Mice, Inbred BALB CBALB 3T3 Cells: Cell lines developed from disaggregated BALB/c mouse embryos. They are extremely sensitive to CONTACT INHIBITION, and highly susceptible to transformation by SV40 VIRUS and murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE).Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Mice, Inbred C57BLLeishmania major: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Melanoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Spores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Nelson Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by HYPERPIGMENTATION, enlarging pituitary mass, visual defects secondary to compression of the OPTIC CHIASM, and elevated serum ACTH. It is caused by the expansion of an underlying ACTH-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA that grows in the absence of feedback inhibition by adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS, usually after ADRENALECTOMY.Psychology, Experimental: The branch of psychology which seeks to learn more about the fundamental causes of behavior by studying various psychologic phenomena in controlled experimental situations.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Concept Formation: A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.MassachusettsWord Association Tests: Lists of words to which individuals are asked to respond ascertaining the conceptual meaning held by the individual.BostonClavulanic Acid: Clavulanic acid and its salts and esters. The acid is a suicide inhibitor of bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes from Streptomyces clavuligerus. Administered alone, it has only weak antibacterial activity against most organisms, but given in combination with other beta-lactam antibiotics it prevents antibiotic inactivation by microbial lactamase.Clavulanic Acids: Acids, salts, and derivatives of clavulanic acid (C8H9O5N). They consist of those beta-lactam compounds that differ from penicillin in having the sulfur of the thiazolidine ring replaced by an oxygen. They have limited antibacterial action, but block bacterial beta-lactamase irreversibly, so that similar antibiotics are not broken down by the bacterial enzymes and therefore can exert their antibacterial effects.Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination: A fixed-ratio combination of amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate.Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Penicillin G: A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Receptors, Laminin: Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of cells that react with or bind to laminin whose function allows the binding of epithelial cells to the basement membrane. The molecular weight of this high-affinity receptor is 67 kD.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Macrophages, Peritoneal: Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.Lactobacillus casei: A rod-shaped bacterium isolated from milk and cheese, dairy products and dairy environments, sour dough, cow dung, silage, and human mouth, human intestinal contents and stools, and the human vagina.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Listeriosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LISTERIA.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Listeria: A genus of bacteria which may be found in the feces of animals and man, on vegetation, and in silage. Its species are parasitic on cold-blooded and warm-blooded animals, including man.Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Cytophagocytosis: The engulfment and degradation of cells by other cells.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.

Effect of morphine and naloxone on priming-induced audiogenic seizures in BALB/c mice. (1/47697)

1 Morphine (1-200 mg/kg s.c.) reduced the incidence and prolonged the latency of priming-induced audiogenic siezures in a dose-dependent manner. 2 This effect was reversed by naloxone (1 and 2 mg/kg) although naloxone was itself inactive. 3 This priming-induces seizure model may be useful in the study of tolerance and physical dependence.  (+info)

Differences in benzo(a)pyrene metabolism between rodent liver microsomes and embryonic cells. (2/47697)

Differences in benzo(a)pyrene metabolite pattern have been shown by rodent liver microsomes (Sprague-Dawley) and rodent embryo cells from Syrian hamsters and NIH Swiss mice. Rodent liver induced by methylcholanthrene shows marked quantitative variation between species. Additional pattern changes were found in mouse and hamster embryo secondary cultures with a reduction of the K-region metabolites and a marked increase in 9-hydroxybenzo(a)-pyrene. These results are indicative of a region-specific attack on the carcinogen by the cell monooxygenases which is distinct from the liver attack of microsomal enzymes on benzo(a)pyrene. These results suggest that activation and detoxification of benzo(a)pyrene may be species and tissue variable, and susceptibility and resistence to malignant transformation may be predicted on induction of a fortuitous combination of intermediate metabolic steps.  (+info)

Stimulation of thymidine uptake and cell proliferation in mouse embryo fibroblasts by conditioned medium from mammary cells in culture. (3/47697)

Undialyzed conditioned medium from several cell culture sources did not stimulate thymidine incorporation or cell overgrowth in quiescent, density-inhibited mouse embryo fibroblast cells. However, dialyzed conditioned medium (DCM) from clonal mouse mammary cell lines MCG-V14, MCG-T14, MCG-T10; HeLa cells; primary mouse adenocarcinoma cells; and BALB/c normal mouse mammary epithelial cells promoted growth in quiescent fibroblasts. The amount of growth-promoting activity produced per cell varied from 24% (HeLa) to 213% (MCG-V14) of the activity produced by primary tumor cells. The production of growth-promoting activity was not unique to tumor-derived cells or cells of high tumorigenicity. The amount of growth-promoting activity produced per cell in the active cultures was not correlated with any of the following: tumorigenicity, growth rat, cell density achieved at saturation, cell type, or species of cell origin. It is concluded that transformed and non-transformed cells of diverse origin, cell type, and tumorigenicity can produce growth factors in culture. The growth-promoting potential of the active media from primary tumor cultures accumulated with time of contact with cells and was too great to be accounted for entirely by the removal of low-molecular-weight inhibitors by dialysis. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that conditioned medium from the active cultures contained a dialyzable, growth-promoting activity. Different cell lines exhibited differential sensitivity to tumor cell DCM and fetal bovine serum. Furthermore, quiescent fibroblasts were stimulated by primary tumor cell DCM in the presence of saturating concentrations of fetal bovine serum. These observations support the notion that the active growth-promoting principle in primary tumor cell DCM may not be a serum factor(s).  (+info)

Suppression of Moloney sarcoma virus immunity following sensitization with attenuated virus. (4/47697)

Murine sarcoma virus (Moloney strain) (MSV-M)-induced tumors are unusual in that they regularly appear less than 2 weeks after virus inoculation, progress for 1 to 2 weeks, and are rejected by normal adult BALB/c mice. Rejectio leaves the animals immune to tumor induction. In the present study, presensitization of normal adult BALB/c mice with attenuated MSV-M resulted in an altered pattern of tumor immunity. Injection of active MSV-M into the presensitized animals resulted in tumor induction and rejection similar to that observed in normal animals, but rejection failed to produce protection against the secondary inoculation with MSV-M. After the second inoculation with active MSV-M, tumors appeared and progressed but ultimately were rejected. Over 80% of the mice died, 25% after the primary challenge and the remainder after the secondary challenge. At death, all mice had histological evidence of leukemia which was the probable cause of death. The animals that died following the secondary challenge also had evidence of disseminated MSV-M. Solid tumor nodules were found in skeletal muscle distant from the original site of inoculation, and active MSV-M was isolated from spleen and lungs. The possibility that the results were produced by specific suppression of MSV-Moloney leukemia virus immunity is discussed.  (+info)

Blood thymidine level and iododeoxyuridine incorporation and reutilization in DNA in mice given long-acting thymidine pellets. (5/47697)

A long-acting thymidine pellet consisting of 190 mg of cholesterol and 60 mg of thymidine has been developed for the study of thymidine metabolism and reutilization in vivo. Implantation of such a pellet s.c. in adult mice will maintain the blood plasma concentration of thymidine at levels between 40 and 8 X 10(-6) M, which are from 36 to 7 times those of normal mice, for periods up to 48 hr. During this period, in vivo uptake and reutilization of [125I]iododeoxyuridine, a thymidine analog, into intestinal and tumor DNA were almost completely suppressed. While iododeoxyuridine reutilization is not large in normal proliferative tissue even in the absence of pellet implants, reutilization of over 30% was measured in large, rapidly growing ascites tumors. The inhibition of iododeoxyuridine incorporation by elevated thymidine blood levels is directly proportional to serum concentration. This appears to be due to a thymidine pool in rapid equilibrium with blood thymidine. This pool is at least 10 times larger than the 4-nmole pool of extracellular thymidine.  (+info)

Interleukin-8 receptor modulates IgE production and B-cell expansion and trafficking in allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation. (6/47697)

We examined the role of the interleukin-8 (IL-8) receptor in a murine model of allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation using mice with a targeted deletion of the murine IL-8 receptor homologue (IL-8r-/-). Wild-type (Wt) and IL-8r-/- mice were systemically immunized to ovalbumin (OVA) and were exposed with either single or multiple challenge of aerosolized phosphate-buffered saline (OVA/PBS) or OVA (OVA/OVA). Analysis of cells recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) revealed a diminished recruitment of neutrophils to the airway lumen after single challenge in IL-8r-/- mice compared with Wt mice, whereas multiply challenged IL-8r-/- mice had increased B cells and fewer neutrophils compared with Wt mice. Both Wt and IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice recruited similar numbers of eosinophils to the BAL fluid and exhibited comparable degrees of pulmonary inflammation histologically. Both total and OVA-specific IgE levels were greater in multiply challenged IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice than in Wt mice. Both the IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA and OVA/PBS mice were significantly less responsive to methacholine than their respective Wt groups, but both Wt and IL-8r mice showed similar degrees of enhancement after multiple allergen challenge. The data demonstrate that the IL-8r modulates IgE production, airway responsiveness, and the composition of the cells (B cells and neutrophils) recruited to the airway lumen in response to antigen.  (+info)

11q23.1 and 11q25-qter YACs suppress tumour growth in vivo. (7/47697)

Frequent allelic deletion at chromosome 11q22-q23.1 has been described in breast cancer and a number of other malignancies, suggesting putative tumour suppressor gene(s) within the approximately 8 Mb deleted region. In addition, we recently described another locus, at the 11q25-qter region, frequently deleted in breast cancer, suggesting additional tumour suppressor gene(s) in this approximately 2 Mb deleted region. An 11q YAC contig was accessed and three YACs, one containing the candidate gene ATM at 11q23.1, and two contiguous YACs (overlapping for approximately 400-600 kb) overlying most of the 11q25 deleted region, were retrofitted with a G418 resistance marker and transfected into murine A9 fibrosarcoma cells. Selected A9 transfectant clones (and control untransfected and 'irrelevant' alphoid YAC transfectant A9 clones) were assayed for in vivo tumorigenicity in athymic female Balb c-nu/nu mice. All the 11q YAC transfectant clones demonstrated significant tumour suppression compared to the control untransfected and 'irrelevant' YAC transfected A9 cells. These results define two discrete tumour suppressor loci on chromosome 11q by functional complementation, one to a approximately 1.2 Mb region on 11q23.1 (containing the ATM locus) and another to a approximately 400-600 kb subterminal region on 11q25-qter.  (+info)

A cytomegalovirus glycoprotein re-routes MHC class I complexes to lysosomes for degradation. (8/47697)

Mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) early gene expression interferes with the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) pathway of antigen presentation. Here we identify a 48 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein encoded by the MCMV early gene m06, which tightly binds to properly folded beta2-microglobulin (beta2m)-associated MHC class I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This association is mediated by the lumenal/transmembrane part of the protein. gp48-MHC class I complexes are transported out of the ER, pass the Golgi, but instead of being expressed on the cell surface, they are redirected to the endocytic route and rapidly degraded in a Lamp-1(+) compartment. As a result, m06-expressing cells are impaired in presenting antigenic peptides to CD8(+) T cells. The cytoplasmic tail of gp48 contains two di-leucine motifs. Mutation of the membrane-proximal di-leucine motif of gp48 restored surface expression of MHC class I, while mutation of the distal one had no effect. The results establish a novel viral mechanism for downregulation of MHC class I molecules by directly binding surface-destined MHC complexes and exploiting the cellular di-leucine sorting machinery for lysosomal degradation.  (+info)

