was generally lower in microsomes from male rats as compared to those from female rats of Sprague-Dawley, Wistar, and Long-Evans strains. The in vitro results obtained with hepatic microsomes correlated well with the in vivo metabolism of AFB1, in that more AFB1 became bound in vivo to hepatic DNA isolated from male rats and from a female rat treated with testosterone than that isolated from control female rats. These data suggest that the differences in hepatic AFB1 metabolism may be the underlying cause of the sex difference in toxicity and carcinogenicity of AFB1 observed in rats.  (+info)

Tissue pharmacokinetics, inhibition of DNA synthesis and tumor cell kill after high-dose methotrexate in murine tumor models. (2/92290)

In Sarcoma 180 and L1210 ascites tumor models, the initial rate of methotrexate accumulation in tumor cells in the peritoneal cavity and in small intestine (intracellularly) after s.c. doses up to 800 mg/kg, showed saturation kinetics. These results and the fact that initial uptake in these tissues within this dosage range was inhibited to the expected relative extent by the simultaneous administration of leucovorin suggest that carrier mediation and not passive diffusion is the major route of drug entry at these extremely high doses. Maximum accumulation of intracellular drug occurred within 2 hr and reached much higher levels in small intestine than in tumor cells at the higher dosages. At a 3-mg/kg dose of methotrexate s.c., intracellular exchangeable drug levels persisted more than four times longer in L1210 cells than in small intestine, but differences in persistence (L1210 cell versus gut) diminished markedly with increasing dosage. At 96 mg/kg, the difference in persistence was less than 2-fold. In small intestine and L1210 cells, theduration of inhibition of DNA synthesis at different dosages correlated with the extent to which exchangeable drug was retained. Toxic deaths occurred when inhibition in small intestine lasted longer than 25 to 30 hr. Recovery of synthesis in small intestine and L1210 cells occurred synchronously and only below dosages of 400 mg/kg. Within 24 hr after dosages of greater than 24 mg/kg, the rate of tumor cell loss increased to a point characterized by a single exponential (t1/2=8.5 hr). The total cell loss, but not the rate of cell loss, was dose dependent.  (+info)

Explanations for the clinical and microscopic localization of lesions in pemphigus foliaceus and vulgaris. (3/92290)

Patients with pemphigus foliaceus (PF) have blisters on skin, but not mucous membranes, whereas patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV) develop blisters on mucous membranes and/or skin. PF and PV blisters are due to loss of keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion in the superficial and deep epidermis, respectively. PF autoantibodies are directed against desmoglein (Dsg) 1; PV autoantibodies bind Dsg3 or both Dsg3 and Dsg1. In this study, we test the hypothesis that coexpression of Dsg1 and Dsg3 in keratinocytes protects against pathology due to antibody-induced dysfunction of either one alone. Using passive transfer of pemphigus IgG to normal and DSG3(null) neonatal mice, we show that in the areas of epidermis and mucous membrane that coexpress Dsg1 and Dsg3, antibodies against either desmoglein alone do not cause spontaneous blisters, but antibodies against both do. In areas (such as superficial epidermis of normal mice) where Dsg1 without Dsg3 is expressed, anti-Dsg1 antibodies alone can cause blisters. Thus, the anti-desmoglein antibody profiles in pemphigus sera and the normal tissue distributions of Dsg1 and Dsg3 determine the sites of blister formation. These studies suggest that pemphigus autoantibodies inhibit the adhesive function of desmoglein proteins, and demonstrate that either Dsg1 or Dsg3 alone is sufficient to maintain keratinocyte adhesion.  (+info)

Bone resorption induced by parathyroid hormone is strikingly diminished in collagenase-resistant mutant mice. (4/92290)

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates bone resorption by acting directly on osteoblasts/stromal cells and then indirectly to increase differentiation and function of osteoclasts. PTH acting on osteoblasts/stromal cells increases collagenase gene transcription and synthesis. To assess the role of collagenase in the bone resorptive actions of PTH, we used mice homozygous (r/r) for a targeted mutation (r) in Col1a1 that are resistant to collagenase cleavage of type I collagen. Human PTH(1-34) was injected subcutaneously over the hemicalvariae in wild-type (+/+) or r/r mice four times daily for three days. Osteoclast numbers, the size of the bone marrow spaces and periosteal proliferation were increased in calvariae from PTH-treated +/+ mice, whereas in r/r mice, PTH-induced bone resorption responses were minimal. The r/r mice were not resistant to other skeletal effects of PTH because abundant interstitial collagenase mRNA was detected in the calvarial periosteum of PTH-treated, but not vehicle-treated, r/r and +/+ mice. Calcemic responses, 0.5-10 hours after intraperitoneal injection of PTH, were blunted in r/r mice versus +/+ mice. Thus, collagenase cleavage of type I collagen is necessary for PTH induction of osteoclastic bone resorption.  (+info)

GM-CSF-deficient mice are susceptible to pulmonary group B streptococcal infection. (5/92290)

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene-targeted mice (GM-/-) cleared group B streptococcus (GBS) from the lungs more slowly than wild-type mice. Expression of GM-CSF in the respiratory epithelium of GM-/- mice improved bacterial clearance to levels greater than that in wild-type GM+/+ mice. Acute aerosolization of GM-CSF to GM+/+ mice significantly enhanced clearance of GBS at 24 hours. GBS infection was associated with increased neutrophilic infiltration in lungs of GM-/- mice, while macrophage infiltrates predominated in wild-type mice, suggesting an abnormality in macrophage clearance of bacteria in the absence of GM-CSF. While phagocytosis of GBS was unaltered, production of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide was markedly deficient in macrophages from GM-/- mice. Lipid peroxidation, assessed by measuring the isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2alpha, was decreased in the lungs of GM-/- mice. GM-CSF plays an important role in GBS clearance in vivo, mediated in part by its role in enhancing superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production and bacterial killing by alveolar macrophages.  (+info)

A new element within the T-cell receptor alpha locus required for tissue-specific locus control region activity. (6/92290)

Locus control regions (LCRs) are cis-acting regulatory elements thought to provide a tissue-specific open chromatin domain for genes to which they are linked. The gene for T-cell receptor alpha chain (TCRalpha) is exclusively expressed in T cells, and the chromatin at its locus displays differentially open configurations in expressing and nonexpressing tissues. Mouse TCRalpha exists in a complex locus containing three differentially regulated genes. We previously described an LCR in this locus that confers T-lineage-specific expression upon linked transgenes. The 3' portion of this LCR contains an unrestricted chromatin opening activity while the 5' portion contains elements restricting this activity to T cells. This tissue-specificity region contains four known DNase I hypersensitive sites, two located near transcriptional silencers, one at the TCRalpha enhancer, and another located 3' of the enhancer in a 1-kb region of unknown function. Analysis of this region using transgenic mice reveals that the silencer regions contribute negligibly to LCR activity. While the enhancer is required for complete LCR function, its removal has surprisingly little effect on chromatin structure or expression outside the thymus. Rather, the region 3' of the enhancer appears responsible for the tissue-differential chromatin configurations observed at the TCRalpha locus. This region, herein termed the "HS1' element," also increases lymphoid transgene expression while suppressing ectopic transgene activity. Thus, this previously undescribed element is an integral part of the TCRalphaLCR, which influences tissue-specific chromatin structure and gene expression.  (+info)

Prolonged eosinophil accumulation in allergic lung interstitium of ICAM-2 deficient mice results in extended hyperresponsiveness. (7/92290)

ICAM-2-deficient mice exhibit prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium concomitant with a delayed increase in eosinophil numbers in the airway lumen during the development of allergic lung inflammation. The ICAM-2-dependent increased and prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium results in prolonged, heightened airway hyperresponsiveness. These findings reveal an essential role for ICAM-2 in the development of the inflammatory and respiratory components of allergic lung disease. This phenotype is caused by the lack of ICAM-2 expression on non-hematopoietic cells. ICAM-2 deficiency on endothelial cells causes reduced eosinophil transmigration in vitro. ICAM-2 is not essential for lymphocyte homing or the development of leukocytes, with the exception of megakaryocyte progenitors, which are significantly reduced.  (+info)

Phenotype of mice and macrophages deficient in both phagocyte oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase. (8/92290)

The two genetically established antimicrobial mechanisms of macrophages are production of reactive oxygen intermediates by phagocyte oxidase (phox) and reactive nitrogen intermediates by inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). Mice doubly deficient in both enzymes (gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-)) formed massive abscesses containing commensal organisms, mostly enteric bacteria, even when reared under specific pathogen-free conditions with antibiotics. Neither parental strain showed such infections. Thus, phox and NOS2 appear to compensate for each other's deficiency in providing resistance to indigenous bacteria, and no other pathway does so fully. Macrophages from gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-) mice could not kill virulent Listeria. Their killing of S. typhimurium, E. coli, and attenuated Listeria was markedly diminished but demonstrable, establishing the existence of a mechanism of macrophage antibacterial activity independent of phox and NOS2.  (+info)

