Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Cell lines developed from disaggregated BALB/c mouse embryos. They are extremely sensitive to CONTACT INHIBITION, and highly susceptible to transformation by SV40 VIRUS and murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE).
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.

Effect of morphine and naloxone on priming-induced audiogenic seizures in BALB/c mice. (1/47697)

1 Morphine (1-200 mg/kg s.c.) reduced the incidence and prolonged the latency of priming-induced audiogenic siezures in a dose-dependent manner. 2 This effect was reversed by naloxone (1 and 2 mg/kg) although naloxone was itself inactive. 3 This priming-induces seizure model may be useful in the study of tolerance and physical dependence.  (+info)

Differences in benzo(a)pyrene metabolism between rodent liver microsomes and embryonic cells. (2/47697)

Differences in benzo(a)pyrene metabolite pattern have been shown by rodent liver microsomes (Sprague-Dawley) and rodent embryo cells from Syrian hamsters and NIH Swiss mice. Rodent liver induced by methylcholanthrene shows marked quantitative variation between species. Additional pattern changes were found in mouse and hamster embryo secondary cultures with a reduction of the K-region metabolites and a marked increase in 9-hydroxybenzo(a)-pyrene. These results are indicative of a region-specific attack on the carcinogen by the cell monooxygenases which is distinct from the liver attack of microsomal enzymes on benzo(a)pyrene. These results suggest that activation and detoxification of benzo(a)pyrene may be species and tissue variable, and susceptibility and resistence to malignant transformation may be predicted on induction of a fortuitous combination of intermediate metabolic steps.  (+info)

Stimulation of thymidine uptake and cell proliferation in mouse embryo fibroblasts by conditioned medium from mammary cells in culture. (3/47697)

Undialyzed conditioned medium from several cell culture sources did not stimulate thymidine incorporation or cell overgrowth in quiescent, density-inhibited mouse embryo fibroblast cells. However, dialyzed conditioned medium (DCM) from clonal mouse mammary cell lines MCG-V14, MCG-T14, MCG-T10; HeLa cells; primary mouse adenocarcinoma cells; and BALB/c normal mouse mammary epithelial cells promoted growth in quiescent fibroblasts. The amount of growth-promoting activity produced per cell varied from 24% (HeLa) to 213% (MCG-V14) of the activity produced by primary tumor cells. The production of growth-promoting activity was not unique to tumor-derived cells or cells of high tumorigenicity. The amount of growth-promoting activity produced per cell in the active cultures was not correlated with any of the following: tumorigenicity, growth rat, cell density achieved at saturation, cell type, or species of cell origin. It is concluded that transformed and non-transformed cells of diverse origin, cell type, and tumorigenicity can produce growth factors in culture. The growth-promoting potential of the active media from primary tumor cultures accumulated with time of contact with cells and was too great to be accounted for entirely by the removal of low-molecular-weight inhibitors by dialysis. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that conditioned medium from the active cultures contained a dialyzable, growth-promoting activity. Different cell lines exhibited differential sensitivity to tumor cell DCM and fetal bovine serum. Furthermore, quiescent fibroblasts were stimulated by primary tumor cell DCM in the presence of saturating concentrations of fetal bovine serum. These observations support the notion that the active growth-promoting principle in primary tumor cell DCM may not be a serum factor(s).  (+info)

Suppression of Moloney sarcoma virus immunity following sensitization with attenuated virus. (4/47697)

Murine sarcoma virus (Moloney strain) (MSV-M)-induced tumors are unusual in that they regularly appear less than 2 weeks after virus inoculation, progress for 1 to 2 weeks, and are rejected by normal adult BALB/c mice. Rejectio leaves the animals immune to tumor induction. In the present study, presensitization of normal adult BALB/c mice with attenuated MSV-M resulted in an altered pattern of tumor immunity. Injection of active MSV-M into the presensitized animals resulted in tumor induction and rejection similar to that observed in normal animals, but rejection failed to produce protection against the secondary inoculation with MSV-M. After the second inoculation with active MSV-M, tumors appeared and progressed but ultimately were rejected. Over 80% of the mice died, 25% after the primary challenge and the remainder after the secondary challenge. At death, all mice had histological evidence of leukemia which was the probable cause of death. The animals that died following the secondary challenge also had evidence of disseminated MSV-M. Solid tumor nodules were found in skeletal muscle distant from the original site of inoculation, and active MSV-M was isolated from spleen and lungs. The possibility that the results were produced by specific suppression of MSV-Moloney leukemia virus immunity is discussed.  (+info)

Blood thymidine level and iododeoxyuridine incorporation and reutilization in DNA in mice given long-acting thymidine pellets. (5/47697)

A long-acting thymidine pellet consisting of 190 mg of cholesterol and 60 mg of thymidine has been developed for the study of thymidine metabolism and reutilization in vivo. Implantation of such a pellet s.c. in adult mice will maintain the blood plasma concentration of thymidine at levels between 40 and 8 X 10(-6) M, which are from 36 to 7 times those of normal mice, for periods up to 48 hr. During this period, in vivo uptake and reutilization of [125I]iododeoxyuridine, a thymidine analog, into intestinal and tumor DNA were almost completely suppressed. While iododeoxyuridine reutilization is not large in normal proliferative tissue even in the absence of pellet implants, reutilization of over 30% was measured in large, rapidly growing ascites tumors. The inhibition of iododeoxyuridine incorporation by elevated thymidine blood levels is directly proportional to serum concentration. This appears to be due to a thymidine pool in rapid equilibrium with blood thymidine. This pool is at least 10 times larger than the 4-nmole pool of extracellular thymidine.  (+info)

Interleukin-8 receptor modulates IgE production and B-cell expansion and trafficking in allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation. (6/47697)

