Cell lines developed from disaggregated BALB/c mouse embryos. They are extremely sensitive to CONTACT INHIBITION, and highly susceptible to transformation by SV40 VIRUS and murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE).
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.

Effect of morphine and naloxone on priming-induced audiogenic seizures in BALB/c mice. (1/47697)

1 Morphine (1-200 mg/kg s.c.) reduced the incidence and prolonged the latency of priming-induced audiogenic siezures in a dose-dependent manner. 2 This effect was reversed by naloxone (1 and 2 mg/kg) although naloxone was itself inactive. 3 This priming-induces seizure model may be useful in the study of tolerance and physical dependence.  (+info)

Differences in benzo(a)pyrene metabolism between rodent liver microsomes and embryonic cells. (2/47697)

Differences in benzo(a)pyrene metabolite pattern have been shown by rodent liver microsomes (Sprague-Dawley) and rodent embryo cells from Syrian hamsters and NIH Swiss mice. Rodent liver induced by methylcholanthrene shows marked quantitative variation between species. Additional pattern changes were found in mouse and hamster embryo secondary cultures with a reduction of the K-region metabolites and a marked increase in 9-hydroxybenzo(a)-pyrene. These results are indicative of a region-specific attack on the carcinogen by the cell monooxygenases which is distinct from the liver attack of microsomal enzymes on benzo(a)pyrene. These results suggest that activation and detoxification of benzo(a)pyrene may be species and tissue variable, and susceptibility and resistence to malignant transformation may be predicted on induction of a fortuitous combination of intermediate metabolic steps.  (+info)

Stimulation of thymidine uptake and cell proliferation in mouse embryo fibroblasts by conditioned medium from mammary cells in culture. (3/47697)

Undialyzed conditioned medium from several cell culture sources did not stimulate thymidine incorporation or cell overgrowth in quiescent, density-inhibited mouse embryo fibroblast cells. However, dialyzed conditioned medium (DCM) from clonal mouse mammary cell lines MCG-V14, MCG-T14, MCG-T10; HeLa cells; primary mouse adenocarcinoma cells; and BALB/c normal mouse mammary epithelial cells promoted growth in quiescent fibroblasts. The amount of growth-promoting activity produced per cell varied from 24% (HeLa) to 213% (MCG-V14) of the activity produced by primary tumor cells. The production of growth-promoting activity was not unique to tumor-derived cells or cells of high tumorigenicity. The amount of growth-promoting activity produced per cell in the active cultures was not correlated with any of the following: tumorigenicity, growth rat, cell density achieved at saturation, cell type, or species of cell origin. It is concluded that transformed and non-transformed cells of diverse origin, cell type, and tumorigenicity can produce growth factors in culture. The growth-promoting potential of the active media from primary tumor cultures accumulated with time of contact with cells and was too great to be accounted for entirely by the removal of low-molecular-weight inhibitors by dialysis. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that conditioned medium from the active cultures contained a dialyzable, growth-promoting activity. Different cell lines exhibited differential sensitivity to tumor cell DCM and fetal bovine serum. Furthermore, quiescent fibroblasts were stimulated by primary tumor cell DCM in the presence of saturating concentrations of fetal bovine serum. These observations support the notion that the active growth-promoting principle in primary tumor cell DCM may not be a serum factor(s).  (+info)

Suppression of Moloney sarcoma virus immunity following sensitization with attenuated virus. (4/47697)

Murine sarcoma virus (Moloney strain) (MSV-M)-induced tumors are unusual in that they regularly appear less than 2 weeks after virus inoculation, progress for 1 to 2 weeks, and are rejected by normal adult BALB/c mice. Rejectio leaves the animals immune to tumor induction. In the present study, presensitization of normal adult BALB/c mice with attenuated MSV-M resulted in an altered pattern of tumor immunity. Injection of active MSV-M into the presensitized animals resulted in tumor induction and rejection similar to that observed in normal animals, but rejection failed to produce protection against the secondary inoculation with MSV-M. After the second inoculation with active MSV-M, tumors appeared and progressed but ultimately were rejected. Over 80% of the mice died, 25% after the primary challenge and the remainder after the secondary challenge. At death, all mice had histological evidence of leukemia which was the probable cause of death. The animals that died following the secondary challenge also had evidence of disseminated MSV-M. Solid tumor nodules were found in skeletal muscle distant from the original site of inoculation, and active MSV-M was isolated from spleen and lungs. The possibility that the results were produced by specific suppression of MSV-Moloney leukemia virus immunity is discussed.  (+info)

Blood thymidine level and iododeoxyuridine incorporation and reutilization in DNA in mice given long-acting thymidine pellets. (5/47697)

A long-acting thymidine pellet consisting of 190 mg of cholesterol and 60 mg of thymidine has been developed for the study of thymidine metabolism and reutilization in vivo. Implantation of such a pellet s.c. in adult mice will maintain the blood plasma concentration of thymidine at levels between 40 and 8 X 10(-6) M, which are from 36 to 7 times those of normal mice, for periods up to 48 hr. During this period, in vivo uptake and reutilization of [125I]iododeoxyuridine, a thymidine analog, into intestinal and tumor DNA were almost completely suppressed. While iododeoxyuridine reutilization is not large in normal proliferative tissue even in the absence of pellet implants, reutilization of over 30% was measured in large, rapidly growing ascites tumors. The inhibition of iododeoxyuridine incorporation by elevated thymidine blood levels is directly proportional to serum concentration. This appears to be due to a thymidine pool in rapid equilibrium with blood thymidine. This pool is at least 10 times larger than the 4-nmole pool of extracellular thymidine.  (+info)

