Cell lines developed from disaggregated BALB/c mouse embryos. They are extremely sensitive to CONTACT INHIBITION, and highly susceptible to transformation by SV40 VIRUS and murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE).
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.

Effect of morphine and naloxone on priming-induced audiogenic seizures in BALB/c mice. (1/47697)

1 Morphine (1-200 mg/kg s.c.) reduced the incidence and prolonged the latency of priming-induced audiogenic siezures in a dose-dependent manner. 2 This effect was reversed by naloxone (1 and 2 mg/kg) although naloxone was itself inactive. 3 This priming-induces seizure model may be useful in the study of tolerance and physical dependence.  (+info)

Differences in benzo(a)pyrene metabolism between rodent liver microsomes and embryonic cells. (2/47697)

Differences in benzo(a)pyrene metabolite pattern have been shown by rodent liver microsomes (Sprague-Dawley) and rodent embryo cells from Syrian hamsters and NIH Swiss mice. Rodent liver induced by methylcholanthrene shows marked quantitative variation between species. Additional pattern changes were found in mouse and hamster embryo secondary cultures with a reduction of the K-region metabolites and a marked increase in 9-hydroxybenzo(a)-pyrene. These results are indicative of a region-specific attack on the carcinogen by the cell monooxygenases which is distinct from the liver attack of microsomal enzymes on benzo(a)pyrene. These results suggest that activation and detoxification of benzo(a)pyrene may be species and tissue variable, and susceptibility and resistence to malignant transformation may be predicted on induction of a fortuitous combination of intermediate metabolic steps.  (+info)

Stimulation of thymidine uptake and cell proliferation in mouse embryo fibroblasts by conditioned medium from mammary cells in culture. (3/47697)

Undialyzed conditioned medium from several cell culture sources did not stimulate thymidine incorporation or cell overgrowth in quiescent, density-inhibited mouse embryo fibroblast cells. However, dialyzed conditioned medium (DCM) from clonal mouse mammary cell lines MCG-V14, MCG-T14, MCG-T10; HeLa cells; primary mouse adenocarcinoma cells; and BALB/c normal mouse mammary epithelial cells promoted growth in quiescent fibroblasts. The amount of growth-promoting activity produced per cell varied from 24% (HeLa) to 213% (MCG-V14) of the activity produced by primary tumor cells. The production of growth-promoting activity was not unique to tumor-derived cells or cells of high tumorigenicity. The amount of growth-promoting activity produced per cell in the active cultures was not correlated with any of the following: tumorigenicity, growth rat, cell density achieved at saturation, cell type, or species of cell origin. It is concluded that transformed and non-transformed cells of diverse origin, cell type, and tumorigenicity can produce growth factors in culture. The growth-promoting potential of the active media from primary tumor cultures accumulated with time of contact with cells and was too great to be accounted for entirely by the removal of low-molecular-weight inhibitors by dialysis. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that conditioned medium from the active cultures contained a dialyzable, growth-promoting activity. Different cell lines exhibited differential sensitivity to tumor cell DCM and fetal bovine serum. Furthermore, quiescent fibroblasts were stimulated by primary tumor cell DCM in the presence of saturating concentrations of fetal bovine serum. These observations support the notion that the active growth-promoting principle in primary tumor cell DCM may not be a serum factor(s).  (+info)

Suppression of Moloney sarcoma virus immunity following sensitization with attenuated virus. (4/47697)

Murine sarcoma virus (Moloney strain) (MSV-M)-induced tumors are unusual in that they regularly appear less than 2 weeks after virus inoculation, progress for 1 to 2 weeks, and are rejected by normal adult BALB/c mice. Rejectio leaves the animals immune to tumor induction. In the present study, presensitization of normal adult BALB/c mice with attenuated MSV-M resulted in an altered pattern of tumor immunity. Injection of active MSV-M into the presensitized animals resulted in tumor induction and rejection similar to that observed in normal animals, but rejection failed to produce protection against the secondary inoculation with MSV-M. After the second inoculation with active MSV-M, tumors appeared and progressed but ultimately were rejected. Over 80% of the mice died, 25% after the primary challenge and the remainder after the secondary challenge. At death, all mice had histological evidence of leukemia which was the probable cause of death. The animals that died following the secondary challenge also had evidence of disseminated MSV-M. Solid tumor nodules were found in skeletal muscle distant from the original site of inoculation, and active MSV-M was isolated from spleen and lungs. The possibility that the results were produced by specific suppression of MSV-Moloney leukemia virus immunity is discussed.  (+info)

Blood thymidine level and iododeoxyuridine incorporation and reutilization in DNA in mice given long-acting thymidine pellets. (5/47697)

A long-acting thymidine pellet consisting of 190 mg of cholesterol and 60 mg of thymidine has been developed for the study of thymidine metabolism and reutilization in vivo. Implantation of such a pellet s.c. in adult mice will maintain the blood plasma concentration of thymidine at levels between 40 and 8 X 10(-6) M, which are from 36 to 7 times those of normal mice, for periods up to 48 hr. During this period, in vivo uptake and reutilization of [125I]iododeoxyuridine, a thymidine analog, into intestinal and tumor DNA were almost completely suppressed. While iododeoxyuridine reutilization is not large in normal proliferative tissue even in the absence of pellet implants, reutilization of over 30% was measured in large, rapidly growing ascites tumors. The inhibition of iododeoxyuridine incorporation by elevated thymidine blood levels is directly proportional to serum concentration. This appears to be due to a thymidine pool in rapid equilibrium with blood thymidine. This pool is at least 10 times larger than the 4-nmole pool of extracellular thymidine.  (+info)

Interleukin-8 receptor modulates IgE production and B-cell expansion and trafficking in allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation. (6/47697)

We examined the role of the interleukin-8 (IL-8) receptor in a murine model of allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation using mice with a targeted deletion of the murine IL-8 receptor homologue (IL-8r-/-). Wild-type (Wt) and IL-8r-/- mice were systemically immunized to ovalbumin (OVA) and were exposed with either single or multiple challenge of aerosolized phosphate-buffered saline (OVA/PBS) or OVA (OVA/OVA). Analysis of cells recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) revealed a diminished recruitment of neutrophils to the airway lumen after single challenge in IL-8r-/- mice compared with Wt mice, whereas multiply challenged IL-8r-/- mice had increased B cells and fewer neutrophils compared with Wt mice. Both Wt and IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice recruited similar numbers of eosinophils to the BAL fluid and exhibited comparable degrees of pulmonary inflammation histologically. Both total and OVA-specific IgE levels were greater in multiply challenged IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice than in Wt mice. Both the IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA and OVA/PBS mice were significantly less responsive to methacholine than their respective Wt groups, but both Wt and IL-8r mice showed similar degrees of enhancement after multiple allergen challenge. The data demonstrate that the IL-8r modulates IgE production, airway responsiveness, and the composition of the cells (B cells and neutrophils) recruited to the airway lumen in response to antigen.  (+info)

11q23.1 and 11q25-qter YACs suppress tumour growth in vivo. (7/47697)

Frequent allelic deletion at chromosome 11q22-q23.1 has been described in breast cancer and a number of other malignancies, suggesting putative tumour suppressor gene(s) within the approximately 8 Mb deleted region. In addition, we recently described another locus, at the 11q25-qter region, frequently deleted in breast cancer, suggesting additional tumour suppressor gene(s) in this approximately 2 Mb deleted region. An 11q YAC contig was accessed and three YACs, one containing the candidate gene ATM at 11q23.1, and two contiguous YACs (overlapping for approximately 400-600 kb) overlying most of the 11q25 deleted region, were retrofitted with a G418 resistance marker and transfected into murine A9 fibrosarcoma cells. Selected A9 transfectant clones (and control untransfected and 'irrelevant' alphoid YAC transfectant A9 clones) were assayed for in vivo tumorigenicity in athymic female Balb c-nu/nu mice. All the 11q YAC transfectant clones demonstrated significant tumour suppression compared to the control untransfected and 'irrelevant' YAC transfected A9 cells. These results define two discrete tumour suppressor loci on chromosome 11q by functional complementation, one to a approximately 1.2 Mb region on 11q23.1 (containing the ATM locus) and another to a approximately 400-600 kb subterminal region on 11q25-qter.  (+info)

A cytomegalovirus glycoprotein re-routes MHC class I complexes to lysosomes for degradation. (8/47697)

Mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) early gene expression interferes with the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) pathway of antigen presentation. Here we identify a 48 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein encoded by the MCMV early gene m06, which tightly binds to properly folded beta2-microglobulin (beta2m)-associated MHC class I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This association is mediated by the lumenal/transmembrane part of the protein. gp48-MHC class I complexes are transported out of the ER, pass the Golgi, but instead of being expressed on the cell surface, they are redirected to the endocytic route and rapidly degraded in a Lamp-1(+) compartment. As a result, m06-expressing cells are impaired in presenting antigenic peptides to CD8(+) T cells. The cytoplasmic tail of gp48 contains two di-leucine motifs. Mutation of the membrane-proximal di-leucine motif of gp48 restored surface expression of MHC class I, while mutation of the distal one had no effect. The results establish a novel viral mechanism for downregulation of MHC class I molecules by directly binding surface-destined MHC complexes and exploiting the cellular di-leucine sorting machinery for lysosomal degradation.  (+info)