We examined the role of the interleukin-8 (IL-8) receptor in a murine model of allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation using mice with a targeted deletion of the murine IL-8 receptor homologue (IL-8r-/-). Wild-type (Wt) and IL-8r-/- mice were systemically immunized to ovalbumin (OVA) and were exposed with either single or multiple challenge of aerosolized phosphate-buffered saline (OVA/PBS) or OVA (OVA/OVA). Analysis of cells recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) revealed a diminished recruitment of neutrophils to the airway lumen after single challenge in IL-8r-/- mice compared with Wt mice, whereas multiply challenged IL-8r-/- mice had increased B cells and fewer neutrophils compared with Wt mice. Both Wt and IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice recruited similar numbers of eosinophils to the BAL fluid and exhibited comparable degrees of pulmonary inflammation histologically. Both total and OVA-specific IgE levels were greater in multiply challenged IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice than in Wt mice. Both the IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA and OVA/PBS mice were significantly less responsive to methacholine than their respective Wt groups, but both Wt and IL-8r mice showed similar degrees of enhancement after multiple allergen challenge. The data demonstrate that the IL-8r modulates IgE production, airway responsiveness, and the composition of the cells (B cells and neutrophils) recruited to the airway lumen in response to antigen.  (+info)

11q23.1 and 11q25-qter YACs suppress tumour growth in vivo. (7/47697)

Frequent allelic deletion at chromosome 11q22-q23.1 has been described in breast cancer and a number of other malignancies, suggesting putative tumour suppressor gene(s) within the approximately 8 Mb deleted region. In addition, we recently described another locus, at the 11q25-qter region, frequently deleted in breast cancer, suggesting additional tumour suppressor gene(s) in this approximately 2 Mb deleted region. An 11q YAC contig was accessed and three YACs, one containing the candidate gene ATM at 11q23.1, and two contiguous YACs (overlapping for approximately 400-600 kb) overlying most of the 11q25 deleted region, were retrofitted with a G418 resistance marker and transfected into murine A9 fibrosarcoma cells. Selected A9 transfectant clones (and control untransfected and 'irrelevant' alphoid YAC transfectant A9 clones) were assayed for in vivo tumorigenicity in athymic female Balb c-nu/nu mice. All the 11q YAC transfectant clones demonstrated significant tumour suppression compared to the control untransfected and 'irrelevant' YAC transfected A9 cells. These results define two discrete tumour suppressor loci on chromosome 11q by functional complementation, one to a approximately 1.2 Mb region on 11q23.1 (containing the ATM locus) and another to a approximately 400-600 kb subterminal region on 11q25-qter.  (+info)

A cytomegalovirus glycoprotein re-routes MHC class I complexes to lysosomes for degradation. (8/47697)

Mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) early gene expression interferes with the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) pathway of antigen presentation. Here we identify a 48 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein encoded by the MCMV early gene m06, which tightly binds to properly folded beta2-microglobulin (beta2m)-associated MHC class I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This association is mediated by the lumenal/transmembrane part of the protein. gp48-MHC class I complexes are transported out of the ER, pass the Golgi, but instead of being expressed on the cell surface, they are redirected to the endocytic route and rapidly degraded in a Lamp-1(+) compartment. As a result, m06-expressing cells are impaired in presenting antigenic peptides to CD8(+) T cells. The cytoplasmic tail of gp48 contains two di-leucine motifs. Mutation of the membrane-proximal di-leucine motif of gp48 restored surface expression of MHC class I, while mutation of the distal one had no effect. The results establish a novel viral mechanism for downregulation of MHC class I molecules by directly binding surface-destined MHC complexes and exploiting the cellular di-leucine sorting machinery for lysosomal degradation.  (+info)

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

BALB 3T3 cells are a type of cell line that is derived from mouse embryo fibroblasts. They are commonly used in scientific research, particularly in studies related to cell biology, toxicology, and cancer. BALB 3T3 cells are easy to grow and maintain in culture, making them a convenient tool for researchers.

The name "BALB 3T3" is derived from the strain of mouse (BALB/c) from which the cells were originally isolated, and the fact that they are transformed (immortalized) cells (the "3T" designation). These cells have been widely used in a variety of experiments, including studies on cell proliferation, differentiation, and gene expression. They have also been used to develop assays for measuring the cytotoxicity of chemicals and drugs.

It is important to note that while BALB 3T3 cells are useful for research purposes, they may not always accurately reflect the behavior of human cells or tissues. Therefore, findings from studies using these cells should be interpreted with caution and validated in more complex models when possible.

The spleen is an organ in the upper left side of the abdomen, next to the stomach and behind the ribs. It plays multiple supporting roles in the body:

1. It fights infection by acting as a filter for the blood. Old red blood cells are recycled in the spleen, and platelets and white blood cells are stored there.
2. The spleen also helps to control the amount of blood in the body by removing excess red blood cells and storing platelets.
3. It has an important role in immune function, producing antibodies and removing microorganisms and damaged red blood cells from the bloodstream.

The spleen can be removed without causing any significant problems, as other organs take over its functions. This is known as a splenectomy and may be necessary if the spleen is damaged or diseased.

Inbred strains of mice are defined as lines of mice that have been brother-sister mated for at least 20 consecutive generations. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the mice of an inbred strain are genetically identical to one another, with the exception of spontaneous mutations.

Inbred strains of mice are widely used in biomedical research due to their genetic uniformity and stability, which makes them useful for studying the genetic basis of various traits, diseases, and biological processes. They also provide a consistent and reproducible experimental system, as compared to outbred or genetically heterogeneous populations.

Some commonly used inbred strains of mice include C57BL/6J, BALB/cByJ, DBA/2J, and 129SvEv. Each strain has its own unique genetic background and phenotypic characteristics, which can influence the results of experiments. Therefore, it is important to choose the appropriate inbred strain for a given research question.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

"Leishmania major" is a species of parasitic protozoan that causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, a type of disease transmitted through the bite of infected female sandflies. The organism's life cycle involves two main stages: the promastigote stage, which develops in the sandfly vector and is infective to mammalian hosts; and the amastigote stage, which resides inside host cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells, where it replicates.

The disease caused by L. major typically results in skin ulcers or lesions that can take several months to heal and may leave permanent scars. While not usually life-threatening, cutaneous leishmaniasis can cause significant disfigurement and psychological distress, particularly when it affects the face. In addition, people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or those undergoing immunosuppressive therapy, may be at risk of developing more severe forms of the disease.