BioAssay record AID 318590 submitted by ChEMBL: Elevation in glycogen level in fasting BALB/c mouse at 5.70 mg/kg, ip after 3 hrs.
An adoptive secondary antibody response to phosphorylcholine (PC) can be generated by the transfer of keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)-primed T cells, PC-bovine gamma globulin-primed B cells, and PC-KLH into irradiated syngeneic BALB/c mice. If the KLH-primed T-cell donors were pretreated with anti-idiotype antibodies directed against the BALB/c PC-binding myeloma TEPC 15, their T cells were unable to collaborate effectively with PC-primed B cells; moreover, they could suppress the helper activity of T cells from normal mice for the PC-KLH response. The Ly phenotype of these T cells was found to be Ly 1-, 2+. The specificity of the suppressor T-cell population induced by anti-T15 treatment appears to be both for idiotype (hapten) and carrier, since the suppressor T cells fail to interfere with the antibody response to PC on a heterologous carrier, nor do they suppress the response to trinitrophenol-KLH. ...
BALB/c female mice 8-12-week old were purchased from the University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Six groups of 8 - 10 female mice were challenged subcutaneously (s. c.) in the abdomen at two separate sites. Total volume injected in each site was 0.1 or 0.15 mL for BSA or 18 kDa-hsp, respectively. The dispersion injected contained either: (a) 10 μg BSA or 15 μg 18 kDa-hsp in 5 mM TrisHCl (pH 7.4); or (b) 10 μg BSA or 15 μg 18 kDa-hsp in 1 mM NaCl and 0.1 mM DODAB; or (c) 10 μg BSA or 15 μg 18 kDa-hsp in 0.1 mg silica/mL, 5 mM Tris.HCl; or (d) 10 μg BSA or 15 μg 18 kDa-hsp in silica/DODAB (0.1 mg mL-1/0.05 mM) in 5 mM Tris.HCl; or (e) 0.1 mg silica/mL in 5 mM Tris.HCl. For DTH evaluation, the footpad swelling test was carried out essentially as previously described [9, 26, 27]. On the fifth day post subcutaneous immunization, pre-immunized mice with BSA, 18 kDa-hsp, DODAB/BSA, DODAB/18 kDa-hsp, silica/BSA, silica/18 kDa-hsp, silica/DODAB/BSA, silica/DODAB/18 kDa-hsp or silica alone, ...
It is well established that immunogenic tumors, such as EMT6, induce the generation of tumor-sensitized T lymphocytes in host mice. If the host animals are cured of tumor (e.g., by surgical excision or X-ray treatment), these immune cells will maintain long-term resistance to rechallenge with the same tumor. In experiments combining PDT and adoptive transfer, the presence of tumor-sensitized T cells among the splenocytes of BALB/c mice cured previously from EMT6 tumors, and their absence from naïve BALB/c spleen cell populations, made a critical difference to therapy outcome. Significant levels of cures of PDT-treated EMT6 tumors growing in engrafted scid mice were achieved only in the former case.. Severe deficiency in the activity of lymphoid populations in scid mice (17) is responsible for the absence of cures of PDT-treated EMT6 tumors growing in these animals (11) . It appears that the adoptive transfer of naïve BALB/c splenocytes was inadequate to reconstitute the T-cell activity in scid ...
BALB/c Mouse Intestinal Mesenteric Endothelial Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from intestinal mesenteric tissue of pathogen-free laboratory mice. BALB/c Mouse Intestinal Mesenteric Endothelial Cells are grown in T25 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based coating solution for 2 min and incubated in Creative Bioarray Culture Complete Growth Medium generally for 3-7 days. Cultures are then expanded. Prior to shipping, cells are detached from flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 1x10^6 cells per ml and are delivered frozen. The method we use to isolate endothelial cells was developed based on a combination of established and our proprietary methods. These cells are pre-coated with PECAM-1 antibody, following the application of magnetic pre-coated with secondary antibody ...
Specific unresponsiveness can be induced in neonatal and adult BALB/c mice by antibody against antigen-specific receptor (antireceptor antibody). When heterologous antireceptor antibody is used in the indirect fluorescence technique, the number of fluorescent cells in these animals is significantly lower than in normal animals. Fluorescent cells appear after a relatively brief incubation of cells from adult-suppressed animals, whereas no fluorescent cells are detected when cells from neonatally treated animals are incubated briefly. Evidently, treating neonatal mice with antireceptor antibody specifically depletes the antigen-responsive clone. In contrast, antireceptor antibody causes reversible blockade of responsive cells in adult-suppressed animals. ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Oral HIVacc: Oral Mucosal Immunization Approaches for HIV Prevention (R01) RFA-DE-16-006. NIDCR
(A) CBE at the Igκ locus in B cell development. Purified DNA from sorted subpopulations of B cells from wild-type Balb/c mice was subjected to LMPCR to detect
Inefficient experimental designs are common in animal-based biomedical research, wasting resources and potentially leading to unreplicable results. Here we illustrate the intrinsic statistical power of split-plot designs, wherein three or more sub-units (e.g. individual subjects) differing in a variable of interest (e.g. genotype) share an experimental unit (e.g. a cage or litter) to which a treatment is applied (e.g. a drug, diet, or cage manipulation). We also empirically validate one example of such a design, mixing different mouse strains -- C57BL/6, DBA/2, and BALB/c -- within cages varying in degree of enrichment. As well as boosting statistical power, no other manipulations are needed for individual identification if co-housed strains are differentially pigmented, so also sparing mice from stressful marking procedures. The validation involved housing 240 females from weaning to 5 months of age in single- or mixed- strain trios, in cages allocated to enriched or standard treatments. Mice were
Read "Caraparu virus induces damage and alterations in antioxidant defenses in the liver of BALB/c mice after subcutaneous infection, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
BioAssay record AID 423140 submitted by ChEMBL: Toxicity in hMPV infected BALB/c mouse assessed as body weight loss treated 24 hrs after viral challenge measured after 5 days.
Results C57 mice demonstrated a higher total bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and BAL lymphocyte count at 3 and 7 days after intraperitoneal infection compared with BALB mice. There were no differences in BAL cytokine production; however, we were able to demonstrate differences in CMV DNA load in the lungs of BALB mice compared with that of C57 mice. In addition, there appeared to be increased whole-lung production of the TH2 cytokine IL-10 in the BALB mice versus the C57 mice. ...
Induction of 3 populations of MCs in lung of BALB/c mice 1 to 14 days after challenges. BALB/c mice were sensitized and either not challenged (NC) or challenged
H2.35 cells were cloned from a colony that arose from the SV40 transformed cells. H2.35 is an epithelial-like cell line derived from a primary hepatocyte culture. Cells were collected from the livers of 6 week old female BALB/c mice, incubated at 33°C, and infected with tsA255 (a temperature-sensitive mutant of SV40 virus).
The mutant showed a different (delayed) course of parasitemia in BALB/c mice and BALB/c mice showed a delayed death from infection. Mutant blood stages showed a restricted host cell range ...
The line was produced by fusing P3X63Ag8 myeloma cells with spleen cells from BALB/c mice that had been immunized with influenza virus (A.PR/8/34).
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recovery of butanol from model solutions and fermentation broth using a silicalite/silicone membrane. AU - Qureshi, N.. AU - Meagher, M. M.. AU - Hutkins, Robert W. PY - 1999/6/1. Y1 - 1999/6/1. N2 - A silcone-silicalite-1 composite membrane was synthesized to recover acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) from model solutions and the Clostridium acetobutylicum (ABE) fermentation broth. The adsorption capacity of the silicalite-1 in the presence of a mixture of acetone, butanol and ethanol were 8-12, 85-90 and ,5mg/g, respectively. There was no apparent difference of absorption rate of butanol at 36°C and 79°C and desorption of butanol occurred efficiently at 78°C and 1-3Torr. The silicalite-1 was characterized by chemical analysis, NMR, electron micrographs, surface area and pore size determination and found to have identical properties to other silicalite-1 reported in the literature. The silicalite-1 was incorporated into a silicone membrane in an effort to enhance butanol ...
Results of our chimaera experiments revealed no evidence that BALB/c cells were preferentially allocated to the mTE but indicated they were at a selective disadvantage between E4.5 and E8.5. We confirmed previous reports that preimplantation BALB/c embryos lagged behind embryos of some other strains and showed that the relative stage of development attained by E2.5 embryos of different strains correlated with the contribution they made to chimaeras. This suggests that the poor contribution of BALB/c embryos to aggregation chimaeras is at least partly because they lag behind their partner embryos, due to delayed or slow development.. In principle, heterosis of non-inbred partner embryos might also have contributed to the poor contribution of BALB/c cells in BALB/c↔BF2, BALB/c↔(BF1×TGB) and BALB/c↔(BF1×TP6.3) chimaeras, if hybrid cells outgrow BALB/c cells. However, this does not explain the differences in compositions of (BALB/c×AF1)↔BF2 and (AF1×BALB/c)↔BF2 chimaeras (West et al., ...
Scientific Experts, Genomes and Genes, Species, Research Topics, Locale, Publications about Experts and Doctors on inbred balb c mice in Galveston, Texas, United States
Acute exposure to diesel exhaust particles elicits dose-dependent pulmonary inflammatory and impairment of lung function in naive BALB/C mice
DTA-1 mAb abrogates suppression mediated by CD4+ CD25+ T cells. (A) CD4+ CD25- or CD4+ CD25+ T cells (gated as a or b, respectively) were purified by cell-sorter from BALB/c spleen cells. (B) CD4+ CD25+ T cells (open square and closed square) or CD4+ CD25- T cells (open circle and closed circle) purified from 2-month-old BALB/c mice, or these two populations mixed in equal amounts (open triangle and closed triangle), were stimulated for 3 days along with MMC-treated spleen cells as APC in the absence or presence of graded amounts of DTA-1 mAb. Incorporation of [3H] thymidine by proliferating lymphocytes during the last 6 hr of the culture was measured. (C) Spleen cell suspensions prepared from 2-month-old BALB/c mouse were stained with anti-CD4, anti-CD25 and DTA-1. Expression of GITR (DTA-1) on CD4+ CD25+ T cells or CD4+ CD25- T cells is shown in the histogram. The dotted lines represent control staining with an irrelevant Ab.. ...
Cytokines have important roles in the control of bacterial and viral infections such as HIV-1. Interleukin 17 which is secreted by Th17 is one of these cytokines with a special role in controlling microbial infections. In the present study, adjuvant activity of Alum and Naloxone mixture has been studied on immune responses, especially IL-17 cytokine. Naloxone and Alum adjuvant are mixed with 10 µg of recombinant vaccine HIV-1-gag-pol-tat-env. Experimental groups, consisting of 36 inbred male Balb/c mice divided into six groups, were injected subcutaneouslyat days 0, 14 and 28 with total volume of 200 µl. 2 weeks after final injection, mouse spleens were removed in sterile conditions and used to prepare suspensions. Lymphocyte proliferation responses were evaluated with Brdu test and evaluation of cytokines IL-4, IL-17 and INF-γ were completed using ELISA kit, plus total antibody and antibody isotopes IgG1 and IgG2a using ELISA test. All results show that the mixture of Alum with Naloxone
BALB/c Mouse Mammary Microvascular Endothelial Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from breast tissue of pathogen-free laboratory mice. BALB/c Mouse Mammary Microvascular Endothelial Cells are grown in T25 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based coating solution for 2 min and incubated in Creative Bioarray Culture Complete Growth Medium generally for 3-7 days. Cultures are then expanded. Prior to shipping, cells are detached from flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 1x10^6 cells per ml and are delivered frozen. The method we use to isolate endothelial cells was developed based on a combination of established and our proprietary methods. These cells are pre-coated with PECAM-1 antibody, following the application of magnetic pre-coated with secondary antibody ...
Animal models. The mouse model of podocyte injury and proteinuria was established by intravenous injection of ADR as described previously (23). Male BALB/c mice weighing 20-22 g and 24-week-old db/db mice were obtained from the Envigo. For pharmacologic inhibition experiments, CPN was intraperitoneally injected daily at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight after ADR or 2 weeks before sacrifice in db/db mice. CPN was complexed with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HBC; MilliporeSigma). A CPN/HBC stock solution was prepared by suspending 1 mg CPN in 1 ml 45% HBC in sterile PBS and stirring at 65°C for 60 minutes. Three groups of BALB/c mice were used: (a) sham control (n = 5-6), (b) ADR mice injected with vehicle (n = 6), and (c) ADR mice treated with CPN (n = 6). ADR (doxorubicin hydrochloride; MilliporeSigma) was administered by a single intravenous injection at 10 mg/kg body weight. At 1 and 5 weeks after ADR injection, all mice were euthanized. At 2 weeks after CPN injection, db/db mice were killed. ...
Background: Food allergy is considered as resulting from an impaired development or a breakdown of oral tolerance. We aimed to induce oral tolerance to the major cows milk allergen bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) or corresponding trypsin hydrolysates (BLG-Try) and to investigate the mechanisms involved.. Methods: Wild-type BALB/cJ mice were gavaged on days 1-3 and 8-10 with different doses of native BLG (nBLG) or with nBLG-Try and were then sensitized on day 14 by i.p. administration of BLG in alum. Sensitization was assessed by measurement of BLG-specific antibodies in sera and of cytokines secreted by BLG-reactivated splenocytes. Elicitation of the allergic reaction was assessed by measurement of cytokines and mMCP-1 in sera collected 35 min after an oral challenge. Cellular and biochemical markers of the allergic reaction were also analysed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BAL) collected 24 h after intra-nasal challenge. Analysis of the CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in different organs obtained 3 ...
In vitro PMA/ionomycin treatment for 5 h, which activates a signal transduction step down-stream of ZAP-70 and therefore equally activates SKG and BALB/c T cells, revealed that a significant fraction of LN CD4+ T cells from nonarthritic SKG mice in an SPF environment were producing IL-17A (hereafter IL-17), whereas SKG or BALB/c CD4-SP thymocytes or BALB/c CD4+ T cells were not (Fig. 1 A and Fig. S1, which is available at http://www.jem.org/cgi/content/full/jem.20062259/DC1). Such IL-17-producing SKG CD4+ T cells also produced at a single cell level TNF-α and IL-2, but not IFN-γ, IL-4, or IL-10, a profile distinct from Th1 or Th2 cells and similar to that of Th17 cells (Fig. 1 A; references 7-9). CD4+ T cells freshly prepared from nonarthritic SKG mice also actively transcribed IL-17 and IL-23R mRNA (Fig. 1 B). In arthritic SKG mice raised in a conventional environment, arthritic joints actively transcribed IL-17 mRNA, whereas nonarthritic ones did not (Fig. 1 C). Correspondingly, CD4+ T cells ...
It has recently been shown that dermal application of the commonly used antimicrobial compound triclosan, enhanced allergic responses in a mouse asthma model. To help elucidate the mechanisms of this augmented allergic response, we investigated the early immune-related effects of dermal triclosan exposure in mice. Triclosan was applied daily to the dorsal surface of the ears of BALB/c mice at conc