Interleukin-8 receptor modulates IgE production and B-cell expansion and trafficking in allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation. (6/47697)

We examined the role of the interleukin-8 (IL-8) receptor in a murine model of allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation using mice with a targeted deletion of the murine IL-8 receptor homologue (IL-8r-/-). Wild-type (Wt) and IL-8r-/- mice were systemically immunized to ovalbumin (OVA) and were exposed with either single or multiple challenge of aerosolized phosphate-buffered saline (OVA/PBS) or OVA (OVA/OVA). Analysis of cells recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) revealed a diminished recruitment of neutrophils to the airway lumen after single challenge in IL-8r-/- mice compared with Wt mice, whereas multiply challenged IL-8r-/- mice had increased B cells and fewer neutrophils compared with Wt mice. Both Wt and IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice recruited similar numbers of eosinophils to the BAL fluid and exhibited comparable degrees of pulmonary inflammation histologically. Both total and OVA-specific IgE levels were greater in multiply challenged IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice than in Wt mice. Both the IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA and OVA/PBS mice were significantly less responsive to methacholine than their respective Wt groups, but both Wt and IL-8r mice showed similar degrees of enhancement after multiple allergen challenge. The data demonstrate that the IL-8r modulates IgE production, airway responsiveness, and the composition of the cells (B cells and neutrophils) recruited to the airway lumen in response to antigen.  (+info)

11q23.1 and 11q25-qter YACs suppress tumour growth in vivo. (7/47697)

Frequent allelic deletion at chromosome 11q22-q23.1 has been described in breast cancer and a number of other malignancies, suggesting putative tumour suppressor gene(s) within the approximately 8 Mb deleted region. In addition, we recently described another locus, at the 11q25-qter region, frequently deleted in breast cancer, suggesting additional tumour suppressor gene(s) in this approximately 2 Mb deleted region. An 11q YAC contig was accessed and three YACs, one containing the candidate gene ATM at 11q23.1, and two contiguous YACs (overlapping for approximately 400-600 kb) overlying most of the 11q25 deleted region, were retrofitted with a G418 resistance marker and transfected into murine A9 fibrosarcoma cells. Selected A9 transfectant clones (and control untransfected and 'irrelevant' alphoid YAC transfectant A9 clones) were assayed for in vivo tumorigenicity in athymic female Balb c-nu/nu mice. All the 11q YAC transfectant clones demonstrated significant tumour suppression compared to the control untransfected and 'irrelevant' YAC transfected A9 cells. These results define two discrete tumour suppressor loci on chromosome 11q by functional complementation, one to a approximately 1.2 Mb region on 11q23.1 (containing the ATM locus) and another to a approximately 400-600 kb subterminal region on 11q25-qter.  (+info)

A cytomegalovirus glycoprotein re-routes MHC class I complexes to lysosomes for degradation. (8/47697)

Mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) early gene expression interferes with the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) pathway of antigen presentation. Here we identify a 48 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein encoded by the MCMV early gene m06, which tightly binds to properly folded beta2-microglobulin (beta2m)-associated MHC class I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This association is mediated by the lumenal/transmembrane part of the protein. gp48-MHC class I complexes are transported out of the ER, pass the Golgi, but instead of being expressed on the cell surface, they are redirected to the endocytic route and rapidly degraded in a Lamp-1(+) compartment. As a result, m06-expressing cells are impaired in presenting antigenic peptides to CD8(+) T cells. The cytoplasmic tail of gp48 contains two di-leucine motifs. Mutation of the membrane-proximal di-leucine motif of gp48 restored surface expression of MHC class I, while mutation of the distal one had no effect. The results establish a novel viral mechanism for downregulation of MHC class I molecules by directly binding surface-destined MHC complexes and exploiting the cellular di-leucine sorting machinery for lysosomal degradation.  (+info)