L. major is found primarily in the Old World, including parts of North Africa, the Middle East, and Central Asia. It is transmitted by various species of sandflies belonging to the genus Phlebotomus. Preventive measures include using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and reducing outdoor activities during peak sandfly feeding times.

"BALB/c". Inbred Strains of Mice. Jackson Laboratory. Retrieved 2007-04-16. "BALB/cByJ". Jax Mice Data Sheet. Jackson Laboratory ... When compared directly to BALB/c mice, C57BL/6 mice also express both a robust response to social rewards and empathy. BALB/c ... BALB/c mice are distributed globally and are among the most widely used inbred strains used in animal experimentation. BALB/c ... inbred mouse strain and initiated the systematic generation of inbred strains. The mouse has since been used extensively as a ...
Schwartz WJ, Zimmerman P. Circadian timekeeping in BALB/c and C57BL/6 inbred mouse strains. J Neurosci. 1990; 10: 3685-3694. ...
Mouse NLRP1B is not activated by a receptor-ligand type mechanism. NLRP1B variants from certain inbred mouse strains, BALB/c ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Thorpe KL, Abdulla ... Mice have three paralogs of the Nlrp1 gene (Nlrp1a, b, c). Nlrp1c is a pseudogene. ... Polymorphisms of NLRP1 were found in lupus erythematosus and diabetes type 1. Variants of mouse NLRP1 were found to be ...
Some inbred laboratory mouse strains, such as BALB/c and C57BL/6, also have different proteins expressed in their urine. ... using white-footed mice, it was found that when mice derived from wild populations were inbred, there was reduced survival when ... Wild mice breeding freely in semi-natural enclosures showed inbreeding avoidance. This avoidance resulted from a strong deficit ... These findings suggest that inbreeding reduces fitness, and that scent signal recognition has evolved in mice as a means of ...
1985 - Started producing BALB/c mice. 1991 - Became the first commercial provider of the C.B-17 SCID mouse model. 1994 - ... Contracted with National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Disease to maintain a repository of inbred, congenic, and ... "Mice in microgravity: how rodent research in space accelerates study timelines". outsourcing-pharma.com. Retrieved 9 June 2017 ... They continue to supply NCI with BDF1 mice. 1975 - Began offering the SHR hypertensive rat and the WKY control strain. 1980 - ...
... and only three un-pedigreed mice remained alive. Soon after World War I, inbreeding in mice was started on a much larger scale ... A/J C3H C57BL/6 CBA DBA/2 BALB/c G. M. Rommel first started conducting inbreeding experiments on guinea pigs in 1906. Strain 2 ... "The period before World War I led to the initiation of inbreeding in rats by Dr Helen King in about 1909 and in mice by Dr C. C ... A genealogical chart of mouse inbred strains can be found here on the Jackson Laboratory website and is currently being ...
Mice of the inbred strain BALB/c were immunized with recombinant human CD28-Fc fusion proteins and boosted with a B lymphoma ... Animal trials on mice were not necessarily predictive of human responses, as it would require a much greater dosage to get the ... In 2016, a study carried out on humanized mice evaluated TGN1412's effects on the immune system, and confirmed that it could ... The more active of the two, 5.11A1, is a mouse IgG1 immunoglobulin. The complementarity-determining regions of 5.11A1 were ...
... mice, inbred a MeSH B01.050.157.520.318 - mice, inbred akr MeSH B01.050.157.520.338 - mice, inbred balb c MeSH B01.050.157.520. ... mice, inbred a MeSH B01.050.199.520.520.318 - mice, inbred akr MeSH B01.050.199.520.520.338 - mice, inbred balb c MeSH B01.050. ... mice, inbred mdx MeSH B01.050.157.520.440 - mice, inbred cba MeSH B01.050.157.520.445 - mice, inbred cftr MeSH B01.050.157.520. ... mice, inbred hrs MeSH B01.050.157.520.510 - mice, inbred icr MeSH B01.050.157.520.555 - mice, inbred mrl lpr MeSH B01.050. ...
In the case of a typical mouse recombinant inbred strain made by crossing maternal strain BALB/cBy (C) with paternal strain ... Recombinant inbred strains or lines were first developed using inbred strains of mice but are now used to study a wide range of ... pairs of the F2 progeny are then mated to establish inbred strains through long-term inbreeding. Families of recombinant inbred ... Williams RW, Gu J, Qi S, Lu L (2001). "The genetic structure of recombinant inbred mice: high-resolution consensus maps for ...
Examples include the BALB/c mouse and Wistar and Sprague Dawley rat strains, laboratory rabbits and ferrets. Some researchers ... Familiar albino animals include in-bred strains of laboratory animals (rats, mice and rabbits), but populations of naturally ... In mice, a total of 100 genes are known to affect albinism. Most forms of albinism follow a recessive pattern of inheritance. ... Brilliant, Murray H. (2001). "The Mouse p (pink-eyed dilution) and Human P Genes, Oculocutaneous Albinism Type 2 (OCA2), and ...
"Dirty" mice are possibly better suitable for mimicking human pathologies. In addition, inbred mouse strains are used in the ... Animal testing Animal model BALB/c C57BL/6 Fe, Fi, Fo, Fum, and Phooey, five mice who orbited the Moon in 1972 Mouse models of ... Mice differ from humans in several immune properties: mice are more resistant to some toxins than humans; have a lower total ... Thirty to fifty live mice are normally born from this number of injected blastocysts. Normally, the skin color of the mice from ...
... several strains of mice (including BALB/c mice) and in three common monkey species. In addition to natural killer cells being ... Smith HJ (December 1966). "Antigenicity of carcinogen-induced and spontaneous tumours in inbred mice". British Journal of ... in the mouse, and by Hugh Pross and doctoral student Mikael Jondal in the human. The mouse and human work was carried out under ... In both mice and humans, NKs can be seen to play a role in tumor immunosurveillance by directly inducing the death of tumor ...
Mice - Mice, Inbred BALB C PubMed MeSh Term *Overview. Overview. subject area of * ANTIBODY-MEDIATED AUTOIMMUNE MYOCARDITIS ... Social approach, anxiety, and altered tryptophan hydroxylase 2 activity in juvenile BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice Journal Article ... Whole-Genome Sequencing of Inbred Mouse Strains Selected for High and Low Open-Field Activity Journal Article ... Antibody Responses in Mice to Particles Formed from Adsorption of a Murine Monoclonal Antibody onto Glass Microparticles ...