Subjects. Twelve DBA/2J male mice, 13 DBA/2J female mice, 12 C57BL/6J male mice, and 12 C57BL/6J female mice were obtained from The Jackson Laboratories (Bar Harbor, ME). The animals were 9 to 10 weeks old at the beginning of discrimination training and were individually housed on a 12-h light/12-h dark cycle. The mice were weighed and allowed to acclimate to the laboratory for 2 weeks before training began. All mice were fed enough rodent chow (Harlan, Indianapolis, IN) at least 1 h postsession to maintain a body weight between 20 and 30 g. The Wake Forest University School of Medicine Animal Care and Use Committee approved all procedures involving these mice and procedures were conducted in accordance with the National Institutes of Health Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.. Apparatus. Drug discrimination sessions took place in standard two lever mouse operant-conditioning chambers (MED Associates, St. Albans, VT). Each chamber was equipped with two levers on the front wall of ...
Barski, G and Cassingena, R, Malignant transformation in vitro of cells from c57bl mouse normal pulmonary tissue. (1963). Subject Strain Bibliography 1963. 73 ...
Animals. The contractile performance was studied in five young (9-14 wk of age) male TR-α1-deficient mice and five wild-type control animals of the same age and weight (28-35 g). The force-frequency relationship (see below) was studied also in muscles from four female TR-α1-deficient mice and four wild-type control mice of the same age and weight. The TR-α1-deficient mice represent a cross between the SV-129/OLa and BALB/c (30). Contractile studies were performed on four male TR-β-deficient (12) and four control mice of the same age and weight as above. This group of mice has a mixed 129/Sv and C57Bl/6J genetic background, and was generated from TR-β+/ − heterozygote backcrosses. The wild-type mice were obtained from crosses of heterozygote TR-α1- or TR-β-deficient mice. The two homozygote wild-type strains were bred in parallel with the respective knockout strains. Thus the knockout strains have the same genetic background as their respective knockout strains: 129/Ola and BALB/c for ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Further information can be found in Supplemental Methods.. Mice, drugs, and tumor cell lines. C57BL/6 mice were purchased from Charles River Laboratories. Splenectomized and sham-operated C57BL/6, Batf3-/- (B6.129S(C)-Batf3tm1Kmm/J), zDC-DTR (B6(Cg)-Zbtb46tm1(HBEGF)Mnz/J), CD45.1, OT-I, OT-II, Gja1fl/fl (B6.129S7-Gja1tm1Dlg/J), CD11c-Cre (B6.Cg-Tg(Itgax-cre)1-1Reiz/J), B2m-/- (B6.129P2-B2mtm1Unc/J), MHCII-/- (B6.129S2-H2dlAb1-Ea/J), Ccr2-/- (B6.129S4-Ccr2tm1Ifc/J), and Ccr7-/- (B6.129P2(C)-Ccr7tm1Rfor/J) mice were from The Jackson Laboratory. zDC-DTR BM chimeras were generated by IV injection of 5 × 106 BM cells from zDC-DTR homozygous mice into CD45.1+ or CD45.2+ C57BL/6 recipient mice that had been myeloablated 4 weeks earlier as previously described (74) with some modifications. In brief, recipient mice were injected intraperitoneally (IP) with busulfan (25 μg/g; MilliporeSigma) on 2 consecutive days, followed by IV injection of donor BM cells 2 days later. DT (MilliporeSigma) was injected ...
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Sugar is a key contributor to many of our diet-related diseases and conditions, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure and cancer.
Analysis of polyclonal C57BL/6 repertoires. In 2 independent analyses, C57BL/6 splenocytes were sorted into CD4+GFP-Foxp3- and CD4+GFP-Foxp3+ populations and th
Make stock comparison and analysis on BL KASHYAP & SONS (532719 | BLKASHYAP~EQ) with Zandu Realty (506720 | ZANDUREALT~EQ) online at Equitymaster.
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Et mix af bioplante-teknologi, enzymaktivitet og udvalgte vitaminer udjævner, blødgør og ensarter hudoverfladen via frugtsyrer fra bl.a. hawaiblomst, agurk, morbær og papaja, som reducerer pigmentering samt øger cellefornyelsen og collagenproduktionen.
Urinsystemet består av to nyrer, to urinledere, urinblæren og urinrøret. Nyrene fjerner avfallsstoffer fra blodet og danner urin. Urinen passerer så g...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - CD34 expression on long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells changes during developmental stages. AU - Matsuoka, Sahoko. AU - Ebihara, Yasuhiro. AU - Xu, Ming Jiang. AU - Ishii, Takefumi. AU - Sugiyama, Daisuke. AU - Yoshino, Hiroshi. AU - Ueda, Takahiro. AU - Manabe, Atsushi. AU - Tanaka, Ryuhei. AU - Ikeda, Yasuo. AU - Nakahata, Tatsutoshi. AU - Tsuji, Kohichiro. PY - 2001/1/15. Y1 - 2001/1/15. N2 - The CD34 antigen serves as an important marker for primitive hematopoietic cells in therapeutic transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and gene therapy, but it has remained an open question as to whether or not most HSC express CD34. Using a competitive long-term reconstitution assay, the results of this study confirm developmental changes in CD34 expression on murine HSC. In fetuses and neonates, CD34 was expressed on Lin-c-Kit+ long-term repopulating HSC of bone marrow (BM), liver, and spleen. However, CD34 expression on HSC decreased with aging, and in mice older ...
The transplantation of spleen cells from old NZB/Bl mice with renal disease induced both the structural and the functional changes of membranous glomerulonephritis in young NZB/Bl mice within a few weeks and well in advance of its usual spontaneous occurrence. The development of hypergammaglobulinemia and lymphoid cell hyperplasia in the young mice indicated that immunologically competent cells, derived from either the transplant or the recipient, proliferated during this process. These experiments, together with other findings, provide further support for the view that membranous glomerulonephritis in NZB/Bl mice is produced by immunological, and probably autoimmune, mechanisms and that the renal disease is apparently almost wholly unrelated to the hemolytic process.. ...
The numbers of obese people and diabetic patients are ever increasing. Obesity and diabetes are high-risk conditions for chronic diseases, including certain types of cancer, such as colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to develop a novel animal model in order to clarify the pathobiology of CRC development in obese and diabetic patients. We developed an animal model of obesity and colorectal cancer by breeding the C57BL/KsJ-db/db (db/db) mouse, an animal model of obesity and type II diabetes, and the C57BL/6J-ApcMin/+ (Min/+) mouse, a model of familial adenomatous polyposis. At 15 weeks of age, the N9 backcross generation of C57BL/KsJ-db/db-ApcMin/+ (db/db-Min/+) mice developed an increased incidence and multiplicity of adenomas in the intestinal tract when compared to the db/m-Min/+ and m/m-Min/+ mice. Blood biochemical profile showed significant increases in insulin (8.3-fold to 11.7-fold), cholesterol (1.2-fold to 1.7-fold), and triglyceride (1.2-fold to 1.3-fold) in the db/db-Min/+ mice
The CD105 MultiSort Kit (PE), mouse has been developed for the isolation of CD105+ cells or cell subsets, including vascular endothelial cells from mouse tissue or cell cultures long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (LTR-HSCs) from mouse bone marrow when used in combination with the Anti-Sca-1 MicroBead Kit (FITC). - USA
This study characterizes the high-fat diet-fed mouse as a robust model for IGT and early type 2 diabetes. This model was initially described by Surwit et al. in 1988 (8), and the model has been shown to be most efficient in C57BL/6J mice compared with other strains (20-22). We show here by accumulated data on a large number of animals belonging to this strain that a high-fat diet results in increased body weight gain and over time a stable hyperglycemia but a progressively increased hyperinsulinemia, indicating progressive worsening of insulin resistance. Furthermore, already after 1 week on the diet, baseline plasma glucose and insulin were significantly elevated and IVGTTs showed reduced glucose elimination and impaired insulin secretion (particularly the AIR). The model thus shows two important mechanistic characteristics for IGT and type 2 diabetes: insulin resistance and islet dysfunction.. The growth curves for this 1-year study could be divided into two phases-one initial phase with more ...
MicroRNA (miRNA) molecules are potent mediators of post-transcriptional gene silencing that are emerging to be critical in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity. Here we report that miR-155--an oncogenic miRNA with important function in the mammalian immune system--is induced in dendritic cells (DCs) upon maturation and potentially attenuates their ability to activate T cells. Biolistic epidermal transfection with DNA encoding miR-155 suppressed the induction of antigen-specific T cell-mediated immunity, whereas reduction of endogenous miR-155 by a partially complementary antisense sequence reversed this effect. Because DCs represent a significant component of epidermal tissue and are among the most potent of antigen-presenting cells, the inhibitory actions of miR-155 could be mediated through this subset of cells. These results suggest that miR-155 may repress the expression of key molecules involved in lymph node migration, antigen presentation, or T cell activation in DCs, and thus forms
LLN=lower limit of normal; ULN=upper limit of normal; BL=baseline. Sodium, serum (mEq/L):low if ,0.95*BL and BL,LLN or ,LLN and BL,ULN or ,0.95*LLN when BL missing or LLN ≤BL≤ULN, high if ,1.05*BL and BL,ULN or ,ULN and BL,LLN or ,1.05*ULN when BL missing or LLN≤BL≤ULN; potassium(mEq/L):low if ,0.90*BL and BL,LLN or ,LLN and BL,ULN or ,0.90*LLN if BL missing or LLN≤BL≤ULN, high if ,1.10*BL and BL,ULN or,ULN and BL,LLN or ,1.10*ULN when BL missing or LLN≤BL≤ULN; chloride(mEq/L):low if ,0.90*BL and BL,LLN or ,LLN and BL,ULN or ,0.90*LLN if BL missing or LLN≤BL ≤ULN, high if ,1.10*BL and BL,ULN or ,ULN and BL,LLN or ,1.10* ULN if BL missing or LLN≤BL≤ULN; calcium(mg/dL):low if ,0.75*BL and BL,LLN or ,LLN and BL,ULN or ,0.80*LLN if BL missing or LLN≤BL≤ULN, high if ,1.25*BL and BL,ULN or ,ULN if BL,LLN or ,1.20*ULN if BL missing or LLN≤BL≤ULN ; bicarbonate(mEq/L):low if ,0.75*BL when BL,LLN or ,LLN when BL,ULN or ,0.75*LLN if BL missing or LLN≤BL≤ULN, high if ...
LLN=lower limit of normal; ULN=upper limit of normal; BL=baseline. Sodium, serum (mEq/L):low if ,0.95*BL and BL,LLN or ,LLN and BL,ULN or ,0.95*LLN when BL missing or LLN ≤BL≤ULN, high if ,1.05*BL and BL,ULN or ,ULN and BL,LLN or ,1.05*ULN when BL missing or LLN≤BL≤ULN; potassium(mEq/L):low if ,0.90*BL and BL,LLN or ,LLN and BL,ULN or ,0.90*LLN if BL missing or LLN≤BL≤ULN, high if ,1.10*BL and BL,ULN or,ULN and BL,LLN or ,1.10*ULN when BL missing or LLN≤BL≤ULN; chloride(mEq/L):low if ,0.90*BL and BL,LLN or ,LLN and BL,ULN or ,0.90*LLN if BL missing or LLN≤BL ≤ULN, high if ,1.10*BL and BL,ULN or ,ULN and BL,LLN or ,1.10* ULN if BL missing or LLN≤BL≤ULN; calcium(mg/dL):low if ,0.75*BL and BL,LLN or ,LLN and BL,ULN or ,0.80*LLN if BL missing or LLN≤BL≤ULN, high if ,1.25*BL and BL,ULN or ,ULN if BL,LLN or ,1.20*ULN if BL missing or LLN≤BL≤ULN ; bicarbonate(mEq/L):low if ,0.75*BL when BL,LLN or ,LLN when BL,ULN or ,0.75*LLN if BL missing or LLN≤BL≤ULN, high if ...
OBJECTIVES The extent of autophagy in myocardium following persistent ischemia and the effects of insulin resistance and diabetes on cardiac autophagy following myocardial infarction (MI) have not been well elucidated. It is generally thought that autophagy reflects the nutritional status of cells, presumably alterable by diabetes. It has been conjectured that diminution of autophagy early after the onset of MI may preserve jeopardized myocardium thereby improving prognosis. METHODS Ten-week-old nondiabetic C57BL6 mice, 20-week-old diabetic and nondiabetic C57BL6 mice were subjected to MI for 4 weeks. Hearts from these mice were harvested and assayed for markers of autophagy. RESULT Hearts of 10-week-old C57BL6 mice subjected to 4 weeks of MI had similar levels of LC3-II, a protein indicator of autophagy, as measured by western blotting compared with hearts from sham operated controls. In 20-week-old C57BL6 mice rendered diabetic by feeding a high-fat diet, the amounts of autophagy were comparable
Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is implicated in various pathologies, mainly in terms of its function within innate immune cells. However, TLR2 is also present in endothelial cells. Here, we explored the physiological and pathophysiological roles of endothelial TLR2 signaling. We found that TLR2 was highly abundant in the endothelium within various tissues using TLR2-IRES-EGFP reporter mice and was required for proinflammatory endothelial cell function. Endothelial cells lacking TLR2 exhibited reduced proinflammatory potential at the protein, cell, and tissue levels. Loss of endothelial TLR2 blunted the inflammatory response to both exogenous and endogenous danger signals in endothelial cells in culture and in vivo. Endothelial TLR2 promoted tumor growth, angiogenesis, and protumorigenic immune cell recruitment in a mouse model of prostate cancer. Furthermore, the cell surface localization of P-selectin and the subsequent production of other critical cell adhesion molecules (such as E-selectin, ...
Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is implicated in various pathologies, mainly in terms of its function within innate immune cells. However, TLR2 is also present in endothelial cells. Here, we explored the physiological and pathophysiological roles of endothelial TLR2 signaling. We found that TLR2 was highly abundant in the endothelium within various tissues using TLR2-IRES-EGFP reporter mice and was required for proinflammatory endothelial cell function. Endothelial cells lacking TLR2 exhibited reduced proinflammatory potential at the protein, cell, and tissue levels. Loss of endothelial TLR2 blunted the inflammatory response to both exogenous and endogenous danger signals in endothelial cells in culture and in vivo. Endothelial TLR2 promoted tumor growth, angiogenesis, and protumorigenic immune cell recruitment in a mouse model of prostate cancer. Furthermore, the cell surface localization of P-selectin and the subsequent production of other critical cell adhesion molecules (such as E-selectin, ...
Incidence and severity of K/BxN serum transfer-induced arthritis are not reduced in IL-36 receptor (R) knockout (KO) mice. Incidence of arthritis (A), arthritis
