Animals that are generated from breeding two genetically dissimilar strains of the same species.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.
Organic compounds with the general formula R-NCS.
Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.
Esters of the hypothetical imidic acids. They react with amines or amino acids to form amidines and are therefore used to modify protein structures and as cross-linking agents.
The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.
Various physiological or molecular disturbances that impair ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM function. It triggers many responses, including UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE, which may lead to APOPTOSIS; and AUTOPHAGY.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)
The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
AMINO ACIDS composed of GLYCINE substituted at the nitrogen rather than the usual carbon position, resulting in the loss of HYDROGEN BONDING donors. Polymers of these compounds are called PEPTOIDS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An enzyme that hydrolyzes iduronosidic linkages in desulfated dermatan. Deficiency of this enzyme produces Hurler's syndrome. EC
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.
Mucopolysaccharidosis characterized by excessive dermatan and heparan sulfates in the urine and Hurler-like features. It is caused by a deficiency of beta-glucuronidase.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.
Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.
An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Infections with bacteria of the genus BORRELIA.
Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.
The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION, when an amino acid is transferred from its cognate TRANSFER RNA to the lengthening chain of PEPTIDES.
An antitrichomonal agent which is effective either topically or orally and whose urinary metabolites are also trichomonicidal.
Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
A concept that stands for or suggests something else by reason of its relationship, association, convention, or resemblance. The symbolism may be mental or a visible sign or representation. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Former state in north central Germany. Formally abolished March 1, 1947. Kingdom established 1701.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.

Sulfhydryl compounds in melanocytes of yellow (Ay/a), nonagouti (a/a), and agouti (A/A) mice. (1/8889)

CLEFFMANN (1953, 1963a,b) has reported that yellow but not black melanocytes of agouti (A/A) rabbits contained reducing sulfhydryl compounds. We have attempted to repeat CLEFFMANN's observations in mouse melanocytes of the lethal yellow (Ay/a), nonagouti (a/a) and agouti (A/A) genotypes. Our results contradict those of CLEFFMANN and reveal that yellow and black melanocytes, regardless of genotype, possess equivalent amounts of histochemically detectable sulfhydryl compounds. These results do not support the hypothesis that agouti-locus genes act by controlling the sulfhydryl metabolism of pigment cells.  (+info)

Sonic hedgehog signaling by the patched-smoothened receptor complex. (2/8889)

BACKGROUND: The Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins is involved in a number of developmental processes as well as in cancer. Genetic and biochemical data suggest that the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) receptor is composed of at least two proteins: the tumor suppressor protein Patched (Ptc) and the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo). RESULTS: Using a biochemical assay for activation of the transcription factor Gli, a downstream component of the Hh pathway, we show here that Smo functions as the signaling component of the Shh receptor, and that this activity can be blocked by Ptc. The inhibition of Smo by Ptc can be relieved by the addition of Shh. Furthermore, oncogenic forms of Smo are insensitive to Ptc repression in this assay. Mapping of the Smo domains required for binding to Ptc and for signaling revealed that the Smo-Ptc interaction involves mainly the amino terminus of Smo, and that the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain are required for signaling. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that Smo is the signaling component of a multicomponent Hh receptor complex and that Ptc is a ligand-regulated inhibitor of Smo. Different domains of Smo are involved in Ptc binding and activation of a Gli reporter construct. The latter requires the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain of Smo, regions often involved in coupling to G proteins. No changes in the levels of cyclic AMP or calcium associated with such pathways could be detected following receptor activation, however.  (+info)

Difference between mammary epithelial cells from mature virgin and primiparous mice. (3/8889)

Mammary epithelial cells from mature virgin mice are similar to those from primiparous mice in several respects. However, there is one known difference. The cells from the mature virgin must traverse the cell cycle in order to become competent to make casein and enzymatically active alpha-lactalbumin in vitro; those from the primiparous animal can make these proteins without first traversing the cycle. In this regard, cells from human placental lactogen- and prolactin-treated mature virgins are, after involution, similar to those from primiparous mice. The developemental block in the cells from the mature virgin, imposed by preventing cell cycle traversal, has been partially delineated. It does not appear to reside at the levels of ultrastructural maturation or the formation of casein messenger RNA. Rather, the lesion is postranscriptional and may be at the level of translation, or posttranslational modification, or both.  (+info)

Systemic administration of rIL-12 synergistically enhances the therapeutic effect of a TNF gene-transduced cancer vaccine. (4/8889)

Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a potent antitumor cytokine, which induces and enhances the activity of natural killer (NK) cells, lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). IL-12 also stimulates IFN-gamma production from both T cells and NK cells. In this study, we transfected methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma (MCA-D) with TNF gene and investigated the therapeutic effect of TNF gene-transduced cancer vaccine and whether the vaccination effect is enhanced by systemic administration of recombinant IL-12 (rIL-12), in a murine model. TNF gene-transduced cancer vaccine or systemic administration of rIL-12 showed slight or moderate inhibition of pre-established tumor. However, simultaneous application of the vaccine and rIL-12 resulted in complete eradication. The cytotoxicity of CTL against parental tumor cells was enhanced with the combination of the vaccine and rIL-12, and IFN-gamma production from spleen cells also increased synergistically. Our findings show that synergistic enhancement of CTL activity and IFN-gamma production could play an important role in the antitumor effect of combination therapy using TNF gene-transduced cancer vaccine and rIL-12.  (+info)

Transduction of glioma cells using a high-titer retroviral vector system and their subsequent migration in brain tumors. (5/8889)

The intracranial migration of transduced glioma cells was investigated in order to improve the treatment of malignant glioma by gene therapy using retroviral vectors. In this study, about half the volume of the tumor mass could be transduced in 14 days after only a single implantation of 3 x 10(5) retrovirus-producing cells into a tumor mass with a diameter of 5 mm. Moreover, we were able to follow the migration of glioma cells transduced by the lacZ-harboring retroviruses originating from the high-titer retrovirus-producing cells. Besides the importance of using a high-titer retroviral vector system, our results also indicate that the implantation site of the virus-producing cells and the interval between the implantation of the virus-producing cells and the subsequent administration of ganciclovir are important factors for the efficient killing of glioma cells.  (+info)

Activation of murine macrophages by lipoprotein and lipooligosaccharide of Treponema denticola. (6/8889)

We have recently demonstrated that the periodontopathogenic oral spirochete Treponema denticola possesses membrane-associated lipoproteins in addition to lipooligosaccharide (LOS). The aim of the present study was to test the potential of these oral spirochetal components to induce the production of inflammatory mediators by human macrophages, which in turn may stimulate tissue breakdown as observed in periodontal diseases. An enriched lipoprotein fraction (dLPP) from T. denticola ATCC 35404 obtained upon extraction of the treponemes with Triton X-114 was found to stimulate the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-1 (IL-1) by mouse macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Induction of NO by dLPP was at 25% of the levels obtained by Salmonella typhosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at similar concentrations, while IL-1 was produced at similar levels by both inducers. dLPP-mediated macrophage activation was unaffected by amounts of polymyxin B that neutralized the induction produced by S. typhosa LPS. dLPP also induced NO and TNF-alpha secretion from macrophages isolated from endotoxin-unresponsive C3H/HeJ mice to an extent similar to the stimulation produced in endotoxin-responsive mice. Purified T. denticola LOS also produced a concentration-dependent activation of NO and TNF-alpha in LPS-responsive and -nonresponsive mouse macrophages. However, macrophage activation by LOS was inhibited by polymyxin B. These results suggest that T. denticola lipoproteins and LOS may play a role in the inflammatory processes that characterize periodontal diseases.  (+info)

Clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis from the murine genital mucosa does not require perforin-mediated cytolysis or Fas-mediated apoptosis. (7/8889)

The molecular mechanisms of resistance to genital infection with the mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) strain of Chlamydia trachomatis are unknown. A role for major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted, interleukin-12-dependent CD4(+) T cells has been established, but the functional activity of these cells does not depend on secretion of gamma interferon. Here we examined the potential contribution of T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity and apoptosis to mucosal clearance of MoPn by using mice deficient in the molecular mediators of target cell lysis. Animals lacking perforin, Fas, Fas ligand, or both perforin and Fas ligand were infected genitally with C. trachomatis MoPn and monitored for expression of immunity to chlamydial antigens and clearance of MoPn from the genital mucosa. In each case, the profile of spleen cytokine production, the magnitude of the host antibody response, and the kinetics of chlamydial clearance were similar to those of genetically intact controls. Compensatory overproduction of tumor necrosis factor alpha, an alternate mediator of apoptosis in certain cell types, did not appear to account for the ability of mutant mice to resolve Chlamydia infections. These results fail to support CD4(+) T-cell-mediated apoptosis or CD8(+) T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity as being critical to the clearance of C. trachomatis MoPn urogenital infections.  (+info)

Maintenance of motility in mouse sperm permeabilized with streptolysin O. (8/8889)

One approach to studying the mechanisms governing sperm motility is to permeabilize sperm and examine the regulation of motility by manipulating the intracellular milieu of the cell. The most common method of sperm permeabilization, detergent treatment, has the disadvantage that the membranes and many proteins are extracted from the cell. To avoid this problem, we have developed a method that uses streptolysin O to create stable pores within the plasma membrane while leaving internal membranes intact. Sperm were permeabilized, preincubated, and then treated with 0.6 U/ml of streptolysin O. Permeabilization was assessed by fluorescent dye technologies and endogenous protein phosphorylation using exogenously added [gamma-32P]ATP. Streptolysin O-induced permeabilization rendered the sperm immotile, and the effect was Ca2+-dependent. When the cells were treated simultaneously with a medium containing ATP, streptolysin O-treated sperm maintained flagellar movement. These results demonstrate that the streptolysin O permeabilization model system is a useful experimental method for studying the mechanisms that regulate sperm motility since it allows the flagellar apparatus to be exposed to various exogenously added molecules.  (+info)