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alloreactivity and tumor antigens. T2 - Generation of syngeneic antilymphoma killer lymphocytes by alloimmunization of mice with normal cells. AU - Sensi, M. L.. AU - Parenza, M.. AU - Parmiani, G.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - The possibility of obtaining a syngeneic antitumor effect by immunization with normal allogeneic cells was investigated by tests of the lytic activity of peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) of BALB/c mice immunized with lymphoid cells of either a single strain or a pool of six different allogeneic strains on the syngeneic Moloney virus-induced lymphoma YC8 target and on one of its clones designated YC8-D1. Significant cytotoxicity on both targets but not on two other BALB/c lymphomas was obtained with PEC of BALB/c mice singly immunized to the non-H-2-incompatible but H-2-compatible DBA/2 or B10.D2 lymphoid cells. The lack of lysis of YC8 cells by PEC of BALB/c mice immune to B10.A (H-2(k.d)) suggests that the in vitro killing was restricted by K(d)-IE(d) region ...
LPS pretreatment by the oral route protects against sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture. Regulation of proinflammatory response and IgM anti-LPS antibody production as associated mechanisms. F. Massó; R. Hernández-Pando; L. Montaño; R. Springall; L. Amezcua-Guerra // Inflammation Research;Sep2007, Vol. 56 Issue 9, p385 Abstract. Objective:Â Â To explore the efficacy of prophylactic oral lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Material:Â Â Male Balb/c mice. LPS serotype O55: B5 Treatment:Â Â Mice were treated every 4 days for a total of 5 times with 50... ...
Mice and treatments. BALB-neuT mice were bred and maintained in the animal facility at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori, according to the national and institutional guidelines. Normal 8 to 10-week-old BALB/c, C57BL/6, and FVB mice were purchased from Charles River. F1 hybrids were obtained by mating BALB-neuT males with C57BL/6 or FVB females. The hemizygous transgenic females were identified by PCR performed at age 3 weeks ( 24).. MMP-9+/− mice on C57BL/6 background were kindly provided by Dr. Leif Lund (Panum Institute, Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark) as N17 generation. They were backcrossed to BALB/c and the N6 generation, intercrossed to obtain either homozygous MMP-9−/− and heterozygous MMP-9+/− offspring to be used as bone marrow donors.. Zoledronate (Zometa; Novartis Europharm, Ltd.) at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg or pamidronate (Faulding Pharmaceuticals) at a dose of 2 mg/kg were diluted in saline and administered daily s.c. 5 days a week. ...
All types of cancer include cancer cells that do and do not express tumor antigens. In previous cancer immunotherapies, activated immune cells attacked only one of these two types of tumor cells, whereas in NKT cell-targeted cancer chemotherapy, adjuvant effects are induced which in turn simultaneously activates both the innate immune system, involving NK cells, and the acquired immune system, involving CD8T cells (killer T-cells). The adjuvant effects are in fact mediated by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) which is produced by NKT cells, and thus effectively attacks and eliminates both types of tumor cells. In addition, its efficacy is not restricted by anti-tumor antigens and it is therefore expected to have anti-tumor efficacy against all types of tumor cells including expressing neo-antigens. ...
Azoxymethane (AOM) is a colon carcinogen that is used to study the pathogenesis of sporadic colorectal cancer. We have evaluated differential susceptibility to AOM in inbred mice used as progenitors of recombinant/transgenic lines. In experiment 1, male FVB/N, 129/SvJ, C57Bl/6J mice were treated i.p. with 10 mg/kg AOM once per week for 4 weeks and sacrificed after 20 weeks. Only AOM-treated FVB/N mice developed tumors (3.6 tumors/mouse) in distal colon. In experiment 2, A/J, AKR/J, Balb/CJ mice were treated with AOM for 6 weeks and sacrificed after 24 weeks. AOM-treated A/J and Balb/CJ mice developed 9.2 and 1 tumor/mouse, respectively. Despite these differences, tumors had similar morphology regardless of strain. Immunohistochemistry with β-catenin resulted in marked nuclear and cytoplasmic staining of tumor cells in FVB/N. However, fainter and heterogeneous β-catenin staining was observed in A/J tumors, suggesting distinct pathways of tumorigenesis in different strains. Irrespective of ...
Background: Proteasome inhibitors, such as bortezomib and the tetrapeptide epoxyketone carfilzomib, have shown strong antitumor activity in patients with multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma. Anti‐tumor responses are due to direct tumor cell cytotoxicity but may also involve effects on growth factors, angiogenesis and stromal cell interactions. The effect of proteasome inhibitors on metastatic spread has not been well studied in pre‐clinical models. PR‐047 is a novel orally bioavailable inhibitor of the 20S proteasome, that is structurally related to carfilzomib. PR‐047 has demonstrated potent anti‐tumor activity in mice bearing subcutaneous tumors of multiple histotypes.. Aim: To evaluate the effect of PR‐047 on metastatic spread in mice bearing tumors of the 4T1 mammary carcinoma, an invasive tumor cell line that can spontaneously metastasize from the primary tumor to multiple sites.. Methods: 6-8 week old female BALB/c mice were challenged in the mammary fat pad (metastatic ...
Mice and virus. Specific pathogen-free human DPP4-KI mice were generated as described earlier (10). Male and female mice, 8-12 weeks of age, were used for these studies. B6, B6-Ly5.1, and BALB/c mice were purchased from Charles River Laboratories. MAVS-/- mice on a B6 background and TLR7-/- mice on a BALB/c background were a gift from Michael Gale Jr. (University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA) and Westley Reeves (University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA, with permission from Shizuo Akira, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan), respectively. TLR7-/- mice were re-derived by crossing them with Charles River BALB/c mice (Charles River Laboratories). Mice were bred and maintained at the University of Iowa animal care facility. The MERS-CoV-MA15 strain was generated as described earlier (10). Mice were anesthetized using xylazine-ketamine and i.n. infected with a 200 to 250 PFU (sublethal), 500 PFU (LD50), or 1000 PFU (lethal) dose of MERS-CoV-MA in 50 μL DMEM. All work with MERS-CoV was ...
18. Kahsay GEBRETSADIK (postgraduate student, Ethiopia): Evaluation of in vivo antifibrogenic properties of the HDAC inhibitors TSA and 4-Me2N-BAPH in the CCl4-induced Balb/C mouse model of hepatic fibrosis (2000 ...
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We previously demonstrated that culturing antigen-sensitized draining lymph node (DLN) lymphocytes from BALB/c mice in interleukin (IL)-7/15 after activation with bryostatin/ionomycin (B/I) is superior to culture in IL-2 for expansion, differentiation to cluster of differentiation (CD)8+ cells and anti-tumor activity. We sought to determine whether the substitution or addition of IL-21 to culture had a similar effect. DLN lymphocytes were antigen-sensitized with 4T1 mammary carcinoma 10 days prior to harvest, activated with B/I, and expanded in culture for 7 days with either IL-2, IL-21, IL-2/21, IL-7/15, or IL-7/15/21. Cellular expansion, phenotype, interferon (IFN)-γ responses, and in vivo anti-tumor activity were compared. We found that T cells grown in IL7/15/21 demonstrated significantly greater lymphocyte expansion than IL-2, IL-21, IL-2/21, and IL-7/15 (38.4-fold vs. 5.5, 6.6, 9.5, and 23.9-fold, respectively). Of these expanded cells, IL-7/15/21 significantly expanded the greatest percentage of
In the last part the differential response of splenic mature B cells to the mitogen lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was investigated. It was known that frequencies of LPS-reactive B cells in C57BL/6 mice is higher than in BALB/c mice. In this study, it could be shown that actually the FOB cells of C57BL/6 respond stronger to LPS in vitro than FOB cells of the BALB/c strain. In addition, MZB cells of both mouse strains showed a stronger response to LPS than the FOB cells. However, in contrast to the observation in FOB cells, MZB cells of both tested strains responded equally strong. A genetic approach did not lead to the identification of a responsible locus for the observed differential response in FOB cells, but indicated that most probably multiple genes control the response in a differential fashion in FOB cells in the tested mouse strains. Furthermore, the results suggest that the stronger response of FOB cells from C57BL/6 mice either involves components within the MyD88-dependent pathway or ...
Antibodies, Monoclonal;Antigens, CD;Antigens, CD2;Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte;Drug Synergism;Graft Survival;Heart Transplantation;Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed;Mice, Inbred BALB C;Mice, Inbred C57BL;Mice, Inbred CBA;Receptors ...
While Vγ9Vδ2 T cells have been shown to be effective as a cancer immunotherapy [1], especially when used in combination with N-BPs [5-15], little is known about the in vivo behaviour of human γδ T cells in murine models. This is important to find out if a correlation between the number of γδ T cells in tumour mass and the success of the therapy can be established. While the use of human γδ T cells in cancer therapy is well established, yet questions remain concerning mechanisms involved in recruiting these cells to specific tumours in different tissues. This is an important issue since localisation to the tumour mass is thought to be required for efficacy. Previous studies where human γδ T cells were adoptively transferred in different tumour models established in mice mostly used qualitative, histological approaches to address tumour accumulation [7, 10]. In this work a highly quantitative and unbiased approach is used to measure human γδ T cell accumulation in tumours grown in ...
One reason for the poor immunogenicity of many tumors may be that they cannot provide signals for CD28-mediated costimulation necessary to fully activate T cells. It has recently become apparent that CTLA-4, a second counterreceptor for the B7 family of costimulatory molecules, is a negative regulator of T cell activation. Here, in vivo administration of antibodies to CTLA-4 resulted in the rejection of tumors, including preestablished tumors. Furthermore, this rejection resulted in immunity to a secondary exposure to tumor cells. These results suggest that blockade of the inhibitory effects of CTLA-4 can allow for, and potentiate, effective immune responses against tumor cells.. ...
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We also use the Cre-loxP system, in which a gene of interest is engineered to contain loxP sites flanking a critical region of the gene. A mouse containing the "floxed" gene is normal, because the loxP sites are silent. Upon expression of the Cre recombinase, which removes DNA sequences flanked by loxP sites, that gene is inactivated. We use three methods for inducing Cre in a region-specific manner in brain. In one, we breed mice containing a floxed gene to mice in which Cre is inducibly expressed under the tetracycline system described above. In the second, we breed them to mice that express modified forms of Cre, which can be activated upon local injection of a chemical in brain. In the third, we use viral vectors encoding Cre to create localized knockouts of the floxed gene. Together, these various approaches enable us to exert powerful control over a drug- or stress-regulated protein ...
Immunization of Balb/c mice ( up to 5 animals) with antigen to stimulate antibody production. You may choose to follow our standard immunization protocol, or work with our staff to use your own protocol. We typically inject mouse every two weeks for 6 weeks before taking a test bleed. The test bleed serum samples are analyzed for antibody production using ELISA. If desired, clients can request up to 0.5 ml serum sample/per mouse for their own additional characterization. ELISA will be used to determine the highest titer mice to be used for cell fusion. Immunization may continue longer if response is not optimal. ...
By Phage do you mean a plasmid? if this this so it could be some kind of DNA immunization. I have done it in the past for one of my research project. I wanted the BALB/c mouse to produce antibody against a complicated molecule that couldnt be purified and injected because the configuration could changed once the molecule was purified. Therefore, we decided to express the original molecule in mice by plasmid injection and immunization and have mice make the antibody against the foreign molecule expressed in the body ...
... : Toxoid specific antibody response (IgG1, IgG2a, IgA) elicited after oral immunization in mice. BALB/c mice (n=6) were orally immunized with a single dose of BSA (80 μg) either free or adjuvanted with 10 μg of CT (Cholera Toxin) or rVTX1 (recombinant verotoxin). Antibody response against the corresponding protein-adjuvant was determined up to 5 weeks. Significant differences between CT and rVTX1 groups are indicated by asterisks (*P. 0.05 ...
With this new, highly detailed genomic information, the researchers found out why the 2003-04 flu vaccine provided only partial protection against that seasons flu. During the 2002-03 season, distinctly different versions of the H3N2 flu virus underwent genetic mixing. The resulting strain emerged late in the season and became the predominant cause of flu the following year. However, the 2003-04 vaccine did not target the late-emerging version of H3N2 and so the vaccine provided less than optimal protection. In the future, say the researchers, rapid sequencing of flu strain variants could provide information needed to craft vaccines precisely tailored against the most virulent strains ...
H ighly purified antigens suffer from poor immunogenicity. Current paradigms to address this problem focus onuse ofpotent innate immune activators as adjuvant...
The findings show that the bodys immune system is able to recognize SARS-CoV-2 in many ways, dispelling fears that the virus may elude ongoing efforts to create an effective vaccine.
References for Abcams Mouse spleen tissue lysate - total protein (ab7937). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Concrete steps are durable and long-lasting. Proper maintenance of concrete steps is important in preserving their appearance and increasing their life span. Waterproofing concrete steps is necessary for optimal protection against moisture. If moisture seeps into the concrete, cracks and holes will form. Eliminate ...
Inspite of significant attempt the development of powerful vaccines causing strong and durable T-cell responses against intracellular pathogens and cancers cells has always been a challenge. of maturation alerts received by simply DCs to the outcome belonging to the immune response. generated DCs loaded with antigens (13). This approach however is usually laborious and expensive and thus far medical results have already been limited. An additional more encouraging approach to direct DCs Mouse monoclonal to FAK entails selective concentrating on to DC-specific endocytic receptors by monoclonal antibody combined or fused to a desired antigen. These complexes are internalized by the DCs trafficked through the intracellular vesicular system processed and the antigenic peptides are packed onto MHC and presented to To cells (14 15 In mice in the presence of adjuvant these antigen-antibody conjugates induce strong immune responses (16). However in the absence of adjuvant these conjugates can promote a ...