Rodents of an inbred strain display large variations in several behaviors: sucrose preference (Strekalova & Steinbusch, 2010), fear conditioning (Siegmund, Kaltwasser, Holsboer, Czisch, & Wotjak., 2009), decrease in social interaction after social defeat (Krishnan et al., 2007), ambulation in the open-field and the elevated plus-maze (Vidal, 2015). Variations of physiological variables (weight, course of infection, stress response) in inbred animals have also been reported (Gärtner, 2012). This variability, which is not readily explained by genetics or environment, has been termed intangible variation, developmental noise (Blewitt, Chong, & Whitelaw, 2004; Falconer, 1989) or third component (Gärtner, 2012). The author of the present report could not find studies documenting individual differences in the antibody response within an inbred mouse strain; therefore, one goal of this report was to find out if such differences occurred in mice of the C57Bl/6J inbred strain.. A set of correlated ...
Integrated scheme of the kinetics of prothymocyte gating, occupation of microenvironmental niches, and generation of thymocytes in normal mice. Clusters of vertical arrows represent receptive periods (open gate) and horizontal black bars represent refractory periods (closed gate) for importation of hematogenous prothymocytes. Shaded triangles represent filling/equilibration (up slope) and emptying (down slope) phases of occupation of a finite number of intrathymic niches by prothymocytes and their immediate descendants. Dashed, dotted, and mixed symbol curves represent sequential waves of thymocytopoiesis, each generated by the gated importation of a saturating wave of prothymocytes. The lag period of thymocytopoiesis corresponds roughly to the filling/equilibration phase of occupation of the intrathymic niches. The duration of each wave of thymocytopoiesis exceeds the periodicity of gate-opening by twofold, so as to maintain relatively constant levels of total thymocytes. Gate closing appears ...
Certain pathogens, including HIV and hepatitis viruses, that lead to persistent infections are often associated with suboptimal antibody responses. Using LCMV infection in mice, Fallet et al., Moseman et al., and Sammicheli et al. report that up-regulation of type I interferon (IFN-I) in the early phase of infection is a key contributor to premature deletion of virus-specific B cells. Blockade of IFN-I prevents B cell deletion. Although the studies agree that IFN-I does not act directly on B cells, they found that distinct immune cells mediate IFN-I-dependent deletion of B cells, depending on the system examined. Targeting of the IFN-I pathway could be used to restore B cell responses during persistent viral infections in humans. ...
15-Lipoxygenase-2 (ALOX15B), an oxidoreductase in the metabolism of arachidonic acid, is a functional tumor suppressor whose expression is reduced in a variety of human cancers. To determine the roles of ALOX15B in carcinogenesis, we generated transgenic mice with ALOX8, the murine homolog of ALOX15B, knocked out. ALOX8 expression at mRNA level was abolished in homozygous knockout mice and reduced to half of wild type in heterozygous knockout mice. Its observed that homozygous female ALOX8 knockout mice are infertile but male ALOX8 knockout mice are fertile. Increased incidence of tumor as uni or multimass was found in the lung, prostate and in the mesentery region of homozygous and heterozygous ALOX8 knockout mice, when compared with little mate wild type mice. Histological evaluations showed an increase in secondary tumors and inflammation in different tissues like lung and large intestine in mice with ALOX8 knocked out. The transgenic mice could be a good model to study the role of ...
In this report, we show that overexpression of scurfin in FoxP3 Tg mice results in the inability to mount an effective humoral immune response. FoxP3 Tg mice displayed lower levels of circulating IgG when compared with their nontransgenic littermates, and had a dramatically reduced response when challenged with a specific Ag. However, B cells from FoxP3 Tg mice produced normal levels of Ig when stimulated in vitro, suggesting that a defect in T cell-derived help was responsible for the phenotype seen in these mice. Three additional lines of evidence support this hypothesis. First, T cells from FoxP3 Tg mice failed to provide help to B cells from NLC mice. Second, CD4+ T cells from FoxP3 Tg mice failed to up-regulate CD40L and CD69 expression when stimulated. Finally, significantly fewer IL-4- and IFN-γ-producing splenic T cells were generated in immunized FoxP3 Tg mice as compared with NLC mice. Overall, these findings suggest that the poor Ag-specific Ab response generated by FoxP3 Tg mice ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gene transfer of AIMP1 and B7.1 into epitope-loaded, fibroblasts induces tumor-specific CTL immunity, and prolongs the survival period of tumor-bearing mice. AU - Kim, Tae S.. AU - Lee, Byeong C.. AU - Kim, Eugene. AU - Cho, Daeho. AU - Cohen, Edward P.. N1 - Funding Information: We would like to thank Drs. I.J. Fidler, M. Bevan and R. Mulligan for providing valuable reagents. This work was supported by grants from the National R&D Program for Cancer Control, Ministry of Health & Welfare (070335), and from the Research Center for Womens Diseases, Science Research Center Program, Ministry of Science & Technology, Republic of Korea (R11-2005-017).. PY - 2008/11/5. Y1 - 2008/11/5. N2 - T helper type 1 (Th1) cell-mediated immune responses play various roles in cellular immunity, including inducing cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and they have been shown to be crucial in cancer immunotherapy. Previously, we found that aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-interacting multifunctional protein 1 ...
Cancer immunotherapy is emerging as a treatment option for patients with late-stage tumors (23, 24). Modulating tumor microenvironments by antagonizing tumor-associated negative immune regulators such as PD-1, TGFβ, or adenosine has been viewed as an attractive treatment strategy (25, 26). In the current study, we found that myeloid-selective deletion of Adora2a slowed tumor growth and significantly increased activation markers, IL12 and MHCII, on macrophages without affecting ex vivo cytotoxicity. Myeloid-selective deletion of the A2AR also decreased ,90% IL10 production by tumor-associated macrophages, DCs, and MDSCs. This was associated with increased NK and CD8+ T-cell numbers, CD44 expression, and T-cell IFNγ production in the tumor.. Deletion of A2ARs from T cells causes T-cell activation, but reduces T-cell survival and memory cell differentiation in the solid tumor environment (27). Consequently, selective deletion of T-cell Adora2a sometimes reduces T-cell numbers and enhances the ...
Primary Sjögrens syndrome (pSS) is characterized by a panel of autoantbodies, while it is not clear whether B cells and autoantibodies play an essential role in pathogenesis of the disease. Here we report a novel mouse model for pSS which is induced by immunization with the Ro60_316-335 peptide containing a predominant T cell epitope. After immunization, mice developed several symptoms mimicking pSS, including a decreased secretion of tears, lymphocytic infiltration into the lacrimal glands, autoantibodies and increased levels of inflammatory cytokines. Disease susceptibility to this novel mouse model varies among strains, where C3H/HeJ (H2-k) and C3H/HeN (H2-k) are susceptible while DBA/1 (H2-q) and C57BL/6 (H2-b) are resistant. Depletion of B cells using anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies prevented C3H/HeN mice from development of the pSS-like disease. In addition, HLA-DRB1*0803, a pSS risk allele, was predicted to bind to the hRo60_308-328 which contains a predominant T cell epitope of human Ro60.
Results The wild-derived mouse strain PWD/Ph was highly susceptible to CAIA induced arthritis, whereas the classical laboratory strain C57BL/6J was resistant. Mice carrying chromosomes 5 or 12 from PWD on a B6 background display a B6-like phenotype in the CAIA model as well as the F1 hybrids (B6xPWD and PWDxB6) implicating the presence of dominant resistance modifiers in the C57BL/6J genetic background. The two mouse strains differ highly in their autoantigenic profile. Injecting specific monoclonal ACPAs reactive with the citrullintated H1 and H4 were able to block the CAIA induced arthritis. This inhibition can be explained in part by a Toll 9 dependent inhibition of osteoclasts. Moreover TLR2 activation via P.gingivalis LPS and lipomannan treated animals show a 80% reduction of arthritis score compared to E. coli LPS in a C57BL/6J CAIA model. Anti-collagen specific antibodies are increased in both strains B6 and PWD when arthritis is induced. Commercial CCP2 ELISA detected ACPA in animals ...
It is generally viewed that the effects of IFN-I on clonal expansion in vivo are related largely via their actions on APCs and to some extent via skewing activated T cells toward a type I cytokine response (6-15). Our studies highlight a previously unappreciated role for IFN-I in causing clonal expansion via direct action on antigen-specific CD8 T cells. We think this effect was not appreciated in previous experiments that analyzed T cell responses directly in virally infected IFN-IR0 mice (16), in which neither T cells nor APCs can respond to IFN-I, possibly because (a) the infected IFN-IR0 mice may elicit altered innate responses and (b) the IFN-IR0 mice have a high persistent viral load that makes it difficult to dissociate effects because of the absence of IFN-I action from effects related to overwhelming viral loads (16, 17). For example, IFN-IR0 mice are known to elicit elevated levels of IL-12 (which may overcome the defect caused by IFN-IR0 deficiency on CD8 T cells; Fig. 8) because of ...
Figure 5. Pretreatment of donor T cells with a c-Rel antagonist does not impair GVT activity. A, lethally irradiated C57BL/6 recipients received C57BL/6 TCD BM cells with 2 × 106 C57BL/6 WT or c-Rel−/− T cells (syngeneic HSCT). Control mice received BM only. All groups received 1 × 105 luciferase-expressing EL4-TGL tumor cells on day 0. Survival curve is shown (n = 5-8). B, lethally irradiated C57BL/6 recipients received 5 × 106 C57BL/6 WT or c-Rel−/− T cells (syngeneic HSCT). All groups received 1 × 106 EL4 tumor cells on day 0. Expression level of CD25 in donor-derived splenic CD8+ T cells on day 7 is shown. C, lethally irradiated BALB/c recipients were transplanted with C57BL/6 TCD BM cells with 2 × 106 C57BL/6 WT or c-Rel−/− T cells (allo-HSCT). Expression level of CD25 in donor-derived splenic CD8+ T cells on day 7 is shown. D, lethally irradiated C57BL/6 recipients received C57BL/6 TCD BM cells with 1 × 106 C57BL/6 Pmel1+/+ T cells (syngeneic HSCT). T cells were ...
In the present study, we show that anti-CD40 can synergize with class B CpG in activating tumoricidal Mφ, which, in turn, mediated antitumor effects in vitro and in vivo. Class B CpGs are potent activators of both murine and human mononuclear phagocytes, and Mφ in particular (30, 33, 34, 44). Although CpG and LPS share many immunostimulatory properties, CpG seems to be less toxic in vivo due to stimulation of mononuclear phagocytes in a much more restricted manner (33, 34). Our data suggest that CpG and LPS might synergize with anti-CD40 in activating Mφ via different mechanisms, because CpG, but not LPS, synergized with anti-CD40 in C3H/HeJ mice. Our results also show that anti-CD40 synergized with CpG in activation of cytotoxic Mφ in a time- and order-dependent manner. The observed time-dependent up-regulation of TLR9 in response to anti-CD40 could account, at least in part, for the synergy between anti-CD40 and CpG. Thus, CD40-ligation of B cells resulted in augmented expression of TLR9 ...
CD4 and CD8 T cells are constantly exposed to inflammatory signals that influence diverse functional outcomes during infections and certain autoimmune disorders. One of the signals controlling CD4 and CD8 T cell functions is the inflammatory cytokine IL-12. Previous studies have focused on how IL-12 regulates CD4 and CD8 T cell functions when present during or after the activation of the T cell receptor (TCR). However, based on murine studies, we have only recently begun to appreciate that exposure to inflammatory signals, driven in part by IL-12, could alter how CD4 and CD8 T cells respond to TCR stimulation. Although intriguing, these studies have left several questions unanswered. Does IL-12 similarly regulate the function of human T cells? If so, what is the exact molecular mechanism by which IL-12 mediates these effects? To address these critical questions, we examined how IL-12 pretreatment altered human CD4 and CD8 T cell responses to subsequent TCR stimulation. In CHAPTER III, we examined how
Publikations-Datenbank der Fraunhofer Wissenschaftler und Institute: Aufsätze, Studien, Forschungsberichte, Konferenzbeiträge, Tagungsbände, Patente und Gebrauchsmuster
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Immune cells constantly circulate in the body in search of pathogens or tissue damage. Because they move autonomously, immune cell trafficking must be tightly controlled and coordinated by extracellular cues. The main signals that guide immune cells are chemokines, small polypeptides that modulate the migratory behavior of cells. Remarkably, most chemokines are not only sensed but also secreted by immune cells, indicating that immune cells might either attract more of their own kind or trigger complex patterns of feedbacks between different cell populations. Such cascades might allow different immune cell types to orchestrate their sequential arrival at a site of infection (1). On page 1071 of this issue, Lim et al. (2) show that this is indeed the case with neutrophils and cytotoxic T cells, the former leaving a trail of cues for the latter to follow during the eradication of a viral infection. ...
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Format of Logitech Mouse parameter table: Offset Size Description ) 00h WORD baud rate divided by 100 (serial mouse only) 02h WORD emulation (serial mouse only) 04h WORD report rate (serial mouse only) 06h WORD firmware revision (serial mouse only) 08h WORD 00h (serial mouse only) 0Ah WORD port (serial mouse only) 0Ch WORD physical buttons 0Eh WORD logical buttons ...