Background Tuberculosis is one of the worlds leading killers, stealing 1. cell immune responses in infected NOS2-/-, RAG-/-, C3HeB/FeJ and C57/BL6 mice. Gr-1+ cells could be found on the edges of necrotic lung lesions in NOS2-/-, RAG-/-, and C3HeB/FeJ, but were absent in wild-type mice. Both populations of Gr1+CD11b+ cells expressed high levels of arginase-1, AMD 070 irreversible inhibition and IL-17, additional markers of myeloid derived suppressor cells. We then sorted the Gr1hi and Gr1int populations from infected NOS-/- mice and placed the sorted both Gr1int populations at different ratios with na?ve or infected splenocytes and evaluated their ability to induce activation and proliferation of CD4+T cells. Our results showed that both Gr1hi and Gr1int cells were able to induce activation and proliferation of CD4+ T cells. However this response was reduced as the ratio AMD 070 irreversible inhibition of CD4+ T to Gr1+ cells elevated. Our outcomes illustrate a however unrecognized interplay ...
Pde6h - mouse gene knockout kit via CRISPR, 1 kit. |dl||dt|Kit Component:|/dt||dd|- |strong|KN313025G1|/strong|, Pde6h gRNA vector 1 in |a href=
Hist1h4h - mouse gene knockout kit via CRISPR, 1 kit. |dl||dt|Kit Component:|/dt||dd|- |strong|KN307777G1|/strong|, Hist1h4h gRNA vector 1 in |a href=
P{y[+t7.7]=3wHy} associated with end of Df; Hobo element may be mobilized if crossed to H strain, B.G. Cytological breakpoints estimated from molecular breakpoints, K.C ...
chr16:11340124-11462583, + strand. Annotation of mouse strain C3H/HeJ genome assembly provided by GENCODE consortium. Distributed via Ensembl Release 92. Gene type: protein coding gene; Gene Name: Abcc1 ...
chr13:75746446-75830032, - strand. Annotation of mouse strain C3H/HeJ genome assembly provided by GENCODE consortium. Distributed via Ensembl Release 92. Gene type: protein coding gene; Gene Name: Rhobtb3 ...
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is one of the most common human cancers worldwide. In SCC, tumour development is accompanied by an immune response that leads to massive tumour infiltration by inflammatory cells, and consequently, local and systemic production of cytokines, chemokines and other mediators. Studies in both humans and animal models indicate that imbalances in these inflammatory mediators are associated with cancer development. We used a multistage model of SCC to examine the involvement of elastase (ELA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO), cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, TGF-β and TNF-α), and neutrophils and macrophages in tumour development. ELA and MPO activity and NO, IL-10, IL −17, TNF-α and TGF-β levels were increased in the precancerous microenvironment. ELA and MPO activity and NO, IL-10, IL −17, TNF-α and TGF-β levels were increased in the precancerous microenvironment. Significantly higher levels of IL-6 and lower levels of IL-10 were detected at 4 weeks
Conservative estimates hold that in the United States alone, 20,000 people die each year as a result of septic shock brought on by Gram-negative infection (1). The lethal effect of a Gram-negative infection is linked, in part, to the biological effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin), which is produced by all Gram-negative organisms. A powerful activator of host mononuclear cells, LPS prompts the synthesis and release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and other toxic cytokines that ultimately lead to shock in sepsis. Nonetheless, it is clear that timely recognition of LPS by cells of the innate immune system permits effective clearance of a Gram-negative infection before it becomes widely disseminated (2, 3).. More than 30 years ago, mice of the C3H/HeJ strain were found to have a defective response to bacterial endotoxin (4-8). Inquiry into the genetic basis of LPS resistance revealed a single locus (Lps), wherein homozygosity for a codominant allele (Lps d) was responsible for the ...
Conservative estimates hold that in the United States alone, 20,000 people die each year as a result of septic shock brought on by Gram-negative infection (1). The lethal effect of a Gram-negative infection is linked, in part, to the biological effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin), which is produced by all Gram-negative organisms. A powerful activator of host mononuclear cells, LPS prompts the synthesis and release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and other toxic cytokines that ultimately lead to shock in sepsis. Nonetheless, it is clear that timely recognition of LPS by cells of the innate immune system permits effective clearance of a Gram-negative infection before it becomes widely disseminated (2, 3).. More than 30 years ago, mice of the C3H/HeJ strain were found to have a defective response to bacterial endotoxin (4-8). Inquiry into the genetic basis of LPS resistance revealed a single locus (Lps), wherein homozygosity for a codominant allele (Lps d) was responsible for the ...
TLRs are one of the main contributors to pathogen-induced inflammation and ischemia-induced inflammation (2). Previous studies demonstrated that bacteria and TLR4 play significant roles in experimental NEC. Intestinal TLR4 mRNA increased in formula feeding and cold asphyxia stress, correlating with induced inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase and increased inflammatory cytokine production (24), which occurred in the intestinal epithelium but not in the submucosa. TLR4-mutant C3H/HeJ mice were protected from the development of NEC compared with wild-type C3H/HeJ mice (26). Recent studies found that there was an overexpression of TLR2 and TLR4 in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) that was correlated with the severity of mucosal damage, together with an increase of apoptotic IECs and markedly impaired proliferation (25). Some studies indicated that TLR2 may provide protective signaling. Evidence was that C57BL/6 TLR2-deficient mice, compared with wild-type mice, have a dysregulated mucosal innate ...
Tárnokpuszta local information and maps. Tárnokpuszta is a section of populated place in Fejér, Hungary, Europe. Tarnokpuszta is also known as Tarnok, Tárnok.
Sensory Inc.s Low Power Sound Detector (LPSD) technology is starting to take off among chip manufacturers. The company says that companies including...
Callahan, G N.; Martin, W J.; and Pardi, D, Biochemical comparison of mhc antigens isolated from mutant c3hfb/hen and parent c3h/hen mice. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 2325 ...
Sie wollen Ihre Selbstdisziplin erhöhen und somit erfolgreicher in der Umsetzung von Vorhaben sein? Jeder Mensch durchlebt ständig Höhen und Tiefen in...
chains in the Genus database with same CATH superfamily 4DI0 A; 4CYA A; 2BKC A; 2GYD A; 2JD6 0; 3BT5 A; 4ZJK A; 4R42 A; 3F35 A; 3NOZ X; 5CMR A; 2Z6M A; 2V2M A; 4ZL5 A; 1TKP A; 2V15 A; 3BVF A; 3F34 A; 4DZ0 A; 1R03 A; 2WTL A; 3PVR B; 4CVT A; 3A9Q A; 3OGH A; 4PG1 A; 1SQ3 A; 1B71 A; 5FEJ A; 4ML5 A; 4RC5 A; 2YJJ A; 2YW6 A; 3IS8 A; 3R2O A; 2FJC A; 4DYY A; 3AJP A; 4CY9 A; 2ITB A; 2FG4 A; 1JKV A; 4TOB A; 2V2N A; 2CIH A; 1S2Z A; 4DYX A; 4A25 A; 3WNW A; 4TOC A; 3UNO A; 1FHA A; 2V2I A; 1KRQ A; 4RC6 A; 5CMQ A; 3QD8 A; 4RC7 B; 3F32 A; 1DVB A; 1NFV A; 3EZU A; 2Z5R A; 3NP2 X; 3KA9 A; 2VZB A; 3NP0 X; 4EVD A; 2CEI A; 4TOH A; 3BVE A; 2CHP A; 4CMY A; 1JKU A; 2FFX J; 1Z4A A; 1S30 A; 2HR5 A; 3BKN A; 2JD7 0; 3ISF A; 1L8I A; 1O9I A; 4RC5 B; 3KXU A; 3UOF A; 3R2R A; 2CN6 A; 2Z5Q A; 1JI4 A; 4EVB A; 2C2J A; 4ZKW A; 1XZ3 A; 1NNQ A; 3PWQ C; 5FFD A; 3PVY A; 2V2R A; 2XJM A; 1S3Q A; 1OTK A; 3KX9 A; 1QGH A; 2YW7 A; 1VEL A; 3RD0 A; 4RC6 B; 2OH3 A; 4YKH A; 5LBH A; 3PW1 A; 1RCE A; 5I4J A; 3EGM A; 4MKU A; 3UOI A; 2W0O A; 5AXS A; ...
A legt bb ember fej ben a rettegett k rok k z tt els sorban a r k, a sz vbetegs g, legfeljebb az Alzheimer-k r, s persze a szinte teljesen felsz molt, de tal n ppen ez rt is misztikuss v lt lepra ll. Vannak azonban m s borzalmas, sok testi s lelki szenved ssel fenyeget betegs gek, amelyeket
Dogs - Cats - Terrific Pets is a website you can find information on dog breeds, dog breeders, dogs for sale, puppies for sale, dog names and more.
Central nervous system (CNS) infection and inflammation severely reduce the capacity of cytochrome P-450 metabolism in the liver. We developed a mouse model to examine the effects of CNS inflammation on hepatic cytochrome P-450 metabolism. FVB, C57BL/6, and C3H/HeouJ mice were given Escherichia coli LPS (2.5 μg) by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection. The CNS inflammatory response was confirmed by the elevation of TNF-α and/or IL-1β proteins in the brain. In all mouse strains, LPS produced a 60-70% loss in hepatic Cyp3a11 expression and activity compared with saline-injected controls. Adrenalectomy did not prevent the loss in Cyp3a11 expression or activity, thereby precluding the involvement of the hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary axis. Endotoxin was detectable (1-10 ng/ml) in serum between 15 and 120 min after ICV dosing of 2.5 μg LPS. Peripheral administration of 2.5 μg LPS by intraperitoneal injection produced similar serum endotoxin levels and a similar loss (60%) in Cyp3a11 expression and
In the present study, we performed aorta transplantation to determine whether the arterial wall was a source of the difference between B6 and C3H mice in atherosclerosis susceptibility. One major finding was that aortic grafts from atherosclerosis-susceptible B6.apoE−/− mice developed significantly larger atherosclerotic lesions than those from atherosclerosis-resistant C3H.apoE−/− mice in identical F1 mice. Previously, we observed that OxLDL induces marked expression of proinflammatory genes such as MCP-1, M-CSF, and VCAM-1 in endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells from B6 mice, whereas cells from C3H mice show small or no induction of these genes.5,6 In recombinant inbred strains derived from B6 and C3H strains, we found that endothelial responses to OxLDL with respect to the induction of proinflammatory genes cosegregate with the size of atherosclerotic lesions.3 Because MCP-1, M-CSF and VCAM-1 are associated with monocyte recruitment to the arterial wall and ...
Serum samples from about 10 males and 10 females from each of 16 genetically defined strains of rabbits and from one hybrid were tested as sources of complement for the microtiter lymphocytotoxicity test. Lymph nodes from mice of strain B10.A/Sn were used as the target cells with a strong H-2 alloantiserum. Results indicate marked strain differences. Rabbit serum from a hybrid between the two best strains IIIC/J and IIIVO/J was almost as satisfactory as the parental strains and better than all other strains tested in this system, indicating a genetic basis for the response. The results of testing aliquots of these serum samples against other test systems including human cell lines will have to be in hand before a general statement can be made, but preliminary unpublished data against lymph nodes from A/HeJ and C3H/HeJ strain mice and tumor cells from an ascites form of a sarcoma Sal-A are encouraging and suggest a consistent superiority of the two strains and the hybrid between them
Skin cancers induced in mice by UV radiation often exhibit a regressor phenotype. In order to determine how tumors escape the immune defenses of the normal immunocompetent host, we sought to isolate progressor variants from a UV radiation-induced C3H mouse regressor fibrosarcoma cell line, UV-2240, by transfection with an activated Ha-ras oncogene. A contransfection protocol using pSV2-neo DNA, which confers resistance to the antibiotic G418, was used to select transfected cells. Injection of Ha-ras-transfected UV-2240 cells s.c. into immunocompetent C3H mice produced tumors in four of 36 animals. In contrast, UV-2240 cells transfected with pSV2-neo DNA alone or mock transfected with CaPO4 did not produce tumors in normal C3H mice. DNAs from cell lines established from Ha-ras-induced tumors contained unique Ha-ras sequences in addition to those sequences endogenous to UV-2240 cells. However, the Ha-ras-induced progressor variants did not overexpress the Mr 21,000 protein. The Ha-ras-induced ...
The inheritance of B-cell responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was studied in 55 crosses between mice of the low-responder strain C3H/HeJ and the high-responder strains B10.5M and C3H/Tif. F1 hybrid mice between the low-and the high-responder strains, showed in every case responses which were intermediate between the responses obtained with each parent. The responsiveness among F2 hybrid and backcross mice to either high- or low-responder parents, segregated into intermediate, high, or low categories, respectively. The present results are compatible with the hypothesis that responsiveness to LPS is determined by one single, codominantly expressed, autosomal gene. The capacity to develop a specific thymus-independent response to a hapten-LPS conjugate, also under genetical control, was found to segregate together with the capacity to develop polyclonal responses to LPS. ...
Canine Fibrosarcomas are slow-growing, malignant (cancerous) tumors most often found in the connective tissue of the skin and beneath the skin of a dog. Symptoms include new lumps with surgery being common treatment.
Generation of transgenic mice. An 8.5 kb upstream region of the CaMKIIα gene was replaced with cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter of pCMVβ vector (Clontech, Cambridge, UK), and the rat cDNA of NMDAR2D was subcloned into the NotI site of this plasmid. The insert was purified by sucrose density gradient and injected into the pronucleus of fertilized eggs. Hybrids of C57Bl/6 and C3H (B6C3) were used as hosts of transgene and were backcrossed six to seven times onto C57Bl/6 background. Lines 9 and 17 were used primarily in this study. Basically identical results were obtained with these two lines, and data from line 9 were presented except where noted. The genetic contribution of C57Bl/6 and C3H strains at the generation when the transgenic mice were analyzed was 1.6 and 98.4% for line 9, respectively, and 0.8 and 99.2% for line 17, respectively. Control wild-type mice were chosen from the same littermates. For the electrophysiology of adult hippocampus and behavioral experiments, the same groups of ...
1OUJ: Contribution of the hydrophobic effect to the stability of human lysozyme: calorimetric studies and X-ray structural analyses of the nine valine to alanine mutants.
Surgery is one of the treatment options offered for individuals with endometriosis. With that in mind, there are a variety of surgical procedures that can be offered…
Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune non-scarring hair loss disorder. AA can be acute, recurrent, or chronic. Current therapeutic options for AA are limited, and there is no effective prevention for recurrent AA. We have previously shown a correlation between the expression of HSP70 (HSPA1A/B), a heat shock protein involved in the inflammatory response, and the onset of AA in the C3H/HeJ mouse model. In this study, we tested the effects of quercetin, a bioflavonoid with anti-inflammatory properties, on AA development and HSP70 expression in the C3H/HeJ model. Mice with spontaneous AA were treated with subcutaneous quercetin or sham injections. Hair regrowth was observed in lesional areas in all the quercetin-treated mice, but in none of the sham-treated mice. In addition, non-alopecic C3H/HeJ mice were heat-treated to induce alopecia, along with quercetin or sham injections. Whereas 24% of the heat-treated mice with sham injections developed alopecia, none of the mice receiving quercetin injections did
Experimental Lyme arthritis is an inflammatory arthritis caused by infection of mice with the spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. It recapitulates many of the disease parameters seen in human patients with Lyme arthritis, and thus serves as a model system for the investigation of disease pathogenesis. While much progress has been made in defining components of the immune response to Borrelia infection, an overall understanding of the host response leading to arthritis resistance or susceptibility remains elusive. In this review, we will focus on recent advancements of our understanding of the roles of eicosanoids as inflammatory mediators in the regulation of experimental Lyme arthritis. Eicosanoids, such as PGE2 and LTB4, are powerful regulators of inflammatory responses and thus may be important mediators of Lyme arthritis.
Recent advances in the development of animal models for Lyme borreliosis have provided means of identifying potential targets for the design of a subunit vaccine to prevent this disease. The C3H/HeN mouse model was used to study several Borrelia burgdorferi antigens from a single isolate for their ability to elicit borreliacidal and protective antibodies. The ospA, ospB, ospC, ospD, and 83-kDa genes from a California isolate, SON 188, were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as proteins fused to the C-terminal end of maltose-binding protein. Active immunization of mice with these fusion proteins elicited high titers of antibodies that recognized the homologous SON 188 antigens upon immunoblotting. Antibodies generated to the OspA and OspB fusion proteins, but not to the OspC, OspD, and the 83-kDa fusion proteins, demonstrated in vitro borreliacidal activity. Challenge of all actively immunized mice with 10(7) SON 188 spirochetes resulted in infection in all mice receiving the OspD or 83-kDa ...
Cachectin (tumor necrosis factor) is a macrophage hormone strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of endotoxin-induced shock. The availability of a DNA probe complementary to the cachectin messenger RNA (mRNA), as well as a specific antibody capable of recognizing the cachectin gene product, has made it possible to analyze the regulation of cachectin gene expression under a variety of conditions. Thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages obtained from mice contain a pool of cachectin mRNA that is not expressed as protein. When the cells are stimulated with endotoxin, large quantity of additional cachectin mRNA is produced, and immunoreactive cachectin is secreted. Macrophages from mice of the C3H/HeJ strain do not produce cachectin in response to endotoxin. A dual defect appears to prevent cachectin expression. First, a diminished quantity of cachectin mRNA is expressed in response to low concentrations of endotoxin. Second, a post-transcriptional defect prevents the production of cachectin ...
Abstract Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune nonscarring hair loss disorder. AA can be acute, recurrent, or chronic. Current therapeutic options for AA are limited, and there is no effective prevention for recurrent AA. We have previously shown a correlation between the expression of HSP70 (HSPA1A/B), a heat shock protein involved in the inflammatory response, and the onset of AA in the C3H/ HeJ mouse model. In this study, we tested the effects of quercetin, a bioflavonoid with anti-inflammatory properties, on AA development and HSP70 expression in the C3H/HeJ model. Mice with spontaneous AA were treated with subcutaneous quercetin or a sham injection. Hair regrowth was observed in lesional areas in all the quercetin-treated mice, but in none of the sham-treated mice. In addition, non-alopecic C3H/HeJ mice were heat-treated to induce alopecia, along with quercetin or sham injection. Whereas 24% of the heat-treated mice with sham injections developed alopecia, none of the mice receiving ...
Young (60-80 days) mice of the low β-glucuronidase strain, C3H/HeJ, showed no differences in hepatic levels of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) when compared to the randombred,
Purpose : The Th17 response has been associated with autoimmune diseases in patients and in animal models. IL-17A is recognized as the Th17 signature cytokine and IL-17-producing T cells are pathogenic effectors in models of autoimmunity, including experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). Paradoxically, injection of IL-17 was shown by others to ameliorate the disease (PMID: 19234216). Methods : Using a model of spontaneous uveitis in IRBP T cell receptor transgenic R161H mice, we investigated the susceptibility to disease of mice on an IL-17A-/- background. Additionally, T cells from IL-17A-sufficient and deficient R161H mice were polarized under Th17 conditions and were adoptively transferred to WT recipients to examine their cytokine profile and their ability to induce EAU. Results : Surprisingly, IL-17A-/- R161H mice developed essentially undiminished uveitis and IL-17-/- R161H T cells, polarized to Th17 and infused into wild type recipients, induced similar disease to IL-17A sufficient R161H T ...
This study evaluates the effect of hydrolyzed collagen (HC) on bone health of ovariectomized mice (OVX) at different ages. Twenty-six weeks after the OVX procedure, HC ingestion was still able to impr
Taxon names are frequently derived from personal names to honour persons, particularly persons associated with microbiology. Epithets of species or subspecies can be formed from latinized personal names in the adjective form or in the genitive noun form [Rule 63]. The latter allows for distinguishing between female and male persons to be honoured. A part of the species names found in LPSN and unambiguously derived in the genitive noun form of a personal name (or, rarely, derived in the same way from the name of another kind of entity) are listed below, arranged by the name of the person to which they are referring. See also the LPSN introductory page on forming names ...
Up to now the FRRP has been entirely reactive relying on formal complaints and sometimes reports in the press.. In a surprise move the report asks the government to explore developing a legal method that would allow the Inland Revenue to supply information to the FSA and FRRP on company accounts.. It is understood the government was more than happy with the quality of the work undertaken but wanted more of it and more initiative from the panel.. There are no recommendations for the FRRP to disappear and the FSA to take over the role in its entirety.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Zománc savoldékonyság vizsgálatok középiskolai korú leánycsoportokban.. AU - Fejérdy, P.. AU - Tóth, P.. AU - Kóbor, A.. AU - Csizmadia, K.. PY - 1981/8/30. Y1 - 1981/8/30. UR - UR - M3 - Article. C2 - 7301374. AN - SCOPUS:16744362453. VL - 122. SP - 2147. EP - 2149. JO - Orvosi Hetilap. JF - Orvosi Hetilap. SN - 0030-6002. IS - 35. ER - ...
You have set aside money in your Flexible Spending Account (FSA) for the start of the year, but you arent sure the best way to spend your hard-earned money to
What is a Flexible Spending Account? Find out how to take advantage of all the benefits of an FSA and its two plans: Healthcare FSA and Dependent-Care FSA.
Rosario Dawson: Yellow Fever Presentation Host!: Photo #2926251. Rosario Dawson has a rockin time while hosting the Yellow Fever presentation held at The Penthouse at the Rivington Hotel on Wednesday (August 7) in New York City.…
There are several new insights that were gained from the present topical PBA study that enhance the findings in our systemic PBA study. 19 First, in the systemic PBA treatment study, we examined whether PBA prevents glaucoma (IOP and PERG) in Tg-MYOCY437H mice when given to mice before they develop elevated IOP (2 months of age). 19 In the present work, we examined whether the topical form of PBA would reduce elevated IOP in older Tg-MYOCY437H mice. The effects of PBA were examined in 4- and 9-month-old Tg-MYOCY437H mice, which had developed ocular hypertension of 1 months and 5 months duration, respectively (Fig. 1). An important result of this study was that topical PBA treatment of 9-month-old Tg-MYOCY437H mice completely normalized IOP to the levels in WT mice. Second, topical PBA reduced elevated IOP for a sustained period (5 months) in Tg-MYOCY437H mice, compared with the systemic PBA study, in which we evaluated the effect of PBA for 4 weeks. Third, we also wanted to know whether ...
Macrophages in vitro rapidly ingest and kill Borrelia burgdorferi, yet some spirochetes in vivo may survive in the host and lead to complications of Lyme disease. One strategy for such survival may be the down-regulation of the immune system. To test this, we evaluated the degree of macrophage activation in a site of active disease-the heart-by examining cytokine expression in murine macrophages from control and B. burgdorferi-infected animals. Using double-label immunofluorescent staining in situ, we showed that infiltrating macrophages in infected hearts produce interleukin (IL)-1. By semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis, increased levels of mRNA were measured for the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and IL-12 during peak and resolving disease. No increases in the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and transforming growth factor-beta were detected. In an infected site without active disease--the peritoneal cavity--no increases in levels
Primary Sjögrens syndrome (pSS) is characterized by a panel of autoantbodies, while it is not clear whether B cells and autoantibodies play an essential role in pathogenesis of the disease. Here we report a novel mouse model for pSS which is induced by immunization with the Ro60_316-335 peptide containing a predominant T cell epitope. After immunization, mice developed several symptoms mimicking pSS, including a decreased secretion of tears, lymphocytic infiltration into the lacrimal glands, autoantibodies and increased levels of inflammatory cytokines. Disease susceptibility to this novel mouse model varies among strains, where C3H/HeJ (H2-k) and C3H/HeN (H2-k) are susceptible while DBA/1 (H2-q) and C57BL/6 (H2-b) are resistant. Depletion of B cells using anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies prevented C3H/HeN mice from development of the pSS-like disease. In addition, HLA-DRB1*0803, a pSS risk allele, was predicted to bind to the hRo60_308-328 which contains a predominant T cell epitope of human Ro60.
The primary objective of the study was to determine the relationship between the proportion of fat in the diet and the resultant enhancement of the formation of spontaneous mammary carcinoma. One experiment utilized C3H strain mice, with diets based on commercial components and four levels of dietary fat: 1.6, 5.7, 12, and 26 per cent; the second experiment utilized dba strain mice, with diets composed of semi-purified components and five levels of dietary fat: 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 per cent. The diets were isocaloric, and the mean body weights were similar.. In both experiments, the rate of formation of mammary carcinoma, as measured both by incidence of tumors and by the average time of tumor appearance, tended to increase with increasing proportions of dietary fat. However, the effect was not arithmetically proportional to the level of fat: the enhancement of tumor formation resulting from increasing the dietary fat from 2 to 6 or 8 per cent was as great as that resulting from increasing the ...
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chains in the Genus database with same CATH superfamily 2G19 A; 5LBE A; 5DAV A; 2HBT A; 3NNM A; 2JIJ A; 4UWD A; 5LAS A; 5DAP A; 5L9B A; 3OBZ A; 5LA9 A; 4BQW A; 2Y33 A; 5L9R A; 3KT1 A; 5A3U A; 4XC9 A; 3BVC A; 3W20 A; 4XCA A; 2RDR A; 3OUI A; 4Y5S A; 3KT7 A; 4NHX A; 4NMI A; 4NHM A; 5EQU A; 2RG4 A; 5HV4 A; 3GJB A; 5EP9 A; 5LAT A; 2FCT A; 4MHR A; 3W21 A; 4XCB A; 4KBZ A; 5DAQ A; 5C5U A; 2Y34 A; 4MHU A; 3PL0 A; 4J25 A; 4ZPI A; 5LBC A; 5LBF A; 2RDQ A; 4XAB A; 4XAA A; 4IW3 A; 2HBU A; 5IAV A; 4XAC A; 5IAT A; 5LB6 A; 2V4A A; 5C5T A; 3HQR A; 4NAO A; 4NHK A; 2A1X A; 5EPA A; 5IAX A; 2OPW A; 3NNL A; 3HQU A; 2FCU A; 4JZR A; 3OUH A; 3ITQ A; 5DAW A; 5L9V A; 2JIG A; 3EMR A; 3GZE A; 4NHL A; 3NNF A; 4ZON A; 3OUJ A; 5HV0 A; 3DKQ A; 5M0T A; 4BQX A; 3NNJ A; 4NHY A; 5LBB A; 5DAX A; 3MGU A; 3KT4 A; 2RDS A; 4BQY A; 5ERL A; 2FCV A; 2G1M A; 4Y5T A; 3GJA A; 2RDN A; 4Q5O A; #chains in the Genus database with same CATH topology 2FQP A; 2WO3 A; 1YQ6 A; 1NUK A; 3V65 A; 2OUH A; 1SCS A; 3CZU A; 3I2F A; 2PN5 A; 5A32 B; 3WNN A; 5JOW ...
In my little series of interviews the turn has come to our friends in Canada. This will be different to the previous post Hej Hej Syria, which was extremely popular. Thank you for reading and commenting. If you havent yet read it please click here. Why did I choose Canada? Oh Canada. Well, its a country…
Looking for advice on how to spend FSA funds? Inside is a list of nine ways to get the most out of your Flexible Spending Arrangement.
I would like any current information available about the identity of the Lps gene responsible for unresponsivness in mouse strains like C3H/HeJ. Reply to Richard Ulevitch ulevitch at ...
To understand the pathogenesis of scrub typhus, we examined chemokine and cytokine production in susceptible (C3H/HeN) and resistant (BALB/c) mice after infection with O. tsutsugamushi Gilliam. C3H/HeN mice produced high levels of chemokines macrophage inflammatory proteins 1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha ), MIP-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and cytokines gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma ), interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha ) in response to O. tsutsugamushi infection, compared to BALB/c mice. Chemokine profiles in infected mice correlated well with the kinetics of inflammatory cell infiltration. Hyperproduction of chemokines and cytokines was observed in another susceptible-infection model (BALB/c-Karp). These results suggest that hyperproduction of chemokines and cytokines are associated with susceptibility during O. tsutsugamushi infection ...