BioAssay record AID 318590 submitted by ChEMBL: Elevation in glycogen level in fasting BALB/c mouse at 5.70 mg/kg, ip after 3 hrs.
An adoptive secondary antibody response to phosphorylcholine (PC) can be generated by the transfer of keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)-primed T cells, PC-bovine gamma globulin-primed B cells, and PC-KLH into irradiated syngeneic BALB/c mice. If the KLH-primed T-cell donors were pretreated with anti-idiotype antibodies directed against the BALB/c PC-binding myeloma TEPC 15, their T cells were unable to collaborate effectively with PC-primed B cells; moreover, they could suppress the helper activity of T cells from normal mice for the PC-KLH response. The Ly phenotype of these T cells was found to be Ly 1-, 2+. The specificity of the suppressor T-cell population induced by anti-T15 treatment appears to be both for idiotype (hapten) and carrier, since the suppressor T cells fail to interfere with the antibody response to PC on a heterologous carrier, nor do they suppress the response to trinitrophenol-KLH. ...
Silica particles cationized by dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB) bilayer were previously described. This work shows the efficiency of these particulates for antigen adsorption and presentation to the immune system and proves the concept that silica-based cationic bilayers exhibit better performance than alum regarding colloid stability and cellular immune responses for vaccine design. Firstly, the silica/DODAB assembly was characterized at 1 mM NaCl, pH 6.3 or 5 mM Tris.HCl, pH 7.4 and 0.1 mg/ml silica over a range of DODAB concentrations (0.001-1 mM) by means of dynamic light scattering for particle sizing and zeta-potential analysis. 0.05 mM DODAB is enough to produce cationic bilayer-covered particles with good colloid stability. Secondly, conditions for maximal adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) or a recombinant, heat-shock protein from Mycobacterium leprae (18 kDa-hsp) onto DODAB-covered or onto bare silica were determined. At maximal antigen adsorption, cellular immune responses in
It is well established that immunogenic tumors, such as EMT6, induce the generation of tumor-sensitized T lymphocytes in host mice. If the host animals are cured of tumor (e.g., by surgical excision or X-ray treatment), these immune cells will maintain long-term resistance to rechallenge with the same tumor. In experiments combining PDT and adoptive transfer, the presence of tumor-sensitized T cells among the splenocytes of BALB/c mice cured previously from EMT6 tumors, and their absence from naïve BALB/c spleen cell populations, made a critical difference to therapy outcome. Significant levels of cures of PDT-treated EMT6 tumors growing in engrafted scid mice were achieved only in the former case.. Severe deficiency in the activity of lymphoid populations in scid mice (17) is responsible for the absence of cures of PDT-treated EMT6 tumors growing in these animals (11) . It appears that the adoptive transfer of naïve BALB/c splenocytes was inadequate to reconstitute the T-cell activity in scid ...
BALB/c Mouse Intestinal Mesenteric Endothelial Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from intestinal mesenteric tissue of pathogen-free laboratory mice. BALB/c Mouse Intestinal Mesenteric Endothelial Cells are grown in T25 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based coating solution for 2 min and incubated in Creative Bioarray Culture Complete Growth Medium generally for 3-7 days. Cultures are then expanded. Prior to shipping, cells are detached from flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 1x10^6 cells per ml and are delivered frozen. The method we use to isolate endothelial cells was developed based on a combination of established and our proprietary methods. These cells are pre-coated with PECAM-1 antibody, following the application of magnetic pre-coated with secondary antibody ...
In this study, we demonstrated the immune mechanisms and protection induced by a novel unencapsulated S. pneumoniae attenuated live SPY1 vaccine. An elevated humoral immune response and Th2, Th17, and modulatory cellular responses were detected in immunized mice. Interestingly, we noticed that the upregulation of IFN-γ in immune splenocyte supernatants in C57BL/6 mice was not SPY1 specific but might be triggered by CT, an adjuvant reported to possess the potential ability to stimulate a Th1 immune subset (26), which was different from the response in BALB/c mice (5). The reasons for these differences may be due to the different genetic backgrounds of the BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice (27, 28). In this study, to further investigate the immune mechanisms mediating protection induced by SPY1, several different types of immune deficient mice with different genetic backgrounds (nude BALB/c mice, B cell-deficient BALB/c mice, IFN-γ-deficient C57BL/6 mice, IL-4-deficient C57BL/6 mice, and IL-17A-deficient ...
Specific unresponsiveness can be induced in neonatal and adult BALB/c mice by antibody against antigen-specific receptor (antireceptor antibody). When heterologous antireceptor antibody is used in the indirect fluorescence technique, the number of fluorescent cells in these animals is significantly lower than in normal animals. Fluorescent cells appear after a relatively brief incubation of cells from adult-suppressed animals, whereas no fluorescent cells are detected when cells from neonatally treated animals are incubated briefly. Evidently, treating neonatal mice with antireceptor antibody specifically depletes the antigen-responsive clone. In contrast, antireceptor antibody causes reversible blockade of responsive cells in adult-suppressed animals. ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Oral HIVacc: Oral Mucosal Immunization Approaches for HIV Prevention (R01) RFA-DE-16-006. NIDCR
(A) CBE at the Igκ locus in B cell development. Purified DNA from sorted subpopulations of B cells from wild-type Balb/c mice was subjected to LMPCR to detect
Inefficient experimental designs are common in animal-based biomedical research, wasting resources and potentially leading to unreplicable results. Here we illustrate the intrinsic statistical power of split-plot designs, wherein three or more sub-units (e.g. individual subjects) differing in a variable of interest (e.g. genotype) share an experimental unit (e.g. a cage or litter) to which a treatment is applied (e.g. a drug, diet, or cage manipulation). We also empirically validate one example of such a design, mixing different mouse strains -- C57BL/6, DBA/2, and BALB/c -- within cages varying in degree of enrichment. As well as boosting statistical power, no other manipulations are needed for individual identification if co-housed strains are differentially pigmented, so also sparing mice from stressful marking procedures. The validation involved housing 240 females from weaning to 5 months of age in single- or mixed- strain trios, in cages allocated to enriched or standard treatments. Mice were
Read Caraparu virus induces damage and alterations in antioxidant defenses in the liver of BALB/c mice after subcutaneous infection, Archives of Virology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
BioAssay record AID 423140 submitted by ChEMBL: Toxicity in hMPV infected BALB/c mouse assessed as body weight loss treated 24 hrs after viral challenge measured after 5 days.
Results C57 mice demonstrated a higher total bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and BAL lymphocyte count at 3 and 7 days after intraperitoneal infection compared with BALB mice. There were no differences in BAL cytokine production; however, we were able to demonstrate differences in CMV DNA load in the lungs of BALB mice compared with that of C57 mice. In addition, there appeared to be increased whole-lung production of the TH2 cytokine IL-10 in the BALB mice versus the C57 mice. ...
It is well accepted that Th1 cells play a central role for protection against TB [41]. Therefore, animals that are deficient in IFN-γ, IFN-γ receptor, Stat-4, T-bet, or IL-12 exhibit increased susceptibility to M. tb infection [25], [42], [43]. BCG induces a robust Th1 response, but this does not appear to be sufficient for optimal protection against challenge with virulent M. tb [44]. Abundant Th1 cell responses have been found in TB patients as well as M. tb infected animals [45], [46]. Thus, Th1 cells alone are not sufficient for protection against TB. Therefore, in addition to Th1 cell responses, a vaccine needs to induce additional Th cell response(s) to provide optimal protection against TB. Recently, it has been shown that Th17 cells play an important role in the secondary immune response against TB [16]. However, Th17 cells do not appear to participate in the primary immune response against TB [17]. Our findings clearly demonstrated that BCG and H37RvΔRD1 are unable to induce Th17 ...
Induction of 3 populations of MCs in lung of BALB/c mice 1 to 14 days after challenges. BALB/c mice were sensitized and either not challenged (NC) or challenged
The training was aimed to provide the basic understanding and practical know-how on protection mainstreaming and developing a context analysis that considers threats as well as the needs, vulnerabilities, and capacities of populations in FSL programming.. ...
H2.35 cells were cloned from a colony that arose from the SV40 transformed cells. H2.35 is an epithelial-like cell line derived from a primary hepatocyte culture. Cells were collected from the livers of 6 week old female BALB/c mice, incubated at 33°C, and infected with tsA255 (a temperature-sensitive mutant of SV40 virus).
Antibodies, Monoclonal;Antigens, CD;Antigens, CD2;Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte;Drug Synergism;Graft Survival;Heart Transplantation;Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed;Mice, Inbred BALB C;Mice, Inbred C57BL;Mice, Inbred CBA;Receptors ...
Antibodies, Monoclonal;Antigens, CD;Antigens, CD2;Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte;Drug Synergism;Graft Survival;Heart Transplantation;Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed;Mice, Inbred BALB C;Mice, Inbred C57BL;Mice, Inbred CBA;Receptors ...
The mutant showed a different (delayed) course of parasitemia in BALB/c mice and BALB/c mice showed a delayed death from infection. Mutant blood stages showed a restricted host cell range ...
Genetic analysis of antibodies reveals how microbes in the intestines impact overall B cell populations and humoral responses to pathogens
The line was produced by fusing P3X63Ag8 myeloma cells with spleen cells from BALB/c mice that had been immunized with influenza virus (A.PR/8/34).
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recovery of butanol from model solutions and fermentation broth using a silicalite/silicone membrane. AU - Qureshi, N.. AU - Meagher, M. M.. AU - Hutkins, Robert W. PY - 1999/6/1. Y1 - 1999/6/1. N2 - A silcone-silicalite-1 composite membrane was synthesized to recover acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) from model solutions and the Clostridium acetobutylicum (ABE) fermentation broth. The adsorption capacity of the silicalite-1 in the presence of a mixture of acetone, butanol and ethanol were 8-12, 85-90 and ,5mg/g, respectively. There was no apparent difference of absorption rate of butanol at 36°C and 79°C and desorption of butanol occurred efficiently at 78°C and 1-3Torr. The silicalite-1 was characterized by chemical analysis, NMR, electron micrographs, surface area and pore size determination and found to have identical properties to other silicalite-1 reported in the literature. The silicalite-1 was incorporated into a silicone membrane in an effort to enhance butanol ...
To understand the pathogenesis of scrub typhus, we examined chemokine and cytokine production in susceptible (C3H/HeN) and resistant (BALB/c) mice after infection with O. tsutsugamushi Gilliam. C3H/HeN mice produced high levels of chemokines macrophage inflammatory proteins 1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha ), MIP-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and cytokines gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma ), interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha ) in response to O. tsutsugamushi infection, compared to BALB/c mice. Chemokine profiles in infected mice correlated well with the kinetics of inflammatory cell infiltration. Hyperproduction of chemokines and cytokines was observed in another susceptible-infection model (BALB/c-Karp). These results suggest that hyperproduction of chemokines and cytokines are associated with susceptibility during O. tsutsugamushi infection ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Congenital toxoplasmosis in the Balb/c mouse. T2 - prevention of vertical disease transmission and fetal death by vaccination. AU - Roberts, C W. AU - Brewer, J M. AU - Alexander, J. PY - 1994/11. Y1 - 1994/11. N2 - Vertical disease transmission only occurs in Balb/c mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii for the first time during pregnancy. This is similar to the situation in humans, where a previous infection with T. gondii tends to give life-long immunity against reinfection and fetal disease transmission. The Balb/c mouse therefore provides a suitable model to study the effectiveness of T. gondii vaccine candidates. A soluble tachyzoite antigen (STAB) preparation was used to vaccinate female Balb/c mice. STAB was inoculated subcutaneously into Balb/c mice in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), emulsified in Freunds complete adjuvant (FCA), or entrapped within non-ionic surfactant vesicles (NISV). While all inocula induced cellular immunity as measured by parasite-specific spleen ...
Inhibitory Effects of Black currant seed oil on 2,4-D initrochlorobenzene Induced Atopic Dermatitis in BALB/c Mice Model;kpubs;kpubs.org
Results of our chimaera experiments revealed no evidence that BALB/c cells were preferentially allocated to the mTE but indicated they were at a selective disadvantage between E4.5 and E8.5. We confirmed previous reports that preimplantation BALB/c embryos lagged behind embryos of some other strains and showed that the relative stage of development attained by E2.5 embryos of different strains correlated with the contribution they made to chimaeras. This suggests that the poor contribution of BALB/c embryos to aggregation chimaeras is at least partly because they lag behind their partner embryos, due to delayed or slow development.. In principle, heterosis of non-inbred partner embryos might also have contributed to the poor contribution of BALB/c cells in BALB/c↔BF2, BALB/c↔(BF1×TGB) and BALB/c↔(BF1×TP6.3) chimaeras, if hybrid cells outgrow BALB/c cells. However, this does not explain the differences in compositions of (BALB/c×AF1)↔BF2 and (AF1×BALB/c)↔BF2 chimaeras (West et al., ...
Scientific Experts, Genomes and Genes, Species, Research Topics, Locale, Publications about Experts and Doctors on inbred balb c mice in Galveston, Texas, United States
Acute exposure to diesel exhaust particles elicits dose-dependent pulmonary inflammatory and impairment of lung function in naive BALB/C mice
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lymphokine-activated tumor inhibition in vivo. I. The local administration of interleukin 2 triggers nonreactive lymphocytes from tumor-bearing mice to inhibit tumor growth. AU - Forni, G.. AU - Giovarelli, M.. AU - Santoni, A.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - CE-2 is a chemically induced tumor of low immunogenicity in syngeneic BALB/c mice. Nylon wool columns eluting lymphocytes from the spleen of mice bearing clinically evident (5-mm mean diameter) CE-2 tumors (CE-2 TB lymphocytes) do not react with CE-2 cells in vitro, nor are they able to affect their growth in vivo in a Winn-type neutralization assay at 5:1 lymphocyte:tumor cell ratio. However, they become able to inhibit CE-2 tumor growth when 20 U of interleukin 2 (IL 2) in 0.4 ml are injected daily for 10 days at the challenge site. In contrast, mice injected with CE-2 cells and IL 2 only display tumor takes and growth that are not significantly different from those in controls challenged with CE-2 cells alone. This ...