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chr6:40953984-40975892, + strand. Annotation of mouse strain C57BL/6NJ genome assembly provided by GENCODE consortium. Distributed via Ensembl Release 92. Gene type: protein coding gene; Gene Name: Prss1 ...
chr15:106010884-106040265, + strand. Annotation of mouse strain C57BL/6NJ genome assembly provided by GENCODE consortium. Distributed via Ensembl Release 92. Gene type: protein coding gene; Gene Name: Tmprss12 ...
Whether expected to be key contributors or free agency afterthoughts, these NBA players did not measure up during the 2011-2012 season. Disappointment comes in many various forms...
In the Cardiology Masters section of European Cardiology Review we bring you an insight into the career of a key contributor to the field of cardiology.
acquired change in the genetic material to cells other than those involved in reproduction, caused by radiation, chemicals and drugs acquired change in the genetic material to cells other than those involved in reproduction, caused by radiation, chemicals and drugs acquired change in the genetic material to cells other than those involved in reproduction, caused by radiation, chemicals and drugs ...
Validate the conditional Knockout efficacy by measuring a reporter gene expression and quantify the deletion in a specific tissue or cell.
Schwartz WJ, Zimmerman P. Circadian timekeeping in BALB/c and C57BL/6 inbred mouse strains. J Neurosci. 1990; 10: 3685-3694. ...
C57BL/6J) mouse. The offspring of the mutated mouse with the inbred strain has a 50% chance of carrying the mutation. From this ... To create a coisogenic strain through breeding, a mouse with the specific mutation on a locus is mated to an inbred strain (e.g ... There are numerous ways to create an inbred strain and each of these strains are unique. Genetically engineered mice can be ... Bult, CJ; Eppig, JT; Blake, JA; Kadin, JA; Richardson, JE; Mouse Genome Database, Group (4 January 2016). "Mouse genome ...
... of the Discriminative Stimulus Effects of the Neuroactive Steroid Pregnanolone in DBA/2J and C57BL/6J Inbred Mice". Journal of ...
Some inbred laboratory mouse strains, such as BALB/c and C57BL/6, also have different proteins expressed in their urine. ... using white-footed mice, it was found that when mice derived from wild populations were inbred, there was reduced survival when ... Wild mice breeding freely in semi-natural enclosures showed inbreeding avoidance. This avoidance resulted from a strong deficit ... These findings suggest that inbreeding reduces fitness, and that scent signal recognition has evolved in mice as a means of ...
In 1921 he inbred the mouse strain C57BL/6 or "black 6", which is the most popular laboratory mouse to date. His most important ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) C. C. Little, Cancer and Inbred Mice by James F. Crow, "Genetics", Vol. 161, 1357-1361 ... The lab was quickly rebuilt and most mouse strains were recovered from other labs around the world. By 1950 the lab was ... Little energetically developed both the lab and the ACS, and by 1944 they were shipping 9000 mice a week to other laboratories ...
The cell line is a luteinizing hormone-dependent steroidogenic cell line that was generated from a mice inbred strain C57BL/6J ... MA-10 cells are a model cell line derived from the mouse Leydig cell tumor used in biomedical research. ...
C57BL/6 mice are highly resistant to the virus, while DBA/2J mice are sensitive. C57BL/6 mice showed slight loss of body weight ... Parker JC, Whiteman MD, Richter CB (January 1978). "Susceptibility of inbred and outbred mouse strains to Sendai virus and ... It was suggested that the mice used to passage the virus were infected with the mouse virus. Thus, mouse virus was later ... Only 10% mortality rate was observed in C57BL/6 mice after the administration of very high virulent dose of 1*105 TCID50. It ...
"Differential effect of inbred mouse strain (C57BL/6, DBA/2, 129T2) on insulin secretory function in response to a high fat diet ... In the strain of mice most commonly used for DIO models, C57BL/6J, mice who started the diet at 10 weeks old showed lower ... For example, mice were put on a high-fat diet, but given either tap water, green tea, or Goishi tea to drink. The mice who ... West, D. B.; Boozer, C. N.; Moody, D. L.; Atkinson, R. L. (1992-06-01). "Dietary obesity in nine inbred mouse strains". The ...
"Genetic sensitivity to hot-plate nociception in DBA/2J and C57BL/6J inbred mouse strains: possible sex-specific mediation by δ2 ... female mice are more sensitive to itch than male mice; pain reduces sexual desire in male but not female mice; sex differences ... They showed that mice display more pain behavior if they are tested in close proximity to other mice also in pain, but only if ... In 1999, they showed that different inbred strains of mice displayed very different pain sensitivity. Chief among these ...
He trained C. C. Little who bred C57BL/6J ("Black 6") from Lathrop's mouse number 57. Black 6 became the most frequently used ... Abbie E. C. Lathrop (1868 - 1918) was a rodent fancier who bred fancy mice and inbred strains for animal models, particularly ... She bred Japanese waltzing mice as well as fancy mice. The mice had straw bedding and lived in wooden boxes. They were fed a ... Lathrop started out with a pair of waltzing mice she obtained in Granby and her farm grew to hold over 11,000 mice at one point ...
... a common inbred strain of lab mouse C-57D, a fictional spaceship from the movie Forbidden Planet This disambiguation page lists ... 1936 code Malignant neoplasms of other and unspecified female and genital organs ICD-10 code C57BL/6, often referred to as "C57 ...
... mice, inbred balb c MeSH B01.050.157.520.388 - mice, inbred c3h MeSH B01.050.157.520.420 - mice, inbred c57bl MeSH B01.050. ... mice, inbred balb c MeSH B01.050.199.520.520.388 - mice, inbred c3h MeSH B01.050.199.520.520.420 - mice, inbred c57bl MeSH ... mice, inbred cba MeSH B01.050.157.520.445 - mice, inbred cftr MeSH B01.050.157.520.460 - mice, inbred dba MeSH B01.050.157.520. ... 480 - mice, inbred hrs MeSH B01.050.157.520.510 - mice, inbred icr MeSH B01.050.157.520.555 - mice, inbred mrl lpr MeSH B01.050 ...
... a subgroup of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System C57BL/6, an inbred mouse strain B6 (musician), a ...
... be alleviated by transferring a sample of H2 haplotypes from wild mice onto inbred (C57BL/10 or B10) background and thus ... Typing of inbred strains suggested that the Mhc might manifest unusually high variability (polymorphism). Inbred strains were, ... The karyotype of the house mouse normally consists of 40 telocentric chromosomes, but in certain regions in Europe, mice with ... Genetic mapping of the loci controlling the class I and class II antigens of the mouse showed them to be part of a cluster, ...
C57BL, C57BR and C57L). Many of the most popular strains of mice were developed during the next decade, and some are closely ... and only three un-pedigreed mice remained alive. Soon after World War I, inbreeding in mice was started on a much larger scale ... A/J C3H C57BL/6 CBA DBA/2 BALB/c G.M. Rommel first started conducting inbreeding experiments on guinea pigs in 1906. Strain 2 ... A genealogical chart of mouse inbred strains can be found here on the Jackson Laboratory website and is currently being ...
... and a male C57BL/6By mouse in the 1960s. The small panel of 8 CXB strains was originally used to determine if the Major ... Recombinant inbred strains or lines were first developed using inbred strains of mice but are now used to study a wide range of ... pairs of the F2 progeny are then mated to establish inbred strains through long-term inbreeding. Families of recombinant inbred ... In the case of a typical mouse recombinant inbred strain made by crossing maternal strain BALB/cBy (C) with paternal strain ...
N.M Haldane identified first linkage in mouse between Albino mice and pink eye dilution on chromosome seven. In 1921, C57BL ... In 1909, Clarence C. Little developed the first inbred strain, the DBA (Dilute, brown non-Agouti) mouse. In 1915, ... Mice have relatively short gestation periods. Mice take a brief time to reach sexual maturity. Mice have large litter sizes. ... The number of mouse genes without a corresponding human homologue is less than 1%. 90% of the human and mouse genomes are ...
Rhodes, JS; Ford, MM; Yu, CH; Brown, LL; Finn, DA; Garland Jr, T; Crabbe, JC (2007). "Mouse inbred strain differences in ... "Acute effects of acamprosate and MPEP on ethanol Drinking-in-the-Dark in male C57BL/6J mice". Alcoholism: Clinical and ... Rhodes was one of the developers of the Drinking in the Dark model in mice. In this model, a specific mouse strain is found to ... "Acute effects of naltrexone and GBR 12909 on ethanol drinking-in-the-dark in C57BL/6J mice". Psychopharmacology. 192 (2): 207- ...
Among the earliest references to the use of inbred mice in cancer was the observed susceptibility of the A family of inbred ... For example, transgenic mice on a mixed C57BL/6J and SJL background expressing human HRAS have a mammary gland carcinoma ... MMHCdb contains genetic and genomic information about inbred mouse strains, genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) and ... Inbred mouse strains are the result of at least 20 generations of successive brother/sister matings which lead to a population ...
The NOG mouse was generated in CIEA in 2000 by back-cross mating of C57BL/6J-IL-2Rγnull mouse that was originally developed by ... The NOD/Shi inbred strain was first discovered by Makino et al. as autoimmune non-obese-type diabetes mice. Lack of functional ... Cancer Infectious Diseases Regenerative Medicine Hematology Humanized mouse Nude mouse SCID mouse M. Ito and, et al. (2002). " ... such as nude mouse and NOD/scid mouse. Thus, the mouse can be the best model as a highly efficient recipient of human cells to ...
nov., a novel Helicobacter species isolated from bile, livers, and intestines of aged, inbred mice". Journal of Clinical ... "Concurrent Helicobacter bilis Infection in C57BL/6 Mice Attenuates Proinflammatory H. pylori-Induced Gastric Pathology". ... 2000]. H. rappini has also been isolated from the feces of healthy people, dogs, and mice, as well as from patients with ... Like Helicobacter hepaticus, it colonizes the bile, liver, and intestine of mice, and is associated with multifocal chronic ...
"Dirty" mice are possibly better suitable for mimicking human pathologies. In addition, inbred mouse strains are used in the ... Animal Testing Animal model BALB/c C57BL/6 Mouse models of colorectal and intestinal cancer Preclinical imaging Rat Park ... Mice differ from humans in several immune properties: mice are more resistant to some toxins than humans; have a lower total ... Thirty to fifty live mice are normally born from this number of injected blastocysts. Normally, the skin color of the mice from ...
... and Leads to Adverse Gestational Outcome in Female C57BL/6 Mice". Frontiers in Nutrition. 3 (1): 1-10. doi:10.3389/fnut. ... NCLAS also came into the limelight due to the WNIN/Ob obese rat strain which is the heaviest inbred rat model available. It has ... "Mice to reveal key to human obesity". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 16 June 2013. "Australia-India food ...
The idea of inbreeding to achieve this goal of a 'pure strain' in mice was one that may have created a negative response to the ... C57BL/6 (lab mice), etc. These organisms have led to many advances in the past century. Some of the first work with what would ... 30-35 Rader, Making Mice Rader, Making Mice, pp. 190-195 Rader, Making Mice, p. 252 Allen, Garland E. Thomas Hunt Morgan: The ... He would continue his work with these mice and used his research to demonstrate that inbreeding is an effective way of ...
Smith HJ (December 1966). "Antigenicity of carcinogen-induced and spontaneous tumours in inbred mice". British Journal of ... NK1.1 or NK1.2 in C57BL/6 mice. The NKp46 cell surface marker constitutes, at the moment, another NK cell marker of preference ... in the mouse, and by Hugh Pross and doctoral student Mikael Jondal in the human. The mouse and human work was carried out under ... In both mice and humans, NKs can be seen to play a role in tumor immunosurveillance by directly inducing the death of tumor ...
"Antigenicity of carcinogen-induced and spontaneous tumours in inbred mice". British Journal of Cancer. 20 (4): 831-7. doi: ... NK1.1 or NK1.2 in C57BL/6 mice. The NKp46 cell surface marker constitutes, at the moment, another NK cell marker of preference ... in the mouse,[25] and by Hugh Pross and doctoral student Mikael Jondal in the human.[26][27] The mouse and human work was ... In both mice and humans, NKs can be seen to play a role in tumor immunosurveillance by directly inducing the death of tumor ...
... is among the most versatile inbred mouse strains and the preferred genetic background for several applications. ... 2006). Taconics C57BL mice, including C57BL/6JBomTac, C57BL/6NTac and C57BL/10SgSnAiTac, or our B6D2F1 and B6129F1, do not ... A Comparison of Metabolic Characteristics Among C57BL/6NTAC, C57BL/6J, and C57BL/6JBOM DIO Mice With Environmental Conditioning ... One of the most used inbred mouse models, the C57BL/6 is used in nearly every research application, and its commonly used as ...
The C57BL/6 (B6) and 129 mouse inbred strains differ markedly in plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations and atherosclerosis ... loci analysis for plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations and atherosclerosis susceptibility between inbred mouse strains C57BL/ ...
Research Topics about Experts and Doctors on inbred c57bl mice in Indianapolis, United States ... You are here: Locale , United States , Indiana , Experts and Doctors on inbred c57bl mice in Indianapolis, United States ... Experts and Doctors on inbred c57bl mice in Indianapolis, United States. Summary. Locale: Indianapolis, United States ... exposure is linked to hyperdynamic circulation in wild-type mice and increased hepatic resistance in eNOS(-/-) mice. .. ...
Subjects. Twelve DBA/2J male mice, 13 DBA/2J female mice, 12 C57BL/6J male mice, and 12 C57BL/6J female mice were obtained from ... Pregnanolone. DBA/2J male mice (n = 12), DBA/2J female mice (n = 13), and C57BL/6J female mice (n = 12) acquired the ... Notably, in this study there were differences between male DBA/2J and C57BL/6J mice, where the male C57BL/6J mice displayed ... for the male mice and 24% for the female mice. The highest dose tested in the female C57BL/6J mice (1.7 mg/kg) only produced 32 ...