BioAssay record AID 318590 submitted by ChEMBL: Elevation in glycogen level in fasting BALB/c mouse at 5.70 mg/kg, ip after 3 hrs.
An adoptive secondary antibody response to phosphorylcholine (PC) can be generated by the transfer of keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)-primed T cells, PC-bovine gamma globulin-primed B cells, and PC-KLH into irradiated syngeneic BALB/c mice. If the KLH-primed T-cell donors were pretreated with anti-idiotype antibodies directed against the BALB/c PC-binding myeloma TEPC 15, their T cells were unable to collaborate effectively with PC-primed B cells; moreover, they could suppress the helper activity of T cells from normal mice for the PC-KLH response. The Ly phenotype of these T cells was found to be Ly 1-, 2+. The specificity of the suppressor T-cell population induced by anti-T15 treatment appears to be both for idiotype (hapten) and carrier, since the suppressor T cells fail to interfere with the antibody response to PC on a heterologous carrier, nor do they suppress the response to trinitrophenol-KLH. ...
Silica particles cationized by dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB) bilayer were previously described. This work shows the efficiency of these particulates for antigen adsorption and presentation to the immune system and proves the concept that silica-based cationic bilayers exhibit better performance than alum regarding colloid stability and cellular immune responses for vaccine design. Firstly, the silica/DODAB assembly was characterized at 1 mM NaCl, pH 6.3 or 5 mM Tris.HCl, pH 7.4 and 0.1 mg/ml silica over a range of DODAB concentrations (0.001-1 mM) by means of dynamic light scattering for particle sizing and zeta-potential analysis. 0.05 mM DODAB is enough to produce cationic bilayer-covered particles with good colloid stability. Secondly, conditions for maximal adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) or a recombinant, heat-shock protein from Mycobacterium leprae (18 kDa-hsp) onto DODAB-covered or onto bare silica were determined. At maximal antigen adsorption, cellular immune responses in
It is well established that immunogenic tumors, such as EMT6, induce the generation of tumor-sensitized T lymphocytes in host mice. If the host animals are cured of tumor (e.g., by surgical excision or X-ray treatment), these immune cells will maintain long-term resistance to rechallenge with the same tumor. In experiments combining PDT and adoptive transfer, the presence of tumor-sensitized T cells among the splenocytes of BALB/c mice cured previously from EMT6 tumors, and their absence from naïve BALB/c spleen cell populations, made a critical difference to therapy outcome. Significant levels of cures of PDT-treated EMT6 tumors growing in engrafted scid mice were achieved only in the former case.. Severe deficiency in the activity of lymphoid populations in scid mice (17) is responsible for the absence of cures of PDT-treated EMT6 tumors growing in these animals (11) . It appears that the adoptive transfer of naïve BALB/c splenocytes was inadequate to reconstitute the T-cell activity in scid ...
BALB/c Mouse Intestinal Mesenteric Endothelial Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from intestinal mesenteric tissue of pathogen-free laboratory mice. BALB/c Mouse Intestinal Mesenteric Endothelial Cells are grown in T25 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based coating solution for 2 min and incubated in Creative Bioarray Culture Complete Growth Medium generally for 3-7 days. Cultures are then expanded. Prior to shipping, cells are detached from flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 1x10^6 cells per ml and are delivered frozen. The method we use to isolate endothelial cells was developed based on a combination of established and our proprietary methods. These cells are pre-coated with PECAM-1 antibody, following the application of magnetic pre-coated with secondary antibody ...
In this study, we demonstrated the immune mechanisms and protection induced by a novel unencapsulated S. pneumoniae attenuated live SPY1 vaccine. An elevated humoral immune response and Th2, Th17, and modulatory cellular responses were detected in immunized mice. Interestingly, we noticed that the upregulation of IFN-γ in immune splenocyte supernatants in C57BL/6 mice was not SPY1 specific but might be triggered by CT, an adjuvant reported to possess the potential ability to stimulate a Th1 immune subset (26), which was different from the response in BALB/c mice (5). The reasons for these differences may be due to the different genetic backgrounds of the BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice (27, 28). In this study, to further investigate the immune mechanisms mediating protection induced by SPY1, several different types of immune deficient mice with different genetic backgrounds (nude BALB/c mice, B cell-deficient BALB/c mice, IFN-γ-deficient C57BL/6 mice, IL-4-deficient C57BL/6 mice, and IL-17A-deficient ...
Specific unresponsiveness can be induced in neonatal and adult BALB/c mice by antibody against antigen-specific receptor (antireceptor antibody). When heterologous antireceptor antibody is used in the indirect fluorescence technique, the number of fluorescent cells in these animals is significantly lower than in normal animals. Fluorescent cells appear after a relatively brief incubation of cells from adult-suppressed animals, whereas no fluorescent cells are detected when cells from neonatally treated animals are incubated briefly. Evidently, treating neonatal mice with antireceptor antibody specifically depletes the antigen-responsive clone. In contrast, antireceptor antibody causes reversible blockade of responsive cells in adult-suppressed animals. ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Oral HIVacc: Oral Mucosal Immunization Approaches for HIV Prevention (R01) RFA-DE-16-006. NIDCR
(A) CBE at the Igκ locus in B cell development. Purified DNA from sorted subpopulations of B cells from wild-type Balb/c mice was subjected to LMPCR to detect