The early life period represents a time of immunological plasticity whereby the functionality immature immune system is highly susceptible to environmental stimulation. Perennial aeroallergen and respiratory viral infection induced sporadic episodes of lung inflammation during this temporal window represent major risk factors for initiation of allergic asthmatic disease. Murine models are widely used as an investigative tool to examine the pathophysiology of allergic asthma; however, models in current usage typically do not encapsulate the early life period which represents the time of maximal risk for disease inception in humans. To address this issue, this protocol adapted an experimental animal model of disease for sensitization to ovalbumin during the immediate post-weaning period beginning at 21 days of age. By initially sensitizing mice during this early life post-weaning period, researchers can more closely align experimental allergic. ...
DTA-1 mAb abrogates suppression mediated by CD4+ CD25+ T cells. (A) CD4+ CD25- or CD4+ CD25+ T cells (gated as a or b, respectively) were purified by cell-sorter from BALB/c spleen cells. (B) CD4+ CD25+ T cells (open square and closed square) or CD4+ CD25- T cells (open circle and closed circle) purified from 2-month-old BALB/c mice, or these two populations mixed in equal amounts (open triangle and closed triangle), were stimulated for 3 days along with MMC-treated spleen cells as APC in the absence or presence of graded amounts of DTA-1 mAb. Incorporation of [3H] thymidine by proliferating lymphocytes during the last 6 hr of the culture was measured. (C) Spleen cell suspensions prepared from 2-month-old BALB/c mouse were stained with anti-CD4, anti-CD25 and DTA-1. Expression of GITR (DTA-1) on CD4+ CD25+ T cells or CD4+ CD25- T cells is shown in the histogram. The dotted lines represent control staining with an irrelevant Ab.. ...
Cytokines have important roles in the control of bacterial and viral infections such as HIV-1. Interleukin 17 which is secreted by Th17 is one of these cytokines with a special role in controlling microbial infections. In the present study, adjuvant activity of Alum and Naloxone mixture has been studied on immune responses, especially IL-17 cytokine. Naloxone and Alum adjuvant are mixed with 10 µg of recombinant vaccine HIV-1-gag-pol-tat-env. Experimental groups, consisting of 36 inbred male Balb/c mice divided into six groups, were injected subcutaneouslyat days 0, 14 and 28 with total volume of 200 µl. 2 weeks after final injection, mouse spleens were removed in sterile conditions and used to prepare suspensions. Lymphocyte proliferation responses were evaluated with Brdu test and evaluation of cytokines IL-4, IL-17 and INF-γ were completed using ELISA kit, plus total antibody and antibody isotopes IgG1 and IgG2a using ELISA test. All results show that the mixture of Alum with Naloxone
BALB/c Mouse Mammary Microvascular Endothelial Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from breast tissue of pathogen-free laboratory mice. BALB/c Mouse Mammary Microvascular Endothelial Cells are grown in T25 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based coating solution for 2 min and incubated in Creative Bioarray Culture Complete Growth Medium generally for 3-7 days. Cultures are then expanded. Prior to shipping, cells are detached from flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 1x10^6 cells per ml and are delivered frozen. The method we use to isolate endothelial cells was developed based on a combination of established and our proprietary methods. These cells are pre-coated with PECAM-1 antibody, following the application of magnetic pre-coated with secondary antibody ...
Animal models. The mouse model of podocyte injury and proteinuria was established by intravenous injection of ADR as described previously (23). Male BALB/c mice weighing 20-22 g and 24-week-old db/db mice were obtained from the Envigo. For pharmacologic inhibition experiments, CPN was intraperitoneally injected daily at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight after ADR or 2 weeks before sacrifice in db/db mice. CPN was complexed with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HBC; MilliporeSigma). A CPN/HBC stock solution was prepared by suspending 1 mg CPN in 1 ml 45% HBC in sterile PBS and stirring at 65°C for 60 minutes. Three groups of BALB/c mice were used: (a) sham control (n = 5-6), (b) ADR mice injected with vehicle (n = 6), and (c) ADR mice treated with CPN (n = 6). ADR (doxorubicin hydrochloride; MilliporeSigma) was administered by a single intravenous injection at 10 mg/kg body weight. At 1 and 5 weeks after ADR injection, all mice were euthanized. At 2 weeks after CPN injection, db/db mice were killed. ...
Background: Food allergy is considered as resulting from an impaired development or a breakdown of oral tolerance. We aimed to induce oral tolerance to the major cows milk allergen bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) or corresponding trypsin hydrolysates (BLG-Try) and to investigate the mechanisms involved.. Methods: Wild-type BALB/cJ mice were gavaged on days 1-3 and 8-10 with different doses of native BLG (nBLG) or with nBLG-Try and were then sensitized on day 14 by i.p. administration of BLG in alum. Sensitization was assessed by measurement of BLG-specific antibodies in sera and of cytokines secreted by BLG-reactivated splenocytes. Elicitation of the allergic reaction was assessed by measurement of cytokines and mMCP-1 in sera collected 35 min after an oral challenge. Cellular and biochemical markers of the allergic reaction were also analysed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BAL) collected 24 h after intra-nasal challenge. Analysis of the CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in different organs obtained 3 ...
RBM5 (RNA-binding motif protein 5, also named H37/LUCA-15) gene from chromosome 3p21.3 has been demonstrated to be a tumor suppressor. Current researches in vitro confirm that RBM5 can suppress the growth of lung adenocarcinoma cells by inducing apoptosis. There is still no effective model in vivo, however, that thoroughly investigates the effect and molecular mechanism of RBM5 on lung adenocarcinoma. We established the transplanted tumor model on BALB/c nude mice using the A549 cell line. The mice were treated with the recombinant plasmids carried by attenuated Salmonella to induce the overexpression of RBM5 in tumor tissues. RBM5 overexpression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry staining. H&E staining was performed to observe the histological performance on plasmids-treated A549 xenografts. Apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL staining with a TUNEL detection kit. Apoptosis-regulated genes were detected by Western blot. We successful established the lung adenocarcinoma animal model in vivo. The growth of
In vitro PMA/ionomycin treatment for 5 h, which activates a signal transduction step down-stream of ZAP-70 and therefore equally activates SKG and BALB/c T cells, revealed that a significant fraction of LN CD4+ T cells from nonarthritic SKG mice in an SPF environment were producing IL-17A (hereafter IL-17), whereas SKG or BALB/c CD4-SP thymocytes or BALB/c CD4+ T cells were not (Fig. 1 A and Fig. S1, which is available at http://www.jem.org/cgi/content/full/jem.20062259/DC1). Such IL-17-producing SKG CD4+ T cells also produced at a single cell level TNF-α and IL-2, but not IFN-γ, IL-4, or IL-10, a profile distinct from Th1 or Th2 cells and similar to that of Th17 cells (Fig. 1 A; references 7-9). CD4+ T cells freshly prepared from nonarthritic SKG mice also actively transcribed IL-17 and IL-23R mRNA (Fig. 1 B). In arthritic SKG mice raised in a conventional environment, arthritic joints actively transcribed IL-17 mRNA, whereas nonarthritic ones did not (Fig. 1 C). Correspondingly, CD4+ T cells ...
It has recently been shown that dermal application of the commonly used antimicrobial compound triclosan, enhanced allergic responses in a mouse asthma model. To help elucidate the mechanisms of this augmented allergic response, we investigated the early immune-related effects of dermal triclosan exposure in mice. Triclosan was applied daily to the dorsal surface of the ears of BALB/c mice at conc
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alloreactivity and tumor antigens. T2 - Generation of syngeneic antilymphoma killer lymphocytes by alloimmunization of mice with normal cells. AU - Sensi, M. L.. AU - Parenza, M.. AU - Parmiani, G.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - The possibility of obtaining a syngeneic antitumor effect by immunization with normal allogeneic cells was investigated by tests of the lytic activity of peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) of BALB/c mice immunized with lymphoid cells of either a single strain or a pool of six different allogeneic strains on the syngeneic Moloney virus-induced lymphoma YC8 target and on one of its clones designated YC8-D1. Significant cytotoxicity on both targets but not on two other BALB/c lymphomas was obtained with PEC of BALB/c mice singly immunized to the non-H-2-incompatible but H-2-compatible DBA/2 or B10.D2 lymphoid cells. The lack of lysis of YC8 cells by PEC of BALB/c mice immune to B10.A (H-2(k.d)) suggests that the in vitro killing was restricted by K(d)-IE(d) region ...
LPS pretreatment by the oral route protects against sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture. Regulation of proinflammatory response and IgM anti-LPS antibody production as associated mechanisms. F. Massó; R. Hernández-Pando; L. Montaño; R. Springall; L. Amezcua-Guerra // Inflammation Research;Sep2007, Vol. 56 Issue 9, p385 Abstract. Objective:Â Â To explore the efficacy of prophylactic oral lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Material:Â Â Male Balb/c mice. LPS serotype O55: B5 Treatment:Â Â Mice were treated every 4 days for a total of 5 times with 50... ...
Mice and treatments. BALB-neuT mice were bred and maintained in the animal facility at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori, according to the national and institutional guidelines. Normal 8 to 10-week-old BALB/c, C57BL/6, and FVB mice were purchased from Charles River. F1 hybrids were obtained by mating BALB-neuT males with C57BL/6 or FVB females. The hemizygous transgenic females were identified by PCR performed at age 3 weeks ( 24).. MMP-9+/− mice on C57BL/6 background were kindly provided by Dr. Leif Lund (Panum Institute, Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark) as N17 generation. They were backcrossed to BALB/c and the N6 generation, intercrossed to obtain either homozygous MMP-9−/− and heterozygous MMP-9+/− offspring to be used as bone marrow donors.. Zoledronate (Zometa; Novartis Europharm, Ltd.) at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg or pamidronate (Faulding Pharmaceuticals) at a dose of 2 mg/kg were diluted in saline and administered daily s.c. 5 days a week. ...
Women diagnosed with breast cancer within 5 years postpartum (PPBC) have poorer prognosis than age matched nulliparous women, even after controlling for clinical variables known to impact disease outcomes. Through rodent modeling, the poor prognosis of PPBC has been attributed to physiologic mammary gland involution, which shapes a tumor promotional microenvironment through induction of wound-healing-like programs including myeloid cell recruitment. Previous studies utilizing immune compromised mice have shown that blocking prostaglandin synthesis reduces PPBC tumor progression in a tumor cell extrinsic manner. Given the reported roles of prostaglandins in myeloid and T cell biology, and the established importance of these immune cell populations in dictating tumor growth, we investigate the impact of involution on shaping the tumor immune milieu and its mitigation by ibuprofen in immune competent hosts. In a syngeneic (D2A1) orthotopic Balb/c mouse model of PPBC, we characterized the impact of mammary
All types of cancer include cancer cells that do and do not express tumor antigens. In previous cancer immunotherapies, activated immune cells attacked only one of these two types of tumor cells, whereas in NKT cell-targeted cancer chemotherapy, adjuvant effects are induced which in turn simultaneously activates both the innate immune system, involving NK cells, and the acquired immune system, involving CD8T cells (killer T-cells). The adjuvant effects are in fact mediated by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) which is produced by NKT cells, and thus effectively attacks and eliminates both types of tumor cells. In addition, its efficacy is not restricted by anti-tumor antigens and it is therefore expected to have anti-tumor efficacy against all types of tumor cells including expressing neo-antigens. ...
Azoxymethane (AOM) is a colon carcinogen that is used to study the pathogenesis of sporadic colorectal cancer. We have evaluated differential susceptibility to AOM in inbred mice used as progenitors of recombinant/transgenic lines. In experiment 1, male FVB/N, 129/SvJ, C57Bl/6J mice were treated i.p. with 10 mg/kg AOM once per week for 4 weeks and sacrificed after 20 weeks. Only AOM-treated FVB/N mice developed tumors (3.6 tumors/mouse) in distal colon. In experiment 2, A/J, AKR/J, Balb/CJ mice were treated with AOM for 6 weeks and sacrificed after 24 weeks. AOM-treated A/J and Balb/CJ mice developed 9.2 and 1 tumor/mouse, respectively. Despite these differences, tumors had similar morphology regardless of strain. Immunohistochemistry with β-catenin resulted in marked nuclear and cytoplasmic staining of tumor cells in FVB/N. However, fainter and heterogeneous β-catenin staining was observed in A/J tumors, suggesting distinct pathways of tumorigenesis in different strains. Irrespective of ...
We previously demonstrated that the chronic consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) promotes lung and liver metastases of 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells in obesity-resistant BALB/c mice. To examine early transcriptional responses to tumour progression in the liver and lungs of HFD-fed mice, 4-week-old female BALB/c mice were divided into four groups: sham-injected, control diet (CD)-fed; sham-injected, HFD-fed (SH); 4T1 cell-injected, CD-fed (TC); 4T1 cell-injected, HFD-fed (TH). Following 16 weeks of either a CD or HFD, 4T1 cells were injected into the mammary fat pads of mice in the TC and TH groups and all mice were continuously fed identical diets. At 14 d post-injection, RNA was isolated from hepatic and pulmonary tissues for microarray analysis of mRNA expression. Functional annotation and core network analyses were conducted for the TH/SH Unique gene set. Inflammation in hepatic tissues and cell mitosis in pulmonary tissues were the most significant biological functions in the TH/SH Unique gene ...
Background: Proteasome inhibitors, such as bortezomib and the tetrapeptide epoxyketone carfilzomib, have shown strong antitumor activity in patients with multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma. Anti‐tumor responses are due to direct tumor cell cytotoxicity but may also involve effects on growth factors, angiogenesis and stromal cell interactions. The effect of proteasome inhibitors on metastatic spread has not been well studied in pre‐clinical models. PR‐047 is a novel orally bioavailable inhibitor of the 20S proteasome, that is structurally related to carfilzomib. PR‐047 has demonstrated potent anti‐tumor activity in mice bearing subcutaneous tumors of multiple histotypes.. Aim: To evaluate the effect of PR‐047 on metastatic spread in mice bearing tumors of the 4T1 mammary carcinoma, an invasive tumor cell line that can spontaneously metastasize from the primary tumor to multiple sites.. Methods: 6-8 week old female BALB/c mice were challenged in the mammary fat pad (metastatic ...