The cover for issue 11 of Oncotarget features Figure 6, Effects of AZD8186 in combination with anti-PD1 on syngeneic models, by Owusu-Brackett, et al.
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chr1:95253170-95309490, - strand. Annotation of mouse strain BALB/cJ genome assembly provided by GENCODE consortium. Distributed via Ensembl Release 92. Gene type: protein coding gene; Gene Name: Slco4c1 ...
chr1:188762511-188959723, - strand. Annotation of mouse strain BALB/cJ genome assembly provided by GENCODE consortium. Distributed via Ensembl Release 92. Gene type: protein coding gene; Gene Name: Kcnk2 ...
摘要 为评价迷迭香酸对哮喘小鼠模型氧化性肺损伤的保护作用,本研究用卵清蛋白(OVA)致敏、激发雌性BALB/c小鼠建立哮喘模型,并用OVA和H2O2联合激发小鼠作为氧化肺损伤阳性对照模型。在最后一次滴鼻激发24 h后,取支气管肺泡灌洗液(BALF)进行细胞计数并测定活性氧(ROS)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)水平,取左侧肺脏固定做HE染色。结果显示,迷迭香酸可明显减少BALF中细胞总数和嗜酸性粒细胞数目,显著抑制肺组织和BALF中ROS的产生,升高SOD和GSH-Px水平,改善肺组织病理变化。本试验结果表明,迷迭香酸对氧化肺损伤起到明显的保护作用。. ...
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Immunogenicity of Protein-315 and its Fab fragment (Fab-315) for isologous and heterologous strains of mice was investigated by comparing the characteristics of the anti-idiotypic response produced in BALB/c and A/J mice. The ability of these anti-idiotypic antisera to compete with DNP-lys for the ligand-binding site of Protein-315 were analyzed by comparing their hapten inhibition curves.. The anti-idiotypic responses of BALB/c mice to Protein-315 and to Fab-315 were similar to one another with regard to antibody specificity and sensitivity to inhibition by hapten, suggesting that both forms were equally immunogenic in inbred BALB/c mice. This observation indicates that the Fc portion of Protein-315 is not essential for the induction of anti-idiotypic response. Both BALB/c and A/J mice recognized the same antigenic determinants on Fab-315 since the anti-idiotypic antibodies produced by these animals were indistinguishable with regard to their interaction with Protein-315, Fv-315, and ...
Plague is characterized by geographical foci from which it re-emerges after decades of silence, a fact currently explained by enzootic and epizootic cycles between plague-susceptible and plague-resistant rodents. To assess the potential role of soil in plague epidemiology, we experimentally investigated whether Yersinia pestis could persist alive and virulent in soil. Sterilized soil inoculated with virulent Y. pestis biotype Orientalis was regularly sampled for 40 weeks in duplicate. Each sample was observed by acridine orange staining and immunofluorescence using an anti-Y. pestis polyclonal antibody, and DNA was extracted for PCR amplification and sequencing of the Y. pestis ureD, caf1 and pla genes. All samples were inoculated onto selective agar, and samples from soil that had been incubated for 10, 60, 165, 210 and 280 days were also inoculated into each of two BALB/c female mice. The mouse experiment was performed in triplicate. Non-inoculated, sterilized soil samples were used as negative
Methods 32 Balb/c female mice were randomly selected into four groups.For 21 days: (1) Control group (n: 8) was given 100 μ L subcutan (sc) saline (SF) once a day, 100 μL intraperitoneal (ip) SF twice a week, (2) BLM group (n: 8) was given 100 μL (100 ug) sc BLM once a day, 100 μL ip SF twice a week, (3) BLM + EGCG group (n:8) was given 100 μL (100 ug) sc BLM once a day, 100 μL (100 μg) ip EGCG twice a week, (4) EGCG group (n: 8) was given 100 μL sc SF once a day, 100 mL (100 μg) ip ECCG twice a week. Hematoxylin&eosin and Masson trichrome staining of dermal areas were performed. Myofibroblast activity was measured using alpha smooth muscle actin antibody (αSMA) by immunohistochemistry.Expression levels of MMP-1, MMP-8, MMP-13 and p-SMAD protein were examined by western blot. Expression levels of TGF-β mRNA were examined by qPCR. All of the statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software and the quantitative data were expressed as the means±SEM.The quantitative variables were ...
NKT cells are a regulatory subset of T lymphocytes with immune modulatory effects and an important role in anti-tumor immunity. The feasibility of ex-vivo education of NKT cells has recently been demonstrated. To evaluate the anti-tumor effect of ex-vivo immune-modulated NKT lymphocytes in a murine model of hepatocellular carcinoma. Athymic Balb/C mice were sublethally irradiated and transplanted with human Hep3B HCC. NKT cells prepared from immunocompetent Balb/C mice were pulsed ex vivo with HCC-derived antigens (Group A), Hep3B cells (group B) or BSA (group C), and adoptively transferred into HCC harboring mice (1 x 0(6) NKT cells per mouse). Group D mice did not undergo NKT cell transplantation. Group E mice were transplanted with 1 x 10(6) NKT cells from HBV-immunized donors. Mice were followed for tumor size and weight. To determine the mechanism of the anti-tumor effect, intrasplenic lymphocyte populations were analyzed by FACS for NKT, CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte subpopulations; STAT 1, 4 and 6
immunity response against bacteria, fungi and parasites. Ill. The aim of this study was to know the immunological effects of polysaccharide extracted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa before and after the infection of BALB/c mice with Leishmania donovani in trial to provide a method for prevention of the disease in human.174 male BALB/c mice were divided into control and experimental groups with each group consisting of six animals. The experimental groups injected intraperitoneally [i. p] with 0.2 ml phosphate buffer saline [PBS] containing 1x108 parasite. Cerdain groups were injected intraperitoneally by polysaccharide [PS] at doses of 100, 150, 250 jug on day 3, 6, and daily for 6 days before infection with Leishmania donovani. These animals were sacrified after 8 weeks. Other groups were injected intraperitoneally with polysaccharides on day 7 post infection at the doses of 100, 150, 250, micro, 6 animals were sacrified after 2, 4, 6, 8 weeks. Total and differential count of leukocytes, ...
M1 macrophages are more effective in the induction of the inflammatory response and clearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis than M2 macrophages. Infected C57BL/6 mice generate a stronger cellular immune response compared with BALB/c mice. We hypothesized that infected C57BL/6 mice would exhibit a higher frequency and function of M1 macrophages than infected BALB/c mice. Our findings show a higher ratio of macrophages to M2 macrophages in the lungs of chronically infected C57BL/6 mice compared with BALB/c mice. However, there was no difference in the functional ability of M1 and M2 macrophages for the two strains in vitro. In vivo, a deleterious role for M2 macrophages was confirmed by M2 cell transfer, which rendered the infected C57BL/6, but not the BALB/c mice, more susceptible and resulted in mild lung inflammation compared with C57BL/6 mice that did not undergo cell transfer. M1 cell transfer induced a higher inflammatory response, although not protective, in infected BALB/c mice compared with their
The aim is to observe the expression of human factor VIII gene in mice tranduced in vivo and ex vivo. The vector pLNC-FVIII BD was generated by cloning a B-domain-deleted (760aa-1639aa) FVIII cDNA (FVIIIBD cDNA) into retroviral vector pLNCX. 2 x 10(6) of mouse bone marrow stroma cells transduced by LNC-FVIII BD were infused into 4-week-old BALB/c mice by tail-vein injection. pLNC-FVIII BD was conjugated with PAMAM dendrimer to form complex PAMAM-pLNC-FVIII BD, with which C57BL/6J were injected by tail vein (200 micro l contained 15 micro g/mouse) and sacrificed at days 1, 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28, respectively after injection ...
Animal models mimicking human diseases have been used extensively to study the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and the efficacy of potential therapeutics. They are, however, limited with regard to their similarity to the human disease and cannot be used if the antagonist and its cognate receptor require high similarity in structure or binding. Here, we examine the induction of oxazolone-mediated features of atopic dermatitis (AD) in NOD-scid IL2R \(γ^{null}\) mice engrafted with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The mice developed the same symptoms as immunocompetent BALB/c mice. Histological alterations induced by oxazolone were characterized by keratosis, epithelial hyperplasia and influx of inflammatory cells into the dermis and epidermis. The cellular infiltrate was identified as human leukocytes, with T cells being the major constituent. In addition, oxazolone increased human serum IgE levels. The response, however, required the engraftment of PBMC derived from patients ...
BALB/c is an albino, laboratory-bred strain of the house mouse from which a number of common substrains are derived. Now over 200 generations from New York in 1920, BALB/c mice are distributed globally, and are among the most widely used inbred strains used in animal experimentation. The founding animals of the strain were obtained by Halsey J. Bagg of Memorial Hospital, New York, from a mouse dealer in Ohio in 1913. From 1920, the progeny of the original colony were systematically inbred, sibling to sibling, for 26 generations over 15 years. During this time, the colony passed through the care of a number of scientists, including C.C. Little and E.C. MacDowell at the Carnegie Institution of Washington and H.J. Muller at the University of Texas at Austin. By 1935 the animals were in the possession of Mullers student, George Davis Snell, who moved them to The Jackson Laboratory. This stock provided the basis of all the BALB/c substrains that are now in use around the world. Snell provided some ...
Mosteller, L M.; Kiyono, H; Lentz, M R.; Eldrige, J H.; M, S; C; and Mcghee, J R., "T cell clones from murine peyers patches. Abstr." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 1977 ...
Interleukin-1 is powerful pleiotropic pro-inflammatory signalling protein that has been known since the early 1980s. However, its unique biological activity has really started to be identified in the past five years. IL-1 has a single known functional receptor and another IL-1-like protein, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) binds the receptor as a competitive inhibitor. In collaboration with Austin Smith, we developed IL-1Ra-deficient mice and my group and collaborators have characterised two of the chronic inflammatory phenotypes that these mice develop. Our mutations are available on BALB/c and C57BL/6 backgrounds. The strains develop different autoimmune conditions including elastic-vessel vasculitis, a psoriasis-like a skin inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis-like disease. One of the most interesting findings, in collaboration with Leo Joosten and colleagues in Nijmegen, was the demonstration that early onset arthritis in the BALB/c strain is dependent on specific gut colonisation by ...
The aim was to find if there is variability in the production of specific antibodies by BALB/c mice to certain antigens of three individual Borrelia afzelii (dead cell suspension) strains originally isolated from different sources. Analysis of the borrelian proteins immunogenicity was performed...
The Ministry of Health stressed the need for public awareness towards effective vaccination program. The head of the program in the Ministry, Mr. Tedros Yihdego, said that effective vaccination program could not be attained short of active public participation. He further indicated that the commitment of health professionals and village health committees are imperative for satisfactory health service in remote areas.
Immunodominance affects the in vitro generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) specific for minor histocompatibility antigens (miHA), as exemplified in the C57BL/6By (B6) anti-BALB.B H2b-matched strain combination. Despite the potential of responding to numerous individual miHA on BALB.B antigen presenting cells, the focus of the CTL response is largely directed to only a limited number of target antigens. These miHA are differentially expressed by the CXBE, CXBG, CXBI, CXBJ, and CXBK recombinant inbred (RI) strains, all of which also express the H2b MHC haplotype. Immunodominance also plays a role in the development of lethal graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) directed to miHA, by which B6 T cells were transplanted along with T-cell depleted bone marrow to irradiated (825 cGy) recipients of either the BALB.B or CXB RI strains. The hierarchy of immunodominance differed in GVHD from that predicted from the in vitro CTL studies; i.e., GVHD was observed in BALB.B, CXBE, CXBI, and CXBJ recipients,
Stress is a powerful modulator of neuroendocrine, behavioral and immunological functions. After 4.5 days of repeated combined acoustic and restraint stress as a murine model of chronic psychological stress severe metabolic dysregulations became detectable in female BALB/c mice. Stress-induced alterations of metabolic processes that were found in a hepatic mRNA expression profiling were verified by in vivo analyses. Repeatedly stressed mice developed a hypermetabolic syndrome with severe loss of lean body mass, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, increased amino acid turn-over, and acidosis. This was associated with hypercortisolism, hyperleptinemia, insulin resistance, and hypothyroidism. In contrast, after a single acute stress exposure changes in expression of metabolic genes were much less pronounced and predominantly confined to gluconeogenesis, probably indicating that metabolic disturbances might be initiated already early but will only manifest in repeatedly stressed mice. Thus, in our murine ...
Figure 5. Pretreatment of donor T cells with a c-Rel antagonist does not impair GVT activity. A, lethally irradiated C57BL/6 recipients received C57BL/6 TCD BM cells with 2 × 106 C57BL/6 WT or c-Rel−/− T cells (syngeneic HSCT). Control mice received BM only. All groups received 1 × 105 luciferase-expressing EL4-TGL tumor cells on day 0. Survival curve is shown (n = 5-8). B, lethally irradiated C57BL/6 recipients received 5 × 106 C57BL/6 WT or c-Rel−/− T cells (syngeneic HSCT). All groups received 1 × 106 EL4 tumor cells on day 0. Expression level of CD25 in donor-derived splenic CD8+ T cells on day 7 is shown. C, lethally irradiated BALB/c recipients were transplanted with C57BL/6 TCD BM cells with 2 × 106 C57BL/6 WT or c-Rel−/− T cells (allo-HSCT). Expression level of CD25 in donor-derived splenic CD8+ T cells on day 7 is shown. D, lethally irradiated C57BL/6 recipients received C57BL/6 TCD BM cells with 1 × 106 C57BL/6 Pmel1+/+ T cells (syngeneic HSCT). T cells were ...
Human subjects. A total of 63 psoriatic patients who were diagnosed with psoriasis vulgaris by pathologic examination were recruited from outpatient clinics in the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University. Psoriasis disease activity was assessed using PASI score. Patient information is shown in Supplemental Table 1. A total of 80 sex- and age-matched healthy controls were recruited from the medical staff at the Second Xiangya Hospital.. Mice. The C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice were purchased from Slack Company. BALB/c mice were used for establishing the IMQ-induced psoriasis-like model and C57BL/6J mice were used for the IL-23-induced psoriasis-like model as well as in vitro T cell differentiation. Rag2-/- mice were purchased from the Shanghai Research Center For Model Organisms. The miR-210-KO mice were generated by Shanghai Biomodel Organism Science & Technology Development Co. Ltd. In brief, Cas9 mRNA and gRNA were obtained by in vitro transcription, and then they were injected into ...
How is finance related to economic processes, and why should it be viewed as a public good requiring policy action? This book provides an answer. The book develops a practical framework for safeguarding financial stability, which encompasses both prevention and resolution of problems. It also examines on-going and future challenges to financial stability posed by globalization, a growing reliance on derivatives and their markets, and the capital market activities of insurers and reinsurers.