The recent efforts to characterize the hybrid strains of Cryptococcus neoformans has led to the identification of a cryptic population, here described as H strains, which includes hybrid strains with a double content of DNA but presenting a single mating type: Aa, Da, Aalpha, or Dalpha. A set of hypotheses can be formulated about the origin of these H strains: i) they might have lost or modified one mating type allele by a mutation event; ii) they might be homozygous originated from an incomplete mitotic event; iii) they might be homozygous originated from an incomplete meiotic event; iv) they might be homozygous originated from a post-meiotic event. To test these hypotheses we further investigated some H strains previously isolated and then we studied the F1 progeny originated from the mating between H99 (serotype A) and JEC20 (serotype D) reference strains. Fourteen clinical isolates were investigated. The double content of DNA was confirmed by flow cytometry and the presence of only one ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An unexpected twist in alopecia areata pathogenesis. T2 - Are NK cells protective and CD49b+ T cells pathogenic?. AU - Kaufman, Gil. AU - dOvidio, Roberto. AU - Kaldawy, Anis. AU - Assy, Bedia. AU - Ullmann, Yehuda. AU - Etzioni, Amos. AU - Paus, Ralf. AU - Gilhar, Amos. PY - 2010/8/1. Y1 - 2010/8/1. N2 - Natural killer (NK) cells have become a recent focus of interest in alopecia areata (AA) research. To further investigate their role in an established mouse model of AA, lesional skin from older C3H/HeJ mice with AA was grafted to young C3H/HeJ female mice, and NK cells were depleted by continuous administration of rabbit anti-asialo GM1. As expected, this significantly reduced the number of pure NK cells in murine skin, as assessed by NKp46 quantitative immunohistochemistry. Quite unexpectedly, however, the onset of hair loss in C3H/HeJ mice was accelerated, rather than retarded. NK cell depletion was accompanied by a significant increase in the number of perifollicular ...
Our results show that inoculation of WT male C3H/HeN mice in the meatus urethra with C. trachomatis serovar D resulted in an infection mainly localized to the lower genitourinary tract that cleared spontaneously in a period of less than 6 weeks. In contrast, SCID male mice were not able to clear the infection during the 9 weeks of observation. This is, to our knowledge, the first time that, using the natural route of inoculation, an infection of the genital tract of the male mouse was achieved with a human serovar of C. trachomatis. Our data also suggest that, at least in male mice, the adaptive immune response is necessary for clearing an infection with a human C. trachomatis serovar.. The results with the human C. trachomatis D serovar contrast with the data we previously obtained with MoPn (25). In the case of WT C3H/HeN mice infected with 106 IFU of MoPn, the yields of IFU recovered from the four organs were several log units higher than the organ cultures from the animals inoculated with ...
Learn about eye abnormalities in inbred C57 black mice. Ophthalmic abnormalities such as Microphthalmia and anophthalmia can often lead to ocular infections in mice.
Despite the increasing incidence in food-borne Echinostoma hortense infection, the underlying immune mechanism along with the clinical manifestations and t
Arthritis research paper Cleary 02/11/2015 17:26:51. Healthy in cell populations in horses link worsen may 2009; juvenile rheumatoid vet am missing the c3h/hen mouse ...
Nuk e konsideroj veten një specialist të ndjenjave dhe vetë jeta ime private tregon se nuk kam asgjë për të thënë, apo për të dhënë shembull, deklaron shkrimtari Frederic Beigbeder, i njohur së fundi edhe për publikimin e librit të tij: Dashuria zgjat tre vjet.. Shkrimtari 46-vjeçar, me pamjen dhe jetën e një dendi, të cilit i pëlqen që të joshë në mënyrë të vazhdueshme dhe të ketë një jetë sentimentale shumëngjyrëshe në rrethet elitare pariziene dhe gjetkë, është një nga njerëzit më në zë të brezit të tij, në Europë. Veç kësaj, është edhe kritik letrar, botues dhe së fundi ka eksploruar edhe në lëmin e regjisë. Filmi i tij i parë bazohet në librin e tij të fundit Dashuria zgjat tre vjet. Frederic u bë i famshëm së pari me një pamflet që shkroi kundër publicitetit, si dhe me romanet që pasuan, mes të cilëve përmendim Një roman francez, dedikuar familjes së tij. Dhe më pas, në veprat në vijim, ka parapëlqyer dhe ka ...
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Endogenous mouse mammary tumor virus DNA is distributed among multiple mouse chromosomes. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics. 1979 ...
Szia Kinga Izabella! :) igen a szünetek nálunk is játékkal telnek, most meg pincuri egész délelőtt kereste a nővérét. Beszalad a szobájába, hívja, megnézi a bújócska helyeket és megállapítja, hogy nincs itt. Nagyon édes, széttárt karokkal mondogatja : emment, Villő, bussz,brbrb, pápá, gimmgim- közben rázza a feját majd bólogat ...
For 2015, the IRS announced the contribution limit for health flexible spending accounts (FSAs) will go up by $50, to $2,550. Also, there will be no change in transit and parking pretax benefit caps unless Congress acts by yearend.
... mice, inbred akr MeSH B01.050.157.520.338 - mice, inbred balb c MeSH B01.050.157.520.388 - mice, inbred c3h MeSH B01.050. ... mice, inbred akr MeSH B01.050.199.520.520.338 - mice, inbred balb c MeSH B01.050.199.520.520.388 - mice, inbred c3h MeSH ... mice, inbred mdx MeSH B01.050.157.520.440 - mice, inbred cba MeSH B01.050.157.520.445 - mice, inbred cftr MeSH B01.050.157.520. ... mice, inbred hrs MeSH B01.050.157.520.510 - mice, inbred icr MeSH B01.050.157.520.555 - mice, inbred mrl lpr MeSH B01.050. ...
... and only three un-pedigreed mice remained alive. Soon after World War I, inbreeding in mice was started on a much larger scale ... A/J C3H C57BL/6 CBA DBA/2 BALB/c G.M. Rommel first started conducting inbreeding experiments on guinea pigs in 1906. Strain 2 ... A genealogical chart of mouse inbred strains can be found here on the Jackson Laboratory website and is currently being ... Evidence from the uniformity of mitochondrian DNA suggests that most of the common inbred mouse strains were probably derived ...
Mice, Inbred Strains [B01.050.150.900.649.865.635.505.500.400]. *Mice, Inbred C3H [B01.050.150.900.649.865.635.505.500.400.388] ... Inbred C3H" by people in this website by year, and whether "Mice, Inbred C3H" was a major or minor topic of these publications ... "Mice, Inbred C3H" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Mice, Inbred C3H*Mice, Inbred C3H. *C3H Mice, Inbred. *Inbred C3H Mice ...
Mouse inbred strains C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ F2 reciprocal intercross:. A murine F2 population consisting of ∼300 mice was ... Mouse inbred strains C57BL/6J ApoE−/− and C3H/HeJ ApoE−/− F2 intercross data set:. The genotype and gene expression data from ... generated by intercrossing F1 mice of parental strains C57BL/6J (B6) and C3H/HeJ (C3H). Mice were fed a chow diet containing 4 ... The F2 mouse population consisting of 334 mice (169 female, 165 male) was generated by intercrossing F1 mice of parental ...
This C3H substrain was rederived in the 1960s and again in 1999, as a result, this line does not carry the exogenous mouse ... C3H mice are used as a general purpose strain in a wide variety of research areas including cancer, infectious disease, ... mammary tumor virus (MMTV). These mice are homozygous for ,em,Clcc1,sup,m1J,/sup,,/em,, which causes increased sensitivity to ... C3HeB/FeJ and C3H/HeJ inbred mice, which lack this IAP ... C3H/HeSnJ, C3H/HeJ and C3H/HeOuJ mice previously carried MMTV ...
The spontaneous metastatic properties of six sarcomas and seven carcinomas syngeneic to C3Hf/Kam mice were investigated and the ... Mice, Inbred C3H * Neoplasm Metastasis* / radiotherapy * Neoplasm Transplantation * Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology* * Salivary ... The incidence and number of spontaneous metastases in the lung were determined in mice that had primary tumors in the leg ... The spontaneous metastatic properties of six sarcomas and seven carcinomas syngeneic to C3Hf/Kam mice were investigated and the ...
Mice * Mice, Inbred C3H * Mice, Transgenic * NF-E2-Related Factor 2 / biosynthesis* ... TRAMP mice fed with 240 mg broccoli sprouts/mouse/day exhibited a significant retardation of prostate tumor growth. Western ... Next, 8-week old TRAMP mice were fed with dietary broccoli sprouts at two dosages (60 and 240 mg/mouse/day) for 16 weeks, and ... mice: implication of induction of Nrf2, HO-1 and apoptosis and the suppression of Akt-dependent kinase pathway Pharm Res. 2009 ...
Mouse strain: C3H/HeJ-ruf (F?+25). 3.4 Substrains. Established inbred strains may genetically diverge with time into substrains ... 1.1 Mice. 1.2 Rats. 2. Laboratory codes. 3. Inbred Strains and Hybrids. 3.1 Definition 3.2 Nomenclature of Inbred Strains. 3.3 ... Recombinant inbred strains: use in gene mapping. In Origins of Inbred Mice, Morse, HC. (eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. ... Nomenclature for inbred strains of mice preserved by freezing. Mouse News Lett 54:2-3. Committee on Standardized Genetic ...
New York State mouse cell line; GWI-1 = New York State mouse mammary tumor; E2 = estradiol; C3H = inbred mouse cell line).. ... New York State mouse cell line; GWI-1 = New York State mouse mammary tumor; E2 = estradiol; C3H = inbred mouse cell line). ... Human cancer cell lines, tumor-bearing C3H mice, chemo-drug conjugation; Human cancer cell culture lines. GIP-34 and GIP-8 ... Mouse, Human AFP AFP-derived peptides, GIP-34, GIP-8. Immature uterus, MCF-7 breast cancer cells, NYLAR mouse ascites tumor-6WI ...
C3H/HeJ, showed no differences in hepatic levels of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) when compared to the randombred, ... Morrow, A. G., Greenspan, E. M., and Carrol, D. M. (1949). Liver-glucuronidase activity of inbred mouse strains. J. Natl. ... However, by 12 months of age hepatic GAG is nearly twice as high in C3H/HeJ mice as in Swiss-Webster mice. Studies of β- ... Young (60-80 days) mice of the low β-glucuronidase strain, C3H/HeJ, showed no differences in hepatic levels of ...
Loss of semidominance by inbreeding. S, SEG alleles; H, C3H alleles from the mutant colony; B, C57BL/6 alleles; h, C3H alleles ... Mouse strains: C3H/HeN mice were purchased from Charles River Japan. BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice were purchased from CLEA Japan. ... all the phenotype2 mice were homozygous for the C3H allele and all the phenotype1 mice carried a C3H allele and a C57BL/6 ... Phenotypes segregating in the C3H/HeN colony. Four-week-old C3H/HeN mice from left to right: phenotype1, phenotype2, and wild ...
Mice. Mice, Inbred C3H. Mitogens / pharmacology*. Physical Exertion*. Spleen / immunology*, physiology. Chemical. ... Mice in this study were assigned to one of five treatment conditions. Two groups of mice were exposed only to the noise and ... Three groups of mice were exposed to 8 weeks of treadmill training: one group was sacrificed immediately after training, a ... 15116368 - Effects of high-intensity endurance exercise training in the g93a mouse model of amyotr.... 11673518 - C57bl/6 and ...
Progeny from an interspecific backcross between laboratory mice and Mus spretus were typed for inheritance of eight genetic ... Mice. Mice, Inbred C3H. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Muridae / genetics*. Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length. Recombination, ... Previous Document: The cardiac actin locus (Actc-1) is not on mouse chromosome 17 but is linked to beta 2-microglobulin.... ... Progeny from an interspecific backcross between laboratory mice and Mus spretus were typed for inheritance of eight genetic ...
Mice, Mice; Inbred C3H, Models; Molecular, Molecular Sequence Data, Multigene Family, Sequence Homology; Amino Acid, Species ... The transcription of p13 and other gene family members during in vitro growth and in a mouse infection model was therefore ... The transcription of the paralogues of gene family 48 during in vitro culturing and in a mouse infection model was also ... Finally, p13 and bbi31 are the only members of gene family 48 that are transcribed in mice, suggesting their importance during ...
Mice, Inbred C3H. 1. 2015. 1195. 0.140. Why? Mammary Glands, Animal. 1. 2015. 302. 0.130. Why? ...
C3H, C57Bl/6, Balb/c, and DBA/2 are inbred strains of mice; CD-1 is an outbred strain of mouse; while B6D2F1 (BDF1) and B6C3F1 ... 7 shows that the serum-free medium supported hematopoiesis from all strains of mice tested, whether they were inbred, outbred ... A mutant strain of mice can be used in which the CSF-1 gene (B6C3Fe-a/a-op/op mouse strain) or the gene for its receptor or ... Mouse collagen IV (Sigma) was used at a range of concentrations from 0-15 μg/cm2, whereas mouse fibronectin (Sigma) was used at ...
Subline divergence within L.C. Strongs C3H and CBA inbred mouse strains. A review. ... Correlation of FAD-monooxygenase activity with corticosterone levels in inbred mice.. Padilla GM, Rauckman EJ, Whitmore AC, ... Bayesian Diallel Analysis Reveals Mx1-Dependent and Mx1-Independent Effects on Response to Influenza A Virus in Mice. ... Dendritic cell immunoreceptor regulates Chikungunya virus pathogenesis in mice.. Long KM, Whitmore AC, Ferris MT, Sempowski GD ...
These mice were generated in F1 animals from Oak Ridge inbred strains, C3H/RL and 101/RL, and must be maintained in a ... C3H/HeJ (Lpsd/Lpsd), b/b11R30M (Lpsn/Lps0), Bw/b13R75M (Lpsn/Lpsn), b/C3H/HeJ (Lpsn/Lpsd), b11R30M/C3H/HeJ (Lps0/Lpsd), Bw/C3H/ ... C3H/HeJ and C3H/OuJ mice were purchased from Jackson Laboratories (Bar Harbor, ME). The brown (b) locus on mouse chromosome 4 ... Comparison of NF-κB translocation induced in macrophages derived from Lpsn (C3H/OuJ) and Lpsd (C3H/HeJ) mice. Macrophages were ...
Mice Mice, Inbred C3H Misonidazole Neoplasm Transplantation Nitroimidazoles Predictive Value of Tests Radiation-Sensitizing ... EF of IETNIM in mice treated with 25, 30 and 37 Gy irradiation was 0.72, 0.98 and 1.28, respectively. EF of IETNIM in mice ... Tumor-bearing mice were irradiated at a dose of 25, 31 and 37 Gy after the injection of IETNIM. They were also exposed to 37 Gy ...
Remove keywords: mice, inbred c3h Remove author: Isaksson, Christina (LU) *User guide ... iframe src=" ...