Selective inbreeding does not increase gut microbiota similarity in BALB/c mice. Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift › ... Increased gut microbiota similarity in closely related mice in inbred mouse colonies is, therefore, more likely to be caused by ... BALB/cCrl mice were, however, found to have a mean heterozygosity of only 0.8% in their genome, and selection of breeders with ... Inflammatory diseases in mouse models are under strong impact from the gut microbiota. Therefore increased interindividual gut ...
"BALB/c". Inbred Strains of Mice. Jackson Laboratory. Retrieved 2007-04-16. "BALB/cByJ". Jax Mice Data Sheet. Jackson Laboratory ... When compared directly to BALB/c mice, C57BL/6 mice also express both a robust response to social rewards and empathy. BALB/c ... BALB/c mice are distributed globally and are among the most widely used inbred strains used in animal experimentation. BALB/c ... inbred mouse strain and initiated the systematic generation of inbred strains. The mouse has since been used extensively as a ...
Mice, Inbred BALB C * Mice, Nude * Neoplasm Transplantation * Neuroblastoma / metabolism* * Neuroblastoma / pathology ... and healthy mice. TRA was visualized in vivo by nitroxide-enhanced MRI on anesthetized animals or in vitro by electron ...
... cells with different cytokine productions develop in the mouse thymus, but the factors driving their differentiation remain ... Mice, Inbred BALB C * Mutation / genetics* * Natural Killer T-Cells / immunology* * Organ Culture Techniques ... Zap70 mutant mice develop IL-17-dependent arthritis. In a mouse experimental arthritis model, NKT17 cells are increased as the ... Various subsets of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells with different cytokine productions develop in the mouse thymus, but ...
View mouse strain BALB/cAnNHsd : mutations, QTL, phenotypes, diseases, and references. ... Mouse Genome Database (MGD), Gene Expression Database (GXD), Mouse Models of Human Cancer database (MMHCdb) (formerly Mouse ...
Mice, Inbred BALB C. *Cytokines. *Neoplasm Proteins. *Biomarkers, Tumor. *Case-Control Studies ... formed fewer metastases in livers of p300F/Fcre mice than control mice. Expression of p300 was increased in livers of mice ... The BrafV637E mutation is frequently reported in mouse hepatic tumors, depending on the mouse strain, and corresponds to the ... p300F/F mice), and p300+/+ mice (controls). The HSCs were placed on polyacrylamide gels with precisely defined stiffness, and ...
... in ten different inbred strains of mice was compared. The rank order of susceptibility was A/J > B10 > FVB > BALB/c > C57Bl/6 ... Title: Investigation of the Susceptibility of Various Strains of Mice to Methyllycaconitine Toxicosis Author. Welch, Kevin ... The 129 strain of mice had twice the amount of alpha 7 nAChR subunit expression as the A/J strain, which was in direct ... The objective of this study was to determine if there is variation in susceptibility of different strains of mice to larkspur ...
Mice, Inbred BALB C; SOXF Transcription Factors/metabolism* ... We treated mouse cholangiocytes in three-dimensional (3D) ... The recently described toxin biliatresone causes lumen obstruction in mouse cholangiocyte spheroids and represents a new model ... CONCLUSION: Biliatresone decreases GSH and SOX17 in mouse cholangiocytes. In 3D cell systems, this leads to cholangiocyte ... Title: The toxin biliatresone causes mouse extrahepatic cholangiocyte damage and fibrosis through decreased glutathione and ...
... and laboratory studies have shown that numerous inbred strains of mice (e.g., Balb/C, C3H, DBA/2) are also highly susceptible ... Inbred laboratory mice infected with AP-ha may remain infected for up to 55 days (6), and previous infections induce an immune ... Hodzic E, IJdo JW, Feng S, Katavolos P, Sun W, Maretzki CH, Granulocytic ehrlichiosis in the laboratory mouse. J Infect Dis. ... Hodzic E, IJdo JW, Feng S, Katavolos P, Sun W, Maretzki CH, Granulocytic ehrlichiosis in the laboratory mouse. J Infect Dis. ...
Mice, Inbred C57BL. *Mice, Inbred BALB C. *Mice. *Membrane Glycoproteins. *Lymphocyte Activation ...
Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Mice, Knockout, Mice, Transgenic, Olfactory Mucosa, Paired Box Transcription Factors, Phenotype, ... The roles of Pax6 in the cornea, retina, and olfactory epithelium of the developing mouse embryo. In: Developmental Biology. ... The roles of Pax6 in the cornea, retina, and olfactory epithelium of the developing mouse embryo. Developmental Biology. 2003 ... The roles of Pax6 in the cornea, retina, and olfactory epithelium of the developing mouse embryo. / Collinson, J Martin; Quinn ...
Both BALB/c mice as an in-bred mouse model and ICR mice as an out-bred mouse model were fed with basal diets supplemented with ... Longevity Extension of BALB/c and ICR Mice. For the 11-mon-old female BALB/c mice, an in-bred animal model, continuously fed ... Longevity Experiments with BALB/c and ICR Mice. Two long-term animal experiments with BALB/c mice, an in-bred model, and ICR ... In longevity experiments, 16 female 11-mon-old BALB/c mice and both genders of 12-mon-old ICR mice were daily fed with BPSP ...
Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Mitosis. Neoplasms. Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor). Protein Kinase ... Bagg albino mouse. cell proliferation. cell survival. drug effect. drug screening. metabolism. mitosis. neoplasm. nude mouse. ... mouse. nonhuman. upregulation. animal. antagonists and inhibitors. ...
In an in vivo study, we used a nude mice model to explore the anti-tumor effects and mechanism of tenacigenin B. Cell apoptosis ... Mice, Inbred BALB C, Neoplasm Proteins, RNA, Messenger, Steroids ... In an in vivo study, we used a nude mice model to explore the ...
When immunized IM, mice had substantially higher antibody responses at the higher vaccine doses, whereas, the IN immunized mice ... The IM immunized mice and rats also showed significant dose-dependent T cell responses to the rAd vaccine. However, the T cell ... Additionally, the highest dose of vaccine in mice and rats did not improve the T cell responses. A final vaccine analysis using ... a lethal influenza virus challenge showed that despite the differences in the immune responses observed in the mice, the mice ...