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biological dose response to PM2.5. T2 - Effect of particle extraction method on platelet and lung responses. AU - Van Winkle, Laura S.. AU - Bein, Keith. AU - Anderson, Donald. AU - Pinkerton, Kent E. AU - Tablin, Fern. AU - Wilson, Dennis W. AU - Wexler, Anthony S.. PY - 2015/2/1. Y1 - 2015/2/1. N2 - Particulate matter (PM) exposure contributes to respiratory diseases and cardiopulmonary mortality. PM toxicity is related to sources and composition, such as abundance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We exposed adult male BALB/c mice, via oropharyngeal aspiration, to a range of doses of PM2.5 collected during the winter in downtown Sacramento near a major freeway interchange (SacPM). Two preparation methods (spin-down and multi-solvent extraction) were tested to remove particles from collection filters. Three doses were analyzed 24h after treatment for (1) leukocytes and total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), (2) airway-specific and whole lobe expression ...
Inefficient experimental designs are common in animal-based biomedical research, wasting resources and potentially leading to unreplicable results. Here we illustrate the intrinsic statistical power of split-plot designs, wherein three or more sub-units (e.g. individual subjects) differing in a variable of interest (e.g. genotype) share an experimental unit (e.g. a cage or litter) to which a treatment is applied (e.g. a drug, diet, or cage manipulation). We also empirically validate one example of such a design, mixing different mouse strains -- C57BL/6, DBA/2, and BALB/c -- within cages varying in degree of enrichment. As well as boosting statistical power, no other manipulations are needed for individual identification if co-housed strains are differentially pigmented, so also sparing mice from stressful marking procedures. The validation involved housing 240 females from weaning to 5 months of age in single- or mixed- strain trios, in cages allocated to enriched or standard treatments. Mice were
Read Caraparu virus induces damage and alterations in antioxidant defenses in the liver of BALB/c mice after subcutaneous infection, Archives of Virology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
BioAssay record AID 423140 submitted by ChEMBL: Toxicity in hMPV infected BALB/c mouse assessed as body weight loss treated 24 hrs after viral challenge measured after 5 days.
Results C57 mice demonstrated a higher total bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and BAL lymphocyte count at 3 and 7 days after intraperitoneal infection compared with BALB mice. There were no differences in BAL cytokine production; however, we were able to demonstrate differences in CMV DNA load in the lungs of BALB mice compared with that of C57 mice. In addition, there appeared to be increased whole-lung production of the TH2 cytokine IL-10 in the BALB mice versus the C57 mice. ...
It is well accepted that Th1 cells play a central role for protection against TB [41]. Therefore, animals that are deficient in IFN-γ, IFN-γ receptor, Stat-4, T-bet, or IL-12 exhibit increased susceptibility to M. tb infection [25], [42], [43]. BCG induces a robust Th1 response, but this does not appear to be sufficient for optimal protection against challenge with virulent M. tb [44]. Abundant Th1 cell responses have been found in TB patients as well as M. tb infected animals [45], [46]. Thus, Th1 cells alone are not sufficient for protection against TB. Therefore, in addition to Th1 cell responses, a vaccine needs to induce additional Th cell response(s) to provide optimal protection against TB. Recently, it has been shown that Th17 cells play an important role in the secondary immune response against TB [16]. However, Th17 cells do not appear to participate in the primary immune response against TB [17]. Our findings clearly demonstrated that BCG and H37RvΔRD1 are unable to induce Th17 ...
Induction of 3 populations of MCs in lung of BALB/c mice 1 to 14 days after challenges. BALB/c mice were sensitized and either not challenged (NC) or challenged
The training was aimed to provide the basic understanding and practical know-how on protection mainstreaming and developing a context analysis that considers threats as well as the needs, vulnerabilities, and capacities of populations in FSL programming.. ...
H2.35 cells were cloned from a colony that arose from the SV40 transformed cells. H2.35 is an epithelial-like cell line derived from a primary hepatocyte culture. Cells were collected from the livers of 6 week old female BALB/c mice, incubated at 33°C, and infected with tsA255 (a temperature-sensitive mutant of SV40 virus).
Antibodies, Monoclonal;Antigens, CD;Antigens, CD2;Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte;Drug Synergism;Graft Survival;Heart Transplantation;Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed;Mice, Inbred BALB C;Mice, Inbred C57BL;Mice, Inbred CBA;Receptors ...
Antibodies, Monoclonal;Antigens, CD;Antigens, CD2;Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte;Drug Synergism;Graft Survival;Heart Transplantation;Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed;Mice, Inbred BALB C;Mice, Inbred C57BL;Mice, Inbred CBA;Receptors ...
The mutant showed a different (delayed) course of parasitemia in BALB/c mice and BALB/c mice showed a delayed death from infection. Mutant blood stages showed a restricted host cell range ...
Genetic analysis of antibodies reveals how microbes in the intestines impact overall B cell populations and humoral responses to pathogens
The line was produced by fusing P3X63Ag8 myeloma cells with spleen cells from BALB/c mice that had been immunized with influenza virus (A.PR/8/34).
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recovery of butanol from model solutions and fermentation broth using a silicalite/silicone membrane. AU - Qureshi, N.. AU - Meagher, M. M.. AU - Hutkins, Robert W. PY - 1999/6/1. Y1 - 1999/6/1. N2 - A silcone-silicalite-1 composite membrane was synthesized to recover acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) from model solutions and the Clostridium acetobutylicum (ABE) fermentation broth. The adsorption capacity of the silicalite-1 in the presence of a mixture of acetone, butanol and ethanol were 8-12, 85-90 and ,5mg/g, respectively. There was no apparent difference of absorption rate of butanol at 36°C and 79°C and desorption of butanol occurred efficiently at 78°C and 1-3Torr. The silicalite-1 was characterized by chemical analysis, NMR, electron micrographs, surface area and pore size determination and found to have identical properties to other silicalite-1 reported in the literature. The silicalite-1 was incorporated into a silicone membrane in an effort to enhance butanol ...