F1 hybrid mice. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 193, 155-163. \par. INBRED STRAINS OF MICE. Updated 9 Apr. 1998. Michael FW Festing ... Variable yellow to agouti and black: Avy/a, a/a. Origin: The Avy mutation occurred in C3H/HeJ in 1960. Crossed with a C57BL/6J ... Spontaneous hepatocellular tumours in 24% of male yellow mice but only 13% of black mice. Phenotypically yellow mice differ ... Inbred Strains of Mice: VY. VY Inbr (Nctr) 74. ... Mouse Phenome Database (MPD). * Deltagen and Lexicon Knockout ...
Zweerink, April. Isolation of Primary Embryonic Fibroblasts from C57BL and C3H/i.e., Inbred Mice and Verification of Strain ... Deeb, Jennifer. C3H-BT1 Transformation is Not Due to a Complete Lack of p53 mRNA. May 24, 1995. Advisor: Lindgren, A. ...
Myocardial fibrosis was more extensive in C3H than in C57 mice infected with clone X10/4. The normal ECG pattern of C3H mice is ... First degree atrioventricular block occurred more frequently in C3H mice infected with clone X10/4 or M/78 and C57 mice ... ECG abnormalities occurred more frequently in mice infected with clone X10/4 than in controls or mice infected with either M/78 ... Complete atrioventricular dissociation occurred frequently in C57 mice infected with X10/4 and rarely in other mice. These ...
Creatine-fed rd1 mice displayed enhanced optomotor responses compared to mice fed normal chow. Moreover, cone density was ... Finally, we analyzed the neuroprotective properties of glucose and creatine on cone photoreceptors in a mouse model of RP. Two ... Finally, we analysed the neuroprotective properties of glucose and creatine on cone photoreceptors in a mouse model of RP. Two ... Next, we utilized a well-characterized mouse model of RP to examine whether surviving cones, devoid of their inner segments, ...
The loss of B cell follicles because of the TNF deficiency is dominant in the doubly mutant mice. This outcome does not change ... Mice, Inbred C3H. *Mice, Knockout. *Phenotype. *Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor/physiology. *Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor ... To confirm these data in a strain highly permissive for the phenotype, C3H/HeJ.gld and C3H.HeJ.lpr mice were treated with a TNF ... To confirm these data in a strain highly permissive for the phenotype, C3H/HeJ.gld and C3H.HeJ.lpr mice were treated with a TNF ...
Mice ; Mice, Inbred C3H ; Neuroblastoma ; Phosphatidylinositol Diacylglycerol-Lyase ; Polyethylene Glycols ; Receptors, ... Caveolin could not be detected in microsomal membranes from either mouse cerebellum or SH-SY5Y cells. These observations ... Detergent-insoluble membranes from mouse cerebellum retained nearly all of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins-- ... caveolae-like membranes from both mouse cerebellum and the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. ...
Mice. *Mice, Inbred C3H. *Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/genetics/metabolism. *Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun/genetics/metabolism ... across inducible mammalian genes and show that HYPB/Setd2 is responsible for H3K36 trimethylation throughout the mouse nucleus. ... across inducible mammalian genes and show that HYPB/Setd2 is responsible for H3K36 trimethylation throughout the mouse nucleus. ... across inducible mammalian genes and show that HYPB/Setd2 is responsible for H3K36 trimethylation throughout the mouse nucleus ...
This inbred strain carries the spontaneous flexed-tail mutation and mice are characterized by a transitory siderocytic ... The following inbred strains are known to be homozygous for Pde6b. : C3H sublines, CBA/J, FVB/NJ, PL/J, SB, SJL/J, and SWR/J.. ... This inbred strain carries the spontaneous flexed-tail mutation and mice are characterized by a transitory siderocytic ... Mice strains as well as the genotypes of strains with identified molecular mutations. JAX® Mice strains are only made available ...
The C3H/HeJ inbred mouse is a model of vesico-ureteric reflux with a susceptibility locus on chromosome 12. ... The Cri1 locus is the common genetic cause of susceptibility to Citrobacter rodentium infection in C3H and FVB mouse strains. ... USP18 lack in microglia causes destructive interferonopathy of the mouse brain.. Goldmann T, Zeller N, Raasch J, Kierdorf K, ... Mapping genetic modulators of amyloid plaque deposition in TgCRND8 transgenic mice.. Sebastiani G, Krzywkowski P, Dudal S, Yu M ...
Most inbred mouse strains (e.g., C57BL/6, CBA/J, C3H, B10D2) are resistant to infection with Leishmania major. Upon intradermal ... By contrast, BALB/c mice are highly susceptible to infection with these organisms (12,13). These mice fail to control the ... Interestingly, for reasons not yet understood, lymph node cells from the mice infected with this mutant, in contrast to mice ... g produced by the lymph node cells of mice infected with wild-type L. major. Not surprisingly, vaccination of BALB/c mice with ...
As shown experimentally, several inbred mouse strains (e.g., C57BL/6, CBA/J, C3H, and B10D2) are resistant to Leishmania major ... suggested the role of IL-10 by using IL-10 gene deficient mice of both Balb/c mice and C57BL/6 mice. These mice were resistant ... Most inbred mouse strains (e.g., C57BL/6, CBA/J, C3H, B10D2) are resistant to the infection with Leishmania major. Upon ... IL-10 in the male mice (25.27 pg/ml) was higher than female mice (23.67 pg/ml) (Tables 1 and 2). Correlation between IL-10 and ...
Natural resistance to Salmonella typhimurium in different inbred mouse strains. Immunology37:311-318. ... In mice of the C3H lineage (Nramp wild type), salmonellae exhibit a slow initial growth rate. In C3H/HeN mice (HeN+), growth in ... and MD-2 in spleens and livers of C3H/HeN mice (carrying wild-type TLR-4) and C3H/HeJ mice (carrying mutated TLR-4) in response ... Toll-Like Receptor Expression in C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ Mice during Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Infection. Sabine ...
  • Here, we compare findings from two large genetic crosses between mouse strains C3H/HeJ and C57BL/6J to evaluate the reliability of distal eQTL detection, including "hotspots" influencing the expression of multiple genes in trans . (
  • In this study, we evaluated the reproducibility of eQTL detection of two large genetic crosses of mouse strains C3H/HeJ and C57BL/6J. (
  • A murine F 2 population consisting of ∼300 mice was generated by intercrossing F 1 mice of parental strains C57BL/6J (B6) and C3H/HeJ (C3H). (
  • Unlike other C3H inbred strains, this strain is homozygous for the Clcc1 m1J allele, which has a more mild phenotype on this background than on the C57BL/6J congenic background (see Stock# 007723 ). (
  • BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice were purchased from CLEA Japan. (
  • The C57BL/10ScCR, and its progenitor strain, C57BL/10ScN, ( 15 , 16 , 17 ) were also identified as LPS hyporesponsive, and their defect mapped to the same chromosomal location on mouse chromosome 4 ( 16 ). (
  • The failure of C3H/HeJ × C57BL/10ScCR F 1 mice to respond to LPS suggests that these two strains carry noncomplementary mutations ( 18 ). (
  • In contrast to the intermediate to full responsiveness seen in progeny from Lps n / Lps n × C3H/HeJ crosses, Lps n / Lps n × C57BL/10ScCR F 1 progeny exhibit full Lps n -like responsiveness only ( 16 ). (
  • C3H/HeJ mice carry a missense point mutation within Tlr4 that results in a substitution of a highly conserved proline at position 712 by an histidine, whereas, the C57BL/10ScCR and C57Bl/10ScN strains fail to express Tlr4 mRNA ( 19 , 20 ) due to a chromosomal deletion of the gene ( 20 ). (
  • Histopathological and electrocardiographical (ECG) changes occur in the heart of C3H/HeN and C57BL/6 mice infected for 1 year with Trypanosoma cruzi clones Sylvio-X10/4 (X10/4), Miranda/78 (M/78), or Miranda/80 (M/80). (
  • Thus, we sought to determine what role TNF might play in contributing to the gld phenotype by creating C57BL/6.gld.TNF(-/-) mice. (
  • C57BL/6, CBA/J, C3H, B10D2) are resistant to infection with Leishmania major . (
  • Thus, targeted disruption of the IFN- g gene in C57BL/6 mice causes these animals, which are otherwise resistant to infection with L. major , to become highly susceptible to these organisms (15,16). (
  • C57BL/6 mice) develop symptoms of severe malaria and CM, including cytokine-associated encephalopathy, acidosis, coagulopathy, shock, and pulmonary edema, culminating in a fatal outcome ( 3 - 5 ). (
  • Background- Inbred mouse strains C57BL/6J (B6) and C3H/HeJ (C3H) exhibit marked differences in atherosclerosis susceptibility. (
  • Using the inbred mouse strains C57BL/6J (B6) and C3H/HeJ (C3H), which have been extensively studied as models of the genetic control of diet-induced atherosclerosis, we examined which of these components determine genetic susceptibility. (
  • Colitic lesions are much more severe in C3H/HeJBir (C3H) than C57BL/6J (B6) mice after 10 backcrosses of a disrupted interleukin-10 ( Il10 ) gene. (
  • Sixteen-week-old C57BL/6J mice were randomized to five treatment groups: sham(SHM), OVX, SHM + VCD, OVX + GEN, and SHM + VCD + GEN. In vivo, blood samples were drawn for hormone and isoflavone analyses, estrous cycles were monitored, and X-ray imaging was performed to assess changes in bone parameters. (
  • BALB/c, C57BL/6, C3H, 129, and DBA/2 mice were obtained from The Jackson Laboratories and were bred and maintained in the animal facility of the British Columbia Cancer Research Centre (Vancouver). (
  • Scriptaid enables the clone of all the important inbred mouse strains, such as C57BL/6, C3H/He, DBA/2, and 129/Sv. (
  • Herein we use genetic mapping to identify radiation-induced lung response susceptibility loci in reciprocal backcross mice bred from C3H/HeJ (alveolitis response) and C57BL/6J (fibrosing alveolitis/fibrosis response) strains. (
  • The C3H/HeJ alveolitis response included mast cell infiltration and increased neutrophil numbers in the lavage compared with the level in the C57BL/6J strain, which developed fibrosis. (
  • Genotyping revealed coinheritance of C3H alleles (chromosomes 2, 4, 19, and X) and C57BL/6J alleles (chromosomes 1, 7, 9, and 17) to result in higher fibrosis scores in backcross mice. (
  • Mice that inherited C57BL/6J alleles at the putative alveolitis susceptibility loci were spared this response and lived to the end of the experiment. (
  • We ( 11 ) and others ( 9 , 10 ) have reported that following high-dose whole thorax irradiation, C3H/HeJ (C3H) mice develop a diffuse lethal alveolitis, the C57BL/6J (B6) response is fibrosing alveolitis, whereas male mice of the congenic major histocompatibility strain B6.AKR-H2k present a minimal lung response at 6 months posttreatment ( 12 ). (
  • Genetic regulation of this response has been localized to the Lps locus on mouse chromosome 4, through study of the C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr inbred strains. (
  • Both C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr mice are homozygous for a mutant Lps allele ( Lps d/d ) that confers hyporesponsiveness to LPS challenge, and therefore exhibit natural tolerance to its lethal effects. (
  • C3H/HeJ mice have a point mutation within the coding region of the Tlr4 gene, resulting in a nonconservative substitution of a highly conserved proline by histidine at codon 712, whereas C57BL/ 10ScCr mice exhibit a deletion of Tlr4 . (
  • We found that strains with the P451 allele (BALB/cJ and 129X1/SvJ) had stronger femurs and higher levels of the bone resorption marker C-telopeptide collagen (CTX) compared to C57Bl/6 (B6) and DBA/2J mice. (
  • We now report that the induction of inflammatory genes and activation of NF-kB-like transcription factors cosegregate with aortic atherosclerotic lesion formation in BXH recombinant inbred strains derived from parental C57BL/6J (susceptible) and C3H/HeJ (resistant) mice. (
  • In previous mouse breeding studies between these DCC susceptible and the DCC-resistant strain C57BL/6J, 4 genetic loci harboring genes involved in DCC inheritance were identified and subsequently termed Dyscalc loci 1 through 4. (
  • The MRL mouse is an inbred strain with a genetic background comprising 75% LG (Large) and a 25% mixture of AKR, C3H, and C57BL/6 ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • The genetic loci determining dystrophic cardiac calcinosis in an F2 intercross of resistant C57BL/6J and susceptible C3H/HeJ inbred strains were identified. (
  • Inbred strains of mice can be classified into 3 categories according to their resistance to infection with S.typhimurium: susceptible (BALB/c, C57BL/6, C3H/He), intermediate (DBA/2, C75L) and resistant (A, CBA). (
  • Downing and his colleagues looked at alcohol teratogenesis in five inbred strains of mice: Inbred Short-Sleep (ISS), C57BL/6J (B6), C3H/Ibg (C3H), A/Ibg (A), and 129S6/SvEvTac (129). (
  • Pubmed ID: 16842828 In the present study, we compared the maternal and non-maternal behaviors of primiparous females in both the light and dark phases during 3 weeks postpartum in five inbred strains of mice (BALB/c, CBA/Ca, C3H/He, C57BL/6, and DBA/2) to examine the strain differences in the behaviors in detail. (
  • We report that UNC-45b recessive loss-of-function mutations in C3H and C57BL/6 inbred mouse strains cause arrest of cardiac morphogenesis at the formation of right heart structures and failure of contractile function. (
  • Wild-type C3H and C57BL/6 embryos at the same stage, E9.5, form actively contracting right and left atria and ventricles. (
  • In the present study, we compared the reaction of different T cell compartments and associated cytokine production against DSS challenge in DSS-resistant BALB/c mice and DSS-induced colitis permissive C57BL/6 mice. (
  • We surveyed 4 inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6J, C3H, DBA/2 and BALB/C) for variation in glucose tolerance during an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. (
  • Quantitative differences in serum neutralizing-antibody (SNAb) responses to rabies vaccination and survival after a rabies challenge infection between two inbred mice strains, C3H/J and C57BL/6J, were shown to be under genetic control. (
  • A 99% confidence limit calculated from the SNAb response titers of 14 C57BL/6J mice resulted in an upper limit for the SNAb response titer of C57BL/6J mice at 50.63. (
  • The hyper-SNAb response to rabies vaccination and the higher frequency of survival after rabies challenge infection behave as Mendelian dominant alleles in F1 hybrids (C3H/J X C57BL/6J) and backcross (BC) (F1 [C3H/J X C57BL/6J] X C57BL/6J) progeny. (
  • On the other hand, both the relatively hypo-SNAb response and a lower frequency of vaccine-inducible survival phenotypes behave as Mendelian recessive alleles and occur in C57BL/6J mice. (
  • C3H/J mice are H-2 Kk, and C57BL/6J mice are H-2 Kb. (
  • All three phenotypic traits (H-2 type, SNAb response, and survival after rabies challenge infection) segregate as independent (unlinked) monogenic traits in BC progeny (F1 [C3H/J X C57BL/6J] X C57BL/6J). (