... knockout mice Dehydrocorydaline supplier with BALB/c background. a The mating strategy for producing BALB/c inbred knockout ... Differences were considered statistically significant when knockout mouse with BALB/c background, and inoculate syngeneic ... We then injected 4T1 cells to both knockout mice (expression is usually ~3.6 fold higher in xenograft tumors of WT mice than in ... Methods Animal studies In our laboratory heterozygote mice (knockout mice (values were decided Dehydrocorydaline supplier ...
BALB/c mice show greater sensitivity to reinforcer magnitude and delay than C57Bl/6 mice, making these two strains ideal ... Baseline-dependent effects on delay-discounting can be examined experimentally using inbred mouse strains that have different ... Longitudinal Assessment of Short-Term Remembering and Attending in a Mouse Model of Alzheimers Related Amyloidosis ... Mice were tested either continuously or intermittently from approximately 2 to 18 months of age. In the DMTP task, accuracy ...
... naturally colonized C57BL/6J and BALB/c inbreed mice in relation to host genotype, sex and cage. For this C57BL/6J and BALB/c ... manduca_mouse manduca_mouse https://www.uni-giessen.de/de/fbz/fb08/Inst/algorithm-bioinformatik/teaching/manduca_mouse/view ... In a mouse model, we found that the stool microbiome was highly specific for the first step. If we are able to translate this ... Small mammals like mice or rats are indispensable for preclinical research. However, growing ethical concerns led to the ...
Inbred BALB/c mice of either sex (5to 6weeks old), weighing 20-25 g procured from IMTECH (Institute of Microbial Technology), ... Group-I: Normal BALB/c mice-15; Group-II and III: 1 × 106 P. berghei infected BALB/c mice/ Placebo control BALB/c mice-35; ... 1×106 P. berghei infected BALB/c mice/ Placebo control BALB/c mice. 35. ... Figure 5: Antibody titers observed in sera of mice immunized with TPA of P. berghei by IFA assay. BALB/c mice were immunized ...
16 Mice * 13 Maternal Exposure * 12 Mice, Inbred BALB C * 12 Oxidative Stress ... Maternal E-cigarette exposure in mice alters DNA methylation and lung cytokine expression in offspring. Chen, H; Li, G; Chan, ... Impact of maternal cigarette smoke exposure on brain inflammation and oxidative stress in male mice offspring. Chan, YL; Saad, ... A Mitochondrial specific antioxidant reverses metabolic dysfunction and fatty liver induced by maternal cigarette smoke in mice ...
"Recombinant inbred strain, progenitor cross: (BALB/cBy female X C57BL/6By male).". ... JAX Mice Models. 2 unique models displayed. A model is a set of tumors that share the same tumor name, organ(s) affected, and ...
... compared to an inbred mouse, BALB/cJ, will demonstrate how each reacts to low, medium, and high levels of HDI-IC to aid in the ... levels of sensitization using biomarkers of allergy and asthma in lung fluid and plasma of the exposed CCRILs and inbred mice ... Because it is unethical to expose humans to induce DA, we postulated that the use of a genetically diverse mouse model, the ... We also observed different forms of asthma in response to HDI-IC treatment between the mouse models. In conclusion, this study ...
Sequenced Mouse Inbred Strain Genome Meta-data. Organism. mouse. Strain/Species. BALB/cJ ... Mouse Genome Database (MGD), Gene Expression Database (GXD), Mouse Models of Human Cancer database (MMHCdb) (formerly Mouse ... Annotation of mouse strain BALB/cJ genome assembly provided by GENCODE consortium. Distributed via Ensembl Release 103. Gene ... J:259852 Mouse Genome Informatics and the WTSI Mouse Genomes Project, MGI Strain Genome Feature and Gene Model Load. Database ...
Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Microbial Sensitivity Tests, Molecular Sequence Data, Molecular Weight, Moraxella (Branhamella) ... indicated that both were less easily cleared from the lungs of mice than were their isogenic wild-type counterparts, with a ...
Inbred strains of mice can be classified into 3 categories according to their resistance to infection with S.typhimurium: ... susceptible (BALB/c, C57BL/6, C3H/He), intermediate (DBA/2, C75L) and resistant (A, CBA). The strain MOLF/Ei is highly ... SPECIES REACTIVITY: Human, Mouse. *IMMUNOGEN: This Mouse TLR5 antibody is generated from rabbits immunized with a KLH ... conjugated synthetic peptide between 71-102 amino acids from the N-terminal region of mouse TLR5. ...
Mice, Inbred C57BL. *Mice, Inbred BALB C. *Mice. Citation. APA Chicago ICMJE ...
  • Recombinant inbred strain, progenitor cross: (BALB/cBy female X C57BL/6By male). (jax.org)
  • Inbred strains of mice can be classified into 3 categories according to their resistance to infection with S.typhimurium: susceptible (BALB/c, C57BL/6, C3H/He), intermediate (DBA/2, C75L) and resistant (A, CBA). (prosci-inc.com)
  • Using a pair of black mice from the Granby farm, Little develops the C57BL and C57BR strains. (jax.org)
  • Together they generated the DBA (Dilute, Brown and non-Agouti) inbred mouse strain and initiated the systematic generation of inbred strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The laboratory is also the world's source for more than 8,000 strains of genetically defined mice and is home of the Mouse Genome Informatics database. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are hundreds of established inbred, outbred, and transgenic strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The objective of this study was to determine if there is variation in susceptibility of different strains of mice to MLA and to identify factors responsible for the variation that could be used as a model for cattle. (usda.gov)
  • The results of this study confirm previous reports that there is a fairly large animal to animal variability to larkspur toxicity, and that this variation is found across numerous strains of mice. (usda.gov)
  • The acute toxicity of methyllycaconitine (MLA) in ten different inbred strains of mice was compared. (usda.gov)
  • The white-footed mouse serves as a natural reservoir for AP-ha, and laboratory studies have shown that numerous inbred strains of mice (e.g. (cdc.gov)
  • We are using genetically modified mouse strains (knockouts, conditional knockouts, fluorescent reporter strains), and cytokine and chemokine neutralizing antibodies to identify the key proteins required for disease. (umassmed.edu)
  • In a retrospective study of 142 tumors observed over a period of 3 years, myoepitheliomas occurred spontaneously in A/HeJ, A/J, BALB/cJ, BALB/cByJ, LLC.A/Ckc, and NOD/Lt inbred strains of mice. (jax.org)
  • In this model, mice are co-infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum , bacterial strains associated with human periodontal disease . (bvsalud.org)