Mice and virus. Specific pathogen-free human DPP4-KI mice were generated as described earlier (10). Male and female mice, 8-12 weeks of age, were used for these studies. B6, B6-Ly5.1, and BALB/c mice were purchased from Charles River Laboratories. MAVS-/- mice on a B6 background and TLR7-/- mice on a BALB/c background were a gift from Michael Gale Jr. (University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA) and Westley Reeves (University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA, with permission from Shizuo Akira, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan), respectively. TLR7-/- mice were re-derived by crossing them with Charles River BALB/c mice (Charles River Laboratories). Mice were bred and maintained at the University of Iowa animal care facility. The MERS-CoV-MA15 strain was generated as described earlier (10). Mice were anesthetized using xylazine-ketamine and i.n. infected with a 200 to 250 PFU (sublethal), 500 PFU (LD50), or 1000 PFU (lethal) dose of MERS-CoV-MA in 50 μL DMEM. All work with MERS-CoV was ...
18. Kahsay GEBRETSADIK (postgraduate student, Ethiopia): Evaluation of in vivo antifibrogenic properties of the HDAC inhibitors TSA and 4-Me2N-BAPH in the CCl4-induced Balb/C mouse model of hepatic fibrosis (2000 ...
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The modified Gompertz equation has been proposed to fit experimental data for direct current treated tumors when multiple-straight needle electrodes are individually inserted into the base perpendicular to the tumor long axis. The aim of this work is to evaluate the efficacy of direct current generated by multiple-electrode arrays on F3II mammary carcinoma that grow in the male and female BALB/c/Cenp mice, when multiple-straight needle electrodes and multiple-pairs of electrodes are inserted in the tumor. A longitudinal and retrospective preclinical study was carried out. Male and female BALB/c/Cenp mice, the modified Gompertz equation, intensities (2, 6 and 10 mA) and exposure times (10 and 20 min) of direct current, and three geometries of multiple-electrodes (one formed by collinear electrodes and two by pair-electrodes) were used. Tumor volume and mice weight were measured. In addition, the mean tumor doubling time, tumor regression percentage, tumor growth delay, direct current overall
Female Balb/c mice were oxvariectomed at lactation day 2, pups forced weaned at lactation day 12 to initiate mammary involution. At 24 hours post-weaning, mice were treated with anti-Ly6G antibodies or isotype control. At 48 hours post-weaning, mice were treated with 20µg/kg of body weight estrogen or vehicle control. Mice sacrificed after 24 hours estrogen treatment and mammary sample collected and frozen. Mammary samples were extracted for total RNA using Trizol reagen and then treated ...
We previously demonstrated that culturing antigen-sensitized draining lymph node (DLN) lymphocytes from BALB/c mice in interleukin (IL)-7/15 after activation with bryostatin/ionomycin (B/I) is superior to culture in IL-2 for expansion, differentiation to cluster of differentiation (CD)8+ cells and anti-tumor activity. We sought to determine whether the substitution or addition of IL-21 to culture had a similar effect. DLN lymphocytes were antigen-sensitized with 4T1 mammary carcinoma 10 days prior to harvest, activated with B/I, and expanded in culture for 7 days with either IL-2, IL-21, IL-2/21, IL-7/15, or IL-7/15/21. Cellular expansion, phenotype, interferon (IFN)-γ responses, and in vivo anti-tumor activity were compared. We found that T cells grown in IL7/15/21 demonstrated significantly greater lymphocyte expansion than IL-2, IL-21, IL-2/21, and IL-7/15 (38.4-fold vs. 5.5, 6.6, 9.5, and 23.9-fold, respectively). Of these expanded cells, IL-7/15/21 significantly expanded the greatest percentage of
In the last part the differential response of splenic mature B cells to the mitogen lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was investigated. It was known that frequencies of LPS-reactive B cells in C57BL/6 mice is higher than in BALB/c mice. In this study, it could be shown that actually the FOB cells of C57BL/6 respond stronger to LPS in vitro than FOB cells of the BALB/c strain. In addition, MZB cells of both mouse strains showed a stronger response to LPS than the FOB cells. However, in contrast to the observation in FOB cells, MZB cells of both tested strains responded equally strong. A genetic approach did not lead to the identification of a responsible locus for the observed differential response in FOB cells, but indicated that most probably multiple genes control the response in a differential fashion in FOB cells in the tested mouse strains. Furthermore, the results suggest that the stronger response of FOB cells from C57BL/6 mice either involves components within the MyD88-dependent pathway or ...
(Reuters) - Early results from tests for a coronavirus vaccine being developed by the University of Oxford, in collaboration with AstraZeneca Plc, show it produces a robust immune response in elderly people, the group at
While Vγ9Vδ2 T cells have been shown to be effective as a cancer immunotherapy [1], especially when used in combination with N-BPs [5-15], little is known about the in vivo behaviour of human γδ T cells in murine models. This is important to find out if a correlation between the number of γδ T cells in tumour mass and the success of the therapy can be established. While the use of human γδ T cells in cancer therapy is well established, yet questions remain concerning mechanisms involved in recruiting these cells to specific tumours in different tissues. This is an important issue since localisation to the tumour mass is thought to be required for efficacy. Previous studies where human γδ T cells were adoptively transferred in different tumour models established in mice mostly used qualitative, histological approaches to address tumour accumulation [7, 10]. In this work a highly quantitative and unbiased approach is used to measure human γδ T cell accumulation in tumours grown in ...
One reason for the poor immunogenicity of many tumors may be that they cannot provide signals for CD28-mediated costimulation necessary to fully activate T cells. It has recently become apparent that CTLA-4, a second counterreceptor for the B7 family of costimulatory molecules, is a negative regulator of T cell activation. Here, in vivo administration of antibodies to CTLA-4 resulted in the rejection of tumors, including preestablished tumors. Furthermore, this rejection resulted in immunity to a secondary exposure to tumor cells. These results suggest that blockade of the inhibitory effects of CTLA-4 can allow for, and potentiate, effective immune responses against tumor cells.. ...
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CD4 T cells inhibit in vivo the CD8-mediated immune response against murine colon carcinoma cells transduced with interleukin-12 genes.: Retroviral-mediated cyt
We also use the Cre-loxP system, in which a gene of interest is engineered to contain loxP sites flanking a critical region of the gene. A mouse containing the floxed gene is normal, because the loxP sites are silent. Upon expression of the Cre recombinase, which removes DNA sequences flanked by loxP sites, that gene is inactivated. We use three methods for inducing Cre in a region-specific manner in brain. In one, we breed mice containing a floxed gene to mice in which Cre is inducibly expressed under the tetracycline system described above. In the second, we breed them to mice that express modified forms of Cre, which can be activated upon local injection of a chemical in brain. In the third, we use viral vectors encoding Cre to create localized knockouts of the floxed gene. Together, these various approaches enable us to exert powerful control over a drug- or stress-regulated protein ...
Immunization of Balb/c mice ( up to 5 animals) with antigen to stimulate antibody production. You may choose to follow our standard immunization protocol, or work with our staff to use your own protocol. We typically inject mouse every two weeks for 6 weeks before taking a test bleed. The test bleed serum samples are analyzed for antibody production using ELISA. If desired, clients can request up to 0.5 ml serum sample/per mouse for their own additional characterization. ELISA will be used to determine the highest titer mice to be used for cell fusion. Immunization may continue longer if response is not optimal. ...
By Phage do you mean a plasmid? if this this so it could be some kind of DNA immunization. I have done it in the past for one of my research project. I wanted the BALB/c mouse to produce antibody against a complicated molecule that couldnt be purified and injected because the configuration could changed once the molecule was purified. Therefore, we decided to express the original molecule in mice by plasmid injection and immunization and have mice make the antibody against the foreign molecule expressed in the body ...
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Figure 2: Toxoid specific antibody response (IgG1, IgG2a, IgA) elicited after oral immunization in mice. BALB/c mice (n=6) were orally immunized with a single dose of BSA (80 μg) either free or adjuvanted with 10 μg of CT (Cholera Toxin) or rVTX1 (recombinant verotoxin). Antibody response against the corresponding protein-adjuvant was determined up to 5 weeks. Significant differences between CT and rVTX1 groups are indicated by asterisks (*P. 0.05 ...
With this new, highly detailed genomic information, the researchers found out why the 2003-04 flu vaccine provided only partial protection against that seasons flu. During the 2002-03 season, distinctly different versions of the H3N2 flu virus underwent genetic mixing. The resulting strain emerged late in the season and became the predominant cause of flu the following year. However, the 2003-04 vaccine did not target the late-emerging version of H3N2 and so the vaccine provided less than optimal protection. In the future, say the researchers, rapid sequencing of flu strain variants could provide information needed to craft vaccines precisely tailored against the most virulent strains ...
H ighly purified antigens suffer from poor immunogenicity. Current paradigms to address this problem focus onuse ofpotent innate immune activators as adjuvant...
The findings show that the bodys immune system is able to recognize SARS-CoV-2 in many ways, dispelling fears that the virus may elude ongoing efforts to create an effective vaccine.
Schwartz WJ, Zimmerman P. Circadian timekeeping in BALB/c and C57BL/6 inbred mouse strains. J Neurosci. 1990; 10: 3685-3694. ...
1985 - Started producing BALB/c mice. 1991 - Became the first commercial provider of the C.B-17 SCID mouse model. 1994 - ... Contracted with National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Disease to maintain a repository of inbred, congenic, and ... They continue to supply NCI with BDF1 mice. 1975 - Began offering the SHR hypertensive rat and the WKY control strain. 1980 - ... 1949 - Robert Phelan began shipping mice from his garage in Canajoharie, NY. 1952 - Taconic Farms is officially founded in ...
Mouse NLRP1B is not activated by a receptor-ligand type mechanism. NLRP1B variants from certain inbred mouse strains, BALB/c ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Thorpe KL, Abdulla ... Mice have three paralogs of the Nlrp1 gene (Nlrp1a, b, c). Nlrp1c is a pseudogene. ... Polymorphisms of NLRP1 were found in lupus erythematosus and diabetes type 1. Variants of mouse NLRP1 were found to be ...
Some inbred laboratory mouse strains, such as BALB/c and C57BL/6, also have different proteins expressed in their urine. ... using white-footed mice, it was found that when mice derived from wild populations were inbred, there was reduced survival when ... Wild mice breeding freely in semi-natural enclosures showed inbreeding avoidance. This avoidance resulted from a strong deficit ... These findings suggest that inbreeding reduces fitness, and that scent signal recognition has evolved in mice as a means of ...
Mice of the inbred strain BALB/c were immunized with recombinant human CD28-Fc fusion proteins and boosted with a B lymphoma ... In 2016, a study carried out on humanized mice evaluated TGN1412's effects on the immune system, and confirmed that it could ... The more active of the two, 5.11A1, is a mouse IgG1 immunoglobulin. The complementarity-determining regions of 5.11A1 were ... from heavy and light chain variable region sequences of a monoclonal mouse anti-humanC28 [sic] antibody (5.11A1, Luhder et al ...
... mice, inbred a MeSH B01.050.157.520.318 - mice, inbred akr MeSH B01.050.157.520.338 - mice, inbred balb c MeSH B01.050.157.520. ... mice, inbred a MeSH B01.050.199.520.520.318 - mice, inbred akr MeSH B01.050.199.520.520.338 - mice, inbred balb c MeSH B01.050. ... mice, inbred mdx MeSH B01.050.157.520.440 - mice, inbred cba MeSH B01.050.157.520.445 - mice, inbred cftr MeSH B01.050.157.520. ... mice, inbred hrs MeSH B01.050.157.520.510 - mice, inbred icr MeSH B01.050.157.520.555 - mice, inbred mrl lpr MeSH B01.050. ...
... and only three un-pedigreed mice remained alive. Soon after World War I, inbreeding in mice was started on a much larger scale ... A/J C3H C57BL/6 CBA DBA/2 BALB/c G.M. Rommel first started conducting inbreeding experiments on guinea pigs in 1906. Strain 2 ... A genealogical chart of mouse inbred strains can be found here on the Jackson Laboratory website and is currently being ... Evidence from the uniformity of mitochondrian DNA suggests that most of the common inbred mouse strains were probably derived ...
In the case of a typical mouse recombinant inbred strain made by crossing maternal strain BALB/cBy (C) with paternal strain ... Recombinant inbred strains or lines were first developed using inbred strains of mice but are now used to study a wide range of ... pairs of the F2 progeny are then mated to establish inbred strains through long-term inbreeding. Families of recombinant inbred ... Williams RW, Gu J, Qi S, Lu L (2001). "The genetic structure of recombinant inbred mice: high-resolution consensus maps for ...
Examples include the BALB/c mouse and Wistar and Sprague Dawley rat strains, laboratory rabbits and ferrets. Albino axolotl (an ... Familiar albino animals include in-bred strains of laboratory animals (rats, mice and rabbits), but populations of naturally ... In mice, a total of 100 genes are known to affect albinism. All the genetic traits for albinism are recessive traits. This ... Brilliant, Murray H. (2001). "The Mouse p (pink-eyed dilution) and Human P Genes, Oculocutaneous Albinism Type 2 (OCA2), and ...
"Dirty" mice are possibly better suitable for mimicking human pathologies. In addition, inbred mouse strains are used in the ... Animal Testing Animal model BALB/c C57BL/6 Mouse models of colorectal and intestinal cancer Preclinical imaging Rat Park ... Mice differ from humans in several immune properties: mice are more resistant to some toxins than humans; have a lower total ... Thirty to fifty live mice are normally born from this number of injected blastocysts. Normally, the skin color of the mice from ...
... several strains of mice (including BALB/c mice) and in three common monkey species. In addition to natural killer cells being ... Smith HJ (December 1966). "Antigenicity of carcinogen-induced and spontaneous tumours in inbred mice". British Journal of ... in the mouse, and by Hugh Pross and doctoral student Mikael Jondal in the human. The mouse and human work was carried out under ... In both mice and humans, NKs can be seen to play a role in tumor immunosurveillance by directly inducing the death of tumor ...
... several strains of mice (including BALB/c mice) and in three common monkey species.[4][5] ... "Antigenicity of carcinogen-induced and spontaneous tumours in inbred mice". British Journal of Cancer. 20 (4): 831-7. doi: ... in the mouse,[25] and by Hugh Pross and doctoral student Mikael Jondal in the human.[26][27] The mouse and human work was ... In both mice and humans, NKs can be seen to play a role in tumor immunosurveillance by directly inducing the death of tumor ...
Also classified as an inbred from the production of 20 or more successive brother-sister matings, Balb/c mice are albino and ... Balb c Inbred Mouse Balb c Inbred Mouse. Balb/c mice characteristics. ...