  • Further, a nonsense mutation (C-to-A transversion) in codon 347 that results in a truncation eliminating more than half of the predicted encoded protein, including the catalytic domain, has been identified in all rd1 strains of mice. (
  • The variation in atherosclerosis susceptibility among inbred strains of mice provides a method of identifying the cellular and molecular interactions in atherogenesis. (
  • The white-footed mouse serves as a natural reservoir for AP-ha, and laboratory studies have shown that numerous inbred strains of mice (e.g. (
  • We tested the precision of coregulation of numbers of neurons, glial cells, and endothelial cells in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in 58 isogenic strains of mice. (
  • Five inbred strains of mice differed significantly in serum cholesterol level. (
  • We have previously identified three novel loci that influence the severity of whooping cough by using recombinant congenic strains of mice: Bordetella pertussis susceptibility loci 1, 2, and 3 (Bps1, -2, and -3). (
  • We therefore screened 11 inbred strains of mice for susceptibility to a pertussis infection after intranasal infection. (
  • In conclusion, Tlr4 is a major host factor explaining the differences in the course of infection between these inbred strains of mice. (
  • Maternal Behavior of Primiparous Females in Inbred Strains of Mice: a Detailed Descriptive Analysis Physiology & Behavior. (
  • Wolff G. L., Greenman D. L., Frigeri L. G., Morrissey R. L., Suber R. L., and Felton R. P. (1990) Diabetogenic response to streptozotocin varies among obese yellow and among lean agouti (BALB/c x VY)F1 hybrid mice. (
  • By contrast, BALB/c mice are highly susceptible to infection with these organisms (12,13). (
  • Most of these genes do not map within the MHC systems of either humans or mice, including the SCL-1 gene implicated in the high susceptibility of BALB/c mice to infection with L. major (14). (
  • By contrast, BALB/c mice develop a typical Th2 response. (
  • In addition, targeted disruption of the IL-4 gene in BALB/c mice causes these animals, which are otherwise susceptible to infection with L. major , to become highly resistant to these organisms (19). (
  • However (and surprisingly), genetic disruption of the IL-4 gene of BALB/c mice can also generate animals that are as susceptible to infection with L. major as are wild-type conventional BALB/c mice (20). (
  • The reasons for this discrepancy depend on some circumstances such as infection with particular L. major sub-strains, due to the fact that IL-4 and/or IL-4 receptor signaling is not required to promote Th2 cell development and susceptibility in BALB/c mice (21). (
  • Briefly one hundred and twenty Balb/c mice were randomly divided into four groups as LT, LB, LBT and control groups. (
  • Susceptible C3H/HeJ mice had markedly higher burdens of bacterial DNA than resistant BALB/c mice, and penicillin G treatment significantly reduced the numbers of spirochetes. (
  • Balb/C, C3H, DBA/2) are also highly susceptible to infection ( 1 , 6 , 7 ). (
  • They began to breed mice for this purpose, and many of the modern mouse types used in laboratories today - given names such as B6, B10, C3H, CBA, and BALB/c - can be traced back to the lines bred by these scientists. (
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of this remedy on immunological angiogenesis and granulocytes metabolic activity in Balb/c mice. (
  • By sequencing the most common strains of inbred mice, we found that only a few strains (BALB, NOD, NZW, and 129) were harboring the wild allelic version of the mutation (P451) in the gene for the purinergic receptor P2X7. (
  • BALB/c-Apoe(-/-) mice bearing a null mutation in the Npc1 gene display prominent medial erosion and atherothrombosis, whereas their macrophages accumulate free cholesterol in late endosomes and show increased cathepsin K (Ctsk) expression. (
  • In previous studies of light-induced (LRD) and age-related (ageRD) retinal degeneration (RD) between the BALB/cByJ (BALB) and B6(Cg)-Tyr c-2J /J (B6a) albino mouse strains, RD-modifying quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified. (
  • A murine leukimia virus (Xmv-28) insertion in reverse orientation in intron 1 is found in all mouse strains with the rd1 phenotype. (
  • Pseudoagouti phenotype about 10% of A vy /a mice. (
  • Contrary to the expected outcome, mice deficient for both FasL and TNF had a substantially milder gld phenotype with regard to mortality, lymphoaccumulation, germinal center formation, and hypergammaglobulinemia. (
  • To confirm these data in a strain highly permissive for the phenotype, C3H/HeJ.gld and C3H.HeJ.lpr mice were treated with a TNF-specific monoclonal antibody. (
  • Upon infection with L. major , mice of the resistant phenotype clearly develop a dominant Th1 phenotype of immune response to the parasite's antigens. (
  • Most recently he has examined the role of microRNAs in the regulation of SMC phenotype, and studied the biology of aortic aneurysm development in mouse models. (
  • As the identification of causal genetic variations influencing lung disease susceptibility using clinical data alone can be confounded by the effects of multiple genes and their interactions on the phenotype and by the cancer and other treatment modalities, inbred mouse strains that vary in their propensity to develop alveolitis and fibrosis ( 9 , 10 ) after radiation exposure can be evaluated to genetically dissect the lung response. (
  • Neither C3H/He nor C3H/HeN mice have the LPS tolerance phenotype characteristic of C3H/HeJ. (
  • Here, we report susceptibility to cardiac fibrosis, a sub-phenotype of DCC, at 12 and 20 months of age and close to natural death in a survey of 28 inbred mouse strains. (
  • Subcutaneous injection of the 1,4-DPCA/hydrogel into Swiss Webster mice that do not show a regenerative phenotype increased stable expression of HIF-1α protein over 5 days, providing a functional measure of drug release in vivo. (
  • The role of inflammation in ear hole closure has been demonstrated in mice with an acute inflammatory reactivity (AIR) phenotype, which have the ability to close holes made in their ear pinnae ( 23 ). (
  • We have identified a novel ENU mutant allele of Ift140 , which causes a mid-gestation embryonic lethal phenotype in homozygous mutant mice. (
  • Advances in mouse phenotype assessments have paralleled human clinical diagnostics. (
  • A desire for a broad phenotyping platform, which would be used to assess biology, toxicology, pharmacology and quantitative systems relevant to clinical disease, was the guiding rule for the development of phenotype assays in the mouse ( Table 1 ). (
  • During the same time, however, large-scale mutagenesis screens were carried out in the mouse, which required phenotype screening assays that were rapid, robust and cost-effective. (
  • In our current scientific climate, a graduate student or postdoctoral fellow in a diseasefocused lab would tackle his/her mouse mutant by asking if it has the phenotype that the laboratory expected. (
  • A broad phenotype assessment of the Bcl-x mutant mouse would have detected the platelet abnormalities, but how many laboratories have easy, cost-efficient access to the equipment required to perform routine complete blood counts on mice? (
  • Cmah -deficient mdx mice display an accelerated disease onset and severe cardiac phenotype due to differences in glycosylation between humans and mice. (
  • Development of a SNP genotyping panel for genetic monitoring of the laboratory mouse. (
  • Progeny from an interspecific backcross between laboratory mice and Mus spretus were typed for inheritance of eight genetic markers on chromosome 12. (
  • Following the initial characterization of the C3H/HeJ strain as LPS hyporesponsive ∼30 years ago ( 1 , 2 ), a large number of genetic analyses were conducted to identify the gene responsible for this trait reviewed in Refs. (
  • See article "Genetic Background Effects: Can Your Mice See? (
  • Experimental infection of inbred and congenic mice with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) provides a well-established model to identify host genetic determinants that regulate both protective immunity and infection-associated immunopathology, including the development of CM. Similar to P. falciparum infection in humans, mice susceptible to PbA (e.g. (
  • 15 16 17 Genetic studies of the C3H and B6 mouse model have provided evidence for major gene effects, 15 17 but the large nongenetic variance of lesion development has made genetic analysis difficult. (
  • We had previously demonstrated genetic variation of this trait among inbred mouse strains. (
  • These results demonstrate the potential for genetic variation arising from factors other than CYP1A2 activity to influence the plasma paraxanthine/caffeine ratio in mice. (
  • The laboratory mouse offers the opportunity to study genetic variation in gene expression in the absence of differential exposure to environmental inducers. (
  • Phenotypic differences among inbred mouse strains can be exploited to identify genetic differences in the expression of genes underlying the trait under consideration. (
  • Certain plants including the genetic model organism Arabidopsis thaliana naturally self-pollinate, which makes it quite easy to create inbred strains in the laboratory (other plants, including important genetic models such as maize require transfer of pollen from one flower to another). (
  • Such strains are useful in the analysis of variance within an inbred strain or between inbred strains because any differences would be due to the single genetic change, or to a difference in environmental conditions between two individuals of the same strain, One of the more specific uses of Drosophila inbred strains are the use of Gal4/UAS lines in research. (
  • Inbreeding animals will sometimes lead to genetic drift. (
  • The C3H/HeJBir (C3H) strain is a genetic background that is highly susceptible to several experimentally induced forms of IBD, whereas the B6 background is resistant ( 15 - 17 ). (
  • The genetic basis for susceptibility to colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium was elucidated previously by a C3H × B6 outcross ( 18 ). (
  • In this chapter, we suggest that mouse models are useful for studying genetic background effects for acquired hearing loss. (
  • The genetic analysis of mouse models identified the genetic modifiers. (
  • We review the genetic research in mouse models for acquired hearing loss to identify and confirm the modifiers by both forward and reverse genetics approaches. (
  • Castle's team were interested primarily in using the mice to demonstrate a genetic basis for cancer, but an important benefit of the genetically homogenous mice was that they allowed independent groups of scientists to be able to perform experiments on the same genetic material for the first time. (
  • The authors of that article say the main advantage of the mouse as a subject is that, while human health is determined by a combination of our genes and the surrounding environment - where even identical twins will develop different medical histories over their lifetimes - genetic alterations can be much more precisely defined in laboratory mice. (
  • Laboratory mice also live for only 2 or 3 years, giving researchers the opportunity to study the effects of treatments or genetic manipulation across a whole lifespan or even over several generations, which is not feasible in human subjects. (
  • Genetic evidence for a common pathway mediating oxidative stress, inflammatory gene induction, and aortic fatty streak formation in mice. (
  • SALT LAKE CITY)-University of Utah researchers have discovered a naturally occurring genetic variation in mice that predisposes carriers toward developing severe, inflammatory arthritis. (
  • Because the mice are highly inbred, mice in each strain are near genetic carbon copies of one another. (
  • The study also highlights the power of GWAS in the mouse for dissecting complex genetic traits. (
  • Because these loci could not account for all genetic differences between mice, we extended our search for additional susceptibility loci. (
  • The most resistant (A/J) and the most susceptible (C3H/HeJ) strains were selected for further genetic and phenotypic characterization. (
  • Recombinant inbred (RI) strains are a powerful tool for analyzing not only single genetic traits but also multifactorial genetic traits. (
  • For minimizing the variation of glucose tolerance in each strain, all mice were fed the high-carbohydrate diet and subjected to phenotypic and genetic analyses. (
  • Inbred strains are genetically homogeneous, and the genetic and environmental components can be strictly controlled in the experimental setting. (
  • The genetic analysis of a multifactorial disease in experimental animals such as mice and rats is much more revealing than that of a similar disease in human subjects. (
  • In no vertebrate other than the mouse, may one target a gene to eliminate its function in the whole organism or in one tissue, carry out forward genetic screens, or introduce transgenes as cDNAs or bacterial artificial chromosomes. (
  • When one looks at more than one inbred strain of mice, and all mice are housed and treated the same, differences between strains are taken as evidence of a genetic effect. (
  • Since genetic effects on prenatal alcohol phenotypes in mice have been demonstrated, and the mouse and human genomes are remarkably similar, it suggests genetics plays a role in humans as well," he said. (
  • Genetic studies in the mouse have resulted in important contributions to the understanding of cardiac development. (
  • Genetic and molecular studies in the mouse have produced major breakthroughs in understanding the transcriptional control of cardiogenesis. (
  • For instance, mdx mice on a DBA/2 genetic background, developed by Fukada et al. (
  • Genetic control of serum neutralizing-antibody response to rabies vaccination and survival after a rabies challenge infection in mice. (
  • 5,6 Moreover, endothelial responses to OxLDL cosegregate with the size of atherosclerotic lesions, as observed in a set of recombinant inbred strains derived from strains B6 and C3H. (
  • In a set of recombinant inbred strains derived from the B6 and C3H parental strains, endothelial responses to minimally modified LDL cosegregated with aortic lesion size. (
  • We had previously demonstrated interstrain variation in the phenotypic trait of serum paraxanthine/caffeine index among inbred mice. (