  • Initially, four commercial inbred mouse strains were examined to calibrate the procedure and test for gender effects. (bvsalud.org)
  • These results strongly support the possibility of using the Collaborative Cross, as well as developing dedicated F2 (resistant x susceptible inbred strains ) resource populations , for future dissection of genetic factors in periodontitis . (bvsalud.org)
  • Targeting the IFN-g-chemokine axis for treatment of vitiligo: We are using our newly developed mouse model and human tissues from patients with vitiligo to identify the cytokines and chemokines that are expressed within the depigmenting skin and which skin cells produce them. (umassmed.edu)
  • Differences in cytokines production were found for IL-10, IL-4, TNF-alpha, and Arginase-1, which, in some conditions, resulted higher in r-BCG as compared to wt BCG-immunised mice. (unicatt.it)
  • Methods Animal studies In our laboratory heterozygote mice (knockout mice (values were decided Dehydrocorydaline supplier through the two-tailed Students test. (woofahs.com)
  • Differences were considered statistically significant when knockout mouse with BALB/c background, and inoculate syngeneic mammary tumor cell line 4?T1 cells to evaluate the role of ADAMTS-18 in breast cancer. (woofahs.com)
  • First, heterozygote mice (knockout mice (knockout mice Dehydrocorydaline supplier with BALB/c background. (woofahs.com)
  • We then injected 4T1 cells to both knockout mice (expression is usually ~3.6 fold higher in xenograft tumors of WT mice than in KO mice (KO, 10.75? (woofahs.com)
  • The strain is now valued as a source of embryonic stem cells for making knockout mice. (jax.org)
  • Little and Castle collaborated closely with Abbie Lathrop who was a breeder of fancy mice and rats which she marketed to rodent hobbyists and keepers of exotic pets, and later began selling in large numbers to scientific researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study determined the immune correlates induced by serial dilutions of rAd vaccines delivered intramuscularly (IM) and intranasally (IN) to mice and rats. (mdpi.com)
  • The IM immunized mice and rats also showed significant dose-dependent T cell responses to the rAd vaccine. (mdpi.com)
  • However, the T cell immunity plateaued in both mice and rats at 10 9 and 10 10 vp/animal, respectively. (mdpi.com)
  • Additionally, the highest dose of vaccine in mice and rats did not improve the T cell responses. (mdpi.com)
  • Insect larvae such as tobacco hornworm can accelerate and economize preclinical research by complementing classic laboratory animals such as rats and mice. (uni-giessen.de)
  • Small mammals like mice or rats are indispensable for preclinical research. (uni-giessen.de)
  • Because these compounds are toxic to aquatic animals, we studied the effects of OP on splenocytes removed from male Fischer 344 rats or male Balb/c mice and cultured in vitro. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The number of LPS- and of lipoprotein-reactive B cells in spleen was dependent upon the age of the mouse. (silverchair.com)
  • The r-BCG amount used to immunise mice determined diverse Th1/Th2 equilibriums, which was not the same in spleen and Lymph Nodes. (unicatt.it)
  • Forty myoepitheliomas were tested by the avidin-biotin complex technique with a panel of antisera specific for mouse keratins, intermediate filaments, and other cytoskeletal proteins to determine the cell type from which this neoplasm originated. (jax.org)
  • Lathrop sends mice that developed tumors to Leo Loeb at the University of Pennsylvania , who publishes pioneering papers on cancer. (jax.org)
  • Although IL-12 given alone to mice bearing tumors established for 3 days did not have consistent antitumor activity, a profound therapeutic effect was observed when IL-12 administration was combined with a recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV) encoding beta-gal called VJS6. (univr.it)
  • Methods Using unilateral and bilateral implantation models of syngeneic breast tumors (E0771, MM3MG-HER2, and JC-HER3) in mice, we assessed whether HS201-PDT could induce local and systemic antitumor immunity. (bmj.com)
  • APPswe/PS1dE9 double transgenic (Tg) male and female mice and non-transgenic (non-Tg) littermates were trained on a delayed-matching-to-position (DMTP) or 3-choice serial reaction time (3CSRT) task. (abainternational.org)
  • Balb/C, C3H, DBA/2) are also highly susceptible to infection ( 1 , 6 , 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Both the protein expression differences and the potential identification of genetic markers discovered in mice will provide the basis for future experiments to identify genetic factors that correlate with susceptibility to larkspur toxicity in cattle. (usda.gov)
  • Because it is unethical to expose humans to induce DA, we postulated that the use of a genetically diverse mouse model, the Collaborative-Cross (CCRIL), compared to an inbred mouse, BALB/cJ, will demonstrate how each reacts to low, medium, and high levels of HDI-IC to aid in the understanding of the cause of and susceptibility to DA in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Genotype is an important determinant factor of host susceptibility to periodontitis in the Collaborative Cross and inbred mouse populations. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the early part of the 20th century, Harvard undergraduate Clarence Cook Little was conducting studies on mouse genetics in the laboratory of William Ernest Castle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Jackson Laboratory has made fundamental contributions to biomedical research, including cancer genetics and establishing the mouse as the premier research animal model. (jax.org)
  • On the basis of the reported synergistic effects of IL-12 and the costimulatory molecule B7-1 (CD80) in vitro, we immunized mice with a double recombinant vaccinia encoding both the model tumor Ag and the costimulatory molecule B7-1, designated B7-1 beta-gal rVV. (univr.it)
  • However, we were able to detect low levels of sensitization using biomarkers of allergy and asthma in lung fluid and plasma of the exposed CCRILs and inbred mice and to demonstrate inter-strain differences after exposure to HDI-IC. (cdc.gov)
  • Male BALB/c mice were exposed head/nose-only during three consecutive days for 45, 90, 180, or 360 min/day to et al. (cdc.gov)