The cookie settings on this website are set to "allow cookies" to give you the best browsing experience possible. If you continue to use this website without changing your cookie settings or you click "Accept" below then you are consenting to this.. Close ...
During March 2016, a collaborative research agreement was signed with the aim of developing cell-processing products using the novel NKT ligand, RK, and carrying out nonclinical and clinical studies. The aim of this agreement is to develop the NKT cell-targeted cancer immunotherapy to obtain regulatory approval as Cellular and Tissue-based Product. During July 2017, a collaborative research agreement was signed with the aim of research and development NKT cell-targeted agent for allergic diseases. The research is on novel drugs for treating allergic diseases, with inhibition of immunoglobulin E production as the mechanism of action and reduction of clinical allergic symptoms accompanied. ...
The overall objective of the proposed project is to harness a newly discovered, active transendothelial transport pathway, the caveolae pumping system, to provi...
2018. Poyntz, HC, Jones A, Jauregui R, Young W, Gestin A, Mooney A, Lamiable O, Altermann E, Schmidt A, Gasser O, Weyrich L, Jolly CJ, Linterman MA, Le Gros G, Hawkins ED, Forbes-Blom E (2018) Genetic regulation of antibody responsiveness to immunization in substrains or BALB/c mice. Immunol & Cell Biol 97(1):39-53. Ochiai S, Jagot F, Kyle RL, Hyde E, White RF, Prout M, Schmidt AJ, Yamane H, Lamiable O, Le Gros G, Ronchese F (2018) Thymic stromal lymphopoietin drives the development of IL-13 + Th2 cells. PNAS USA 115(5)1033-1038. 2017. White R, Pellefigues C, Ronchese F, Lamiable O, Eccles D (2017) Investigation of chimeric reads using the MinION. F1000Research.. Connor LM, Lamiable O, Ronchese F (2017) Fetal dendritic cells give mum a break. Immunol Cell Biol.. Connor LM, Tang SC, Cognard E, Ochiai S, Hilligan K, Old S, Pellefigues C, White R, Patel D, Smith A, Eccles D, Lamiable O, McConnell M, Ronchese F (2017) Th2 responses are primed by skin dendritic cells with distinct transcriptional ...
This is an archived version of MIEP EAEC computational model released on July 2nd, 2012. The model is available for download in CellDesigner xml format. We have tested that the model is compatible with Cell Designer 4.1. For this release, we have changed replication of EAEC in the lumen as well as the epithelial cells. This is to allow the model to exist in a steady state prior to simulating an infectious challenge. The following is the structure figure of the model, and by clicking on the figure you can navigate the model through a Google-Map-API-enabled CellPublisher user friendly interface. ...
This is an archived version of MIEP EAEC computational model released on July 2nd, 2012. The model is available for download in CellDesigner xml format. We have tested that the model is compatible with Cell Designer 4.1. For this release, we have changed replication of EAEC in the lumen as well as the epithelial cells. This is to allow the model to exist in a steady state prior to simulating an infectious challenge. The following is the structure figure of the model, and by clicking on the figure you can navigate the model through a Google-Map-API-enabled CellPublisher user friendly interface. ...
Anti-human FABP3 mAb, is derived from hybridization of mouse F0 myeloma cells with spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with recombinant human FABP3 protein.
A pilot study of lymphocyte reactivity to HCMV-pp65 AA336-439 and HCMV-pp65 AA336-379 antigens following immunization of DNA vaccines in BALB/c mice ...
We examined drug concentrations and the incidence of retinal degeneration in the eyes of albino BALB/c mice after a single intravenous administration of ...
The MATLAB based Imagepatcher app automates cell-targeted patch-clamping in vivo, providing uniformity and consistency that cannot be matched by manual methods and enabling many more researchers to perform the procedure.
We offer a wide range of vaccinations for both children and adults. We provide effective vaccination to both individuals and businesses, and are readily available for any who wishes to be immunized.. A list of immunisations, injections and anti viral treatments available are listed below. ...
Companies are primarily focused on protections when instead they should be considering what to do after the systems are breached.
Some people feel that theyCannotReadThisAndItShowsInASpellChecker and therefore can_read_and_spell_this_much_better is their choice, otherwise weWouldWriteAllSpokenLanguagesAndBooksThatWayForReadability. You could say that they come from a C background or that they are a little older. :-) Some other people say, e.g., those who come from Java background, that readingTheNamesLikeThisIsNotAProblemAtAll and they prefer that style. Im sure we all heard the arguments pro and contra more times than we care to hear. Obviously, a visual perception differs from person to person. If a person has a difficulty reading getMainType(), they should not be forced to write get_main_type() in their Zope code for the sake of consistency which is in this particular issue non-existent. This is really the least important style issue. Best regards, -- Zvezdan Petkovic _______________________________________________ Zope3-dev mailing list [email protected] Unsub: ...
By Thirkill, C E ABSTRACT Cancers induce a loss of homeostasis through the uncontrolled production and release of a variety of biologically active cellular products, natural compounds produced in unnatural quantities within abnormal anatomical locations. Often, there is an immune response to which the cancerous growth may succumb, or have the characteristics required to survive. If, during its proliferation, the cancer should coincidentally express a potent autoantigen then the organ in which that antigen is normally located may be damaged by the resultant immune response. Paradoxically, this aberrant immunological activity rarely has any appreciable inhibitory effects on the causal cancer. This inconsistency may result from the cancers ability to block the hosts immunological activity, while the affected organ situated elsewhere has no such capacity. Some predisposition, such as trauma to the affected organ, may prove a prerequisite that provides access to hitherto immunologically privileged ...
The objective of the study was to explore the effects of galectin-9 on myeloid suppressor cells in Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced myocarditis and the possible mechanisms involved. For this purpose, BALB/c male mice were infected with CVB3 on day 0 and then received intraperitoneal (IP) administration of recombinant galectin-9 or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) daily from day 3 to day 7. The phenotypes and functions of myeloid suppressor cells were evaluated. The role and mechanism of myeloid suppressor cells and subsets in CVB3-induced myocarditis in vitro were explored. We found that galectin-9 remarkably increased the frequencies of CD11b+Gr-1+ cells in the cardiac tissue and spleen with myocarditis. Ly-6G+ cells were decreased and Ly-6C+ cells were increased in galectin-9-treated mice. In addition, CD11b+Gr-1+ cells were highly effective in suppressing CD4+ T cells. Moreover, our data demonstrate that CD11b+Gr-1+ cells are capable of expanding regulatory T cells (Tregs) from a preexisting
Abstract The objective of this study was to analyze the immune response of mice to the larval stages of Brugia malayi. Male BALB/c mice were inoculated with 3 doses of irradiated third-stage larvae (L-3) of B. malayi and were subsequently challenged with L-3 implanted ip within diffusion chambers. After 3 weeks, larvae were recovered to determine their viability, length, and stage of development. A significant reduction in parasite survival was observed in immunized mice. Furthermore, larvae recovered from immunized mice were significantly shorter than larvae recovered from control mice. All larvae recovered from immunized mice were L-3, whereas 96% of larvae recovered from controls were fourth-stage larvae (L-4). Sera collected from control and immunized mice were tested for the presence of antibodies reactive with L-3 and L-4 antigens using an indirect fluorescent antibody assay employing frozen larval cross-sections as antigen. Sera recovered after challenge of control mice reacted with internal, but
IL-12, a cytokine produced by macrophages and B cells, has recently been found to exert pleiotropic effects on the immune system. When BALB/c mice, a strain highly susceptible to virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, were given IL-12 at the initiation of infection with M. tuberculosis, their mean survival time doubled from 58 to 112 days. IL-12-treated mice had diminished bacterial burdens, whereas treatment with exogenous IFN-gamma had no effect on survival or bacterial burden. IL-12 treatment also delayed lung pathology in BALB/c mice. In contrast with the findings in the BALB/c model, IL-12 did not increase survival of M. tuberculosis-infected gko mice, transgenic mice in which the IFN-gamma gene has been disrupted, indicating that IL-12 does not induce protection against tuberculosis in mice in the absence of IFN-gamma. ...
Objective. The objective of this study was to determine the properties of a single-chain bispecific antibody (scBsAb) against human ovarian carcinoma and to develop this agent for potential use in human ovarian cancer.. Methods. ELISA and FACS were performed to determine the antigen-binding properties of the scBsAb. Its abilities to retarget the preactivated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to human ovarian carcinoma cell line SKOV3 cells and mediate their lysis in vitro were performed by a colorimetric MTT-based assay. Nude mice bearing human SKOV3 tumor xenografts were used to study the distribution and imaging of the scBsAb. Its pharmacokinetics in vivo was also studied in naive BALB/c mice.. Results. The scBsAb showed nearly identical ligand binding properties at each site relative to the individual monovalent single-chain antibody prototype molecules and could bridge SKOV3 and human T cell line Jurkat, which expresses CD3 antigens on the surface of cells together. It can ...
The mechanism of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-induced neurotoxicity has been hypothesized to involve the formation of toxic free radical species. Since Vitamin E is a potent radical scavenger, we tested whether Vitamin E deficiency affects susceptibility to MDMA-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Male BALB/c mice (3-4 weeks old) were kept on control (Vit. E, 50 IU/kg) and Vitamin E de
Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Leads to Claudin-5 Degradation via the NF-κB Pathway in BALB-c Mice with Eosinophilic Meningoencephalitis Caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
A monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody specific to a human IgG 1 type monoclonal antibody possessing specificity to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor; a method for the production of the aforementioned monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody by the steps of immunizing an animal with a human IgG 1 type monoclonal antibody specific to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, collecting antibody-producing cells from the animal, fusing the collected cells with neoplastic cells, selecting from the product of fusion a hybridoma capable of producing a monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody specific to the human IgG 1 type monoclonal antibody possessing specificity to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, propagating the selected hybridoma thereby giving rise to said monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody, and collecting the produced monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody; and use of the monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody as a reagent and as an adsorbent.
Summary Parenteral immunization of BALB/c mice at 3 months of age with inactivated influenza virus vaccine elicited a haemagglutinin (HA)-specific serum IgG antibody response. The magnitude of this response declined with advancing age at the time of vaccination. By contrast, HA-specific IgA and IgG antibody levels observed in lung lavage fluids of mice immunized at 1 and 2 years of age were comparable to those of 5 month old mice when inactivated influenza virus vaccine was administered intragastrically. The secretory immune response was not fully developed in the first 3 weeks of life. However, the HA-specific IgA and IgG responses to oral vaccination in sera were reduced in 1 or 2 year old mice when compared to 5 month old mice. These data demonstrated the preservation of the virus-specific secretory IgA response in the pulmonary fluids of aged mice after oral vaccination with inactivated influenza virus vaccine. An age-dependent difference of systemic and mucosal immunity was evident in orally
The effect of castor oil plant seed oil fractionally extracted with diethyl-ether and the aqueous extracts of its leaves was tested in vitro on Leishmania major (Yorkimov and Schokor, 1913) promastigotes and in vivo on Leishmania major lesions in inbred BALB/c mice. Four experimental groups of 35 female mice each were used namely seed oil group (oil topically applied); Aqueous leaf extract group (extract administered intraperitoneally); PentostamP (sodium stiboglnconate) group (drug administered intraperitoneally) and a control group (untreated infected mice). Before infection, footpad measurements were taken by measuring the left hind footpad (LHFD) and _the contralateral right hind footpad (RHFD). All the mice were infected intradermally with L. major stationary primary phase metacyclic promastigotes at a dosage of 1 x 106 per 10111on the left hind footpad of every mouse and lesion sizes measured weekly at 7 day intervals. Treatment was commenced 30 days post-infection. Within this time ...
African trypanosomes are protozoan blood parasites that infect both humans and livestock. BALB/c mice are highly susceptible to experimental infections by Trypanosoma congolense while C57BL/6 mice are relatively resistant, as measured by degree and pattern of parasitemia and survival time. Rapid death observed in highly susceptible BALB/c mice is due to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). A small subset of pathogenic, MHC class II-restricted CD4+ T cells, activated during the course of T. congolense infections, mediates early mortality in infected highly susceptible BALB/c mice via excessive synthesis of the cytokine IFN-gamma. Since these pathogenic T cells are matrix-adherent, they could be distinguished from conventional Th1 cells. There is a possibility that this subpopulation of T cells has unique surface markers. The complement system is highly activated in African trypanosomiasis, leading to persistent hypocomplementemia. Amplification of the alternative pathway of ...
Various strategies that block malaria transmission from an infected human host to a female Anopheline mosquito that involve killing of the blood fed mosquito have been studied as a potential strategy to control malaria. These include the immunization of animal hosts with either whole homogenized blood fed mosquito midguts or their extracts. In 1939, William Trager first demonstrated anti-vector immunity by immunizing guinea pigs and rabbits with extracts of the tick Dermacentor variabilis. This immunological targeting of tick midgut antigens led to the commercial development of a vaccine against Boophilus microplus ticks licenced in 1985.This study investigated the mosquitocidal effects of an immune response elicited by immunization of BALB/c mice with a gene, Anopheles gambiae mucin 1 gene (AgMUC1 gene) alone or in combination with immunostimulatory cytokine genes GM-CSF or IL-12. The AgMUC1 genes were cloned from the midgut of blood fed female Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. Four groups of ...