  • One of the key strengths of using inbred strains as a model is that strains are readily available for whatever study one is performing and that there are resources such as the Jackson Laboratory, and Flybase, where one can look up strains with specific phenotypes or genotypes from among inbred lines, recombinant lines, and coisogenic strains. (
  • The C3H/HeSnJ substrain served as the parental strain for the Snell (Sn) congenic strains. (
  • To test whether dietary responsiveness is involved, a congenic strain of C3H carrying an apoE-null allele (apoE −/− ) was constructed. (
  • A spontaneous mutation occurred in C3H/HeJ sometime between 1960 and 1968 at lipopolysaccharide response locus (mutation in toll-like receptor 4 gene, Tlr4 lps ) making C3H/HeJ mice endotoxin resistant while the other three C3H strains are endotoxin sensitive. (
  • Survey of the nob5 mutation in C3H substrains. (
  • A spontaneous mouse hair mutation was identified in a C3H/HeN colony. (
  • In this article we describe a new mutation affecting the fur that was found segregating in the C3H/HeN inbred strain of mouse. (
  • A point mutation in the Tlr4 gene, which encodes Toll-like receptor 4, has recently been proposed to underlie LPS hyporesponsiveness in C3H/HeJ mice ( Lps d ). (
  • Although a number of knockout mice exhibit mitigated responses to LPS ( 8 ), a mutation within Lps leads to the most profound state of LPS hyporesponsiveness described to date. (
  • Origin: The A vy mutation occurred in C3H/HeJ in 1960. (
  • This inbred strain carries the spontaneous flexed-tail mutation and mice are characterized by a transitory siderocytic hypochromic anemia due to defective heme synthesis in fetal but not adult reticulocytes. (
  • The mouse mutant coloboma ( Cm /+) exhibits profound spontaneous locomotor hyperactivity resulting from a deletion mutation. (
  • Macrophages from mouse strains with the naturally occurring mutation P451L in the purinergic receptor P2X7 have impaired responses to agonists (1). (
  • C3H/HeJ mice carry a functional mutation in the intracellular domain of Tlr4. (
  • The transcription of p13 and other gene family members during in vitro growth and in a mouse infection model was therefore investigated. (
  • Genomic profiling of collaborative cross founder mice infected with respiratory viruses reveals novel transcripts and infection-related strain-specific gene and isoform expression. (
  • These results demonstrate that the myocardial response of mice to T. cruzi infection, both histological and electrophysiological, is modulated by both the mouse strain and the parasite isolate used. (
  • Here, we have investigated the mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2), TLR-4, and MD-2 in spleens and livers of C3H/HeN mice (carrying wild-type TLR-4) and C3H/HeJ mice (carrying mutated TLR-4) in response to Salmonella infection. (
  • Infection of mice with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium produces a systemic disease similar to human typhoid fever ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • In infections of naturally resistant mouse strains ( Nramp wild type), the initial bacterial growth rate is slow enough that other host responses can be activated to arrest bacterial growth and control the infection, causing development of a plateau in the in vivo growth curve often followed by bacterial clearance. (
  • These mice fail to control the infection and develop extensive lesions. (
  • Moreover, IL-4 transgenic resistant mice expressing low levels of this cytokine fail to clear the infection (17,18). (
  • Conversely, A/J mice, although equally susceptible to PbA infection, are more resistant to the associated CM syndrome ( 6 - 7 ). (
  • TNF-α expression in the lungs 3 days after infection was increased fivefold compared to uninfected controls in A/J mice and was not affected in C3H/HeJ mice. (
  • We conclude that OspC is indispensable for establishing infection by B. burgdorferi in mammals but is not required at any other point of the mouse-tick infection cycle. (
  • 157:451-460, 1983) that susceptibility to rabies infection is genetically controlled in some mice strains. (
  • Analysis of F 1 , F 2 , and backcross hybrids from crosses between LPS-responsive and LPS-hyporesponsive mice showed that the defective LPS responses of C3H/HeJ mice in vivo and in vitro were controlled by a single autosomal gene ( 5 , 6 , 7 ). (
  • thus, in the present study, we performed aorta transplantation to determine atherosclerotic lesion formation of aortic grafts from B6 and C3H mice in their F1 hybrids. (
  • These mice are homozygous for Clcc1 m1J , which causes increased sensitivity to endoplasmic reticulum stress in the cerebellum, and homozygous for the retinal degeneration allele Pde6b rd1 . (
  • This substrain does not carry the exogenous mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) and, like the other C3H strains, is homozygous for the retinal degeneration allele ( rd1 ), but lacks the nob5 allele of Gpr179 (Chang, 2015). (
  • The FL/1Re inbred strain, homozygous for f and wildtype for Kit , was generated in the laboratory of Elizabeth Russell from a female WB/Re heterozygous for Kit W bred to a male heterozygous for f from a partially inbred stock derived from crosses between C3H/J and Snell?s WA linkage-testing stock (Russell and McFarland, 1966). (
  • A strain is inbred when it has undergone at least 20 generations of brother x sister or offspring x parent mating, at which point at least 98.6% of the loci in an individual of the strain will be homozygous, and each individual can be treated effectively as clones. (
  • Mice homozygous for a disrupted interleukin-10 ( Il10 ) gene ( 13 ) support the hypothesis that a dysregulated immune response to enteric flora can trigger IBD. (
  • The absence of M-CSF, a growth factor for monocyte-macrophages, markedly reduced atherosclerotic lesions in fat-fed wild-type mice, apoE −/− mice, and LDL receptor-deficient mice. (
  • Mouse peritoneal macrophages activated for tumor cytotoxicity by any of several in vivo or in vitro treatments released a soluble cytotoxin into culture fluids only after exposure to small amounts of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. (
  • Studies in macrophages from knockout mice showed major roles for TLR4, following plasma membrane cholesterol loading, and for TLR3, after late endosomal loading. (
  • Defective Fc-mediated phagocytosis in C3H/HeJ macrophages. (
  • Peritoneal macrophages from LPS hyporesponsive C3H/HeJ mice lose the capacity to bind and phagocytose opsonized sheep erythrocytes (EA) over a 48-hr culture period. (
  • this loss in Fc receptor capacity is markedly different from the progressive increase in phagocytic ability exhibited by cultured macrophages derived from LPS-responsive C3H/HeN mice. (
  • Since dibutyryl-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (DBcAMP) has previously been reported to modulate membrane receptor expression in lymphocytes and certain macrophage-like cell lines, we examined its effects on EA binding and phagocytosis by C3H/HeJ macrophages. (
  • DBcAMP not only reverses the binding defect in C3H/HeJ macrophages but also restores EA phogocytosis to the level of control C3H/HeN cultures. (
  • Breeding of inbred strains is often towards specific phenotypes of interest such as behavioural traits like alcohol preference or physical traits like aging, or they can be selected for traits that make them easier to use in experiments like being easy to use in transgenic experiments. (
  • Other less well-known classical regenerative phenotypes, not seen during wound repair, have been observed in the ear injury model of the MRL (Murphy Roths Large) mouse. (
  • Our approach uses a whole genome mapping approach to identify mouse loci that cosegregate with and by implication determine two biochemical phenotypes (plasma glucose and plasma insulin levels) that are perturbed in diabetes. (
  • Both a relatively hyper-SNAb response and a higher frequency of vaccine-inducible survival phenotypes occur in C3H/J mice. (
  • This analysis results in a smear of TRFs, ranging from 5 to 15 kb in humans and from 20 to 150 kb in mice. (
  • The move away from these species into scientific experimentation on mice was driven by humans' desire to better understand ourselves. (
  • Fialuridine had previously passed preclinical toxicology tests in mice, rats, dogs and primates - where no toxic effects on the liver were reported - and had been approved for testing in humans. (
  • Mutations in the gene encoding β subunit of the rod cGMP phosphodiesterase (β-PDE) were identified in rd (retinal degeneration) mice 1 and have been shown to cause autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa in humans. (
  • 2 However, the sequence of cellular events from the protein defect in β-PDE to photoreceptor apoptosis in the rd mice and humans is still not completely known. (
  • In addition, he said, studies with humans and mice have shown that both maternal and fetal genotypes - in conjunction with the environment - play a role in susceptibility and resistance to the detrimental effects of in utero alcohol exposure. (
  • The data presented herein demonstrate that F 1 progeny from crosses between mice that carry a ∼9-cM deletion of chromosome 4 (including deletion of Lps Tlr4 ) and C3H/HeJ mice (i.e. (
  • Identification of distinct mutations involving the same gene at the Lps locus in two different hyporesponsive inbred mouse strains strongly supports the hypothesis that altered Tlr4 function is responsible for endotoxin tolerance. (
  • We found a link between the delayed clearance of bacteria from the lung and a large part of chromosome 4 in F2 mice with a maximum log of the odds score of 33.6 at 65.4 Mb, which is the location of Tlr4. (
  • The Jackson Laboratory maintains four C3H substrains, C3H/HeJ (Stock No. 000659 ), C3H/HeOuJ (Stock No. 000635 ), C3HeB/FeJ (Stock No. 000658 ) and C3H/HeSnJ (Stock No. 000661 ) that are now free of exogenous MMTV. (
  • Mice and rats used in the laboratory derive from a variety of sources. (
  • Most laboratory mice have contributions from both Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus . (
  • Therefore, they should not be referred to by species name, but rather as laboratory mice or by use of a specific strain or stock name. (
  • In addition, some recently developed laboratory mouse strains are derived wholly from other Mus species or other subspecies, such as M. spretus ). (
  • A key feature of mouse and rat nomenclature is the Laboratory Registration Code or Laboratory code, which is a code of usually three to four letters (first letter uppercase, followed by all lowercase) that identifies a particular institute, laboratory, or investigator that produced, and may hold stocks of, a mouse or rat strain. (
  • Comparison of linkage maps of mouse chromosome 12 derived from laboratory strain intraspecific and Mus spretus interspecific backcrosses. (
  • Thus outbred strains of most laboratory animals are also available, where an outbred strain is a strain of an organism that is effectively wildtype in nature, where there is as little inbreeding as possible. (
  • In 1902, a period of newfound popularity for the "fancy mouse" - specially bred mice as pets, rather than pantry scourge - the early geneticist William Ernest Castle introduced the fancy mouse to his laboratory at Harvard University in Cambridge, MA. (
  • Most inbred strains of laboratory mice exhibit reproducible susceptibility to the proinflammatory and toxic properties of LPS. (
  • Sundberg, John 2016-04-28 00:00:00 Dystrophic cardiac calcinosis (DCC), also called epicardial and myocardial fibrosis and mineralization, has been detected in mice of a number of laboratory inbred strains, most commonly C3H/HeJ and DBA/2J. (
  • Young (60-80 days) mice of the low β-glucuronidase strain, C3H/HeJ, showed no differences in hepatic levels of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) when compared to the randombred, "normal" Swiss-Webster mice of the same age. (
  • 3 Previous studies have revealed various differences between B6 and C3H in atherogenic processes involving vascular wall cells. (
  • 18 Because of the small size of arteries in mice, these differences between the 2 strains have not been demonstrated at the level of arterial walls. (
  • In contrast, an impaired glucose tolerance was observed in (SM × A)F1 mice, and marked differences in diabetes-related traits were observed in 19 SMXA RI strains. (
  • Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors 1/5 in neocortical slices and isolated synaptoneurosomes increases endogenous mouse FUS and FUS(WT) protein levels but decreases the FUS(R521G) protein, providing a potential biochemical basis for the dendritic spine differences between FUS(WT) and FUS(R521G) mice. (
  • We observed larger strain differences in male than female mice. (
  • Complex genetics architecture contributes to Salmonella resistance in AcB60 mice. (
  • Geneticists working under Castle were the first scientists to realize how inbred, genetically homogenous lines of mice could have an enormous impact on the study of genetics. (
  • A mouse study has found that genetics may help to explain alcohol-related susceptibility and resistance. (
  • The fact that inbred strains differed showed that genetics plays a role. (
  • However, in the closely related, LPS-resistant C3H/HeJ mice (HeJ − ), the plateau does not occur and the bacteria continue to grow at the same slow rate until they reach approximately 10 8 bacteria per organ, when the mice die ( 4 , 13 , 14 ). (
  • The severity of the colitis depends on the inbred strain background in which the disrupted gene is placed ( 14 ). (
  • Because the intact Snap allele in Cm /+ mice does not compensate for the deleted Snap gene with increased transcription, it is likely that deficiencies in SNAP-25 expression, resulting in anomalous presynaptic function, are involved in the neurological abnormalities exhibited by these mutant mice. (
  • They also suggest that a major gene contributing to aortic lesion development in this mouse model, designated Ath-1, may control either the accumulation of lipid peroxides in tissues or the cellular responses to such lipid peroxides. (
  • Our mode-of-action studies, including studies on cells from specifically gene knockout mice suggest that similar to CpG, CTB-CpG exerts its immunostimulatory effects through a TLR9/MyD88- and NF-kappaB-dependent pathway. (
  • Table 1: Affinities of tg ARS antibodies It is possible to make transgenic (tg) mice whose B cells ___________________________________ express a tg heavy chain gene. (
  • The cardiac actin locus (Actc-1) is not on mouse chromosome 17 but is linked to beta 2-microglobulin. (
  • Lps was originally mapped to mouse mid-chromosome 4 by its linkage to Mup1 (major urinary protein-1) using BXH recombinant inbred strains ( 9 , 10 , 11 ). (