Deepak Chopra and Oprah Winfrey have a 21 Day Challenge. You meditate about Loving Relationships, guided by them, for 3 weeks ...
To understand the pathogenesis of scrub typhus, we examined chemokine and cytokine production in susceptible (C3H/HeN) and resistant (BALB/c) mice after infection with O. tsutsugamushi Gilliam. C3H/HeN mice produced high levels of chemokines macrophage inflammatory proteins 1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha ), MIP-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and cytokines gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma ), interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha ) in response to O. tsutsugamushi infection, compared to BALB/c mice. Chemokine profiles in infected mice correlated well with the kinetics of inflammatory cell infiltration. Hyperproduction of chemokines and cytokines was observed in another susceptible-infection model (BALB/c-Karp). These results suggest that hyperproduction of chemokines and cytokines are associated with susceptibility during O. tsutsugamushi infection ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Congenital toxoplasmosis in the Balb/c mouse. T2 - prevention of vertical disease transmission and fetal death by vaccination. AU - Roberts, C W. AU - Brewer, J M. AU - Alexander, J. PY - 1994/11. Y1 - 1994/11. N2 - Vertical disease transmission only occurs in Balb/c mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii for the first time during pregnancy. This is similar to the situation in humans, where a previous infection with T. gondii tends to give life-long immunity against reinfection and fetal disease transmission. The Balb/c mouse therefore provides a suitable model to study the effectiveness of T. gondii vaccine candidates. A soluble tachyzoite antigen (STAB) preparation was used to vaccinate female Balb/c mice. STAB was inoculated subcutaneously into Balb/c mice in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), emulsified in Freunds complete adjuvant (FCA), or entrapped within non-ionic surfactant vesicles (NISV). While all inocula induced cellular immunity as measured by parasite-specific spleen ...
Inhibitory Effects of Black currant seed oil on 2,4-D initrochlorobenzene Induced Atopic Dermatitis in BALB/c Mice Model;kpubs;kpubs.org
Results of our chimaera experiments revealed no evidence that BALB/c cells were preferentially allocated to the mTE but indicated they were at a selective disadvantage between E4.5 and E8.5. We confirmed previous reports that preimplantation BALB/c embryos lagged behind embryos of some other strains and showed that the relative stage of development attained by E2.5 embryos of different strains correlated with the contribution they made to chimaeras. This suggests that the poor contribution of BALB/c embryos to aggregation chimaeras is at least partly because they lag behind their partner embryos, due to delayed or slow development.. In principle, heterosis of non-inbred partner embryos might also have contributed to the poor contribution of BALB/c cells in BALB/c↔BF2, BALB/c↔(BF1×TGB) and BALB/c↔(BF1×TP6.3) chimaeras, if hybrid cells outgrow BALB/c cells. However, this does not explain the differences in compositions of (BALB/c×AF1)↔BF2 and (AF1×BALB/c)↔BF2 chimaeras (West et al., ...
Scientific Experts, Genomes and Genes, Species, Research Topics, Locale, Publications about Experts and Doctors on inbred balb c mice in Galveston, Texas, United States
Acute exposure to diesel exhaust particles elicits dose-dependent pulmonary inflammatory and impairment of lung function in naive BALB/C mice
Airborne allergens can induce an immunological chronic disease characterized by airway hyper responsiveness and inflammation, mediated by exaggerated Th2 immune response. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is effective for treating this condition because it is able to modify its natural course by opposing the underlying pathogenic mechanisms and determining immune suppression, immune deviation and tolerance. The rational for the present study was to investigate the possibility of improving allergoid-based IT in terms of efficacy and safety. Recently, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3), the active metabolite of vitamin D3, was described to be a potent inducer of T regulatory cells and to be a good adjuvant in AIT settings. We investigated whether the co-administration of VD3 could potentiate the effect of AIT even when added to a low dose of chemically-modified monomeric allergoid of Der p 2 (d2-OID), in a Derp p 2 (d2)-sensitized BALB/c mice model. Control groups where treated with sham, VD3 alone or
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lymphokine-activated tumor inhibition in vivo. I. The local administration of interleukin 2 triggers nonreactive lymphocytes from tumor-bearing mice to inhibit tumor growth. AU - Forni, G.. AU - Giovarelli, M.. AU - Santoni, A.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - CE-2 is a chemically induced tumor of low immunogenicity in syngeneic BALB/c mice. Nylon wool columns eluting lymphocytes from the spleen of mice bearing clinically evident (5-mm mean diameter) CE-2 tumors (CE-2 TB lymphocytes) do not react with CE-2 cells in vitro, nor are they able to affect their growth in vivo in a Winn-type neutralization assay at 5:1 lymphocyte:tumor cell ratio. However, they become able to inhibit CE-2 tumor growth when 20 U of interleukin 2 (IL 2) in 0.4 ml are injected daily for 10 days at the challenge site. In contrast, mice injected with CE-2 cells and IL 2 only display tumor takes and growth that are not significantly different from those in controls challenged with CE-2 cells alone. This ...
The early life period represents a time of immunological plasticity whereby the functionality immature immune system is highly susceptible to environmental stimulation. Perennial aeroallergen and respiratory viral infection induced sporadic episodes of lung inflammation during this temporal window represent major risk factors for initiation of allergic asthmatic disease. Murine models are widely used as an investigative tool to examine the pathophysiology of allergic asthma; however, models in current usage typically do not encapsulate the early life period which represents the time of maximal risk for disease inception in humans. To address this issue, this protocol adapted an experimental animal model of disease for sensitization to ovalbumin during the immediate post-weaning period beginning at 21 days of age. By initially sensitizing mice during this early life post-weaning period, researchers can more closely align experimental allergic. ...