Schwartz WJ, Zimmerman P. Circadian timekeeping in BALB/c and C57BL/6 inbred mouse strains. J Neurosci. 1990; 10: 3685-3694. ...
1985 - Started producing BALB/c mice. 1991 - Became the first commercial provider of the C.B-17 SCID mouse model. 1994 - ... Contracted with National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Disease to maintain a repository of inbred, congenic, and ... They continue to supply NCI with BDF1 mice. 1975 - Began offering the SHR hypertensive rat and the WKY control strain. 1980 - ... 1949 - Robert Phelan began shipping mice from his garage in Canajoharie, NY. 1952 - Taconic Farms is officially founded in ...
Some inbred laboratory mouse strains, such as BALB/c and C57BL/6, also have different proteins expressed in their urine. ... using white-footed mice, it was found that when mice derived from wild populations were inbred there was reduced survival when ... Wild mice breeding freely in semi-natural enclosures showed inbreeding avoidance. This avoidance resulted from a strong deficit ... These findings suggest that inbreeding reduces fitness, and that scent signal recognition has evolved in mice as a means of ...
Mice of the inbred strain BALB/c were immunized with recombinant human CD28-Fc fusion proteins and boosted with a B lymphoma ... The more active of the two, 5.11A1, is a mouse IgG1 immunoglobulin. The complementarity determining regions of 5.11A1 were ... from heavy and light chain variable region sequences of a monoclonal mouse anti-humanC28 [sic] antibody (5.11A1, Luhder et al ... Studies of monoclonal antibodies specific for mouse, rat, or human CD28 identified so-called "superagonistic" antibodies that ...
... mice, inbred a MeSH B01.050.157.520.318 --- mice, inbred akr MeSH B01.050.157.520.338 --- mice, inbred balb c MeSH B01.050. ... mice, inbred a MeSH B01.050.199.520.520.318 --- mice, inbred akr MeSH B01.050.199.520.520.338 --- mice, inbred balb c MeSH ... mice, inbred hrs MeSH B01.050.157.520.510 --- mice, inbred icr MeSH B01.050.157.520.555 --- mice, inbred mrl lpr MeSH B01.050. ... mice, inbred hrs MeSH B01.050.199.520.520.510 --- mice, inbred icr MeSH B01.050.199.520.520.555 --- mice, inbred mrl lpr MeSH ...
"BALB/c". Inbred Strains of Mice. Jackson Laboratory. Retrieved 2007-04-16. "BALB/cByJ". Jax Mice Data Sheet. Jackson Laboratory ... BALB/c mice are distributed globally and are among the most widely used inbred strains used in animal experimentation. BALB/c ... inbred mouse strain and initiated the systematic generation of inbred strains. The mouse has since been used extensively as a ... Male BALB/c mice are aggressive and will fight other males if housed together. However, the BALB/Lac substrain is much more ...
... mice are useful for research into both cancer and immunology. According to Michael Festing's Inbred Strains of Mice, ... "A Brief History of the Two Substrains of BALB/c, BALB/cJ, and BALB/cByJ". Jax Mice Literature. Jackson Laboratory. Archived ... "BALB/c". Inbred Strains of Mice. Jackson Laboratory. Retrieved 2007-04-16. Potter M. History of the BALB/c family, pp 1-5. In: ... Now over 200 generations from New York in 1920, BALB/c mice are distributed globally, and are among the most widely used inbred ...
... and only three un-pedigreed mice remained alive. Soon after World War I, inbreeding in mice was started on a much larger scale ... A/J C3H C57BL/6 CBA DBA/2 BALB/c G.M. Rommel first started conducting inbreeding experiments on guinea-pigs in 1906. Strain 2 ... Evidence from the uniformity of mitochondrian DNA suggests that most of the common inbred mouse strains were probably derived ... Inbred strains (also called inbred lines, or rarely for animals linear animals) are individuals of a particular species which ...
In the case of a typical mouse recombinant inbred strain made by crossing maternal strain BALB/cBy (C) with paternal strain ... Recombinant inbred strains or lines were first developed using inbred strains of mice but are now used to study a wide range of ... pairs of the F2 progeny are then mated to establish inbred strains through long-term inbreeding. Families of recombinant inbred ... Williams RW, Gu J, Qi S, Lu L (2001). "The genetic structure of recombinant inbred mice: high-resolution consensus maps for ...
... is a common inbred strain of laboratory mouse. It is the most widely used "genetic background" for genetically modified mice ... They are more sensitive to noise and odours and are more likely to bite than the more docile laboratory strains such as BALB/c ... The dark coat make the mouse strain convenient for creating transgenic mice: it is crossed with a light-furred 129 mouse, and ... March 1999). "Heritability of nociception I: responses of 11 inbred mouse strains on 12 measures of nociception". Pain. 80 (1-2 ...
Examples include the BALB/c mouse and Wistar and Sprague Dawley rat strains, laboratory rabbits, guinea-pigs and ferrets. ... Familiar albino animals include in-bred strains of laboratory animals (rats, mice, guinea-pigs and rabbits), but populations of ... In mice, a total of 100 genes are known to affect albinism. All the genetic traits for albinism are recessive traits. This ... it is concluded that continuous inbreeding could be the reason for expression of albinism. A study on albinistic prairie voles ...
... several strains of mice (including BALB/c mice) and in three common monkey species.[4][5] ... "Antigenicity of carcinogen-induced and spontaneous tumours in inbred mice". British Journal of Cancer. 20 (4): 831-7. doi: ... in the mouse,[25] and by Hugh Pross and doctoral student Mikael Jondal in the human.[26][27] The mouse and human work was ... In both mice and humans, NKs can be seen to play a role in tumor immunosurveillance by directly inducing the death of tumor ...
Also classified as an inbred from the production of 20 or more successive brother-sister matings, Balb/c mice are albino and ... Balb c Inbred Mouse Balb c Inbred Mouse. Balb/c mice characteristics. ...
Publications about Experts and Doctors on inbred balb c mice in Galveston, Texas, United States ... Experts and Doctors on inbred balb c mice in Galveston, Texas, United States. Summary. Locale: Galveston, Texas, United States ... You are here: Locale , United States , Texas , Experts and Doctors on inbred balb c mice in Galveston, Texas, United States ... a clear pathological difference between OHFV-infected mice and POWV-infected mice and supports the use of the BALB/c mouse as a ...
Male BALB/c inbred mice were randomly divided into two groups: control (living at 25 degrees C) and cold-exposed (living at 2 ... The cell-mediated immune function of cold-adapted BALB/c inbred mice was studied in experiments of splenic lymphocyte ... Male BALB/c inbred mice were randomly divided into two groups: control (living at 25 degrees C) and cold-exposed (living at 2 ... The cell-mediated immune function of cold-adapted BALB/c inbred mice was studied in experiments of splenic lymphocyte ...
Home + Research models and services + Models + Browse Research Models + BALB/c inbred mice + BALB/cAnNHsd + Korea ... Albino stock acquired by H. Bagg in 1913 and therefore called "Bagg albino" or BALB. In 1923, inbred by MacDowell, Cold Spring ... For example, the search "nude mice" will return only items which contain the phrase "nude mice". ... Time mated rats and mice are determined by observation of a vaginal plug. Plug date is considered to be day zero (0) of ...
... this discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable in BALB/c than in C57BL/6 mice, though the interstrain difference ... Reciprocal F1 hybrids of BALB/c x C57BL/6 matings revealed dominance of the C57BL/6 genotype, no sex linkage, and a significant ... Further study of inherited differences in the BALB/c and C57BL/6 strains may be a useful noninvasive experimental approach for ... Examination of CXB recombinant inbred strains provided no support for the hypothesis of monogenic inheritance. ...
Mice, Mice; Inbred BALB C, Rats, Rats; Inbred Strains, Species Specificity, Toxicity Tests/methods National Category Medical ... In paper III the use of peripheral blood lymphocytes from human, dog, rat and mouse to detect species differences in cellular ... The effect of 17 different cytotoxic drugs on lymphocytes from human, dog, rat and mouse was evaluated. A higher sensitivity of ... human than mouse lymphocytes was seen for topotecan and for 3 of 5 antimetabolites tested. Clear species specificity was also ...
Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / physiology*. Spectrometry, Fluorescence. Tetrahydrocannabinol / ...
NRG-Akita mice provide a model system for validation of the function of human islets and human adult stem cell, embryonic stem ... Mice, Inbred BALB C * Mice, Inbred NOD * Mice, SCID * Mutation * Transplantation, Heterologous / immunology* ... mice. Mouse and human islets restored NRG-Akita mice to normoglycemia. Insulin-positive cells in dissociated mouse islets, ... mouse islets, and dissociated mouse islet cells to restore euglycemia, 3) the generation of a human immune system following ...
Mice * Mice, Inbred BALB C * Tetrazolium Salts * Thiazoles Substances * Interleukin-2 * Lipopolysaccharides ...
Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Neisseria meningitidis / immunology. Serum / immunology, microbiology. Survival Analysis. Tularemia ... 6207248 - Immunity to infection with salmonella typhimurium: mouse-strain differences in vaccine-.... 19306508 - The gavi ... Detoxified endotoxin vaccine (J5dLPS/OMP) protects mice against lethal respiratory challenge with Francisella tularensis SchuS4 ... Mice immunized intranasally with J5dLPS/OMP exhibited protective immunity to intratracheal challenge with the live vaccine ...
Mice, Inbred BALB C. *Biomarkers, Tumor. *MYCN. *3 Untranslated Regions. *Gene Knockdown Techniques ... Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. ... Experimental nude mice showed that miR-92a silencing prohibited the in vivo growth of OS cells. Furthermore, bioinformatics ... In vivo studies indicated that consistent treatment with BMP9 in OS mice results in inhibition of tumor growth. This study ...
Mice, Inbred BALB C. *Antineoplastic Agents. *Cancer Gene Expression Regulation. *VEGFA. *Signal Transduction ... Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. ... Disruption of this gene in mice resulted in abnormal embryonic blood vessel formation. This gene is upregulated in many known ... In this study, we found that transgenic mice overexpressing miR-17~92 specifically in epithelial cells of the small and large ...
Female inbred BALB/cAnNCrl mice aged 6-7 weeks. Increased serum levels of OVA-specific IgE, number of eosinophils in BALF, and ... Female Balb/cJRj mice aged 8 weeks. Increased allergic airway inflammation and specific Th2 response in the lymph nodes to OVA ... solution with 10% serum from BALB/cA mouse. An OVA booster on days 21, sacrificed on days 26; An OVA booster on days 21,22 and ... Male BALB/cByJ mice aged 9 weeks. Aggravated airway inflammation and the generation of epithelium-derived innate cytokines ...
An exemplary inbred mouse strain is the Balb/c.. Other methods of producing a monoclonal antibody, a hybridoma cell, or a ... A fourth assay measures angiogenesis in the chimeric mouse:human mouse model and is referred to as the chimeric mouse assay. ... Typically, a mouse of the strain 129 GIX+ is the preferred mammal. Suitable mouse myelomas for use in the present invention ... The chimeric mouse is exposed to any test reagent, and therefore the health of the mouse is an indication of toxicity. ...
An exemplary inbred mouse strain is the Balb/c. The monoclonal antibody compositions produced by the above method can be used, ... a. Mouse Immunizations All hybridomas were produced using spleen cells from immunized 129 GIX+ mice obtained from the SCRF ... Mouse spleenocytes were harvested from the mouse immunized in Example 6a about 3 days after the final injection and fusion with ... inbred mice and the like. An exemplary synthetic medium is Dulbeccos minimal essential medium [DMEM; Dulbecco et al., Virol. 8 ...
An exemplary inbred mouse strain is the Balb/c.. Other methods of producing a monoclonal antibody, a hybridoma cell, or a ... Typically, a mouse of the strain 129 GlX+ is the preferred mammal. Suitable mouse myelomas for use in the present invention ... inbred mice and the like. An exemplary synthetic medium is Dulbeccos minimal essential medium (DMEM; Dulbecco et al., Virol. 8 ... Reynolds et al., "Enhanced pathological angiogenesis in mice lacking beta,SUB,3 ,/SUB,integrin or beta,SUB,3 ,/SUB,and beta,SUB ...
C3H, C57Bl/6, Balb/c, and DBA/2 are inbred strains of mice; CD-1 is an outbred strain of mouse; while B6D2F1 (BDF1) and B6C3F1 ... 7 shows that the serum-free medium supported hematopoiesis from all strains of mice tested, whether they were inbred, outbred ... A mutant strain of mice can be used in which the CSF-1 gene (B6C3Fe-a/a-op/op mouse strain) or the gene for its receptor or ... Mouse collagen IV (Sigma) was used at a range of concentrations from 0-15 μg/cm2, whereas mouse fibronectin (Sigma) was used at ...
Experimental findings with Litomosoides sigmodontis in mice and Onchocerca ochengi in cattle are placed in the context of how ... 1992) Maturation of the filaria Litomosoides sigmodontis in BALB/c mice; comparative susceptibility of nine other inbred ... in susceptible BALB/c mice [27]. Furthermore, worms recovered from the C57BL/6 mice are smaller than those from BALB/c mice. ... The BALB/c IL-4Rα-deficient mice presented a paradox, for although the mice had enormously increased numbers of circulating ...
1990) Circadian timekeeping in BALB/c and C57BL/6 inbred mouse strains. J Neurosci 10:3685-3694. ... 4D) mice compared with wild-type, Per1−/−, and Per3−/− mice, respectively, in DD (separate groups of naive mice were assessed ... mice is altered. The PRC of Per3−/− mice is similar to the PRC of wild-type mice. This is not surprising because Per3 ... mice. As a result, most wild-type mice (6 of 7) did not entrain to T21. Per3−/− mice have a slightly larger advance zone than ...
Circadian rhythms analysis in inbred mouse strains further demonstrate significant differences between Balb/c and C57BL/6 mice ... Schwartz WJ, Zimmerman P. Circadian timekeeping in BALB/c and C57BL/6 inbred mouse strains. J Neurosci. 1990;10:3685-94. ... C57BL/6 and Balb/c mice differ as Th1-type and Th2-type mouse strains, respectively, and respond differentially to innate ... Kyuwa S, Kawamura S, Tagawa Y, Iwakura Y, Urano T, Yoshikawa Y. Differences between BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice in mouse hepatitis ...
Mice. *Mice, Inbred BALB C. *Mice, Inbred C57BL. *Receptors, Interleukin-7 (immunology) ... We recently described a novel marker combination (CD127 and CD62L) to identify all three major CD8(+) T cell subsets in mice ...
Mice. *Mice, Inbred BALB C. *T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic (immunology) *Viral Vaccines (immunology) ... For example, mice primed with 2 x 10(6) plaque-forming units (PFU) of vacc-NP, or 2 x 10(2) PFU, or 2 x 10(6) PFU of vacc-GP ... CTLp frequencies were constantly increased up to 70 d for LCMV immune mice, but rapidly decreased a few weeks after ...
Mice, Inbred BALB C Mice, Nude Neovascularization, Physiologic Re-Epithelialization Skin Swine Time Factors Tissue Culture ... The MGCTs were then transplanted to a full skin defect (5 mm in diameter) on the dorsal surface of immunodeficient mice after ...
Untreated age matched BALB/cJ inbred mice (. ) served as controls.. 2.1.3. Model of Liver Fibrosis Based on Genetic Alteration ... ms for BALB/cJ + 6x CCl4, ms for BALB/cJ + 12x CCl4, and ms for BALB/cJ-Abcb4. mutants. Mean values for BALB/cJ + 6x CCl4 and ... ms for BALB/cJ + 6x CCl4, ms for BALB/cJ + 12x CCl4, and ms for BALB/cJ-Abcb4. mice. ... for BALB/cJ mice injected six times with CCl4, for animals that received 12 CCl4 treatments, and for BALB/cJ-Abcb4. animals. ...