  • A major C3H-derived colitogenic QTL ( Cdcs1 ) on chromosome (Chr. (
  • A region of mouse Chromosome 1, called the Hcs7 locus, is involved in the susceptibility to liver carcinogenesis in the inbred mouse strain, C3H/HeJ (C3H). (
  • Weis' investigation began after learning that, similar to what is observed in people, a strain of mice called C3H develops severe arthritis with Lyme disease, while a different strain, B6, develops mild symptoms. (
  • Two mutations have been identified in rd1 mice. (
  • One possible approach to the understanding of the molecular events involved in the development and cyclic life of these tiny organs might be to generate knockout mice for the genes that are known to be expressed in the hair follicle ( Y amanishi 1998 ) and then to observe carefully the consequences, if any, of these engineered mutations. (
  • Another approach is to identify at the molecular level, by positional cloning, the genes that are affected in the many mouse hair mutations available. (
  • Targeted mutations in a variety of mouse genes produce colitis ( 12 ). (
  • Here we demonstrate that chemical mutagenesis of mice combined with advances in hematopoietic stem cell reagents and genome resources can efficiently recover recessive mutations and identify genes essential for generation and proliferation of definitive hematopoietic stem cells and/or their progeny. (
  • Several cell types derived from the C3H/HeJ strain are hyporesponsive to LPS in vitro. (
  • This C3H substrain was rederived in the 1960's and again in 1999, as a result, this line does not carry the exogenous mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV). (
  • Note: a few historical examples exist of similar mouse and rat strain designations and these are allowed to stand, with their substrain designations identifying them as unique). (
  • C3H/HeJ mice, along with the C3H/HeN substrain, were both derived from the progenitor strain, C3H/He, in 1947. (
  • The availability of numerous mouse strains that differ in susceptibility to atherosclerosis provides an experimental method for identifying the role of various cellular components in atherogenesis. (
  • Spontaneous hepatocellular tumours in 24% of male yellow mice but only 13% of black mice. (
  • Although the spontaneous hyperactivity is extreme, the coloboma mouse CNS appears normal with no obvious neuropathology. (
  • The MRL mouse strain is an exception among mammals because it shows a spontaneous regenerative healing trait and so can be used to investigate proregenerative interventions in mammals. (
  • I. Effect of the activated carbon fiber adsorbent 'Aqualen' on spontaneous carcinogenesis and life-span in mice // Cancer Lett. (
  • Identification of new loci involved in the host susceptibility to Salmonella Typhimurium in collaborative cross mice. (
  • Antibody blockade of C5a or C5a receptor (C5aR) rescued susceptible mice from CM. In vitro studies showed that C5a-potentiated cytokine secretion induced by the malaria product P. falciparum glycosylphosphatidylinositol and C5aR blockade abrogated these amplified responses. (
  • Examination of the bactericidal functions of the neutrophils from Gsr-deficient mice in vitro revealed impaired phagocytosis and defective bacterial killing activities. (
  • Since the C3H/HeJ macrophage phagocytic defect can also be reversed by in vitro stimulation with a lymphokine-rich culture supernatant, we examined the effect of this treatment on intracellular cAMP levels. (
  • The essential role of vaccination in developing preexposure protection in genetically responsive mice is confirmed, but indicates that in vitro measurements other than SNAb titers need to be developed to identify mice that have failed to achieve preexposure protection by rabies vaccination. (
  • Aorta transplantation in the mouse provides a direct means for studying the role of the vascular wall in a biological process in vivo. (
  • Although the aorta transplantation procedure is used primarily to study long-term graft rejection, it also is used to investigate the progression or regression of atherosclerotic lesions in apoE −/− mice. (
  • 10 11 12 Also, the transplantation of bone marrow from apoE −/− mice into wild-type mice greatly increased lesion development. (
  • ospC mutant spirochetes from persistently infected mice also failed to infect naive mice by tissue transplantation. (
  • Here, new phenotyping paradigms for assessing mouse biology and physiology are described and proposed. (
  • C57 BL /6J mice with inherited retinal degeneration. (
  • To elucidate the role of activated microglia in the photoreceptor apoptosis of rd mice by identifying sequential events and factors associated with microglial activation, migration, and cytotoxicity during retinal degeneration. (
  • Activation of microglia, as well as expression of their signaling molecules (chemokines) and microglia-derived toxic factor (TNF-α), coincides with or precedes the occurrence of photoreceptor apoptosis, suggesting activated microglia play a major role in retinal degeneration in rd mice. (
  • Contribution of both M1 and M4 receptors to muscarinic agonist-mediated attenuation of the cocaine discriminative stimulus in mice. (
  • Mouse strain names should be registered through the Mouse Genome Database (MGD) at . (
  • The C3H parent strain was developed by LC Strong in 1920 from a cross of a Bagg albino female with a DBA male followed by selection for high incidence of mammary tumors. (
  • Pimonidazole binding was compared with oxygen electrode measurements and with measurements of the radiobiologically hypoxic fraction in C3H mammary tumors in which oxygenation was manipulated by means of subjecting tumor-bearing CDF1 mice to air breathing, carbogen breathing, oxygen breathing, hydralazine injection or tumor clamping. (
  • Effects of dopamine D1-like and D2-like antagonists on cocaine discrimination in muscarinic receptor knockout mice. (
  • 1996 ) found almost no relationship between Purkinje cells and olivary neurons in inbred strains and staggerer mutant mice. (
  • In the present study, we have undertaken a genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci affecting this trait with an interval mapping approach on an F 2 intercross population of acetaminophen nonsusceptible and C3H/HeJ inbred mice. (
  • The role of C5 was further explored in B10.D2 mice, which are identical for all loci other than C5 . (
  • The complex nature of interactions among loci in this mouse model system, coupled with separate deleterious contributions from both parental strains, illustrates why detection of human inflammatory bowel disease linkages has proven to be so difficult. (
  • In this cross, five loci controlling susceptibility were identified, with colitogenic contributions identified from both C3H and B6 progenitors on Chr. (
  • The phenotypic difference between B6 and C3Hf/KAM mice has been used to map three loci of susceptibility to radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis, named Radpf1, Radpf2 , and Radpf3 ( 12 ). (
  • Indeed, B6 mice exhibit a significant increase in apoB-containing lipoproteins in the arterial wall compared with C3H mice when fed an atherogenic diet or when deficient in apoE. (
  • Because this atherogenic diet induces a marked reduction in plasma HDL levels of B6 mice but not in those of C3H mice, the alteration in HDL levels has been considered to be responsible for the difference in susceptibility. (
  • We found that the atherogenic diet resulted in a dramatic induction in several inflammatory genes in the livers of B6 mice but not in those of C3H mice. (
  • In a previous survey of inbred mouse strains on an atherogenic diet, we observed that the susceptibility to aortic atherosclerotic lesion formation was associated with the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products, induction of inflammatory genes, and the activation of NF-kB-like transcription factors (Liao, F., A. Andalibi, F. C. deBeer, A. M. Fogelman, and A.J. Lusis. (
  • One type of inbred strain that either has been altered, or naturally mutated so that it is different at a single locus. (
  • DRH strain rats were established by inbreeding a closed colony of Donryu rats continuously fed the chemical hepatocarcinogen 3′-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene for over 10 years. (
  • Psychomotor stimulant effects of cocaine in rats and 15 mouse strains. (
  • Pineal peptide preparation epithalamin increases the lifespan of fruit flies, mice and rats // Mech. (
  • Within an inbred strain, all mice are virtually genetically identical, greater than 99.9 percent. (
  • of these, 11 were expressed in the skin (5 epidermic cytokeratin and 6 hard keratin genes), but none were mutated in hague mice. (
  • The positional cloning of mutant alleles, even if it requires the breeding of a large quantity of mice, is more general and results in many instances in the identification of previously unknown genes. (
  • Next, we utilized a well-characterized mouse model of RP to examine whether surviving cones, devoid of their inner segments, continue to express genes vital for glucose, and creatine utilization. (
  • These studies reveal four distinct layers of histone modification across inducible mammalian genes and show that HYPB/Setd2 is responsible for H3K36 trimethylation throughout the mouse nucleus. (
  • Many different genes spanning the mouse genome have been implicated in susceptibility/resistance to Leishmania . (
  • A hybrid between two inbred strains can be used to cancel out deleterious recessive genes resulting in an increase in the mentioned areas. (
  • Mouse models of colitis offer an avenue for identifying IBD genes or pathways that may lead to identification of the human orthologs. (
  • In the case of B. burgdorferi , whose natural hosts are small mammals such as mice, and whose vectors are ixodid ticks, several genes have recently been shown to be required for either host or vector survival ( 14 , 17 , 34 , 37 , 40 , 53 ). (
  • Recently, chemopreventive effects of cardamom on chemically induced skin carcinogenesis in mice were described. (
  • We used high-throughput fluorescence-activated cell sorter to analyze 9 subsets of blood stem cells, progenitor cells, circulating red cells, and platelets in more than 1300 mouse embryos at embryonic day (E) 14.5. (
  • The loss of B cell follicles because of the TNF deficiency is dominant in the doubly mutant mice. (
  • Detergent-insoluble membranes from mouse cerebellum retained nearly all of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins--alkaline phosphatase, 5'-nucleotidase, and the F3 protein--while excluding the majority of the plasmalemmal marker protein alkaline phosphodiesterase I. Although the inositol trisphosphate receptor was highly enriched in this detergent-insoluble fraction, neither amyloid precursor protein nor clathrin immunoreactivity could be detected. (
  • This study examined atherosclerotic lesion development in ovariectomized versus follicle-depleted ovary-intact cholesterol-fed female low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-deficient mice. (
  • Methods and Results- We studied lesion development in LDL receptor-deficient mice that were ovariectomized or follicle depleted with 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) to induce ovarian failure, then treated ± exogenous 17β-estradiol via pellet implant. (
  • There are several studies directing a role to the P2X7 receptor in mediating ATP-induced apoptosis in other cell types [ 7 ] and accordingly increased osteoclast numbers have been found in mice with ablation of the P2X7 receptor (P2X7−/− mice) [ 3 ]. (
  • Mice expressing 5 to 10% of normal N -methyl- d -aspartate receptor subunit 1 (NR1) subunits [NR1 neo (−/−)] were compared with wild-type littermates for positive deflection at 20 ms (P20) and negative deflection at 40 ms (N40) auditory event-related potentials (ERPs). (
  • Lps 0 × Lps d F 1 mice) exhibit a pattern of LPS sensitivity, measured by TNF activity, that is indistinguishable from that exhibited by Lps n × Lps d F 1 progeny and whose average response is "intermediate" to parental responses. (
  • Lps d mice also exhibit greatly increased susceptibility to bacterial infections (reviewed in 3 ). (
  • In mice of the C3H lineage ( Nramp wild type), salmonellae exhibit a slow initial growth rate. (
  • Because Gsr has been implicated in the oxidative burst in human neutrophils and is abundantly expressed in the lymphoid system, we hypothesized that Gsr-deficient mice would exhibit marked defects during the immune response against bacterial challenge. (
  • In backcross mice, posttreatment survival was dictated by the development of an alveolitis response with increased mast cell, bronchoalveolar lavage total cell, and neutrophil numbers. (
  • We conclude that most local eQTL are highly replicable between mouse crosses, tissues, and sex as compared to distal eQTL, which exhibited modest replicability. (
  • These data suggest that comparisons of different mouse crosses may facilitate the understanding of underlying mechanisms that govern recombination events in complex genomes. (
  • This strain does not carry mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV). (
  • This high incidence resulted from exogenous mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) transmitted through the mother's milk. (
  • C3H/HeSnJ, C3H/HeJ and C3H/HeOuJ mice previously carried MMTV but were rederived in 1999 during planned efforts to increase the overall health status of the mice and the virus was not reintroduced. (
  • Methods and Results- Thoracic aortic segments from 8-week-old female B6 and C3H apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were transplanted into the infrarenal aorta of 10-week-old female F1 mice. (
  • 14 B6 and C3H mice are 2 commonly used inbred strains that differ strikingly in aortic fatty streak development when fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet with cholate. (
  • 14 These findings are in further agreement with the frequent arterial dissection and rupture in mouse models with aortic vascular calcification. (
  • To test this hypothesis, we examined the ability of habituation to reverse the ERP abnormalities in NR1 neo (−/−) mice. (
  • ECG abnormalities occurred more frequently in mice infected with clone X10/4 than in controls or mice infected with either M/78 or M/80 regardless of strain or sex and were generally more severe in C57 than in C3H infected with X10/4. (
  • mice not only develop severe arthritis symptoms in response to Lyme disease, but also to a rheumatoid arthritis-like condition. (
  • FUS(WT) and FUS(R521G) mice that develop severe motor deficits also show neuroinflammation, denervated neuromuscular junctions, and premature death, phenocopying the human diseases. (