  • Mice belong to the Euarchontoglires clade, which includes humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • This close relationship, the associated high homology with humans, their ease of maintenance and handling, and their high reproduction rate, make mice particularly suitable models for human-oriented research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice are mammals of the clade (a group consisting of an ancestor and all its descendants) Euarchontoglires, which means they are amongst the closest non-primate relatives of humans along with lagomorphs, treeshrews, and flying lemurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clarence Cook Little begins to develop the first inbred strain, designated DBA for dilute, brown, and non-agouti. (jax.org)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the phenotypic response of inbred and Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse populations to periodontal bacterial challenge, using an experimental periodontitis model. (bvsalud.org)
  • Halsey Bagg develops the BALB /c ( Bagg albino) mouse for behavioral experiments. (jax.org)
  • Therefore increased interindividual gut microbiota similarity may be seen as a way to reduce group sizes in mouse experiments. (ku.dk)
  • In 1902 Lucien Cuénot published the results of his experiments using mice which showed that Mendel's laws of inheritance were also valid for animals - results that were soon confirmed and extended to other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • In longevity experiments, 16 female 11-mon-old BALB/c mice and both genders of 12-mon-old ICR mice were daily fed with BPSP supplemented diets at doses of 0, 0.1 and 0.5 g BPSP/kg bw for 750 and 762 days, respectively. (scirp.org)
  • It is of merit to demonstrate that peanut kernels as a potent producer could be bio-elicited to biosynthesize a broad spectrum of bioactive stilbenes to prepare BPSP which is effective to extend mouse longevity as science-evidenced by the two long-term animal experiments. (scirp.org)
  • Experiments with B cell deficient mice have demonstrated that B cells and antibodies are essential for complete clearance of parasites from blood of the host [2]. (omicsonline.org)
  • In conclusion, this study provides critical insight into how genetically different mice react to different levels of HDI-IC exposure and further shows that the use of the genetically diverse mouse model is required to investigate the mechanism and risk of skin sensitization and development of DA due to diisocyanate exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • No LPS-reactive cells but normal frequencies of lipoprotein-reactive cells were found in C3H/HeJ mice, genetically nonreactive to LPS. (silverchair.com)
  • Various subsets of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells with different cytokine productions develop in the mouse thymus, but the factors driving their differentiation remain unclear. (nih.gov)
  • In a mouse experimental arthritis model, NKT17 cells are increased as the disease progresses, while NKT1 numbers negatively correlates with disease severity, with this protective effect of NKT1 linked to their IFN-γ expression. (nih.gov)
  • Kumar V, Rakha A, Saroa R, Bagai U (2015) CD4+T Cells Expansion in P. berghei (NK-65) Infected and Immunized BALB/C Mice. (omicsonline.org)
  • Second, we are developing humanized mouse models of vitiligo, where we transfer human T cells, or both T cells and skin, from vitiligo patients to immunosuppressed mice that permit the growth of human tissues. (umassmed.edu)
  • The benefit of this approach is that we can study the key cells that participate in vitiligo directly from patients, without variables that may change them, including their transfer into mice. (umassmed.edu)
  • Antibodies directed against the specific mouse keratins K5, K6, and K14, and a broadly cross-reactive cytokeratin antibody stained acinar and ductal myoepithelial cells in normal mammary, salivary, and Harderian glands, and neoplastic cells in all cases. (jax.org)
  • Frequencies of mitogen-reactive B cells in the mouse. (silverchair.com)
  • and CBA and A/J. Very similar frequencies are found for lipoprotein-reactive B cells in BALB/c, BALB/c ν/ν, C3H/Tif, and C3H/HeJ mice. (silverchair.com)
  • SJL mice had significantly lower frequencies of LPS- and of lipoprotein-reactive B cells (1 in approximately 30 B cells). (silverchair.com)
  • LPS-reactive B cells yielding IgM- and IgG-PFC responses could be found in mesenteric lymph nodes, bone marrow, thymus, thoracic duct, and peripheral blood of 6- to 8-wk old mice. (silverchair.com)
  • Methods: Murine MM cells infected with a lentiviral vector expressing the luciferase gene were injected into the peritoneum of 14 BALB/c mice (7 × 104 AB1-B/c-LUC cells). (uninsubria.it)
  • The r-BCG elicited a specific T cells response in Balb/c mice higher than wt BCG. (unicatt.it)
  • The percentages of viable rat or mouse cells after 27 hr of culture were decreased significantly by 10(-12) M OP or greater concentrations. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Significantly more mouse splenocytes containing free 3'-OH DNA ends were detected by activated cell sorter analyses when the cells had been incubated for 4 hr with 10(-4) or 10(-6) M OP or 10(-6) M DEX. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • BALB/cCrl mice were, however, found to have a mean heterozygosity of only 0.8% in their genome, and selection of breeders with a high similarity in the gut microbiota for three generations did not change the overall gut microbiota similarity, which was 66% in the P generation and 66%, 64% and 63% in the F1, F2 and F3 generations, respectively. (ku.dk)
  • The laboratory mouse genome has been sequenced and many mouse genes have human homologues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Annotation of mouse strain BALB/cJ genome assembly provided by GENCODE consortium. (jax.org)
  • J:259852 Mouse Genome Informatics and the WTSI Mouse Genomes Project, MGI Strain Genome Feature and Gene Model Load. (jax.org)
  • Expression of spinal IL-33 and ST2 significantly increased in ACD mice, as evidenced by increased mRNA and protein levels. (nih.gov)
  • Laboratory mice are usually of the species Mus musculus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine is currently one of the world's largest suppliers of laboratory mice, at around 3 million mice a year. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myoepitheliomas in inbred laboratory mice. (jax.org)