DTA-1 mAb abrogates suppression mediated by CD4+ CD25+ T cells. (A) CD4+ CD25- or CD4+ CD25+ T cells (gated as a or b, respectively) were purified by cell-sorter from BALB/c spleen cells. (B) CD4+ CD25+ T cells (open square and closed square) or CD4+ CD25- T cells (open circle and closed circle) purified from 2-month-old BALB/c mice, or these two populations mixed in equal amounts (open triangle and closed triangle), were stimulated for 3 days along with MMC-treated spleen cells as APC in the absence or presence of graded amounts of DTA-1 mAb. Incorporation of [3H] thymidine by proliferating lymphocytes during the last 6 hr of the culture was measured. (C) Spleen cell suspensions prepared from 2-month-old BALB/c mouse were stained with anti-CD4, anti-CD25 and DTA-1. Expression of GITR (DTA-1) on CD4+ CD25+ T cells or CD4+ CD25- T cells is shown in the histogram. The dotted lines represent control staining with an irrelevant Ab.. ...
Cytokines have important roles in the control of bacterial and viral infections such as HIV-1. Interleukin 17 which is secreted by Th17 is one of these cytokines with a special role in controlling microbial infections. In the present study, adjuvant activity of Alum and Naloxone mixture has been studied on immune responses, especially IL-17 cytokine. Naloxone and Alum adjuvant are mixed with 10 µg of recombinant vaccine HIV-1-gag-pol-tat-env. Experimental groups, consisting of 36 inbred male Balb/c mice divided into six groups, were injected subcutaneouslyat days 0, 14 and 28 with total volume of 200 µl. 2 weeks after final injection, mouse spleens were removed in sterile conditions and used to prepare suspensions. Lymphocyte proliferation responses were evaluated with Brdu test and evaluation of cytokines IL-4, IL-17 and INF-γ were completed using ELISA kit, plus total antibody and antibody isotopes IgG1 and IgG2a using ELISA test. All results show that the mixture of Alum with Naloxone
BALB/c Mouse Mammary Microvascular Endothelial Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from breast tissue of pathogen-free laboratory mice. BALB/c Mouse Mammary Microvascular Endothelial Cells are grown in T25 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based coating solution for 2 min and incubated in Creative Bioarray Culture Complete Growth Medium generally for 3-7 days. Cultures are then expanded. Prior to shipping, cells are detached from flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 1x10^6 cells per ml and are delivered frozen. The method we use to isolate endothelial cells was developed based on a combination of established and our proprietary methods. These cells are pre-coated with PECAM-1 antibody, following the application of magnetic pre-coated with secondary antibody ...
Animal models. The mouse model of podocyte injury and proteinuria was established by intravenous injection of ADR as described previously (23). Male BALB/c mice weighing 20-22 g and 24-week-old db/db mice were obtained from the Envigo. For pharmacologic inhibition experiments, CPN was intraperitoneally injected daily at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight after ADR or 2 weeks before sacrifice in db/db mice. CPN was complexed with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HBC; MilliporeSigma). A CPN/HBC stock solution was prepared by suspending 1 mg CPN in 1 ml 45% HBC in sterile PBS and stirring at 65°C for 60 minutes. Three groups of BALB/c mice were used: (a) sham control (n = 5-6), (b) ADR mice injected with vehicle (n = 6), and (c) ADR mice treated with CPN (n = 6). ADR (doxorubicin hydrochloride; MilliporeSigma) was administered by a single intravenous injection at 10 mg/kg body weight. At 1 and 5 weeks after ADR injection, all mice were euthanized. At 2 weeks after CPN injection, db/db mice were killed. ...
Background: Food allergy is considered as resulting from an impaired development or a breakdown of oral tolerance. We aimed to induce oral tolerance to the major cows milk allergen bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) or corresponding trypsin hydrolysates (BLG-Try) and to investigate the mechanisms involved.. Methods: Wild-type BALB/cJ mice were gavaged on days 1-3 and 8-10 with different doses of native BLG (nBLG) or with nBLG-Try and were then sensitized on day 14 by i.p. administration of BLG in alum. Sensitization was assessed by measurement of BLG-specific antibodies in sera and of cytokines secreted by BLG-reactivated splenocytes. Elicitation of the allergic reaction was assessed by measurement of cytokines and mMCP-1 in sera collected 35 min after an oral challenge. Cellular and biochemical markers of the allergic reaction were also analysed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BAL) collected 24 h after intra-nasal challenge. Analysis of the CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in different organs obtained 3 ...
RBM5 (RNA-binding motif protein 5, also named H37/LUCA-15) gene from chromosome 3p21.3 has been demonstrated to be a tumor suppressor. Current researches in vitro confirm that RBM5 can suppress the growth of lung adenocarcinoma cells by inducing apoptosis. There is still no effective model in vivo, however, that thoroughly investigates the effect and molecular mechanism of RBM5 on lung adenocarcinoma. We established the transplanted tumor model on BALB/c nude mice using the A549 cell line. The mice were treated with the recombinant plasmids carried by attenuated Salmonella to induce the overexpression of RBM5 in tumor tissues. RBM5 overexpression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry staining. H&E staining was performed to observe the histological performance on plasmids-treated A549 xenografts. Apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL staining with a TUNEL detection kit. Apoptosis-regulated genes were detected by Western blot. We successful established the lung adenocarcinoma animal model in vivo. The growth of