BALB/c mice are useful for research into both cancer and immunology. According to Michael Festings Inbred Strains of Mice, ... "A Brief History of the Two Substrains of BALB/c, BALB/cJ, and BALB/cByJ". Jax Mice Literature. Jackson Laboratory. Archived ... "BALB/c". Inbred Strains of Mice. Jackson Laboratory. Retrieved 2007-04-16. Potter M. History of the BALB/c family, pp 1-5. In: ... Now over 200 generations from New York in 1920, BALB/c mice are distributed globally, and are among the most widely used inbred ...
  • In 1974, now 136 generations from the original breeding pair, these animals were returned to The Jackson Laboratory and were named BALB/cByJ. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dfcr-2J allele of Ush1c arose spontaneously in the CBySmn.CB17- Prkdc scid /J strain and was backcrossed twice to BALB/cByJ then sibling mated. (jax.org)
  • Screening wheel-running behavior in inbred mouse strains highlighted differences among strains, showing that even very limited genetic differences deeply affect mouse behavior. (hindawi.com)
  • In the present study, we exploited the isogenic nature of inbred mice, in combination with a tractable mouse model of delayed reinforcement, to look for evidence of genetic effects on impulsivity. (jneurosci.org)
  • however, in mice with specific genetic backgrounds, a UTI can persist for an extended length of time. (asm.org)
  • Results from studies of mice and rats have revealed that a genetic component may be important in determining increased UTI susceptibility. (asm.org)
  • The objectives of the current study were to determine the extent to which the genetic backgrounds of other inbred strains affect induction and resolution of an E. coli UTI and to delineate the innate and adaptive immune responses elicited by bladder and kidney infections. (asm.org)
  • Our data on the time course, local inflammatory responses, and antibody-mediated immunity to a UTI induced in different inbred mouse strains indicate the capacity of mice to resolve an E. coli UTI and provide further evidence that a genetic component is associated with host susceptibility and resistance to UTI. (asm.org)
  • However (and surprisingly), genetic disruption of the IL-4 gene of BALB/c mice can also generate animals that are as susceptible to infection with L. major as are wild-type conventional BALB/c mice (20). (scielo.br)
  • Our study provides an opening for studying the effect of genetic manipulation on specified descending systems in the mouse in vivo. (diva-portal.org)
  • Genetic factors are important in the development of autoimmune disease, since such diseases develop in certain strains of mice (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus or lupus in MRL mice) without any apparent infectious environmental trigger. (cdc.gov)
  • Currently, most of our genetic studies of social behaviors use the mouse as a model organism, because of the experimental control that a model organism provides, and because of the many resources available for mouse genetics. (upenn.edu)
  • To incorporate construct validity for the various genetic mutations identified in small numbers of people with autism ( 12 - 21 ), these mutations have been generated in mice ( 22 , 23 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Experimental interventions, working through diverse genetic and pharmacological mechanisms, rescue subsets of behavioral abnormalities in these mouse models ( 31 , 43 , 48 - 52 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • 1995. Positional cloning of the nude locus: genetic, physical, and transcription maps of the region and mutations in the mouse and rat. (jax.org)
  • Genetic typing of the mouse and rat nude mutations by PCR and restriction enzyme analysis. (jax.org)
  • Genetic resistance to clinical mousepox (ectromelia virus) varies among inbred laboratory mice and is characterized by an effective natural killer (NK) response and the early onset of a strong CD8 + cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response in resistant mice. (asm.org)
  • To elucidate the roles of IL-1ra, IL-1ra-deficient mice were produced by gene targeting, and pathology was analyzed on different genetic backgrounds. (rupress.org)
  • Firstly, we analyzed the parasitical characteristics of the infection using inbred and outbred mouse strains to compare the impact of host genetic background on the infection and on survival rates. (plos.org)
  • Laboratory mice are usually of the species Mus musculus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of sequence variation between inbred strains of laboratory mice suggest that the distribution of polymorphisms has a mosaic structure of alternating segments of high and low frequency ( 1 - 3 ), consistent with descent of the most commonly used strains from a few subspecies, such as Mus musculus musculus ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Most laboratory mice have contributions from both Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus . (jax.org)
  • Two hundred and fifty Mus musculus (Linnaeus, 1758) inbred mice from two animal houses in the State of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, were divided in two groups (A, B) according to their source. (scielo.br)
  • Results of electrophoretic surveys have suggested that hemoglobin polymorphism may be maintained by balancing selection in natural populations of house mice, Mus musculus . (genetics.org)
  • NATURAL populations of house mice, Mus musculus , exhibit high levels of hemoglobin polymorphism and evidence suggests that allelic variation in the β-chain subunit polypeptides is maintained by some form of balancing selection (reviewed in B erry 1978 ). (genetics.org)
  • There are hundreds of established inbred, outbred, and transgenic strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we used intravital microscopy of murine PLNs to study the role of thymus-derived chemotactic agent (TCA)-4 (secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine, 6Ckine, Exodus-2) in homing of adoptively transferred T cells from T-GFP mice, a transgenic strain that expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) selectively in naive T lymphocytes (T(GFP) cells). (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, IL-4 transgenic resistant mice expressing low levels of this cytokine fail to clear the infection (17,18). (scielo.br)
  • Here, we subjected male and female 5-HT 3A knockout mice and their non-transgenic littermates to several tests of social behavior. (frontiersin.org)
  • We evaluated the role of CFTR in clearing P. aeruginosa from the respiratory tract using transgenic CF mice that carried either the ΔF508 Cftr allele or an allele with a Cftr stop codon (S489X). (jimmunol.org)
  • Thus, transgenic CF mice exhibit decreased clearance of P. aeruginosa and increased bacterial burdens in the lung, substantiating a key role for CFTR-mediated bacterial ingestion in lung clearance of P. aeruginosa . (jimmunol.org)
  • Our previous attempts to demonstrate a defect in P. aeruginosa clearance using intranasal infection of neonatal transgenic CF mice were not successful ( 1 ), a failure we attributed to the noninbred nature of the mice we were using. (jimmunol.org)
  • Nonetheless, the presence of well-characterized in-bred strains, availability of knock-out and transgenic animals, easy availability of reagents, and the relative low cost have made mouse models the most utilized systems for investigating the mechanisms of GVH responses. (stembook.org)
  • Investigation of sequence variation in common inbred mouse strains has revealed a segmented pattern in which regions of high and low variant density are intermixed. (pnas.org)
  • If single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are randomly distributed across the genomes of inbred strains, mapping QTL by SDP association with phenotype will require a very dense set of markers, but if the distribution is segmented, then a few markers will be sufficient to identify common haplotypes. (pnas.org)
  • Hh ligand overexpression in a mouse model of basal breast cancer increased growth, induced a poorly differentiated phenotype, accelerated metastasis, and reduced survival. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the early part of the 20th century Clarence Cook Little, a Harvard undergraduate was conducting studies on mouse genetics in the laboratory of William Ernest Castle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of a novel survivin-based vaccine by subcutaneous or intraperitoneum injection of BALB/c mice with murine fiber-induced MM tumor cells followed by vaccination with recombinant Fowlpox virus replicons encoding survivin. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These data demonstrate that NK cells and NKT cells are the most abundant IFN-gamma-producing cells in the mouse spleen after LPS challenge and that IL-10 and IL-12 are key functional regulators of LPS-induced IFN-gamma production. (labome.org)
  • To create an immunodeficient mouse model that spontaneously develops hyperglycemia to serve as a diabetic host for human islets and stem cell-derived beta-cells in the absence or presence of a functional human immune system. (nih.gov)
  • We backcrossed the Ins2(Akita) mutation onto the NOD-Rag1(null) IL2rgamma(null) strain and determined 1) the spontaneous development of hyperglycemia, 2) the ability of human islets, mouse islets, and dissociated mouse islet cells to restore euglycemia, 3) the generation of a human immune system following engraftment of human hematopoietic stem cells, and 4) the ability of the humanized mice to reject human islet allografts. (nih.gov)
  • Insulin-positive cells in dissociated mouse islets, required to restore euglycemia in chemically diabetic NOD-scid IL2rgamma(null) and spontaneously diabetic NRG-Akita mice, were quantified following transplantation via the intrapancreatic and subrenal routes. (nih.gov)
  • NRG-Akita mice provide a model system for validation of the function of human islets and human adult stem cell, embryonic stem cell, or induced pluripotent stem cell-derived beta-cells in the absence or presence of an alloreactive human immune system. (nih.gov)
  • IMQ-induced dermatitis was partially dependent on the presence of T cells, whereas disease development was almost completely blocked in mice deficient for IL-23 or the IL-17 receptor, demonstrating a pivotal role of the IL-23/IL-17 axis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Analyses of survivin peptide-pulsed spleen and lymph node cells from vaccinated mice using ELISPOT and intracellular cytokine staining confirmed antigen-specific, interferon-γ-producing CD8(+) T-cell responses. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here, we show that chitin induces the accumulation in tissue of IL-4-expressing innate immune cells, including eosinophils and basophils, when given to mice. (nih.gov)
  • 7. The medium according to claim 6, wherein said cells to be cultured are obtained from a B6C3Fe-a/a-op/op mouse strain. (google.com)
  • The percent CD3+ T cells, both effector (CD4+Foxp3−) and regulator (CD4+Foxp3+) T cells, cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, natural killer cells (NK1.1+), gamma delta (γδ+) T cells, CD11c+ dentritic cells, and CD19+ B cells were significantly increased in fibrotic kidneys compared to contralateral kidneys in WT mice (Fig. 4a). (nih.gov)
  • Susceptibility of IL-1RI −/− mice was associated with significant induction of a Th2-biased immune response characterized by pulmonary eosinophilia, M2 macrophage polarization, and recruitment of CD4 + IL-13 + T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • This notion has been supported by classical experiments which established that T cell-deficient mice rapidly succumb after inoculation with any one of several species of Leishmania , and that transfer of normal T cells confers resistance to the animals (1-3). (scielo.br)
  • Recently, it was shown that the 5-HT 3 receptor is also expressed on Cajal-Retzius cells which play a key role in cortical development and that knockout mice lacking this receptor showed aberrant growth of the dendritic tree of cortical layer II/III pyramidal neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • Microscopy of infected mouse and rhesus monkey tracheas clearly demonstrated ingestion of P. aeruginosa by epithelial cells in wild-type animals, mostly around injured areas of the epithelium. (jimmunol.org)
  • Here, we show that CD1d-restricted glycolipid ligands for iNKT cells effectively substitute for anti-CD40 mAb and reject established experimental mouse breast and renal tumors when used in combination with anti-DR5 and anti-4-1BB mAbs (termed "NKTMab" therapy). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have shown that anti-mouse DR5 mAb generated adaptive tumor-specific immunity, and we hypothesized that additionally maturing dendritic cells and costimulating CTL might potentially result in an even more effective cancer therapy than anti-DR5 mAb alone. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have found that CB3 triggers autoimmune disease in susceptible mice by stimulating elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines from mast cells during the innate immune response. (cdc.gov)
  • The pattern of mediator and cell surface molecule expression is both agonist- and strain-specific in mice, suggesting that mast cells have adapted to respond differentially to distinct immunological insults ( 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Sixty female inbred BALB/c mice were subjected to breast cancer by injection of 4T1 cells. (omicsonline.org)
  • More recently members of the same group ( 13 ) studying mice with constitutive activation of human Smo under control of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter, found that mammary ductal cells showed increased proliferation, altered differentiation, and developed ductal dysplasias. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These mice are also athymic, and consequently homozygous nude mice lack T cells and suffer from a lack of cell-mediated immunity. (jax.org)
  • Consequently, homozygous nude mice lack T cells and suffer from a lack of cell-mediated immunity. (jax.org)
  • However there is not a defect in T-cell precursors, and under the right conditions some functional mature T cells can be found especially in adult mice. (jax.org)
  • Homozygous nude mice show partial defect in B cell development probably due to absence of functional T cells. (jax.org)
  • The GVHD reaction was first noted when irradiated mice were infused with allogeneic marrow and spleen cells (van Bekkum and De Vries, 1967 ). (stembook.org)
  • In addition to these seminal postulates on GVH reaction, the critical requirement of immune cells from the donor graft for optimal leukemia/tumor elimination: a process called graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect, and its tight link with GVHD were initially made from mouse models (43). (stembook.org)
  • A reduction in the IL-4 response to soluble worm antigen preparation (SWAP) was also seen in ART-treated mice but with no correlation to reinfection resistance. (ajtmh.org)
  • 1981. Major histocompatibility complex antigen expression on the epithelium of the developing thymus in normal and nude mice. (jax.org)
  • Our analysis indicates that it is only partly true that the genomes of inbred strains exist as a patchwork of segments of sequence identity and difference. (pnas.org)
  • We found that 5-HT 3A knockout mice display impaired social communication in the social transmission of food preference task. (frontiersin.org)
  • Interestingly, we showed that in the social interaction test only female 5-HT 3A knockout mice spent less time in reciprocal social interaction starting after 5 min of testing. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, we observed differences in preference for social novelty for male and female 5-HT 3A knockout mice during the social approach test. (frontiersin.org)