Publications about Experts and Doctors on inbred balb c mice in Galveston, Texas, United States ... Experts and Doctors on inbred balb c mice in Galveston, Texas, United States. Summary. Locale: Galveston, Texas, United States ... You are here: Locale , United States , Texas , Experts and Doctors on inbred balb c mice in Galveston, Texas, United States ... a clear pathological difference between OHFV-infected mice and POWV-infected mice and supports the use of the BALB/c mouse as a ...
Male BALB/c inbred mice were randomly divided into two groups: control (living at 25 degrees C) and cold-exposed (living at 2 ... The cell-mediated immune function of cold-adapted BALB/c inbred mice was studied in experiments of splenic lymphocyte ... Male BALB/c inbred mice were randomly divided into two groups: control (living at 25 degrees C) and cold-exposed (living at 2 ... The cell-mediated immune function of cold-adapted BALB/c inbred mice was studied in experiments of splenic lymphocyte ...
Home + Research models and services + Models + Browse Research Models + BALB/c inbred mice + BALB/cAnNHsd + Korea ... Albino stock acquired by H. Bagg in 1913 and therefore called "Bagg albino" or BALB. In 1923, inbred by MacDowell, Cold Spring ... For example, the search "nude mice" will return only items which contain the phrase "nude mice". ... Time mated rats and mice are determined by observation of a vaginal plug. Plug date is considered to be day zero (0) of ...
... this discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable in BALB/c than in C57BL/6 mice, though the interstrain difference ... Reciprocal F1 hybrids of BALB/c x C57BL/6 matings revealed dominance of the C57BL/6 genotype, no sex linkage, and a significant ... Further study of inherited differences in the BALB/c and C57BL/6 strains may be a useful noninvasive experimental approach for ... Examination of CXB recombinant inbred strains provided no support for the hypothesis of monogenic inheritance. ...
We and others have shown that low-dose X or gamma irradiation of mice leads to an increase in their survival after a subsequent ... Mice, Inbred BALB C * Mice, Inbred ICR * T-Lymphocytes / cytology * T-Lymphocytes / immunology ... We and others have shown that low-dose X or gamma irradiation of mice leads to an increase in their survival after a subsequent ... Nevertheless, we found that PFCs were increased 2 weeks after 50 cGy irradiation, which is the same time at which mice ...
Mice, Inbred BALB C * Synovial Membrane / metabolism * Synovial Membrane / pathology* Substances * Biomarkers ... Design: Low and high energy articular fractures (n=25 per group) of the tibial plateau were created in adult male C57BL/6 mice ... Acute joint pathology and synovial inflammation is associated with increased intra-articular fracture severity in the mouse ...
Mice, Mice; Inbred BALB C, Rats, Rats; Inbred Strains, Species Specificity, Toxicity Tests/methods National Category Medical ... In paper III the use of peripheral blood lymphocytes from human, dog, rat and mouse to detect species differences in cellular ... The effect of 17 different cytotoxic drugs on lymphocytes from human, dog, rat and mouse was evaluated. A higher sensitivity of ... human than mouse lymphocytes was seen for topotecan and for 3 of 5 antimetabolites tested. Clear species specificity was also ...
Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / physiology*. Spectrometry, Fluorescence. Tetrahydrocannabinol / ...
Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Neisseria meningitidis / immunology. Serum / immunology, microbiology. Survival Analysis. Tularemia ... 6207248 - Immunity to infection with salmonella typhimurium: mouse-strain differences in vaccine-.... 19306508 - The gavi ... Detoxified endotoxin vaccine (J5dLPS/OMP) protects mice against lethal respiratory challenge with Francisella tularensis SchuS4 ... Mice immunized intranasally with J5dLPS/OMP exhibited protective immunity to intratracheal challenge with the live vaccine ...
Mice, Inbred BALB C. *Biomarkers, Tumor. *MYCN. *3 Untranslated Regions. *Gene Knockdown Techniques ... Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. ... Experimental nude mice showed that miR-92a silencing prohibited the in vivo growth of OS cells. Furthermore, bioinformatics ... In vivo studies indicated that consistent treatment with BMP9 in OS mice results in inhibition of tumor growth. This study ...
Mice, Inbred BALB C. *Antineoplastic Agents. *Cancer Gene Expression Regulation. *VEGFA. *Signal Transduction ... Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. ... Disruption of this gene in mice resulted in abnormal embryonic blood vessel formation. This gene is upregulated in many known ... In this study, we found that transgenic mice overexpressing miR-17~92 specifically in epithelial cells of the small and large ...
An exemplary inbred mouse strain is the Balb/c.. Other methods of producing a monoclonal antibody, a hybridoma cell, or a ... A fourth assay measures angiogenesis in the chimeric mouse:human mouse model and is referred to as the chimeric mouse assay. ... Typically, a mouse of the strain 129 GIX+ is the preferred mammal. Suitable mouse myelomas for use in the present invention ... The chimeric mouse is exposed to any test reagent, and therefore the health of the mouse is an indication of toxicity. ...
Female inbred BALB/cAnNCrl mice aged 6-7 weeks. Increased serum levels of OVA-specific IgE, number of eosinophils in BALF, and ... Female Balb/cJRj mice aged 8 weeks. Increased allergic airway inflammation and specific Th2 response in the lymph nodes to OVA ... solution with 10% serum from BALB/cA mouse. An OVA booster on days 21, sacrificed on days 26; An OVA booster on days 21,22 and ... Male BALB/cByJ mice aged 9 weeks. Aggravated airway inflammation and the generation of epithelium-derived innate cytokines ...
An exemplary inbred mouse strain is the Balb/c. The monoclonal antibody compositions produced by the above method can be used, ... a. Mouse Immunizations All hybridomas were produced using spleen cells from immunized 129 GIX+ mice obtained from the SCRF ... Mouse spleenocytes were harvested from the mouse immunized in Example 6a about 3 days after the final injection and fusion with ... inbred mice and the like. An exemplary synthetic medium is Dulbeccos minimal essential medium [DMEM; Dulbecco et al., Virol. 8 ...
An exemplary inbred mouse strain is the Balb/c.. Other methods of producing a monoclonal antibody, a hybridoma cell, or a ... Typically, a mouse of the strain 129 GlX+ is the preferred mammal. Suitable mouse myelomas for use in the present invention ... inbred mice and the like. An exemplary synthetic medium is Dulbeccos minimal essential medium (DMEM; Dulbecco et al., Virol. 8 ... Reynolds et al., "Enhanced pathological angiogenesis in mice lacking beta,SUB,3 ,/SUB,integrin or beta,SUB,3 ,/SUB,and beta,SUB ...
C3H, C57Bl/6, Balb/c, and DBA/2 are inbred strains of mice; CD-1 is an outbred strain of mouse; while B6D2F1 (BDF1) and B6C3F1 ... 7 shows that the serum-free medium supported hematopoiesis from all strains of mice tested, whether they were inbred, outbred ... A mutant strain of mice can be used in which the CSF-1 gene (B6C3Fe-a/a-op/op mouse strain) or the gene for its receptor or ... Mouse collagen IV (Sigma) was used at a range of concentrations from 0-15 μg/cm2, whereas mouse fibronectin (Sigma) was used at ...
Experimental findings with Litomosoides sigmodontis in mice and Onchocerca ochengi in cattle are placed in the context of how ... 1992) Maturation of the filaria Litomosoides sigmodontis in BALB/c mice; comparative susceptibility of nine other inbred ... in susceptible BALB/c mice [27]. Furthermore, worms recovered from the C57BL/6 mice are smaller than those from BALB/c mice. ... The BALB/c IL-4Rα-deficient mice presented a paradox, for although the mice had enormously increased numbers of circulating ...
Mice, Inbred BALB C. 2. 2019. 6781. 0.040. Why? Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors. 1. 2018. 548. 0.040. Why? ...
Schwartz WJ, Zimmerman P. Circadian timekeeping in BALB/c and C57BL/6 inbred mouse strains. J Neurosci. 1990; 10: 3685-3694. ...
1990) Circadian timekeeping in BALB/c and C57BL/6 inbred mouse strains. J Neurosci 10:3685-3694. ... 4D) mice compared with wild-type, Per1−/−, and Per3−/− mice, respectively, in DD (separate groups of naive mice were assessed ... mice is altered. The PRC of Per3−/− mice is similar to the PRC of wild-type mice. This is not surprising because Per3 ... mice. As a result, most wild-type mice (6 of 7) did not entrain to T21. Per3−/− mice have a slightly larger advance zone than ...
"Mapping of genetic modifiers of Eya1 bor/bor in CAST/EiJ and BALB/cJ that suppress cochlear aplasia and associated deafness, ... A sequence-based variation map of 8.27 million SNPs in inbred mouse strains ... Mapping of genetic modifiers of Eya1 bor/bor in CAST/EiJ and BALB/cJ that suppress cochlear aplasia and associated deafness. ... At the Mead1 locus, the C57BL/6 J and BALB/cJ alleles have comparable strengths. At the Mead2 locus, the C57BL/6 J and CAST/EiJ ...
Circadian rhythms analysis in inbred mouse strains further demonstrate significant differences between Balb/c and C57BL/6 mice ... Schwartz WJ, Zimmerman P. Circadian timekeeping in BALB/c and C57BL/6 inbred mouse strains. J Neurosci. 1990;10:3685-94. ... C57BL/6 and Balb/c mice differ as Th1-type and Th2-type mouse strains, respectively, and respond differentially to innate ... Kyuwa S, Kawamura S, Tagawa Y, Iwakura Y, Urano T, Yoshikawa Y. Differences between BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice in mouse hepatitis ...
Mice. *Mice, Inbred BALB C. *Mice, Inbred C57BL. *Receptors, Interleukin-7 (immunology) ... We recently described a novel marker combination (CD127 and CD62L) to identify all three major CD8(+) T cell subsets in mice ...
Mice. *Mice, Inbred BALB C. *T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic (immunology) *Viral Vaccines (immunology) ... For example, mice primed with 2 x 10(6) plaque-forming units (PFU) of vacc-NP, or 2 x 10(2) PFU, or 2 x 10(6) PFU of vacc-GP ... CTLp frequencies were constantly increased up to 70 d for LCMV immune mice, but rapidly decreased a few weeks after ...
Mice, Inbred BALB C Mice, Nude Neovascularization, Physiologic Re-Epithelialization Skin Swine Time Factors Tissue Culture ... The MGCTs were then transplanted to a full skin defect (5 mm in diameter) on the dorsal surface of immunodeficient mice after ...
Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice, Nude; Mutation; Rats; Rats, Inbred F344; Trachea/physiology*; Tracheal Neoplasms/genetics*; ... Nude mouse tumours produced by injection of these cells exhibited a higher fraction of cells containing the mutant ras gene ...
Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice, Knockout; Respiratory Function Tests; Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology*; ... this was not observed in adult mice. Blocking IL-33 with antibodies or using an IL-33 receptor knockout mouse during infection ... Using an age-appropriate mouse model of RSV, we show that IL-33 plays a critical role in the immunopathogenesis of severe RSV, ... Infection with RSV induced rapid IL-33 expression and an increase in ILC2 numbers in the lungs of neonatal mice; ...
Untreated age matched BALB/cJ inbred mice (. ) served as controls.. 2.1.3. Model of Liver Fibrosis Based on Genetic Alteration ... ms for BALB/cJ + 6x CCl4, ms for BALB/cJ + 12x CCl4, and ms for BALB/cJ-Abcb4. mutants. Mean values for BALB/cJ + 6x CCl4 and ... ms for BALB/cJ + 6x CCl4, ms for BALB/cJ + 12x CCl4, and ms for BALB/cJ-Abcb4. mice. ... for BALB/cJ mice injected six times with CCl4, for animals that received 12 CCl4 treatments, and for BALB/cJ-Abcb4. animals. ...
TAGS: anterior chamber of eye, human herpesvirus 1, mice, inbred balb c, neutrophil, vaccination, infection, antibodies, eye, ... Neutrophils Protect the Retina of the Injected Eye from Infection after Anterior Chamber Inoculation of HSV-1 in BALB/c Mice ... TAGS: anterior chamber of eye, human herpesvirus 1, vaccination, infection, eye, mice, viruses Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.. ... TAGS: apoptosis, in situ nick-end labeling, photoreceptors, protein kinase, infection, cytomegalovirus, eye, mice, caspase-3 ...
  • The results indicate that 1 or more genetic loci influence the value of tau DD, and a large (50 min) difference in mean tau DD between 2 of the strains, BALB/cByJ and C57BL/6J, allowed further characterization of the origins and inheritance of the polymorphic expression of this circadian pacemaker property. (umassmed.edu)
  • this discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable in BALB/c than in C57BL/6 mice, though the interstrain difference in mean tau DD could not be attributed entirely to this effect. (umassmed.edu)
  • Reciprocal F1 hybrids of BALB/c x C57BL/6 matings revealed dominance of the C57BL/6 genotype, no sex linkage, and a significant (but small) maternal effect. (umassmed.edu)
  • Further study of inherited differences in the BALB/c and C57BL/6 strains may be a useful noninvasive experimental approach for investigation of the neurobiological substrates of circadian rhythmicity. (umassmed.edu)
  • To investigate the roles of the Period genes in photic entrainment, we constructed phase response curves (PRC) to light pulses for C57BL/6J wild-type, Per1 −/− , Per2 −/− , and Per3 −/− mice and tested whether the PRCs accurately predict entrainment to non-24 light-dark cycles (T-cycles) and constant light (LL). (jneurosci.org)
  • To understand the roles of the Per genes in the entrainment mechanism, we obtained complete PRCs to light pulses from C57BL/6J Per mutant mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • Analysis of vagus neurograms in different mouse strains (Balb/c and C57BL/6) reveal no significant differences in baseline activity. (springer.com)
  • Eya1 bor/bor hypomorphs, when homozygous for each of the three protective alleles (CAST/EiJ, C57BL/6 J, or BALB/cJ) at the Mead1 or Mead2 locus, exhibit completely penetrant suppression of cochlear agenesis. (deepdyve.com)
  • At the Mead1 locus, the C57BL/6 J and BALB/cJ alleles have comparable strengths. (deepdyve.com)
  • This strain is a mixture of 129, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 inbred strains. (jax.org)
  • Of the ten inbred strains tested, six (BALB/c, C3H/HeN, C57BL/6, DBA.1, DBA.2, and AKR) showed progressive resolution of bladder infections over a 14-day period. (asm.org)
  • A more severe UTI develops in the SWR and AKR strains than in BALB/c or C57BL/6 strains when mice are inoculated intravesically with Enterococcus faecalis ( 6 , 7 ), and C3H/OuJ and C3H/HeJ mice are significantly less able to resolve an E. coli UTI than C3H/HeN mice ( 10 ). (asm.org)
  • Thus, targeted disruption of the IFN- g gene in C57BL/6 mice causes these animals, which are otherwise resistant to infection with L. major , to become highly susceptible to these organisms (15,16). (scielo.br)
  • Two inbred mouse strains, derived from feral founders, are susceptible to experimental leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major and support a disease of a severity intermediate between those observed in strains C57BL/6 and BALB/c. (asm.org)
  • Experimental infection of inbred BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice by L. major parasites constitutes one of the most studied models of parasitic disease ( 50 ). (asm.org)
  • Thus, resistant C57BL/6 mice infected with L. major develop a TH1 response resulting in gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production, macrophage activation, parasite killing, and resolution of the experimental lesion ( 19 , 36 , 55 ). (asm.org)
  • We studied LT toxicity in BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J mice. (jci.org)
  • BALB/cJ mice became terminally ill earlier and with higher frequency than C57BL/6J mice. (jci.org)
  • The C57BL/6J mice did not mount a similar cytokine response. (jci.org)
  • a and b ) Comparison of four doses of PA plus LF in BALB/cJ ( a ) and C57BL/6J ( b ) mice. (jci.org)
  • Several strains of inbred black mice, originally derived by W.L. Russell of The Jackson Laboratory in 1921, were designated as C57 Black (C57BL) after approximately the thirty-second generation of inbreeding. (jax.org)