Supplementary Components1. that NK cell HLI 373 effector features against Ab-coated tumor cells had been improved via binding of MICA on monocytes to NK cell NKG2D receptors. Ways of block MICA-NKG2D relationships led to reductions in IFN creation. Depletion of monocytes led to decreased IFN creation by murine NK cells upon contact with Ab-coated tumor cells. In mice getting IL12 and trastuzumab therapy, monocyte depletion led to higher tumor development compared to mock-depleted settings ( 0 significantly.05). These data claim that NK cell-monocyte relationships enhance NK cell antitumor activity within the establishing of monoclonal Ab therapy for tumor. research, wild-type BALB/c splenocytes had been cocultured with CT-26HER2/neu tumor cells. Tradition supernatants were examined for muIFN by ELISA. NKG2D knockout mice had been supplied by Dr. David Raulet. For the murine tumor research, mice received we.p. shots of control or clodronate-containing liposomes (1 mg/kg in 100 uL PBS) on times 0 ...
In vitro PMA/ionomycin treatment for 5 h, which activates a signal transduction step down-stream of ZAP-70 and therefore equally activates SKG and BALB/c T cells, revealed that a significant fraction of LN CD4+ T cells from nonarthritic SKG mice in an SPF environment were producing IL-17A (hereafter IL-17), whereas SKG or BALB/c CD4-SP thymocytes or BALB/c CD4+ T cells were not (Fig. 1 A and Fig. S1, which is available at http://www.jem.org/cgi/content/full/jem.20062259/DC1). Such IL-17-producing SKG CD4+ T cells also produced at a single cell level TNF-α and IL-2, but not IFN-γ, IL-4, or IL-10, a profile distinct from Th1 or Th2 cells and similar to that of Th17 cells (Fig. 1 A; references 7-9). CD4+ T cells freshly prepared from nonarthritic SKG mice also actively transcribed IL-17 and IL-23R mRNA (Fig. 1 B). In arthritic SKG mice raised in a conventional environment, arthritic joints actively transcribed IL-17 mRNA, whereas nonarthritic ones did not (Fig. 1 C). Correspondingly, CD4+ T cells ...
It has recently been shown that dermal application of the commonly used antimicrobial compound triclosan, enhanced allergic responses in a mouse asthma model. To help elucidate the mechanisms of this augmented allergic response, we investigated the early immune-related effects of dermal triclosan exposure in mice. Triclosan was applied daily to the dorsal surface of the ears of BALB/c mice at conc
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alloreactivity and tumor antigens. T2 - Generation of syngeneic antilymphoma killer lymphocytes by alloimmunization of mice with normal cells. AU - Sensi, M. L.. AU - Parenza, M.. AU - Parmiani, G.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - The possibility of obtaining a syngeneic antitumor effect by immunization with normal allogeneic cells was investigated by tests of the lytic activity of peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) of BALB/c mice immunized with lymphoid cells of either a single strain or a pool of six different allogeneic strains on the syngeneic Moloney virus-induced lymphoma YC8 target and on one of its clones designated YC8-D1. Significant cytotoxicity on both targets but not on two other BALB/c lymphomas was obtained with PEC of BALB/c mice singly immunized to the non-H-2-incompatible but H-2-compatible DBA/2 or B10.D2 lymphoid cells. The lack of lysis of YC8 cells by PEC of BALB/c mice immune to B10.A (H-2(k.d)) suggests that the in vitro killing was restricted by K(d)-IE(d) region ...
LPS pretreatment by the oral route protects against sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture. Regulation of proinflammatory response and IgM anti-LPS antibody production as associated mechanisms. F. Massó; R. Hernández-Pando; L. Montaño; R. Springall; L. Amezcua-Guerra // Inflammation Research;Sep2007, Vol. 56 Issue 9, p385 Abstract. Objective:Â Â To explore the efficacy of prophylactic oral lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Material:Â Â Male Balb/c mice. LPS serotype O55: B5 Treatment:Â Â Mice were treated every 4 days for a total of 5 times with 50... ...
Mice and treatments. BALB-neuT mice were bred and maintained in the animal facility at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori, according to the national and institutional guidelines. Normal 8 to 10-week-old BALB/c, C57BL/6, and FVB mice were purchased from Charles River. F1 hybrids were obtained by mating BALB-neuT males with C57BL/6 or FVB females. The hemizygous transgenic females were identified by PCR performed at age 3 weeks ( 24).. MMP-9+/− mice on C57BL/6 background were kindly provided by Dr. Leif Lund (Panum Institute, Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark) as N17 generation. They were backcrossed to BALB/c and the N6 generation, intercrossed to obtain either homozygous MMP-9−/− and heterozygous MMP-9+/− offspring to be used as bone marrow donors.. Zoledronate (Zometa; Novartis Europharm, Ltd.) at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg or pamidronate (Faulding Pharmaceuticals) at a dose of 2 mg/kg were diluted in saline and administered daily s.c. 5 days a week. ...
Women diagnosed with breast cancer within 5 years postpartum (PPBC) have poorer prognosis than age matched nulliparous women, even after controlling for clinical variables known to impact disease outcomes. Through rodent modeling, the poor prognosis of PPBC has been attributed to physiologic mammary gland involution, which shapes a tumor promotional microenvironment through induction of wound-healing-like programs including myeloid cell recruitment. Previous studies utilizing immune compromised mice have shown that blocking prostaglandin synthesis reduces PPBC tumor progression in a tumor cell extrinsic manner. Given the reported roles of prostaglandins in myeloid and T cell biology, and the established importance of these immune cell populations in dictating tumor growth, we investigate the impact of involution on shaping the tumor immune milieu and its mitigation by ibuprofen in immune competent hosts. In a syngeneic (D2A1) orthotopic Balb/c mouse model of PPBC, we characterized the impact of mammary
All types of cancer include cancer cells that do and do not express tumor antigens. In previous cancer immunotherapies, activated immune cells attacked only one of these two types of tumor cells, whereas in NKT cell-targeted cancer chemotherapy, adjuvant effects are induced which in turn simultaneously activates both the innate immune system, involving NK cells, and the acquired immune system, involving CD8T cells (killer T-cells). The adjuvant effects are in fact mediated by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) which is produced by NKT cells, and thus effectively attacks and eliminates both types of tumor cells. In addition, its efficacy is not restricted by anti-tumor antigens and it is therefore expected to have anti-tumor efficacy against all types of tumor cells including expressing neo-antigens. ...