  • Increased gut microbiota similarity in closely related mice in inbred mouse colonies is, therefore, more likely to be caused by other factors, such as imprinting or different intrauterine conditions, rather than by residual heterozygosity. (ku.dk)
  • Potential factors contributing to lack of impairment in DMTP/3CSRT performance in the APPswe/PS1dE9 double mouse model of AD-associated amyloidosis will be discussed. (abainternational.org)
  • Other mouse species sometimes used in laboratory research include two American species, the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) and the North American deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). (wikipedia.org)
  • Three mammalian species are reservoir competent: the white-footed mouse ( Peromyscus leucopus ), raccoon ( Procyon lotor ), and gray squirrel ( Sciurus carolinensis ), although serologic and molecular evidence has suggested that numerous other small, medium, and large mammals may also be reservoirs ( 1 , 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • A combination of HS201-PDT with anti-PD-L1 antibody demonstrated the greatest antigen-specific immune response, tumor growth suppression, prolonged mouse survival time and abscopal effect. (bmj.com)
  • Initially sought as pets, the Granby mice become important in research. (jax.org)
  • Title : Short-term and repeated exposure to particulate matter sizes from Imperial Valley, California to induce inflammation and asthmatic-like symptoms in mice Personal Author(s) : D'Evelyn, Savannah M.;Bein, Keith J.;Laing, Emilia A.;Nyguen, Tran;Wu, Ching-Wen;Zhang, Qi;Pinkerton, Kent E. (cdc.gov)
  • Inflammatory diseases in mouse models are under strong impact from the gut microbiota. (ku.dk)
  • Based on the resultant survival curves and average lifespans of both mouse models, basal diets supplemented with BPSP are effective to extend mouse longevity by a dose dependent manner. (scirp.org)
  • We also observed different forms of asthma in response to HDI-IC treatment between the mouse models. (cdc.gov)
  • The mouse has since been used extensively as a model organism and is associated with many important biological discoveries of the 20th and 21st Centuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • The recently described toxin biliatresone causes lumen obstruction in mouse cholangiocyte spheroids and represents a new model of biliary atresia. (nih.gov)
  • 11 per high power field (HFP), has weakly endogenous ADAMTS-18 expression, and ADAMTS-18 Dehydrocorydaline supplier in the host mouse exerts little effect on breast tumor progression in murine 4?T1 breast cancer model. (woofahs.com)
  • The first paper will examine correlates among attending, impulsive behavior, and short-term remembering in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. (abainternational.org)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive impairment in a mouse model of AD-associated amyloidosis. (abainternational.org)
  • First, we use a mouse model of vitiligo that we developed, where the mice get spots of vitiligo on their ears, tails, feet and noses. (umassmed.edu)
  • The immunisation with r-BCG-Rv1767 induced a lesser protective activity than wt BCG in a mouse model of TB. (unicatt.it)
  • A final vaccine analysis using a lethal influenza virus challenge showed that despite the differences in the immune responses observed in the mice, the mice had very similar patterns of protection. (mdpi.com)
  • First successful transplantations of ovaries between female mice are performed by William Russell at JAX. (jax.org)
  • Female BALB /c mice were treated intraperitoneally (i.p) with 0.75 and 1.5 mg/kg doses of melittin for 14 days (5 doses per week). (biomedcentral.com)
  • According to our results, melittin at 0.75 and 1.5 mg/kg doses could not induce significant changes on immune parameters and as a result, melittin was found to be safe for the mice immune system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1939 International Committee on Standardized Nomenclature for Mice begins, bringing order to the naming of mice and their genes. (jax.org)
  • The results of these studies demonstrate that OP is toxic to cultured rat and mouse splenocytes and suggest that this toxic effect is exerted, at least partially, through Ca2+-dependent apoptosis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Gender effects on bone volume were tested across the four inbred and 23 CC lines, and found not to be significant. (bvsalud.org)
  • Re-evaluation of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay: Observation of a positive response. (cdc.gov)
  • Intrathecal administration of the neutralizing anti-ST2 or anti-IL-33 antibody remarkably decreased the scratching response in DNFB-induced ACD mice. (nih.gov)
  • When immunized IM, mice had substantially higher antibody responses at the higher vaccine doses, whereas, the IN immunized mice showed a lower response to the higher rAd vaccine doses. (mdpi.com)
  • 7], the authors associated a poor response to IFN-β treatment with Th17-type immune responses in EAE mice. (nartsignaling.com)
  • Mice have been used in biomedical research since the 17th century (from May 30, 1678) when William Harvey used them for his studies on reproduction and blood circulation and Robert Hooke used them to investigate the biological consequences of an increase in air pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study was to investigate the expression change of TSLP and IL-4 in ocular surface tissue and cervical lymph node in the mice with allergic conjunctivitis induced by artemisia annua, a common plant in China, and to explore the role of TSLP and IL-4 in the pathogenesis and development of allergic conjunctivitis. (cjeo-journal.org)
  • Intrathecal injection of Janus Kinase 2 Inhibitor AG490 significantly alleviated scratching behaviors in ACD mice. (nih.gov)
  • Peter Gorer shows in mouse studies at JAX that transplant rejection is primarily governed by what he calls the H2 genetic locus, later described as the major histocompatibility complex, a key component of immunity. (jax.org)
  • IL-4 is mainly expressed in conjunctiva, showing IL-4 participates in conjunctival inflammatory process.TSLP and IL-4 play synergistic roles in promoting the inflammatory process of ocular surface in the mice with allergic conjunctivitis, which may be new therapeutic targets. (cjeo-journal.org)
  • Results: In the first experiment, none of the 7 controls survived beyond day 27, whereas 4/7 BoxA-treated mice (57.1%) survived up to day 70. (uninsubria.it)