  • Congenic strains of C57BL/10 mice [B10.A, B10.BR, B10.D2, B10.A(2R), B10.A(5R), B110.A(15R), B10.A(1R), B10.A(18R), and B10.OL] have an incidence of clinical microphthalmia ranging from 0.8 to 9.2% (Pierro and Spiggle, 1967). (jax.org)
  • While the individual strains of C57BL mice are genetically identical within the strain, they all show the same propensity to develop sporadic microphthalmia or anophthalmia. (jax.org)
  • Figure 1 shows a C57BL/6J mouse with moderate microphthalmia. (jax.org)
  • C57BL/6J mouse with moderate microphthalmia. (jax.org)
  • C57BL/6J mouse with corneal opacity (arrow), due to persistence of the stalk of the lens vesicle. (jax.org)
  • Eye lesions in C57BL/6J mouse. (jax.org)
  • C57BL/6J mouse with severe microphthalmia. (jax.org)
  • Intranasal application achieved P. aeruginosa lung infection in inbred C57BL/6 ΔF508 Cftr mice, whereas ΔF508 Cftr and S489X Cftr outbred mice required tracheal application of the inoculum to establish lung infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • CF mice showed significantly less ingestion of LPS-smooth P. aeruginosa by lung cells and significantly greater bacterial lung burdens 4.5 h postinfection than C57BL/6 wild-type mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • Previously, besides the considered Swiss Webster mice, only two inbred strains (C57Bl/6, DBA/2) were investigated for the presence of helminths in Brazil (Pinto et al. (scielo.br)
  • The group B was represented by the strains C57Bl/6, CBA, BALB/c and C3H/He, with 25 mice each. (scielo.br)
  • In the study regarding the prevalence of species, the strains C57Bl/6, C57Bl/10 and C3H/He showed high percentages (88-96%) for A. tetraptera , whereas BALB/c, DBA/2 and C3H/He presented higher prevalence (80-100%) for S . obvelata , while the prevalence of V. nana was higher (92%) in the C3H/He strain. (scielo.br)
  • A. tetraptera was associated to V. nana in C57Bl/6, C57Bl/10 and C3H/He mice. (scielo.br)
  • Percent fat increased slightly in strains 129S1/SvImJ, A/J, and DBA/2J, but did not increase in strains BALB/cByJ, and C57BL/6J. (nih.gov)
  • DX5+NKT cells display phenotypical and functional differences between spleen and liver as well as NK1.1-Balb/c and NK1.1+ C57Bl/6 mice. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • The C57BL/6ByJ and BALB/cByJ inbred strains of mice are, respectively, susceptible and resistant to oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). (molvis.org)
  • The central retinal avascular area was measured on postnatal day 16 (P16) in C57BL/6ByJ, BALB/cByJ, 101 (C57BL/6ByJ x BALB/cByJ)F 2 , and 116 (BALB/cByJ x C57BL/6ByJ)F 2 mice that had been subjected to the OIR protocol. (molvis.org)
  • C57BL/6ByJ mice had significantly larger avascular areas than BALB/cByJ ones. (molvis.org)
  • Flow cytometric analysis of live C57BL/6 spleen cells using CD45.2 (104) Mouse mAb (violetFluor™ 500 Conjugate) (right) compared to concentration-matched Mouse Isotype Control (violetFluor™ 500 Conjugate) (left). (cellsignal.com)
  • These data complete the sequences of all the BALB/c transplantation antigen genes and permit detailed comparison with each other and with their counterparts from the inbred C57BL/10 mouse. (caltech.edu)
  • C57BL/6 often referred to as "C57 black 6" or just "black 6" is a common inbred strain of lab mouse. (selleckchem.com)
  • The immune response of mice from the C57BL/6 strain distinguish it from other inbred strains like BALB/c. (selleckchem.com)
  • C57BL/6) mice is usually subclinical, with lower levels of viral replication in the visceral organs and development of nonfatal lesions. (asm.org)
  • We found that all of the mice on a BALB/cA background, but not those on a C57BL/6J background, spontaneously developed chronic inflammatory polyarthropathy. (rupress.org)
  • the BALB/c strain (with the shorter mean tau DD) displayed relatively fewer advance phase shifts. (umassmed.edu)
  • 7. The medium according to claim 6, wherein said cells to be cultured are obtained from a B6C3Fe-a/a-op/op mouse strain. (google.com)
  • In 2001, the International Committee on Standardized Nomenclature for Mice and the Rat Genome and Nomenclature Committee agreed to establish a joint set of rules for strain nomenclature, applicable to strains of both species. (jax.org)
  • Therefore, they should not be referred to by species name, but rather as laboratory mice or by use of a specific strain or stock name. (jax.org)
  • Mouse strain names should be registered through the Mouse Genome Database (MGD) at http://www.informatics.jax.org/mgihome/submissions/submissions_menu.shtml . (jax.org)
  • A key feature of mouse and rat nomenclature is the Laboratory Registration Code or Laboratory code, which is a code of usually three to four letters (first letter uppercase, followed by all lowercase) that identifies a particular institute, laboratory, or investigator that produced, and may hold stocks of, a mouse or rat strain. (jax.org)
  • Strains can be termed inbred if they have been mated brother x sister for 20 or more consecutive generations, and individuals of the strain can be traced to a single ancestral pair at the 20th or subsequent generation. (jax.org)
  • An inbred strain should be designated by a unique brief symbol made up of uppercase, roman, letters, or a combination of letters and numbers beginning with a letter. (jax.org)
  • Care should be taken that mouse and rat strains do not overlap in strain designations. (jax.org)
  • Note: a few historical examples exist of similar mouse and rat strain designations and these are allowed to stand, with their substrain designations identifying them as unique). (jax.org)
  • Furthermore, it has been suggested that allelic strain distribution patterns also occur in well defined blocks and consequently could be used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) in comparisons between inbred strains. (pnas.org)
  • Second, QTL mapping can be carried out by associating phenotypic variation in inbred strains with their strain distribution pattern (SDP) [ in silico mapping ( 8 )], where an SDP is the pattern of allelic similarities and differences among strains at a locus. (pnas.org)
  • We do not yet know whether claims for the utility of the mosaic structure of inbred strain sequences for QTL mapping will be supported by higher resolution data on polymorphism distribution. (pnas.org)
  • We extended this observation to substrains of the same inbred mouse strain, that is, BALB/c mice. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, we used intravital microscopy of murine PLNs to study the role of thymus-derived chemotactic agent (TCA)-4 (secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine, 6Ckine, Exodus-2) in homing of adoptively transferred T cells from T-GFP mice, a transgenic strain that expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) selectively in naive T lymphocytes (T(GFP) cells). (nih.gov)
  • To control for maternal effects, all the mice were cross-fostered to a common strain immediately after birth. (jneurosci.org)
  • Mice of the MAI strain develop a severe, nonhealing, but nonfatal disease with no resistance to a secondary parasite challenge. (asm.org)
  • Mice of strain PWK develop a protracted but self-healing disease, characterized by a mixed TH1-plus-TH2 pattern of immune responses in which IL-10 plays an aggravating role, and acquire resistance to a secondary challenge. (asm.org)
  • Considering this very particular mechanism of BALB/c mouse susceptibility to L. major infection, conclusions drawn from disease-modulating experiments with this mouse strain can hardly be extrapolated to human disease. (asm.org)
  • Except for this latter strain, A. tetraptera was found together S. obvelata in mice of the other studied strains. (scielo.br)
  • Half of the mouse cohorts were subjected to homologous parasite strain reinfection after drug treatment to assess protective effects of ART therapy. (ajtmh.org)
  • Studies on chemotherapy of parasitic helminths: efficacy of artemether on Japanese strain of Schistosoma japonicum in mice. (ajtmh.org)
  • These results show that DX5+NKT cells are a heterogeneous population, depending on the dedicated organ and mouse strain, that has diverse functional capacity. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Our studies indicate that the BALB/cJ inbred strain shows reduced sociability and other behavioral and neurobiological traits relevant to autism (Brodkin, in press). (upenn.edu)
  • In addition, the same nonsedating doses reduced the spontaneous stereotyped jumping that characterizes a second inbred strain of mice, C58/J. Further, GRN-529 partially reversed the striking lack of sociability in BTBR mice on some parameters of social approach and reciprocal social interactions. (sciencemag.org)
  • An albino strain of laboratory mouse from which a number of common substrains are derived. (selleckchem.com)
  • We elected to use BALB/c mice, an inbred strain that has been proven to be very sensitive to the dermotropic parasite L. major. (ajtmh.org)
  • Specifically, after early life stress exposure, the stress-susceptible inbred mouse strain Balb/c develops decreased activity of several HDACs that, in turn, leads to increased levels of acetylated histone H4 protein, especially acH4K12. (nature.com)
  • Genetically resistant mice infected with the IL-4-expressing virus developed symptoms of acute mousepox accompanied by high mortality, similar to the disease seen when genetically sensitive mice are infected with the virulent Moscow strain. (asm.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze the kinetics of bacterial dissemination and associated inflammatory responses in infected tissues in an experimental scrub typhus mouse model, following infection with the human pathogenic strain Karp. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The recombinant S. typhimurium χ 4550 strain was orally administered to BALB/c mice. (scielo.org.za)
  • Balb/c mice were infected by the aerosol route with a dose range of high-virulence WEEV strain Fleming to establish the median lethal dose (MLD). (mdpi.com)
  • In addition to our work on aggressive behaviors, we have demonstrated differences among inbred mouse strains in sociability, using a social choice behavioral paradigm (Brodkin et al. (upenn.edu)
  • however, development of clinical mousepox among inbred mouse strains differs greatly ( 44 ). (asm.org)
  • We provide a thorough analysis of O. tsutsugamushi infection in inbred Balb/c mice using footpad inoculation, which is close to the natural way of infection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Susceptibility of IL-1RI −/− mice was associated with significant induction of a Th2-biased immune response characterized by pulmonary eosinophilia, M2 macrophage polarization, and recruitment of CD4 + IL-13 + T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • This study examined initial susceptibility, bacterial clearance, and host defense mechanisms during induction and resolution of Escherichia coli UTIs in genetically distinct strains of mice. (asm.org)
  • Results from studies of mice and rats have revealed that a genetic component may be important in determining increased UTI susceptibility. (asm.org)
  • Our data on the time course, local inflammatory responses, and antibody-mediated immunity to a UTI induced in different inbred mouse strains indicate the capacity of mice to resolve an E. coli UTI and provide further evidence that a genetic component is associated with host susceptibility and resistance to UTI. (asm.org)
  • Many different genes spanning the mouse genome have been implicated in susceptibility/resistance to Leishmania . (scielo.br)
  • Most of these genes do not map within the MHC systems of either humans or mice, including the SCL-1 gene implicated in the high susceptibility of BALB/c mice to infection with L. major (14). (scielo.br)
  • Several systems have been used to correlate resistance/susceptibility with Th1/Th2 responses but perhaps the most compelling one is that involving mice genetically deficient in either interferon g (IFN- g ) or interleukin 4 (IL-4), the phenotypic surrogates of the Th1 and Th2 CD4 + T cell responses, respectively. (scielo.br)
  • The reasons for this discrepancy depend on some circumstances such as infection with particular L. major sub-strains, due to the fact that IL-4 and/or IL-4 receptor signaling is not required to promote Th2 cell development and susceptibility in BALB/c mice (21). (scielo.br)
  • The exquisite susceptibility of BALB/c mice to L. major infection has been ascribed to the occurrence, within the draining lymph nodes of these mice, of an early burst of interleukin 4 (IL-4), detectable at 16 h after parasite inoculation, which polarizes the immune response toward the TH2 pathway ( 20 , 21 , 32 ). (asm.org)
  • Knockout mice deficient in CCR2 had reduced susceptibility to Fr98 pathogenesis, with significantly fewer mice developing clinical disease than did wild-type controls. (asm.org)
  • The mouse strains evaluated in this study do not have major, congenital immunodeficiencies, although unresponsiveness or hyporesponsiveness to specific mitogens or antigens has been reported. (asm.org)
  • Upon infection with L. major , mice of the resistant phenotype clearly develop a dominant Th1 phenotype of immune response to the parasite's antigens. (scielo.br)
  • The class I genes of the major histocompatibility complex of the mouse can be divided into two categories: those encoding the transplantation antigens and those encoding the Qa and Tla antigens. (caltech.edu)
  • In the present work, the immunomodulatory effect of biogenic selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) on the breast cancer bearing mice which received 4T1 cells crude antigens (as vaccine) has been investigated. (omicsonline.org)
  • The inbred BALB/c mouse has three transplantation antigens, H2-Kd, H2-Ld, and H2-Dd. (caltech.edu)
  • Proliferative response to seven affinity purified mycobacterial antigens in eight strains of inbred mice. (nih.gov)
  • Repertoires of antibodies to culture filtrate antigens in different mouse strains infected with Mycobacterium bovis BCG. (nih.gov)
  • Comparison of the immunological activity of five defined antigens from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in seven inbred guinea pig strains. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of a novel survivin-based vaccine by subcutaneous or intraperitoneum injection of BALB/c mice with murine fiber-induced MM tumor cells followed by vaccination with recombinant Fowlpox virus replicons encoding survivin. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Circadian rhythms of locomotion (wheel-running activity) in 12 inbred mouse strains were recorded for interstrain differences in tau DD, the endogenous (free-running) period of the circadian pacemaker measured in constant environmental darkness. (umassmed.edu)
  • In paper III the use of peripheral blood lymphocytes from human, dog, rat and mouse to detect species differences in cellular drug sensitivity was described. (diva-portal.org)
  • Screening wheel-running behavior in inbred mouse strains highlighted differences among strains, showing that even very limited genetic differences deeply affect mouse behavior. (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, we observed differences in preference for social novelty for male and female 5-HT 3A knockout mice during the social approach test. (frontiersin.org)
  • Since athymic Foxn1(Δ/Δ) mice presented no differences with the WT controls in the response of the circadian system to the experimental manipulations performed in this work, we conclude that they represent a good model in studies that combine xenograft implants with either alteration of the circadian schedules or chronopharmacological approaches to therapeutics. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • The biological significance, the origin and the genetical causation of differences in behaviour between inbred strains of mice have been studied. (brillonline.com)
  • Mast cell-derived histamine and tumour necrosis factor: differences between SJL/J and BALB/c inbred strains of mice. (tamu.edu)