  • Apart from a decreased sensitivity to formalin induced pain, 5-HT 3A knockout mice did not exhibit abnormalities in body weight, food, or water intake, sexual behavior, or motor function during rotarod performance. (frontiersin.org)
  • Discovery of elevated metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5)-mediated signaling and protein synthesis in fragile X knockout mice ( 53 - 56 ) provided the rationale for testing mGluR5 antagonists in ongoing fragile X clinical trials. (sciencemag.org)
  • Knockout mice deficient in CCR2 had reduced susceptibility to Fr98 pathogenesis, with significantly fewer mice developing clinical disease than did wild-type controls. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, no reduction in Fr98-induced disease was observed in CCR5 knockout mice. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, using knockout mice, one can eliminate entire pathways by eliminating an individual ligand or its receptor. (asm.org)
  • In the present study, we used knockout mice deficient in chemokine receptors CCR2 and CCR5 to analyze the role of certain chemokines in a non-lymphocyte-mediated neurological disease induced by the murine retrovirus, Fr98. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, mice with genotype Eya1 bor/bor Mead3CAST/CAST exhibit incomplete penetrance (50%) and a wide range of cochlear coiling (1/4-1½ turns). (deepdyve.com)
  • Foxn1 nu (nude) mice are born with functional but faulty hair growth follicles, resulting in a hairless appearance. (jax.org)
  • Nude mice are also athymic caused by a developmental failure of the thymic anlage. (jax.org)
  • The use of nude mice has reduced the number of thymectomy procedures required in research projects. (jax.org)
  • Imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation in mice is mediated via the IL-23/IL-17 axis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here, we show that CTLA4 insufficiency initiates de novo tumorigenesis in the mouse stomach through inflammation triggered by host-intrinsic immune dysregulation rather than microbiota, with age-associated progression to malignancy accompanied by epigenetic dysregulation. (rupress.org)
  • In contrast, AP-Variant 1 does not infect the white-footed mouse, DBA/2, and severely immunocompromised (SCID) mice ( 8 ). (cdc.gov)
  • A new set of studies in our laboratory is aimed at elucidating the brain pathways that underlie this reduced sociability of BALB/cJ mice. (upenn.edu)
  • In addition, the same nonsedating doses reduced the spontaneous stereotyped jumping that characterizes a second inbred strain of mice, C58/J. Further, GRN-529 partially reversed the striking lack of sociability in BTBR mice on some parameters of social approach and reciprocal social interactions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Digitized QuickTime™ videos showing characteristic scenes from intravital microscopy experiments of TGFP cell behavior and TCA-4 staining in wild-type and plt/plt mice are available at http://www.jem.org/cgi/content/full/191/1/61/DC1 (see legends to Fig. 2, Fig. 4, Fig. 6, and Fig. 7). (nih.gov)
  • The Brodkin laboratory studies the neurobiology and genomics of social behavior development in mouse models relevant to autism. (upenn.edu)
  • Social behavior phenotypes in fragile X syndrome, autism, and the Fmr1 knockout mouse: Theoretical comment on McNaughton et al. (upenn.edu)
  • Values (mean ± SEM) are shown for BALB in shoebox cages, 3-month timeframe, except that behavior is shown for 8-month timeframe. (nih.gov)
  • So far, analysis of the 5-HT 3A knockout mouse revealed changes in nociceptive processing and a reduction in anxiety related behavior. (frontiersin.org)
  • Other mouse models in which serotonergic signaling was disrupted during development showed similar morphological changes in the cortex, and in addition, also deficits in social behavior. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this study, we sought to determine whether the 5-HT 3A receptor knockout mouse displays similar forms of impaired social behavior. (frontiersin.org)
  • Behavior in a mouse model of isolates of Leishmania donovani sensu lato cultured from the blood of patients with chronic cutaneous lesions. (ajtmh.org)
  • Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence analyses of tumors from vaccinated mice showed CD8(+) T-cell infiltration, and real-time PCR demonstrated increased mRNA and protein levels of immunostimulatory cytokines. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We report a detailed analysis of polymorphism distribution in multiple inbred mouse strains over a 4.8-megabase region containing a QTL influencing anxiety. (pnas.org)
  • We do not yet know whether claims for the utility of the mosaic structure of inbred strain sequences for QTL mapping will be supported by higher resolution data on polymorphism distribution. (pnas.org)
  • Electrophoretic surveys of hemoglobin polymorphism among inbred strains of house mice have revealed two main β-globin variants, HBB-S and HBB-D. Strains that carry the Hbb s haplotype ( e.g . (genetics.org)
  • We used the filaria Litomosoides sigmodontis in BALB/c mice that were necropsied 6 hours after the challenge inoculation of 200 larvae. (springer.com)
  • Six hours after the challenge inoculation, the mice were culled, their skin separated from the animal and placed inner side up on a dissection board. (springer.com)
  • 17 ) used a different approach by which murine islets were embedded in VEGF-containing collagen and encapsulated before transplantation into the peritoneal cavity, showing that local VEGF release from encapsulated islet grafts significantly increased the viability of transplanted islets, resulting in sustained physiological glycemic control in diabetic mice. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These methods for recording vagus neurogram in mice provide a useful tool to further delineate the role of vagus neural pathways in a standardized murine disease model. (springer.com)
  • Monoclonal antibody (MAb) 667 is a neutralizing mouse monoclonal antibody recognizing the envelope glycoprotein (Env) of the ecotropic neurotropic murine retrovirus CasBrE but not that of other murine retroviruses. (cnrs.fr)
  • IL-1RI −/− mice had significantly reduced survival compared to WT mice after intratracheal challenge with C. neoformans 52D. (frontiersin.org)
  • Elevated production of angiogenic factors locally in islet grafts is shown to promote graft angiogenesis and enhance islet revascularization, contributing to significantly improved glycemic control and better preservation of islet mass in diabetic recipient mice ( 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Mice immunized with gp63+Hsp70+MPL-A exhibited significantly greater protection in comparison to those immunized with gp63+Hsp70+ALD. (springermedizin.de)
  • At all time points following the aerosol stimulation of the mice with whole Escherichia-coli-055:B5, the thymus independent anti Escherichia-coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) response was significantly suppressed in the spleen. (cdc.gov)
  • The two main defects of mice homozygous for the nude spontaneous mutation ( Foxn1 nu , formerly Hfh11 nu ) are abnormal hair growth and defective development of the thymic epithelium. (jax.org)
  • These mice carry a spontaneous mutation at the Ush1c locus characterized by head tossing, hyperactive circling, and disorientation in water. (jax.org)
  • 2003. Mouse models of USH1C and DFNB18: phenotypic and molecular analyses of two new spontaneous mutations of the Ush1c gene. (jax.org)
  • Moreover, elevated levels of antibodies against immunoglobulins, type II collagen, and double-stranded DNA were detected in these mice, suggesting development of autoimmunity. (rupress.org)
  • 1996). When mice were infected with rotavirus, NSP4-specific Immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies were generated in response to mucosal immunisation and transcytosed from the basal lamina into the mucosal epithelium (Gebert 1997). (scielo.org.za)
  • Further, orally immunised mice produced maternal antibodies against NSP4, generating passive protection in newborn mouse pups against rotavirus challenge (Ward, Rich & Besser 1996). (scielo.org.za)
  • Fluorescent microvessels were recorded in anesthetized wild-type and plt/plt mice after intravenous injection of 75 μg anti-mouse TCA-4 mAb FITC-4B1. (nih.gov)
  • c ) Comparison of i.p. and i.v. routes of injection in the BALB/cJ mouse. (jci.org)
  • Tigabu B, Juelich T, Holbrook M. Comparative analysis of immune responses to Russian spring-summer encephalitis and Omsk hemorrhagic fever viruses in mouse models. (labome.org)
  • Enhancement of cellular immune function during cold adaptation of BALB/c inbred mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The cell-mediated immune function of cold-adapted BALB/c inbred mice was studied in experiments of splenic lymphocyte blastogenesis, indicated by tritium-labeled deoxythymidine incorporation and SDS-PAGE autoradiography of synthetic proteins in lymphocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We assayed by flow cytometry and immunostaining the differential composition of the immune infiltrate in WT and TwistcKO UUO kidneys compared to contralateral and to kidneys from healthy mice. (nih.gov)
  • Laboratory mice are the same species as the house mouse, however, they are often very different in behaviour and physiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • To gain insight into the role of IDO in the physiology of the mammalian epididymis, we studied both wild type and Ido1(-/-)-deficient mice. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Three mammalian species are reservoir competent: the white-footed mouse ( Peromyscus leucopus ), raccoon ( Procyon lotor ), and gray squirrel ( Sciurus carolinensis ), although serologic and molecular evidence has suggested that numerous other small, medium, and large mammals may also be reservoirs ( 1 , 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Envigo uses well-established techniques to successfully produce time mated rats, mice, hamsters, and rabbits. (envigo.com)
  • Time mated rats and mice are determined by observation of a vaginal plug. (envigo.com)
  • Little and Castle collaborated closely with Abbie Lathrop who was a breeder of fancy mice and rats which she marketed to rodent hobbyists and keepers of exotic pets, and later began selling in large numbers to scientific researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice and rats used in the laboratory derive from a variety of sources. (jax.org)
  • The founding animals of the strain were obtained by Halsey J. Bagg of Memorial Hospital, New York, from a mouse dealer in Ohio in 1913. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previously, in a whole genome scan, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on chromosome 10 and chromosome X that affect intermale aggressive behaviors in a cross of NZB/B1NJ and A/J inbred mice (Brodkin et al. (upenn.edu)
  • By contrast, BALB/c mice develop a typical Th2 response. (scielo.br)
  • In contrast, diabetic mice receiving an equivalent islet mass pretransduced with control vector remained hyperglycemic. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To study the mechanisms that regulate the contraction of intrapulmonary arteriole SMCs, the contractile and Ca 2+ responses of the arteriole SMCs to 5-hydroxytrypamine (5-HT) and KCl were observed with phase-contrast and scanning confocal microscopy in thin lung slices cut from mouse lungs stiffened with agarose and gelatin. (rupress.org)
  • Experimental findings with Litomosoides sigmodontis in mice and Onchocerca ochengi in cattle are placed in the context of how these models can advance our ability to control the human disease. (plos.org)
  • New member of the winged-helix protein family disrupted in mouse and rat nude mutations. (jax.org)
  • Behavioral phenotypes with face validity for some of the diagnostic symptoms of autism have been reported in some of these mutant mouse models ( 24 - 47 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Because the primary symptoms of autism and fragile X differ in qualitative features, and mouse models of autism and fragile X display sharply divergent phenotypes, testing mGluR5 antagonists in specific assays of mouse behavioral phenotypes that optimize relevance to the diagnostic symptoms of autism would be most informative for translational goals. (sciencemag.org)
  • These phenotypes have not been identified in mice heterozygous for either allele. (jax.org)
  • Weekly serum administration prolonged the survival of susceptible mice. (asm.org)
  • The effect of5α-DHT on protein secretion by peritoneal macrophages of NZBBALBc mice was investigated using radiolabelledprotein secretion following SDS-PAGE and Fluorography. (medscimonit.com)
  • Despite these behavioral traits, these mice are able to breed and have normal life spans. (jax.org)
  • Briefly one hundred and twenty Balb/c mice were randomly divided into four groups as LT, LB, LBT and control groups. (omicsonline.org)
  • Friedman, Rick 2008-10-04 00:00:00 Mice homozygous for the hypomorphic allele Eya1 bor exhibit cochlear aplasia, with associated deafness, and renal hypoplasia, similar to Branchio-Oto-Renal syndrome (BOR) in humans. (deepdyve.com)
  • Mice homozygous for either Ush1c dfcr or Ush1c dfcr-2J display head tossing and hyperactive circling. (jax.org)
  • At 9 months of age a slight peripheral retinal degeneration is found in mice homozygous for Ush1c dfcr but not Ush1c dfcr-2J . (jax.org)
  • Early reports suggesting Hh signaling may contribute to breast carcinogenesis came through the studies of Lewis and colleagues in mice with heterozygous disruption of Ptch1 which showed marked abnormalities in mammary ductal structures resulting in hyperplasias and dysplasias similar to human breast lesions ( 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • For heterozygous mice only, this strain ships with a JAXTag TM affixed. (jax.org)
  • CPBs mice, which showed a relatively high variability for fraying, appeared to be heterozygous for this character. (brillonline.com)
  • Second, QTL mapping can be carried out by associating phenotypic variation in inbred strains with their strain distribution pattern (SDP) [ in silico mapping ( 8 )], where an SDP is the pattern of allelic similarities and differences among strains at a locus. (pnas.org)
  • The Jackson laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine is currently one of the world's largest suppliers of laboratory mice, at around 3 million mice a year. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, they should not be referred to by species name, but rather as laboratory mice or by use of a specific strain or stock name. (jax.org)
  • This approach intends to add new data on the helminth parasites of laboratory mice, since these investigations have arised a great interest and also, taking into account that these hosts as experimental animal models, are widely utilized in the evaluation of several biological parameters. (scielo.br)
  • family Poxviridae , genus Orthopoxvirus ) is a natural pathogen of laboratory mice that causes a generalized disease termed mousepox ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • In vivo recordings of bulbospinal excitation in adult mouse forelimb motoneurons. (diva-portal.org)
  • Here we report on pyramidal and reticulospinal excitation in forelimb motoneurons in the adult mouse using intracellular recordings in vivo. (diva-portal.org)
  • Mice belong to the Euarchontoglires clade, which includes humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • This close relationship, the associated high homology with humans, their ease of maintenance and handling, and their high reproduction rate, make mice particularly suitable models for human-oriented research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice are mammals of the Glires clade ( a group consisting of an ancestor and all its descendants), which means they are amongst the closest relatives of humans along with lagomorphs, treeshrews, flying lemurs and other primates. (wikipedia.org)