Mice of the inbred C57Bl/6J strain displayed high variability in the antibody response of the IgG class to heat-aggregated ... Individual differences in the antibody response of inbred C57Bl/6J mice and their relation to individual differences in open- ... Male and female mice of the C57Bl/6J strain were purchased from Harlan Iberica (Barcelona, Spain). Seven C57Bl/6J females were ... one goal of this report was to find out if such differences occurred in mice of the C57Bl/6J inbred strain. ...
C57BL/6 and 129 inbred mouse strains differ in Gbp2 and Gbp2b expression in response to inflammatory stimuli in vivo. ... Results: We show that C57BL/6J relative to 129/Sv mice display moderately elevated expression of Gbp2, but more prominently, ... we studied the expression of Gbps in both C57BL/6J and 129/Sv mice following in vivo stimulation with adjuvants and after ... We further find that the higher expression of Gbp2b mRNA in 129/Sv mice correlates with a gene duplication event at the Gbp2b ...
Mice, Inbred Strains [B01.050.150.900.649.865.635.505.500.400]. *Mice, Inbred C57BL [B01.050.150.900.649.865.635.505.500.400. ... Inbred C57BL" by people in this website by year, and whether "Mice, Inbred C57BL" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Mice, Inbred C57BL" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Mice, Inbred C57BL*Mice, Inbred C57BL. *C57BL Mice, Inbred. *Inbred C57BL Mice ...
Mice, Inbred C57BL. Known as: Inbred C57BL Mouse, C57BL, C57BL Mice Expand. ... Eight strains of inbred mice fell into two sharply defined groups. Four strains (CBA, A/JAX, C3H/He, and DBA/2) were resistant ... In the present study, we tested the memory performance of different mouse strains (129/Sv, BALB/c, C57BL and Swiss) in an ... Genistein and daidzein modulate hepatic glucose and lipid regulating enzyme activities in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. ...
C57BL/6J reference genome. The Wellcome Trust/Sanger Institute defines SNPs relative to the reference mouse sequence (Waterston ... Mouse Genetic Resources. *. Varying Coefficient Models for Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Using Recombinant Inbred ... The method we present here is not limited only to the laboratory mouse, but could be extended to any organism for which inbred ... Imputation of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Inbred Mice Using Local Phylogeny Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
Origin: The C57BL/JRccHsd mice originate from Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine and were moved in 1973 to RCC Ltd. ( ... Time mated rats and mice are determined by observation of a vaginal plug. Plug date is considered to be day zero (0) of ... Advances in immunodeficient mouse models. The R2G2 brings a new option to oncology and immunology researchers ... Envigo uses well-established techniques to successfully produce time mated rats, mice, hamsters, and rabbits. We use an ...
C57BL/6JOlaHsd(Harlan). C57BL/6JBomTac(Taconic). B6(Cg)-Tyrc-2j/J(Jax). C57BL/6NCrl(Crl). C57BL/6NHsd(Harlan). C57BL/6NTac( ... Polymorphic SNPs useful to distinguish C57BL/6 substrains Chromosome:position (Build 37.1) C57BL/6JArc(ARC). C57BL/6J (Jax). ... Raw Data: Excel file with the 1449 SNPs and all C57BL/6 substrains analyzed ... SNP panel used: Illumina® Mouse Medium Density (MD) Linkage Mapping panel (1449 SNPs) ...
... the genetic divergence among C57BL/6N-derived substrains has not b... ... C57BL/6N inbred mice are used as the genetic background for producing knockout mice in large-scale projects worldwide; however ... C57BL/6N inbred mice are used as the genetic background for producing knockout mice in large-scale projects worldwide; however ... Development of SNP markers for C57BL/6N-derived mouse inbred strains Kazuyuki MEKADA, Mayu HIROSE, Ayumi MURAKAMI, Atsushi ...
The same was initially true in C57BL/6 mice. Those C57BL/6 mice which lived until a chronic state of infection were rarely well ... of worms required by C57BL/6 mice to establish the same level of protection as CBA/J mice was double that needed by CBA/J mice ... After patency the degree of resistance observed in CBA/J mice was related to the adult worm burden harbored by the mice. ... which C57BL/6 mice developed maximum granuloma formation and subsequent modulation was identical to that observed in CBA/J mice ...
Xu, Y, Demarest, K, Hitzemann, R & Sikela, JM 2002, Gene coding variant in Cas1 between the C57bl/6J and DBA/2J inbred mouse ... N2 - Background: Among some (e.g., DBA/2J or D2) but not all (C57BL/6J or B6) inbred strains of mice, ethanol has a marked ... AB - Background: Among some (e.g., DBA/2J or D2) but not all (C57BL/6J or B6) inbred strains of mice, ethanol has a marked ... Background: Among some (e.g., DBA/2J or D2) but not all (C57BL/6J or B6) inbred strains of mice, ethanol has a marked ...
Unique profile of ordered arrangements of repetitive elements in the C57BL/6J mouse genome implicating their functional roles ... Profiling DNA methylation differences between inbred mouse strains on the Illumina Human Infinium MethylationEPIC microarray ... An inducible mouse model for microvillus inclusion disease reveals a role for myosin Vb in apical and basolateral trafficking ... Mice Lacking Platelet-Derived Growth Factor D Display a Mild Vascular Phenotype Gladh, Hanna ; Folestad, Erika Bergsten ; Muhl ...
New microsatellite polymorphisms identified between C57BL-6, C57BL- 10, and C57BL-KsJ inbred mouse strains. Immunogenet. 43, 72 ... Inbred Strains of Mice: C57BL. C57BL Black, a. Origin: Little 1921 from the mating of female 57 with male 52 from Miss Abbie ... McClive P. J., Huang D., and Morahan G. (1994) C57BL/6 and C57BL/10 inbred mouse strains differ at multiple loci on chromosome ... Ks resumed inbreeding. To J 1948. Differs from C57BL/6 and C57BL/10 at the Bgls, Bglt, cdm and H2 loci as a result of a genetic ...
Mouse inbred strains C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ F2 reciprocal intercross:. A murine F2 population consisting of ∼300 mice was ... Mouse inbred strains C57BL/6J ApoE−/− and C3H/HeJ ApoE−/− F2 intercross data set:. The genotype and gene expression data from ... The F2 mouse population consisting of 334 mice (169 female, 165 male) was generated by intercrossing F1 mice of parental ... Here, we compare findings from two large genetic crosses between mouse strains C3H/HeJ and C57BL/6J to evaluate the reliability ...
Strain-A offspring are nearly all affected; DBA-mice, about 75% affected; and C57BL-mice, about 20% affected. The strain-A ... CONGENITAL MALFORMATIONS INDUCED BY RIBOFLAVIN DEFICIENCY IN STRAINS OF INBRED MICE Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Acute maternal deprivation of riboflavin at the end of the middle-third of pregnancy of inbred mice has thus been shown to ... First, it does not explain why cortisone regularly induces cleft palate in DBA-and C57BL-mice, which never have cleft lip and ...
Inbred C57BL. *Lymphocyte Activation. *Lymphocyte Activation: immunology. *Male. *Mice. *Mycobacterium tuberculosis. * ... Mice were vaccinated with these constructs, and the effects of different delivery systems on protective efficacy (as assessed ...
Reciprocal F1 hybrids of BALB/c x C57BL/6 matings revealed dominance of the C57BL/6 genotype, no sex linkage, and a significant ... this discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable in BALB/c than in C57BL/6 mice, though the interstrain difference ... Further study of inherited differences in the BALB/c and C57BL/6 strains may be a useful noninvasive experimental approach for ... Examination of CXB recombinant inbred strains provided no support for the hypothesis of monogenic inheritance. ...
Mice * Mice, Inbred C57BL * NF-kappa B / metabolism * Receptors, Interleukin-1 / metabolism ... and lungs of lipopolysaccharide-exposed mice displayed decreased GILZ protein and mRNA levels. The effect was strictly ...
Here, we characterized IQ-ArfGEF/BRAG1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Arf6, in the mouse brain. In vivo Arf ... Mice, Inbred C57BL * Neurons / metabolism * Rabbits * Receptors, GABA-A / metabolism * Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / ... Here, we characterized IQ-ArfGEF/BRAG1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Arf6, in the mouse brain. In vivo Arf ...
Mice. *Mice, Inbred C57BL. *PPAR alpha. *PPAR alpha: metabolism. *Physical Conditioning, Animal ... Here, we showed that serum FGF21 level is increased in mice after a single bout of acute exercise, and that this is accompanied ... FGF21 gene expression was induced in the liver but not in skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue of mice after acute exercise ... Acute exercise induces FGF21 expression in mice and in healthy humans.. *Kim K ...
Comparison to Inbred C57BL/6 Mice.. September 17, 2020 ... High Dose Radiation Exposure in Jackson Diversity Outbred Mice ...
Here we describe differences in the cortical area map of two commonly used inbred strains of laboratory mice, C57BL/6J and DBA/ ... Inbred strains of laboratory mice can be exploited to study cortical area map formation if there are significant phenotypic ... C57BL/6J and DBA/2J have markedly different cortical area maps, suggesting that inbred strains harbor enough phenotypic ... The sample of C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice can be discriminated with 90% accuracy on the basis of these three size dimensions. ...
Genetic variation in hippocampal microRNA expression differences in C57BL/6 J X DBA/2 J (BXD) recombinant inbred mouse strains ... Genetic variation in hippocampal microRNA expression differences in C57BL/6 J X DBA/2 J (BXD) recombinant inbred mouse strains ... We surveyed variation in miRNA abundance in the hippocampus of mouse inbred strains, allowing us to take a genetic approach to ... The BXD recombinant inbred panel is a very well characterized genetic reference panel which allows quantitative trait locus ( ...
N2 - The inbred mouse strains, DBA/2J (D2) and C57BL/6J (B6), display differential sensitivity to acute, thermal nociception as ... AB - The inbred mouse strains, DBA/2J (D2) and C57BL/6J (B6), display differential sensitivity to acute, thermal nociception as ... The inbred mouse strains, DBA/2J (D2) and C57BL/6J (B6), display differential sensitivity to acute, thermal nociception as ... abstract = "The inbred mouse strains, DBA/2J (D2) and C57BL/6J (B6), display differential sensitivity to acute, thermal ...
Comparing cortical phenotypes between normally varying inbred mice or between genetically modified mice can identify genetic ... and neocortex that collectively discriminated C57BL/6J and DBA/2J inbred strain identity. Here we use a novel application of ... characterize the cortical area maps of these common inbred, isogenic strains. C57BL/6J and DBA/2J have markedly different ... We compared the variation in shape between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J relative to that within each strain using a permutation test of ...
... mice. B6 mice were more sensitive than D2 mice to a subset of bitter stimuli, including quinine hydrochloride (QHCl), 6-n- ... D2 mice were more sensitive than B6 mice to the bitter stimulus raffinose undecaacetate (RUA). These strains did not differ in ... With a few exceptions, previous characterizations of behavioral taste sensitivity in inbred mouse strains have generally ... The results of these studies point to the utility of these common mouse strains and their associated resources for ...
Inbred Strain. Place Order. Typically mice are recovered in 10-14 weeks. Contact Customer Service to place an order or for more ... When using the C57BL/6By mouse strain in a publication, please include JAX stock #000663 in your Materials and Methods section. ... Mice strains as well as the genotypes of strains with identified molecular mutations. JAX® Mice strains are only made available ... Therefore, we cannot guarantee a strains phenotype will meet all expectations. To ensure that JAX® Mice will meet the needs of ...
  • Mice of the inbred C57Bl/6J strain displayed high variability in the antibody response of the IgG class to heat-aggregated bovine serum albumin. (elsevier.es)
  • therefore, one goal of this report was to find out if such differences occurred in mice of the C57Bl/6J inbred strain. (elsevier.es)
  • Male and female mice of the C57Bl/6J strain were purchased from Harlan Iberica (Barcelona, Spain). (elsevier.es)
  • We further find that the higher expression of Gbp2b mRNA in 129/Sv mice correlates with a gene duplication event at the Gbp2b locus resulting in two copies of the Gbp2b gene on the haploid genome of the 129/Sv strain. (crick.ac.uk)
  • AMONG the many advantages of inbred strains in genetic studies is that each strain needs to be genotyped only once, and that information can be reused in many experiments. (genetics.org)
  • Moreover, as more genotype data become available for a given inbred strain, the analysis can be updated. (genetics.org)
  • Here, we identified novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) specific to the C57BL/6NJ strain and selected useful SNPs for the genetic monitoring of C57BL/6N-derived substrains. (umm.ac.id)
  • A total of 1,361 candidate SNPs from the SNP database could distinguish the C57BL/6NJ strain from 12 other inbred strains. (umm.ac.id)
  • the strain distribution pattern for this polymorphism was determined in the 36 strains of the B6XD2 (BXD) recombinant inbred (RI) series. (elsevier.com)
  • Strain differences were also apparent in that the number of worms required by C57BL/6 mice to establish the same level of protection as CBA/J mice was double that needed by CBA/J mice. (ajtmh.org)
  • C57BL is probably the most widely used of all inbred strains, (substrain C57BL/6 alone accounts for over 14% of occasions on which an inbred strain is used) though in many ways it seems to be atypical of inbred strains of laboratory mice. (jax.org)
  • A quasi-congenic QTL introgression strain carrying a low alcohol consumption gene from BALB/c has lower voluntary alcohol consumption than C57BL/6, with 96% of loci in common ( Vadasz et al, 1996 ). (jax.org)
  • According to this belief, cortisone-induced cleft palate occurs with such great frequency in strain-A mice because this strain shows a similar malformation spontaneously. (aappublications.org)
  • the offspring of pregnant strain-A females fed galactoflavin only rarely have cleft palate, whereas offspring of treated DBA- and C57BL-females have moderately low to moderately high incidences of this anomaly. (aappublications.org)