  • In this study, we took advantage of the isogenic nature of inbred strains of mice to determine the contribution of genes to impulsive behaviors by examining the performance of four separate mouse strains in a novel murine delayed-reinforcement paradigm, during which the animals had to choose between rewards that were relatively small but available immediately and larger but progressively delayed rewards. (jneurosci.org)
  • The inbred BALB/c mouse has 28 potential Qɑ/Tlɑ genes. (caltech.edu)
  • The hybrid genes have been transfected into mouse L cells, in which intact transplantation antigen genes generally are expressed and in which intact Qɑ genes generally are not expressed. (caltech.edu)
  • Here we report a survey of nucleotide variation in the adult globin genes of house mice from South America. (genetics.org)
  • Also, we have initiated studies of mice with knockouts of autism candidate genes. (upenn.edu)
  • The H-2D region of the BALB/c mouse encodes the H2-Dd and the H2-Ld genes. (caltech.edu)
  • The authors of that article say the main advantage of the mouse as a subject is that, while human health is determined by a combination of our genes and the surrounding environment - where even identical twins will develop different medical histories over their lifetimes - genetic alterations can be much more precisely defined in laboratory mice. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Investigation of sequence variation in common inbred mouse strains has revealed a segmented pattern in which regions of high and low variant density are intermixed. (pnas.org)
  • Most laboratory mice have contributions from both Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus . (jax.org)
  • Studies of sequence variation between inbred strains of laboratory mice suggest that the distribution of polymorphisms has a mosaic structure of alternating segments of high and low frequency ( 1 - 3 ), consistent with descent of the most commonly used strains from a few subspecies, such as Mus musculus musculus ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Results of electrophoretic surveys have suggested that hemoglobin polymorphism may be maintained by balancing selection in natural populations of house mice, Mus musculus . (genetics.org)
  • NATURAL populations of house mice, Mus musculus , exhibit high levels of hemoglobin polymorphism and evidence suggests that allelic variation in the β-chain subunit polypeptides is maintained by some form of balancing selection (reviewed in B erry 1978 ). (genetics.org)
  • Two hundred and fifty Mus musculus (Linnaeus, 1758) inbred mice from two animal houses in the State of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, were divided in two groups (A, B) according to their source. (scielo.br)
  • Envigo uses well-established techniques to successfully produce time mated rats, mice, hamsters, and rabbits. (envigo.com)
  • Time mated rats and mice are determined by observation of a vaginal plug. (envigo.com)
  • Mice and rats used in the laboratory derive from a variety of sources. (jax.org)
  • Fialuridine had previously passed preclinical toxicology tests in mice, rats, dogs and primates - where no toxic effects on the liver were reported - and had been approved for testing in humans. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • We found that only a minority of the population of one of these substrains, the BALB/c J, performs spontaneous physical activity. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, the runners of this substrain cover a significantly smaller distance than the average runners of two other substrains, namely, the BALB/c ByJ and the BALB/c AnNCrl. (hindawi.com)
  • BALB/c substrains are "particularly well known for the production of plasmacytomas on injection with mineral oil," an important process for the production of monoclonal antibodies. (selleckchem.com)
  • Analyses of survivin peptide-pulsed spleen and lymph node cells from vaccinated mice using ELISPOT and intracellular cytokine staining confirmed antigen-specific, interferon-γ-producing CD8(+) T-cell responses. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of immunizing mice with caseinolytic protease (ClpP) protein antigen whose gene sequences were shown to be highly conserved in different strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae in an invasive-disease model (intraperitoneal infection model), and protection against invasive challenge with 12 different serotypes of S. pneumoniae was assessed in two murine strains. (curehunter.com)
  • A reduction in the IL-4 response to soluble worm antigen preparation (SWAP) was also seen in ART-treated mice but with no correlation to reinfection resistance. (ajtmh.org)
  • If single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are randomly distributed across the genomes of inbred strains, mapping QTL by SDP association with phenotype will require a very dense set of markers, but if the distribution is segmented, then a few markers will be sufficient to identify common haplotypes. (pnas.org)
  • However, neutralization of IL-4, which leads to a resistance phenotype in BALB/c mice, has no effect on disease progression in MAI mice. (asm.org)
  • Hh ligand overexpression in a mouse model of basal breast cancer increased growth, induced a poorly differentiated phenotype, accelerated metastasis, and reduced survival. (aacrjournals.org)
  • however, in mice with specific genetic backgrounds, a UTI can persist for an extended length of time. (asm.org)
  • The objectives of the current study were to determine the extent to which the genetic backgrounds of other inbred strains affect induction and resolution of an E. coli UTI and to delineate the innate and adaptive immune responses elicited by bladder and kidney infections. (asm.org)
  • In the present study, we exploited the isogenic nature of inbred mice, in combination with a tractable mouse model of delayed reinforcement, to look for evidence of genetic effects on impulsivity. (jneurosci.org)
  • Our study provides an opening for studying the effect of genetic manipulation on specified descending systems in the mouse in vivo. (diva-portal.org)
  • However (and surprisingly), genetic disruption of the IL-4 gene of BALB/c mice can also generate animals that are as susceptible to infection with L. major as are wild-type conventional BALB/c mice (20). (scielo.br)
  • The purpose of this work was to investigate the genetic control of the retinal avascular area in mouse OIR using a mapping cross. (molvis.org)
  • The retinal avascular area in the mouse OIR model is under genetic control. (molvis.org)
  • Currently, most of our genetic studies of social behaviors use the mouse as a model organism, because of the experimental control that a model organism provides, and because of the many resources available for mouse genetics. (upenn.edu)
  • To incorporate construct validity for the various genetic mutations identified in small numbers of people with autism ( 12 - 21 ), these mutations have been generated in mice ( 22 , 23 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Experimental interventions, working through diverse genetic and pharmacological mechanisms, rescue subsets of behavioral abnormalities in these mouse models ( 31 , 43 , 48 - 52 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • For instance, blockage of autophagy and autophagolysosomal degradation in mice using genetic tools resulted in hepatosteatosis and hepatomegaly (9). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Genetic resistance to clinical mousepox (ectromelia virus) varies among inbred laboratory mice and is characterized by an effective natural killer (NK) response and the early onset of a strong CD8 + cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response in resistant mice. (asm.org)
  • To elucidate the roles of IL-1ra, IL-1ra-deficient mice were produced by gene targeting, and pathology was analyzed on different genetic backgrounds. (rupress.org)
  • Castle's team were interested primarily in using the mice to demonstrate a genetic basis for cancer, but an important benefit of the genetically homogenous mice was that they allowed independent groups of scientists to be able to perform experiments on the same genetic material for the first time. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Laboratory mice also live for only 2 or 3 years, giving researchers the opportunity to study the effects of treatments or genetic manipulation across a whole lifespan or even over several generations, which is not feasible in human subjects. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Examination of CXB recombinant inbred strains provided no support for the hypothesis of monogenic inheritance. (umassmed.edu)
  • Transgenic mice overexpressing SOD-1 demonstrated a significant increase in the release of TNF-α and of the metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 from PEM. (jimmunol.org)
  • In vivo, transgenic mice overexpressing SOD-1 demonstrated a 4-fold increase in serum TNF-α levels and 2-fold stronger delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction as compared with control nontransgenic mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • Recently, we demonstrated that transgenic mice overexpressing SOD-1 (Tg-SOD) have a higher angiogenic potential and that DSF inhibits SOD-1, induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in endothelial cells in vitro, and inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in vivo ( 6 , 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Here, we subjected male and female 5-HT 3A knockout mice and their non-transgenic littermates to several tests of social behavior. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, IL-4 transgenic resistant mice expressing low levels of this cytokine fail to clear the infection (17,18). (scielo.br)
  • We evaluated the role of CFTR in clearing P. aeruginosa from the respiratory tract using transgenic CF mice that carried either the ΔF508 Cftr allele or an allele with a Cftr stop codon (S489X). (jimmunol.org)
  • Thus, transgenic CF mice exhibit decreased clearance of P. aeruginosa and increased bacterial burdens in the lung, substantiating a key role for CFTR-mediated bacterial ingestion in lung clearance of P. aeruginosa . (jimmunol.org)
  • Our previous attempts to demonstrate a defect in P. aeruginosa clearance using intranasal infection of neonatal transgenic CF mice were not successful ( 1 ), a failure we attributed to the noninbred nature of the mice we were using. (jimmunol.org)
  • This notion has been supported by classical experiments which established that T cell-deficient mice rapidly succumb after inoculation with any one of several species of Leishmania , and that transfer of normal T cells confers resistance to the animals (1-3). (scielo.br)
  • IL-1RI −/− mice had significantly reduced survival compared to WT mice after intratracheal challenge with C. neoformans 52D. (frontiersin.org)
  • The percent CD3+ T cells, both effector (CD4+Foxp3−) and regulator (CD4+Foxp3+) T cells, cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, natural killer cells (NK1.1+), gamma delta (γδ+) T cells, CD11c+ dentritic cells, and CD19+ B cells were significantly increased in fibrotic kidneys compared to contralateral kidneys in WT mice (Fig. 4a). (nih.gov)
  • Elevated production of angiogenic factors locally in islet grafts is shown to promote graft angiogenesis and enhance islet revascularization, contributing to significantly improved glycemic control and better preservation of islet mass in diabetic recipient mice ( 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 17 ) used a different approach by which murine islets were embedded in VEGF-containing collagen and encapsulated before transplantation into the peritoneal cavity, showing that local VEGF release from encapsulated islet grafts significantly increased the viability of transplanted islets, resulting in sustained physiological glycemic control in diabetic mice. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Susceptible C3H/HeJ mice had markedly higher burdens of bacterial DNA than resistant BALB/c mice, and penicillin G treatment significantly reduced the numbers of spirochetes. (asm.org)
  • Given its lack of functional T lymphocytes, due to a failure in thymus development, mice carrying the Foxn1(Δ/Δ) mutation (nude mice) have been traditionally used in studies including implantation of xenogeneic tumors. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • A genome-wide scan was performed of selected albino and non-albino mice to determine quantitative trait loci associated with weight and avascular area. (molvis.org)
  • Previously, in a whole genome scan, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on chromosome 10 and chromosome X that affect intermale aggressive behaviors in a cross of NZB/B1NJ and A/J inbred mice (Brodkin et al. (upenn.edu)
  • Using site-directed mutagenesis and an expression system reproducing c-fos gene transient expression in transfected cells, we have analysed the turnover of c-Fos mutants deleted of the various PEST sequences in synchronized mouse embryo fibroblasts. (cnrs.fr)
  • A similar method was developed to quantify mouse actin genomic sequences to allow for the standardization of spirochete load. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, mice with genotype Eya1 bor/bor Mead3CAST/CAST exhibit incomplete penetrance (50%) and a wide range of cochlear coiling (1/4-1½ turns). (deepdyve.com)
  • By contrast, BALB/c mice are highly susceptible to infection with these organisms (12,13). (scielo.br)
  • By contrast, BALB/c mice develop a typical Th2 response. (scielo.br)
  • In contrast, susceptible BALB/c mice mount a TH2 response and show macrophage deactivation leading to parasite dissemination and severe progressive disease ( 8 , 19 , 28 , 38 ). (asm.org)
  • In contrast, diabetic mice receiving an equivalent islet mass pretransduced with control vector remained hyperglycemic. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In contrast, no reduction in Fr98-induced disease was observed in CCR5 knockout mice. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, using knockout mice, one can eliminate entire pathways by eliminating an individual ligand or its receptor. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, AP-Variant 1 does not infect the white-footed mouse, DBA/2, and severely immunocompromised (SCID) mice ( 8 ). (cdc.gov)
  • To study the mechanisms that regulate the contraction of intrapulmonary arteriole SMCs, the contractile and Ca 2+ responses of the arteriole SMCs to 5-hydroxytrypamine (5-HT) and KCl were observed with phase-contrast and scanning confocal microscopy in thin lung slices cut from mouse lungs stiffened with agarose and gelatin. (rupress.org)
  • These methods for recording vagus neurogram in mice provide a useful tool to further delineate the role of vagus neural pathways in a standardized murine disease model. (springer.com)
  • Monoclonal antibody (MAb) 667 is a neutralizing mouse monoclonal antibody recognizing the envelope glycoprotein (Env) of the ecotropic neurotropic murine retrovirus CasBrE but not that of other murine retroviruses. (cnrs.fr)
  • In the present study, we used knockout mice deficient in chemokine receptors CCR2 and CCR5 to analyze the role of certain chemokines in a non-lymphocyte-mediated neurological disease induced by the murine retrovirus, Fr98. (asm.org)
  • Infection of newborn mice with the murine polytropic retrovirus, Fr98, causes a neurological disease characterized by the development of severe ataxia, seizures, and ultimately death ( 26 ). (asm.org)
  • Balb/C, C3H, DBA/2) are also highly susceptible to infection ( 1 , 6 , 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Also classified as an inbred from the production of 20 or more successive brother-sister matings, Balb/c mice are albino and small in size. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • Our analysis indicates that it is only partly true that the genomes of inbred strains exist as a patchwork of segments of sequence identity and difference. (pnas.org)
  • A new set of studies in our laboratory is aimed at elucidating the brain pathways that underlie this reduced sociability of BALB/cJ mice. (upenn.edu)