  • We previously described planar areal differences in adult mouse visual, somatosensory, and neocortex that collectively discriminated C57BL/6J and DBA/2J inbred strain identity. (beds.ac.uk)
  • We compared the variation in shape between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J relative to that within each strain using a permutation test of Goodall's F statistic. (beds.ac.uk)
  • A total of 10 mice were tested from each strain (5 males, 5 females) for KCl, CYX, PROP, MgCl 2 and QHCl. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When using the C57BL/6By mouse strain in a publication, please include JAX stock #000663 in your Materials and Methods section. (jax.org)
  • While the individual strains of C57BL mice are genetically identical within the strain, they all show the same propensity to develop sporadic microphthalmia or anophthalmia. (jax.org)
  • However, the current HF models most often use the C57BL/6 mouse strain and do not show the clinically relevant characte. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This strain is commonly used as genetic background for transgenic mouse models. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Of the many inbred strains, C57BL/6 is the most commonly used background strain for genetically engineered mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • The C57BL/6J was developed by Little in 1921, after crossing the female N.57 with the male N.52, and is the most widely used inbred strain. (frontiersin.org)
  • 7. The medium according to claim 6, wherein said cells to be cultured are obtained from a B6C3Fe-a/a-op/op mouse strain. (google.com)
  • In mice, a strain produced from brother-sister matings for at least 20 sequential generations. (jax.org)
  • C57BL/6J is a widely-used inbred strain of mouse. (jax.org)
  • Finally, we report on updated estimates on residual heterozygosity across the entire CC population using a novel, simple and cost effective genotyping platform on three mice from each strain. (g3journal.org)
  • However, the sequence of a single individual may provide an incomplete and biased view of an inbred strain, especially when residual heterozygosity remains at relatively high levels. (g3journal.org)
  • BALB/c (BALB) mice are considered an anxious strain in comparison to C57BL/6 (B6) mice in behavioral models of anxiety. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mice (strain C57bl/6J) were kept anesthetized by a spontaneous inhalation of isoflurane. (diva-portal.org)
  • A) Heatmap of genes differentially expressed between strains (strain-specific DEGs) showed distinct expression patterns between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice. (springer.com)
  • identified a single genetic locus (Ahl) that could explain the early presbycusis observed in the inbred C57BL/6J mouse strain. (cdc.gov)
  • In the congenic C57BL/6J strain, the Ahl locus has been replaced by the wild-type locus from the inbred CBA/CaJ strain (strain B6.CBA). (cdc.gov)
  • Origin of the inbred strain C57BL/6J. (g3journal.org)
  • An inbred mouse strain is established by sibling mating for 20 or more consecutive generations (available at http://www.jax.org ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Mice of the MAI strain develop a severe, nonhealing, but nonfatal disease with no resistance to a secondary parasite challenge. (asm.org)
  • Mice of strain PWK develop a protracted but self-healing disease, characterized by a mixed TH1-plus-TH2 pattern of immune responses in which IL-10 plays an aggravating role, and acquire resistance to a secondary challenge. (asm.org)
  • Considering this very particular mechanism of BALB/c mouse susceptibility to L. major infection, conclusions drawn from disease-modulating experiments with this mouse strain can hardly be extrapolated to human disease. (asm.org)
  • This particular variety was the sixth sub-strain produced by mating the two C57BL mice. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • The inbred mouse C57BL/6J is the reference strain for genome sequence and for most behavioral and physiological phenotypes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Coisogenic strains are one type of inbred strain that differs by a mutation at a single locus and all of the other loci are identical. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are numerous ways to create an inbred strain and each of these strains are unique. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetically engineered mice can be considered a coisogenic strain if the only difference between the engineered mouse and a wild-type mouse is a specific locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coisogenic strains may also occur through a spontaneous mutation that occurs in an inbred strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • To create a coisogenic strain through breeding, a mouse with the specific mutation on a locus is mated to an inbred strain (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • The offspring of the mutated mouse with the inbred strain has a 50% chance of carrying the mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, if the specific mutation cannot be passed on, heterozygous animals should be used to breed with the original inbred strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results indicate that 1 or more genetic loci influence the value of tau DD, and a large (50 min) difference in mean tau DD between 2 of the strains, BALB/cByJ and C57BL/6J, allowed further characterization of the origins and inheritance of the polymorphic expression of this circadian pacemaker property. (umassmed.edu)
  • this discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable in BALB/c than in C57BL/6 mice, though the interstrain difference in mean tau DD could not be attributed entirely to this effect. (umassmed.edu)
  • Reciprocal F1 hybrids of BALB/c x C57BL/6 matings revealed dominance of the C57BL/6 genotype, no sex linkage, and a significant (but small) maternal effect. (umassmed.edu)
  • Further study of inherited differences in the BALB/c and C57BL/6 strains may be a useful noninvasive experimental approach for investigation of the neurobiological substrates of circadian rhythmicity. (umassmed.edu)
  • NK cells were purified from C57BL/6 or BALB/c mice as previously described ( 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The vagus nerve was isolated in Balb/c and B6.129S mice, and placed either on a hook or cuff electrode. (springer.com)
  • Analysis of vagus neurograms in different mouse strains (Balb/c and C57BL/6) reveal no significant differences in baseline activity. (springer.com)
  • We studied LT toxicity in BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J mice. (jci.org)
  • BALB/cJ mice became terminally ill earlier and with higher frequency than C57BL/6J mice. (jci.org)
  • For example, BALB mice are described as poor mothers and B6 mice as good mothers and mothering behavior in rodents has been reported to affect both anxiety and stress behaviors in offspring. (frontiersin.org)
  • By contrast, BALB/c mice are highly susceptible to infection with these organisms (12,13). (scielo.br)
  • Most of these genes do not map within the MHC systems of either humans or mice, including the SCL-1 gene implicated in the high susceptibility of BALB/c mice to infection with L. major (14). (scielo.br)
  • By contrast, BALB/c mice develop a typical Th2 response. (scielo.br)
  • In addition, targeted disruption of the IL-4 gene in BALB/c mice causes these animals, which are otherwise susceptible to infection with L. major , to become highly resistant to these organisms (19). (scielo.br)
  • However (and surprisingly), genetic disruption of the IL-4 gene of BALB/c mice can also generate animals that are as susceptible to infection with L. major as are wild-type conventional BALB/c mice (20). (scielo.br)
  • The reasons for this discrepancy depend on some circumstances such as infection with particular L. major sub-strains, due to the fact that IL-4 and/or IL-4 receptor signaling is not required to promote Th2 cell development and susceptibility in BALB/c mice (21). (scielo.br)
  • Briefly one hundred and twenty Balb/c mice were randomly divided into four groups as LT, LB, LBT and control groups. (omicsonline.org)
  • Two inbred mouse strains, derived from feral founders, are susceptible to experimental leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major and support a disease of a severity intermediate between those observed in strains C57BL/6 and BALB/c. (asm.org)
  • However, neutralization of IL-4, which leads to a resistance phenotype in BALB/c mice, has no effect on disease progression in MAI mice. (asm.org)
  • Experimental infection of inbred BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice by L. major parasites constitutes one of the most studied models of parasitic disease ( 50 ). (asm.org)
  • In contrast, susceptible BALB/c mice mount a TH2 response and show macrophage deactivation leading to parasite dissemination and severe progressive disease ( 8 , 19 , 28 , 38 ). (asm.org)
  • The exquisite susceptibility of BALB/c mice to L. major infection has been ascribed to the occurrence, within the draining lymph nodes of these mice, of an early burst of interleukin 4 (IL-4), detectable at 16 h after parasite inoculation, which polarizes the immune response toward the TH2 pathway ( 20 , 21 , 32 ). (asm.org)
  • Quantitative trait loci analysis for plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations and atherosclerosis susceptibility between inbred mouse strains C57BL/6J. (nih.gov)
  • The C57BL/6 (B6) and 129 mouse inbred strains differ markedly in plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations and atherosclerosis susceptibility after a high-fat diet consumption. (nih.gov)
  • Discordant susceptibility of inbred C57BL/6 versus outbred CD1 mice to experimental fungal sepsis. (nih.gov)
  • Patterns of susceptibility and resistance to T. cruzi are dependent on the parasite and mouse strains 12 20 . (scielo.br)
  • Susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss in two congenic mouse strains. (cdc.gov)
  • Many different genes spanning the mouse genome have been implicated in susceptibility/resistance to Leishmania . (scielo.br)
  • Several systems have been used to correlate resistance/susceptibility with Th1/Th2 responses but perhaps the most compelling one is that involving mice genetically deficient in either interferon g (IFN- g ) or interleukin 4 (IL-4), the phenotypic surrogates of the Th1 and Th2 CD4 + T cell responses, respectively. (scielo.br)
  • Differential susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy has been observed in humans, but it has not been well defined in inbred strains of mice. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Taken together, these results indicate that differential susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy exists in inbred mice. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Background- Inbred mouse strains C57BL/6J (B6) and C3H/HeJ (C3H) exhibit marked differences in atherosclerosis susceptibility. (ahajournals.org)
  • The availability of numerous mouse strains that differ in susceptibility to atherosclerosis provides an experimental method for identifying the role of various cellular components in atherogenesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • The present data suggest that many of the previously documented neurosteroid-induced behavioral differences between the DBA/2J and C57BL/6J are acute effects and are not apparent in a drug discrimination procedure. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate functional differences between 129 and C57BL/6 Gbp alleles which need to be considered in the design and interpretation of studies utilizing mouse models, particularly for phenotypes influenced by Gbp2 or Gbp2b expression. (crick.ac.uk)
  • We confirmed 277 C57BL/6NJ-specific SNPs including 10 nonsynonymous SNPs by direct sequencing, and selected 100 useful SNPs that cover all of the chromosomes except Y. Genotyping of 11 C57BL/6N-derived substrains at these 100 SNP loci demonstrated genetic differences among the substrains. (umm.ac.id)
  • Circadian rhythms of locomotion (wheel-running activity) in 12 inbred mouse strains were recorded for interstrain differences in tau DD, the endogenous (free-running) period of the circadian pacemaker measured in constant environmental darkness. (umassmed.edu)
  • Inbred strains of laboratory mice can be exploited to study cortical area map formation if there are significant phenotypic differences with which to correlate gene polymorphism or expression data. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Here we describe differences in the cortical area map of two commonly used inbred strains of laboratory mice, C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. (beds.ac.uk)
  • 6 ] have employed gene expression array analysis of the dissected embryonic (16.5d) mouse cerebral cortex to expand the list of genes regionally expressed, and noted that regional differences in expression of genes in the cortical plate should eventually convert into functionally distinct cortical areas with anatomically distinguishable borders after birth. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Here we use a novel application of established methods of two-dimensional geometric morphometrics to examine shape differences in the cortical area maps of these inbred strains. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Significant differences in shape in the posterior medial barrel subfield (PMBSF), as well as differences in shape across primary sensory areas, characterize the cortical area maps of these common inbred, isogenic strains. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Similar differences may be present between standard inbred strains of mice. (beds.ac.uk)
  • We previously demonstrated significant differences in the size of both V1 (12%) and the PMBSF (10%) between the inbred strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J [ 6 ]. (beds.ac.uk)
  • PCR sequencing of cDNA revealed ten nucleotide differences between the coding sequences of the DBA/2J and C57BL/6J receptors. (jax.org)
  • Our results show a divergence of behavioral performance in C57BL/6 substrains, which suggest that small genetic differences may have a great influence on behavioral phenotypes. (frontiersin.org)