  • Friedman, Rick 2008-10-04 00:00:00 Mice homozygous for the hypomorphic allele Eya1 bor exhibit cochlear aplasia, with associated deafness, and renal hypoplasia, similar to Branchio-Oto-Renal syndrome (BOR) in humans. (deepdyve.com)
  • The move away from these species into scientific experimentation on mice was driven by humans' desire to better understand ourselves. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This study describes the clinical and pathological findings of mice infected with WEEV by the aerosol route, and use as a model for WEEV infection in humans. (mdpi.com)
  • These data demonstrate that NK cells and NKT cells are the most abundant IFN-gamma-producing cells in the mouse spleen after LPS challenge and that IL-10 and IL-12 are key functional regulators of LPS-induced IFN-gamma production. (labome.org)
  • IMQ-induced dermatitis was partially dependent on the presence of T cells, whereas disease development was almost completely blocked in mice deficient for IL-23 or the IL-17 receptor, demonstrating a pivotal role of the IL-23/IL-17 axis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Nude mouse tumours produced by injection of these cells exhibited a higher fraction of cells containing the mutant ras gene that did the injected cells, while a subclone that lacked the ras mutation was much less tumorigenic than parental cells. (nih.gov)
  • Using an age-appropriate mouse model of RSV, we show that IL-33 plays a critical role in the immunopathogenesis of severe RSV, which is associated with higher group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) specifically in neonates. (nih.gov)
  • Recently, it was shown that the 5-HT 3 receptor is also expressed on Cajal-Retzius cells which play a key role in cortical development and that knockout mice lacking this receptor showed aberrant growth of the dendritic tree of cortical layer II/III pyramidal neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • These conclusions were reached on the basis of a series of elegant experiments using mice genetically engineered to lack either major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I or class II molecules, or mice lacking CD4 + or CD8 + T cells (4-11). (scielo.br)
  • Microscopy of infected mouse and rhesus monkey tracheas clearly demonstrated ingestion of P. aeruginosa by epithelial cells in wild-type animals, mostly around injured areas of the epithelium. (jimmunol.org)
  • Here, we show that CD1d-restricted glycolipid ligands for iNKT cells effectively substitute for anti-CD40 mAb and reject established experimental mouse breast and renal tumors when used in combination with anti-DR5 and anti-4-1BB mAbs (termed "NKTMab" therapy). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have shown that anti-mouse DR5 mAb generated adaptive tumor-specific immunity, and we hypothesized that additionally maturing dendritic cells and costimulating CTL might potentially result in an even more effective cancer therapy than anti-DR5 mAb alone. (aacrjournals.org)
  • More recently members of the same group ( 13 ) studying mice with constitutive activation of human Smo under control of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter, found that mammary ductal cells showed increased proliferation, altered differentiation, and developed ductal dysplasias. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Sixty female inbred BALB/c mice were subjected to breast cancer by injection of 4T1 cells. (omicsonline.org)
  • The specificity and sensitivity of the B. burgdorferi and the actin real-time PCR were not altered when samples were spiked with mouse cells or spirochetes, respectively. (asm.org)
  • This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to violetFluor™ 500 and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells. (cellsignal.com)
  • Fluorescent microvessels were recorded in anesthetized wild-type and plt/plt mice after intravenous injection of 75 μg anti-mouse TCA-4 mAb FITC-4B1. (nih.gov)
  • c ) Comparison of i.p. and i.v. routes of injection in the BALB/cJ mouse. (jci.org)
  • The Brodkin laboratory studies the neurobiology and genomics of social behavior development in mouse models relevant to autism. (upenn.edu)
  • Social behavior phenotypes in fragile X syndrome, autism, and the Fmr1 knockout mouse: Theoretical comment on McNaughton et al. (upenn.edu)
  • Digitized QuickTime™ videos showing characteristic scenes from intravital microscopy experiments of TGFP cell behavior and TCA-4 staining in wild-type and plt/plt mice are available at http://www.jem.org/cgi/content/full/191/1/61/DC1 (see legends to Fig. 2, Fig. 4, Fig. 6, and Fig. 7). (nih.gov)
  • So far, analysis of the 5-HT 3A knockout mouse revealed changes in nociceptive processing and a reduction in anxiety related behavior. (frontiersin.org)
  • Other mouse models in which serotonergic signaling was disrupted during development showed similar morphological changes in the cortex, and in addition, also deficits in social behavior. (frontiersin.org)
  • Apart from a decreased sensitivity to formalin induced pain, 5-HT 3A knockout mice did not exhibit abnormalities in body weight, food, or water intake, sexual behavior, or motor function during rotarod performance. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this study, we sought to determine whether the 5-HT 3A receptor knockout mouse displays similar forms of impaired social behavior. (frontiersin.org)
  • Values (mean ± SEM) are shown for BALB in shoebox cages, 3-month timeframe, except that behavior is shown for 8-month timeframe. (nih.gov)
  • Behavior in a mouse model of isolates of Leishmania donovani sensu lato cultured from the blood of patients with chronic cutaneous lesions. (ajtmh.org)
  • Mice heterozygous for the Bdnf tm1Jae mutation show about 1/2 normal levels of Bdnf mRNA, but appear normal. (jax.org)
  • Mice homozygous for the Bdnf tm1Jae mutation are smaller than normal siblings and most die within the second postnatal week. (jax.org)
  • The study identified a mouse carrying a missense gain-of-function mutation in NLRP1A (Q593P) that active inflammasome responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell-mediated immune function of cold-adapted BALB/c inbred mice was studied in experiments of splenic lymphocyte blastogenesis, indicated by tritium-labeled deoxythymidine incorporation and SDS-PAGE autoradiography of synthetic proteins in lymphocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We report a detailed analysis of polymorphism distribution in multiple inbred mouse strains over a 4.8-megabase region containing a QTL influencing anxiety. (pnas.org)
  • Electrophoretic surveys of hemoglobin polymorphism among inbred strains of house mice have revealed two main β-globin variants, HBB-S and HBB-D. Strains that carry the Hbb s haplotype ( e.g . (genetics.org)
  • Moreover, elevated levels of antibodies against immunoglobulins, type II collagen, and double-stranded DNA were detected in these mice, suggesting development of autoimmunity. (rupress.org)
  • 1996). When mice were infected with rotavirus, NSP4-specific Immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies were generated in response to mucosal immunisation and transcytosed from the basal lamina into the mucosal epithelium (Gebert 1997). (scielo.org.za)
  • Further, orally immunised mice produced maternal antibodies against NSP4, generating passive protection in newborn mouse pups against rotavirus challenge (Ward, Rich & Besser 1996). (scielo.org.za)
  • In addition, targeted disruption of the IL-4 gene in BALB/c mice causes these animals, which are otherwise susceptible to infection with L. major , to become highly resistant to these organisms (19). (scielo.br)
  • Strikingly, infection of recently immunized genetically resistant mice with the virus expressing IL-4 also resulted in significant mortality due to fulminant mousepox. (asm.org)
  • Mousepox-resistant mice also display the early activation of a strong virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response ( 20 , 32 ) and produce high levels of type 1 cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-12, IFN-γ, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in response to ECTV infection, whereas these factors are absent or produced at low levels in susceptible mice ( 19 , 36 ). (asm.org)
  • Yoshida T, Yoshida S, Kobayashi M, Herndon D, Suzuki F. Pivotal advance: glycyrrhizin restores the impaired production of beta-defensins in tissues surrounding the burn area and improves the resistance of burn mice to Pseudomonas aeruginosa wound infection. (labome.org)
  • We also offer ready-to-use knockout mouse models for in vivo studies through our collaboration with genOway. (criver.com)
  • Importantly, vaccination did not affect fertility or induce autoimmune abnormalities in mice. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The investigator must recognize that the described ophthalmic abnormalities represent a background feature of inbred black mice in order to avoid incorrect interpretation of experiments that involve the eyes in these mice. (jax.org)
  • Early reports suggesting Hh signaling may contribute to breast carcinogenesis came through the studies of Lewis and colleagues in mice with heterozygous disruption of Ptch1 which showed marked abnormalities in mammary ductal structures resulting in hyperplasias and dysplasias similar to human breast lesions ( 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Disruption of this gene in mice resulted in abnormal embryonic blood vessel formation. (cancerindex.org)
  • For virtually every mouse gene, there is a homologous human gene, and vice versa. (upenn.edu)
  • We also are using single-gene mutant mice (e.g. knockouts) to dissect pathways that mediate aggressive behaviors. (upenn.edu)
  • Mice have three paralogs of the Nlrp1 gene (Nlrp1a, b, c). (wikipedia.org)
  • In fluoxetine-treated mice, HDAC inhibitors increased enrichment of acetylated histone H4 protein and RNA polymerase II at promotor 3 of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) gene and increased Bdnf transcription from this promotor. (nature.com)
  • Imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation in mice is mediated via the IL-23/IL-17 axis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here, we show that CTLA4 insufficiency initiates de novo tumorigenesis in the mouse stomach through inflammation triggered by host-intrinsic immune dysregulation rather than microbiota, with age-associated progression to malignancy accompanied by epigenetic dysregulation. (rupress.org)
  • This approach intends to add new data on the helminth parasites of laboratory mice, since these investigations have arised a great interest and also, taking into account that these hosts as experimental animal models, are widely utilized in the evaluation of several biological parameters. (scielo.br)
  • Albino stock acquired by H. Bagg in 1913 and therefore called "Bagg albino" or BALB. (envigo.com)
  • We also examined thymocyte apoptosis and spleen PFCs in mice subjected to other stress-inducing pretreatments. (nih.gov)
  • Timed histopathological analysis identified bone marrow, spleen, and liver as major affected organs in both mouse strains. (jci.org)
  • BALB/c) mice, the disease is an acute systemic infection with high viral titers in the liver and spleen with resultant necrosis and high mortality. (asm.org)
  • This hypothesis has previously been tested in mouse infection trials that administered either purified bacterial ligand (outer-core LPS oligosaccharide) ( 2 , 3 ) or synthetic CFTR peptide 103-117 ( 1 ) along with a bacterial inoculum applied to the nares of neonatal wild-type BALB/c mice to inhibit CFTR-mediated uptake of P. aeruginosa . (jimmunol.org)
  • Recent work ( 6 ) has shown that translocation of an intranasal inoculum of P. aeruginosa to the lungs immediately following infection was very low in neonatal mice compared with anesthetized adult mice, likely underlying our previous inability to use neonatal mice to compare P. aeruginosa clearance in wild-type and CF mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • Together, these results demonstrate that PRCs are powerful tools for predicting and understanding photic entrainment of circadian mutant mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • Since the immune system is able to modulate the circadian clock, we investigated if there were alterations in the circadian system of the athymic mutant mice. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • Tigabu B, Juelich T, Holbrook M. Comparative analysis of immune responses to Russian spring-summer encephalitis and Omsk hemorrhagic fever viruses in mouse models. (labome.org)
  • Enhancement of cellular immune function during cold adaptation of BALB/c inbred mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We assayed by flow cytometry and immunostaining the differential composition of the immune infiltrate in WT and TwistcKO UUO kidneys compared to contralateral and to kidneys from healthy mice. (nih.gov)
  • 3. Comparative assays in mice and in guinea-pigs of two tetanus toxoid preparations. (nih.gov)
  • We then proved the screen could be successful in identifying anti-metastatic compounds active in vivo by performing orthotopic tumor implantation assays in mice. (zfin.org)
  • Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence analyses of tumors from vaccinated mice showed CD8(+) T-cell infiltration, and real-time PCR demonstrated increased mRNA and protein levels of immunostimulatory cytokines. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Most QTL are mapped in F2 or back-crosses between inbred strains, a method with great power to detect small effects but with poor resolution: The 95% confidence interval often encompasses half a chromosome ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • The evidence presented shows that LT kills mice through a TNF-α-independent, FasL-independent, noninflammatory mechanism that involves hypoxic tissue injury but does not require macrophage sensitivity to toxin. (jci.org)
  • Mouse NLRP1B is not activated by a receptor-ligand type mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effect of5α-DHT on protein secretion by peritoneal macrophages of NZBBALBc mice was investigated using radiolabelledprotein secretion following SDS-PAGE and Fluorography. (medscimonit.com)
  • In addition, some recently developed laboratory mouse strains are derived wholly from other Mus species or other subspecies, such as M. spretus ). (jax.org)
  • To evaluate the effect of increased mouse density in a cage, mice were housed at the density recommended by the 1996 Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and at densities that were approximately 2, 2.6, and 3 times greater. (nih.gov)
  • The white-footed mouse serves as a natural reservoir for AP-ha, and laboratory studies have shown that numerous inbred strains of mice (e.g. (cdc.gov)
  • family Poxviridae , genus Orthopoxvirus ) is a natural pathogen of laboratory mice that causes a generalized disease termed mousepox ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • In 1902, a period of newfound popularity for the "fancy mouse" - specially bred mice as pets, rather than pantry scourge - the early geneticist William Ernest Castle introduced the fancy mouse to his laboratory at Harvard University in Cambridge, MA. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Briefly one hundred and twenty Balb/c mice were randomly divided into four groups as LT, LB, LBT and control groups. (omicsonline.org)
  • Because the primary symptoms of autism and fragile X differ in qualitative features, and mouse models of autism and fragile X display sharply divergent phenotypes, testing mGluR5 antagonists in specific assays of mouse behavioral phenotypes that optimize relevance to the diagnostic symptoms of autism would be most informative for translational goals. (sciencemag.org)
  • General activity circadian rhythms in 2-4 month-old Foxn1(Δ/Δ) mice (from Swiss Webster background) and their corresponding wild type (WT) controls was recorded. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • LT toxicity in inbred mice. (jci.org)

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