  • p. 1508 ) have detected differences in cocaine response between the widely used C57BL/6N and C57BL/6J mouse strains and used quantitative trait locus analysis to identify a mutation in an inducible gene, Cyfip , that interacts with the Fragile X protein (FMRP) to regulate sensitivity and sensitization to cocaine through regulation of neuronal connectivity. (sciencemag.org)
  • Phenotypic differences between mice lacking GIRK1, GIRK2 and GIRK3 correlate well with the known impact of GIRK subunit ablation on neurotransmitter-gated GIRK currents, arguing that most neuronal GIRK channels contain GIRK1 and/or GIRK2. (wiley.com)
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: We first investigate the metabolism of [10]-shogaol in mouse urine, and then investigate the biotransformation of shogaols in human urine. (biomedsearch.com)
  • They're an inbred variety of mice raised in laboratories to be used as research specimens for studying behavioral patterns, genetic inheritance, chronic illnesses, and immunology. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • In anesthetized mice, DA release was evoked by brief electrical stimulations at 100 Hz and at frequencies mimicking the discharge patterns of dopaminergic neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Responses were compared with those in mice deficient in the cold/menthol receptor, TRPM8, expressed in trigeminal sensory neurons innervating the oral cavity. (bmj.com)
  • FK506 protects heart function via increasing autophagy after myocardial infarction in mice. (nextbio.com)
  • To study the physiological functions of Gbp family members, the most commonly chosen in vivo models are mice harbouring loss-of-function mutations in either individual Gbp genes or the entire Gbp gene cluster on mouse chromosome 3. (crick.ac.uk)
  • Here, we compare findings from two large genetic crosses between mouse strains C3H/HeJ and C57BL/6J to evaluate the reliability of distal eQTL detection, including "hotspots" influencing the expression of multiple genes in trans . (genetics.org)
  • Genetic engineering of the mouse genome identified many genes that are essential for embryogenesis. (pnas.org)
  • RATIONALE: Changing the genes in laboratory mice to create a living model of human breast cancer may help doctors learn more about breast cancer. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Remarkable advances in molecular genetics have provided powerful tools to investigate the relationships between genes and behaviors in mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, the phenotypes of mutant mice are strongly influenced by genetic background, including flanking alleles, as well as the targeted genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • To investigate the roles of the Period genes in photic entrainment, we constructed phase response curves (PRC) to light pulses for C57BL/6J wild-type, Per1 −/− , Per2 −/− , and Per3 −/− mice and tested whether the PRCs accurately predict entrainment to non-24 light-dark cycles (T-cycles) and constant light (LL). (jneurosci.org)
  • To understand the roles of the Per genes in the entrainment mechanism, we obtained complete PRCs to light pulses from C57BL/6J Per mutant mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we utilized an integrated approach of mRNA-seq and miRNA-seq to investigate the transcriptome expression and regulation of host genes in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mouse strains during influenza virus infection. (springer.com)
  • With the introduction of temporal expression pattern analysis, we demonstrated that host factors responsible for influenza virus replication and host-virus interaction were significantly enriched in genes exhibiting distinct temporal dynamics between different inbred mouse lines. (springer.com)
  • Supplementary Fig. S2 showed the differential expression levels (log2-fold change) of 10 interferon-stimulated genes between infected and mock-treated mice at day 3. (springer.com)
  • Supplementary Fig. S3 showed the characteristics of genes differentially expressed between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J over time. (springer.com)
  • Expression array analysis was performed on endothelial cell RNA isolated from control and hyperlipidemic prelesion mouse aortas, and 797 differentially expressed genes were identified. (ahajournals.org)
  • Inhibitory receptors specific for MHC class I molecules have been identified in mice and humans. (pnas.org)
  • and the mouse and human CD94/NKG2 receptors are specific for Qa1 b or HLA-E, respectively (reviewed in refs. (pnas.org)
  • Control experiments performed in mice lacking D2 receptors showed no autoinhibition of dopamine release. (jneurosci.org)
  • In humans and mice alike, GBPs restrict the intracellular replication of invasive microbes and promote inflammation. (crick.ac.uk)
  • Acute exercise induces FGF21 expression in mice and in healthy humans. (mendeley.com)
  • Inbred mice have been wildly used to model human diseases not only because they facilitate gene manipulation, but also because they share high genetic homology with humans ( 9 - 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We present full-genome genotype imputations for 100 classical laboratory mouse strains, using a novel method. (genetics.org)
  • Using genotypes at 549,683 SNP loci obtained with the Mouse Diversity Array, we partitioned the genome of 100 mouse strains into 40,647 intervals that exhibit no evidence of historical recombination. (genetics.org)
  • Among inbred strains, we imputed 92% of SNPs genome-wide, with 71% in high-confidence regions. (genetics.org)
  • The density of SNP genotypes available on the MDA exceeds the density of recombination events accumulated over the development of the classical inbred strains and as such the MDA SNPs can provide a framework for imputation of the underlying whole-genome sequence. (genetics.org)
  • Mouse Genome Database, Group (4 January 2016). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mouse Genome Informatics website, The Jackson Laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to 36 other standard inbred strains, it carries a Y chromosome of Asian Mus musculus origin (c.f. (jax.org)
  • This substrain is now probably the most widely used of all inbred strains. (jax.org)
  • However, the International Knockout Mouse Consortium uses an embryonic stem cell line derived from a related C57BL/6N substrain. (sciencemag.org)
  • Most lines are congenic with the C57BL/6NTac inbred background. (taconic.com)
  • Examination of CXB recombinant inbred strains provided no support for the hypothesis of monogenic inheritance. (umassmed.edu)
  • 5,6 Moreover, endothelial responses to OxLDL cosegregate with the size of atherosclerotic lesions, as observed in a set of recombinant inbred strains derived from strains B6 and C3H. (ahajournals.org)
  • Envigo uses well-established techniques to successfully produce time mated rats, mice, hamsters, and rabbits. (envigo.com)
  • Time mated rats and mice are determined by observation of a vaginal plug. (envigo.com)
  • One of the most used inbred mouse models, the C57BL/6 is used in nearly every research application, and it's commonly used as the genetic background for transgenic mouse models. (taconic.com)
  • Individual Gbp deletion strains differ in their design, as some strains exist on a pure C57BL/6 genetic background, while other strains contain a 129-derived genetic interval encompassing the Gbp gene cluster on an otherwise C57BL/6 genetic background. (crick.ac.uk)
  • These data support the possibility that Oprd1 is a QTL mediating HP sensitivity in mice, and more generally illustrate the important roles of genetic background and gender in the perception of pain. (elsevier.com)
  • The Jackson Laboratory has rigorous genetic quality control and mutant gene genotyping programs to ensure the genetic background of JAX® Mice strains as well as the genotypes of strains with identified molecular mutations. (jax.org)
  • However, an issue of C57BL/6 substrains that is not always appreciated is that behaviors are known to be strongly influenced by genetic background. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here we used eight genetically diverse inbred strains (five classical laboratory strains (129S1/SvImJ, NOD/ShiLtJ, A/J, C57BL/6J, and NZO/H1LtJ) and three wild-derived strains (WSB/EiJ, PWK/PhJ, and CAST/EiJ) to investigate the effect of genetic background in establishing ESC-like iPSCs. (nature.com)
  • C57BL/6 inbred strains of mice are widely used in knockout and transgenic research. (frontiersin.org)
  • Social behavior phenotypes in fragile X syndrome, autism, and the Fmr1 knockout mouse: Theoretical comment on McNaughton et al. (upenn.edu)
  • GIRK3 knockout ( −/− ) mice behaved indistinguishably from wild-type mice in this panel of tests. (wiley.com)
  • In the absence of selective drugs, GIRK knockout (GIRK −/− ) mice have helped to link channel subtypes to specific neurotransmitters and behaviors. (wiley.com)
  • These results provide a comprehensive look at pregnanolone's discriminative stimulus effects in two commonly used strains of mice. (aspetjournals.org)
  • C57BL/6J and DBA/2J have markedly different cortical area maps, suggesting that inbred strains harbor enough phenotypic variation to encourage a forward genetic approach to understanding cortical development, complementing other approaches. (beds.ac.uk)
  • C57BL/6J and DBA/2J have markedly different cortical area maps, in both size and shape. (beds.ac.uk)
  • A probe designated B6-38 to the pseudoautosomal region of the X and Y chromosome has a characteristic Pst I pattern of fragment sizes which is present only in the C57BL family of strains ( Kalcheva et al, 1995 ). (jax.org)
  • In an ongoing quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping study designed to reveal genomic loci showing genetic linkage to HP sensitivity, a putative QTL on chromosome 4 (50-80 cM from the centromere) has been identified that appears to account for variability in this trait in male, but not female mice. (elsevier.com)
  • Leishmania major-infected murine langerhans cell-like dendritic cells from susceptible mice release IL-12 after infection and vaccinate against experimental cutaneous Leishmaniasis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Experimental genetic manipulations have produced spectacular alterations in the position, size, and shape of primary sensory and motor areas of the mouse neocortex, leading to the conclusion that cortical arealization results in part from intrinsic cortical genetic mechanisms acting early in development [ 1 - 4 ]. (beds.ac.uk)
  • We demonstrate that adult Loa loa worms in subcutaneous tissues, circulating microfilariae (mf) and presence of filarial biomarkers in sera occur following experimental infections of lymphopenic mice deficient in interleukin (IL)-2/7 gamma-chain signaling. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We performed both a regular scale analysis, in which experimental conditions were tightly controlled, and large-scale analysis from large number of behavioral data that we have collected so far through the comprehensive behavioral test battery applied to 700-2,200 mice in total. (frontiersin.org)
  • Conserved Bacterial-Binding Peptides of the Scavenger-Like Human Lymphocyte Receptor CD6 Protect From Mouse Experimental Sepsis. (nih.gov)
  • Experimental findings with Litomosoides sigmodontis in mice and Onchocerca ochengi in cattle are placed in the context of how these models can advance our ability to control the human disease. (plos.org)
  • Thus, resistant C57BL/6 mice infected with L. major develop a TH1 response resulting in gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production, macrophage activation, parasite killing, and resolution of the experimental lesion ( 19 , 36 , 55 ). (asm.org)
  • Origin: see C57BL/6. (jax.org)
  • 9. The medium according to claim 1, wherein said serum albumin, transferrin and growth factors are each of human, mouse or bovine origin. (google.com)
  • Methods: To determine whether the presence of 129 alleles of paralogous Gbps could influence the phenotypes of 129-congenic Gbp-deficient strains, we studied the expression of Gbps in both C57BL/6J and 129/Sv mice following in vivo stimulation with adjuvants and after infection with either Toxoplasma gondii or Shigella flexneri. (crick.ac.uk)
  • Congenic strains of C57BL/10 mice [B10.A, B10.BR, B10.D2, B10.A(2R), B10.A(5R), B110.A(15R), B10.A(1R), B10.A(18R), and B10.OL] have an incidence of clinical microphthalmia ranging from 0.8 to 9.2% (Pierro and Spiggle, 1967). (jax.org)
  • Recently, Johnson has developed two relevant congenic mouse strains. (cdc.gov)
  • This would be expected based on the fact that the congenic CBA.B6 mice genotypes included the mutant Ahl locus. (cdc.gov)
  • This presentation will compare ABR results in the two congenic strains as well as compare the present data with the previous inbred C57BL/6J and CBA/CaJ data. (cdc.gov)
  • Twelve male and female DBA/2J mice and 12 male and female C57BL/6J mice were trained to discriminate 10 mg/kg pregnanolone from saline. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The male C57BL/6J mice had to be removed from the study due to increased seizures apparently associated with the chronic intermittent pregnanolone administration used in drug discrimination. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Seven C57Bl/6J females were mated with three C57Bl/6J males according to this distribution: one male with two females, another male with two other females, and another male with the remaining three females: the offspring were the subjects of this experiment. (elsevier.es)
  • Male and female mice were 79.9 ± 35.4 d old (mean ± SD) at the beginning of the experiments (the number and sex of mice used for each experiment is provided in the supplemental material, available at www.jneurosci.org ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Male and female Pomcwt/wt and Pomctm1/tm1 mice were fed low-fat (LF) (10 kcal percent fat) or HF (45 kcal percent fat) diets from weaning for 23 weeks. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • Male Pomctm1/tm1 mice develop obesity because they are hyperphagic compared with Pomcwt/wt mice when fed an LF or HF diet. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • A chronic HF diet exacerbates male Pomctm1/tm1 and Pomcwt/wt mouse obesity, and the increased energy intake fully accounts for increased weight gain. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • Mouse models of chronic heart failure (HF) have been widely used in HF research. (bioportfolio.com)
  • DBA/2J and KK/HlJ mice are more prone to diabetic nephropathy, whereas the most widely used C57BL/6J mice are relatively resistant to development of diabetic nephropathy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Out of over 3,000 varieties of lab mice, the breed of black mice known as C57BL/6 is the most well-known and widely used animal models in research. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • Characterization of thiol-conjugated metabolites of ginger components shogaols in mouse and human urine and modulation of the glutathione levels in cancer cells by [6]-shogaol. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Characterization of these two mouse inbred strains over the course of pregnancy and in the postpartum period for behavioral and neuroendocrine changes may provide useful information by which to inform human studies, leading to advances in our understanding of the etiology of anxiety and depression and the role of genetics and the environment. (frontiersin.org)
  • For additional information, including pricing details, please visit the C57BL/6NCrl mouse page on the Vital River Laboratories website . (criver.com)
  • This model was isolated from a C57BL/6NCrl colony in a Charles River Laboratories barrier facility in the US in 2005. (criver.com)
  • To investigate the behavioral characteristics of C57BL/6 substrains, we subjected C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, and C57BL/6C mice to a behavior test battery. (frontiersin.org)
  • Different laboratories often use different strains of inbred animals, but one cannot make behavioral comparisons and assume that their reaction to interventions will necessarily be similar. (sciencemag.org)
  • Mice with a targeted mutation in the pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc) gene (Pomctm1/tm1 mice) are unable to synthesize desacetyl-α-MSH and α-MSH and they develop obesity when fed chow diet. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • Administration of anandamide [AEA], a member of the endocannabinoid family, into mice resulted in significant mitigation of mBSA-induced inflammation, including foot pad swelling, cell infiltration, and cell proliferation in the draining lymph nodes [LN]. AEA treatment significantly reduced IL-17 and IFN-γ production, as well as decreased RORγt expression while causing significant induction of IL-10 in the draining LNs. (nih.gov)
  • RNA was isolated from five pooled popliteal lymph nodes of mBSA-sensitized mice rechallenged with mBSA and treated with either AEA or Vehicle. (nih.gov)
  • To test if the immunosuppression by AEA was mediated by miRNA, we isolated total RNA from draining lymph nodes in mice sensitized to mBSA and treated with vehicle or AEA, as before. (nih.gov)
  • Herein, we show that DP T cells are readily detectable in the blood, spleen, and peripheral lymph nodes of naïve C57BL/6 mice. (dtu.dk)
  • Genetics of resistance to infection with Salmonella typhimurium in mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The sequencing of these six CC strains updates the efforts toward inbreeding undertaken by the UNC Systems Genetics Core. (g3journal.org)
  • He was the first to establish the use of inbred mice in studying genetics. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • Several strains of inbred black mice, originally derived by W.L. Russell of The Jackson Laboratory in 1921, were designated as C57 Black (C57BL) after approximately the thirty-second generation of inbreeding. (jax.org)
  • Taconic Biosciences has recently added an additional 75 mouse models to the GEM Collection Repository. (taconic.com)
  • Lin Z, Edenberg H, Carr L. A novel negative element in the promoter of the mouse alcohol dehydrogenase gene Adh-1. (labome.org)
  • FGF21 gene expression was induced in the liver but not in skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue of mice after acute exercise, and further, the gene expression levels of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) were also increased. (mendeley.com)
  • Although no murine MIC molecules have been found, the mouse orthologs of ULBP are likely to be the retinoic acid early inducible-1 gene products (RAE-1) and the related H60 minor histocompatibility antigen ( 22 , 23 ). (pnas.org)
  • We have disrupted the murine Hjv gene and shown that Hjv -/- mice have markedly increased iron deposition in liver, pancreas, and heart but decreased iron levels in tissue macrophages. (jci.org)
  • Therefore, DX5 mAb has been a useful reagent to identify and isolate NK cells from mice lacking expression of the NK1.1 Ag (for example, in gene-deficient mice generated on the 129 background) ( 7 , 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In MGI , this term refers to terms in a hierarchical controlled vocabulary such as those containing Gene Ontology (GO) , Mammalian Phenotype Ontology , and Adult Mouse Anatomical Dictionary terms. (metacyc.org)
  • Thus, targeted disruption of the IFN- g gene in C57BL/6 mice causes these animals, which are otherwise resistant to infection with L. major , to become highly susceptible to these organisms (15,16). (scielo.br)
  • Objective- Endothelial cells are central to the initiation of atherosclerosis, yet there has been limited success in studying their gene expression in the mouse aorta. (ahajournals.org)
  • See also the Rules for Nomenclature of Mouse and Rat Strains . (jax.org)
  • International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice (January 2016). (wikipedia.org)
  • On the C57BL/6J background hippocampal hyperexcitability was observed and cortical and hippocampal spontaneous nonconvulsive seizures. (alzforum.org)
  • Comparing cortical phenotypes between normally varying inbred mice or between genetically modified mice can identify genetic contributions to cortical specification. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Recent studies using genetically modified mice have improved our understanding of molecular mechanisms in the neural control of immunity. (springer.com)
  • The C57BL/JRccHsd mice originate from Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine and were moved in 1973 to RCC Ltd. (formerly Ibm and BRL) in Füllinsdorf, Switzerland. (envigo.com)
  • Fibroblast growth factor 21 corrects obesity in mice. (labome.org)
  • Chronic High-Fat Diet Exacerbates Sexually Dimorphic Pomctm1/tm1 Mouse Obesity. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • In this study, we hypothesized that a chronic high-fat (HF) diet exacerbates Pomctm1/tm1 mouse obesity. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • We show that Pomctm1/tm1 mouse obesity is sexually dimorphic and exacerbated by an HF diet. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • In contrast, female Pomcwt/wt mice are protected from chronic HF diet-induced obesity because they reduce the amount of HF diet eaten, and they appear to increase their energy expenditure (no change in feed efficiency but energy intake exceeding body weight gained). (auckland.ac.nz)
  • A chronic HF diet exacerbates female Pomctm1/tm1 mouse obesity due to impaired ability to reduce the amount of HF diet eaten and apparent impaired HF diet-induced adaptive thermogenesis. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • Our data show that desacetyl-α-MSH and α-MSH are required for sexually dimorphic HF diet-induced C57BL/6J obesity. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • In conclusion, desacetyl-α-MSH and α-MSH play salutary roles in sexually dimorphic melanocortin obesity and sexually dimorphic HF diet-induced C57BL/6J obesity. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • In 1951 C57BL/6J, then at generation F32, was sent from The Jackson Laboratory to The National Institute of Health where they were maintained via sibling inbreeding for decades. (jax.org)
  • C57BL/6 and 129 inbred mouse strains differ in Gbp2 and Gbp2b expression in response to inflammatory stimuli in vivo. (crick.ac.uk)
  • As a proportion of the total cortical sheet, the area of V1 was 52% increased and the area of PMBSF was 25% decreased in ne-Emx2 mice compared to wild-type mice [ 5 ]. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Outline drawings of cortical map phenotypes in wild type mice and mice over expressing Emx2 show changes in the shape of PMBSF and V1. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In wild-type mice, stimulation at 100 Hz with two to six pulses linearly inhibited further release, whereas single pulses were inefficient. (jneurosci.org)
  • In contrast to wild-type mice, Trpm8−/− showed a strong aversion to mentholated (100 µg/mL) nicotine (200 µg/mL) and preferred nicotine alone. (bmj.com)
  • Trpm8−/− mice show aversion to lower concentrations of menthol than wild-type mice. (bmj.com)
  • Hyperactivity and increased time in the open arm of the elevated plus maze than wild-type mice indicating lower levels of anxiety, but has not been universally replicated. (alzforum.org)
  • 5 ] demonstrated changes in the position and or size of primary sensory visual, somatosensory, and auditory cortical regions in transgenic mice over expressing the transcription factor Emx2 . (beds.ac.uk)
  • In order to determine if this could stem from an impaired survival signal, we introduced Bcl-2 into RAG2 deficient Dµ transgenic mice. (diva-portal.org)
  • In addition, data from recombination competent Dµ transgenic mice demonstrated that the Dµ induced partial block is permissive for marginal zone B cell development, whereas the formation of follicular B cells is severely reduced. (diva-portal.org)
  • The BXD recombinant inbred panel is a very well characterized genetic reference panel which allows quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of miRNA abundance and detection of correlates in a large store of brain and behavioural phenotypes. (essex.ac.uk)
  • The Mia3 locus from the perspective of both the B6Eve assembly (top) and the GRCm38 mouse reference (bottom). (g3journal.org)
  • The data revealed that although the pattern by which C57BL/6 mice developed maximum granuloma formation and subsequent modulation was identical to that observed in CBA/J mice, C57BL/6 granulomas were consistently half the volume of their counterpart lesions in CBA/J mice. (ajtmh.org)
  • Eye lesions in C57BL/6J mouse. (jax.org)
  • These mice fail to control the infection and develop extensive lesions. (scielo.br)
  • Although the aorta transplantation procedure is used primarily to study long-term graft rejection, it also is used to investigate the progression or regression of atherosclerotic lesions in apoE −/− mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • This set of samples is expected to capture much of the variation found in common laboratory mouse strains and, therefore, provides a foundation for sequence imputation. (genetics.org)
  • We surveyed variation in miRNA abundance in the hippocampus of mouse inbred strains, allowing us to take a genetic approach to the study of miRNA regulation, which is novel for miRNAs. (essex.ac.uk)
  • The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In this study, we evaluated the reproducibility of eQTL detection of two large genetic crosses of mouse strains C3H/HeJ and C57BL/6J. (genetics.org)
  • Two key features of recombinant inbred panels are well-characterized genomes and reproducibility. (g3journal.org)
  • Variations of physiological variables (weight, course of infection, stress response) in inbred animals have also been reported ( Gärtner, 2012 ). (elsevier.es)
  • Those C57BL/6 mice which lived until a chronic state of infection were rarely well protected and harbored few female worms. (ajtmh.org)
  • infection model is also achievable, utilizing immune-competent or -deficient mice infused with purified Loa mf. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Mice were culled on day 7 after infection and blood and spleen cell phenotype and activation were evaluated. (hindawi.com)
  • Studying differential responses of inbred mouse lines with distinct genetic backgrounds to influenza virus infection could substantially increase our understanding of the contributory roles of host genetic factors to disease severity. (springer.com)
  • Overall, a comprehensive framework for analyzing host susceptibilities to influenza infection was established by integrating mRNA-seq and miRNA-seq data of inbred mouse lines. (springer.com)
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that the immune response plays an important role in protection against infection with Trypanosoma cruzi in mice 6 10 15 . (scielo.br)
  • C57BL/6, CBA/J, C3H, B10D2) are resistant to infection with Leishmania major . (scielo.br)
  • Upon infection with L. major , mice of the resistant phenotype clearly develop a dominant Th1 phenotype of immune response to the parasite's antigens. (scielo.br)
  • Moreover, IL-4 transgenic resistant mice expressing low levels of this cytokine fail to clear the infection (17,18). (scielo.br)
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (uchicago.edu)
  • The inbred mouse strains, DBA/2J (D2) and C57BL/6J (B6), display differential sensitivity to acute, thermal nociception as measured on the hot-plate (HP) assay. (elsevier.com)
  • Study design The two-bottle choice drinking assay was used to characterise aversion and preference in C57BL/6 mice to a range of menthol concentrations (10-200 µg/mL). (bmj.com)
  • The CC is derived from eight inbred strains: five classical strains (A/J, C57BL/6J, 129S1/ SvImJ, NOD/ShiLtJ, and NZO/HILtJ) and three wild-derived strains that represent three Mus musculus subspecies (WSB/EiJ from Mus m. domesticus , PWK/PhJ from M. m. musculus , and CAST/EiJ from M. m. castaneus ) ( Collaborative Cross Consortium 2012 ). (g3journal.org)
  • This information will be useful for accurate genetic monitoring of mouse strains with a C57BL/6N-derived background. (umm.ac.id)
  • The investigator must recognize that the described ophthalmic abnormalities represent a background feature of inbred black mice in order to avoid incorrect interpretation of experiments that involve the eyes in these mice. (jax.org)
  • Compared with HFL responders, HFH mice gained weight more rapidly and exhibited adipose tissue dysfunction characterized by decreased final fat mass, enhanced macrophage infiltration and inflammation, and adipose tissue remodeling. (diabetesjournals.org)