Azoxymethane (AOM) is a colon carcinogen that is used to study the pathogenesis of sporadic colorectal cancer. We have evaluated differential susceptibility to AOM in inbred mice used as progenitors of recombinant/transgenic lines. In experiment 1, male FVB/N, 129/SvJ, C57Bl/6J mice were treated i.p. with 10 mg/kg AOM once per week for 4 weeks and sacrificed after 20 weeks. Only AOM-treated FVB/N mice developed tumors (3.6 tumors/mouse) in distal colon. In experiment 2, A/J, AKR/J, Balb/CJ mice were treated with AOM for 6 weeks and sacrificed after 24 weeks. AOM-treated A/J and Balb/CJ mice developed 9.2 and 1 tumor/mouse, respectively. Despite these differences, tumors had similar morphology regardless of strain. Immunohistochemistry with β-catenin resulted in marked nuclear and cytoplasmic staining of tumor cells in FVB/N. However, fainter and heterogeneous β-catenin staining was observed in A/J tumors, suggesting distinct pathways of tumorigenesis in different strains. Irrespective of ...
We previously demonstrated that the chronic consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) promotes lung and liver metastases of 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells in obesity-resistant BALB/c mice. To examine early transcriptional responses to tumour progression in the liver and lungs of HFD-fed mice, 4-week-old female BALB/c mice were divided into four groups: sham-injected, control diet (CD)-fed; sham-injected, HFD-fed (SH); 4T1 cell-injected, CD-fed (TC); 4T1 cell-injected, HFD-fed (TH). Following 16 weeks of either a CD or HFD, 4T1 cells were injected into the mammary fat pads of mice in the TC and TH groups and all mice were continuously fed identical diets. At 14 d post-injection, RNA was isolated from hepatic and pulmonary tissues for microarray analysis of mRNA expression. Functional annotation and core network analyses were conducted for the TH/SH Unique gene set. Inflammation in hepatic tissues and cell mitosis in pulmonary tissues were the most significant biological functions in the TH/SH Unique gene ...
Background: Proteasome inhibitors, such as bortezomib and the tetrapeptide epoxyketone carfilzomib, have shown strong antitumor activity in patients with multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma. Anti‐tumor responses are due to direct tumor cell cytotoxicity but may also involve effects on growth factors, angiogenesis and stromal cell interactions. The effect of proteasome inhibitors on metastatic spread has not been well studied in pre‐clinical models. PR‐047 is a novel orally bioavailable inhibitor of the 20S proteasome, that is structurally related to carfilzomib. PR‐047 has demonstrated potent anti‐tumor activity in mice bearing subcutaneous tumors of multiple histotypes.. Aim: To evaluate the effect of PR‐047 on metastatic spread in mice bearing tumors of the 4T1 mammary carcinoma, an invasive tumor cell line that can spontaneously metastasize from the primary tumor to multiple sites.. Methods: 6-8 week old female BALB/c mice were challenged in the mammary fat pad (metastatic ...
The present study aims to investigate the long-term histopathological, and physiological effects of different concentrations of a commercially available energy drink (Tiger) on liver and kidney of young mice. Sixteen Balb/c male mice,6 -week old, were divided into 4 groups (n=4). Two groups consumed the energy drink at a concentration of 28µl energy drink/ml water. One group were killed after 10 days (T1), another group were killed after 20 days (T2). Other group of mice consumed the energy drink at a final concentration of 14µl/ml for 20 days (T3). The last group was provided only with water and served as control. Mice of all groups drank around 3 ml per day. The histopathological study on liver of treated groups showed many changes such as inflammatory cells infiltration and aggregation with hepatocyts necrosis, some of these necrosis replaced by RBCs and inflammatory cells, while the pathohistological changes in kidney of treated groups limited to aggregation of RBCs and inflammatory cells ...
Mice and virus. Specific pathogen-free human DPP4-KI mice were generated as described earlier (10). Male and female mice, 8-12 weeks of age, were used for these studies. B6, B6-Ly5.1, and BALB/c mice were purchased from Charles River Laboratories. MAVS-/- mice on a B6 background and TLR7-/- mice on a BALB/c background were a gift from Michael Gale Jr. (University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA) and Westley Reeves (University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA, with permission from Shizuo Akira, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan), respectively. TLR7-/- mice were re-derived by crossing them with Charles River BALB/c mice (Charles River Laboratories). Mice were bred and maintained at the University of Iowa animal care facility. The MERS-CoV-MA15 strain was generated as described earlier (10). Mice were anesthetized using xylazine-ketamine and i.n. infected with a 200 to 250 PFU (sublethal), 500 PFU (LD50), or 1000 PFU (lethal) dose of MERS-CoV-MA in 50 μL DMEM. All work with MERS-CoV was ...
18. Kahsay GEBRETSADIK (postgraduate student, Ethiopia): Evaluation of in vivo antifibrogenic properties of the HDAC inhibitors TSA and 4-Me2N-BAPH in the CCl4-induced Balb/C mouse model of hepatic fibrosis (2000 ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The modified Gompertz equation has been proposed to fit experimental data for direct current treated tumors when multiple-straight needle electrodes are individually inserted into the base perpendicular to the tumor long axis. The aim of this work is to evaluate the efficacy of direct current generated by multiple-electrode arrays on F3II mammary carcinoma that grow in the male and female BALB/c/Cenp mice, when multiple-straight needle electrodes and multiple-pairs of electrodes are inserted in the tumor. A longitudinal and retrospective preclinical study was carried out. Male and female BALB/c/Cenp mice, the modified Gompertz equation, intensities (2, 6 and 10 mA) and exposure times (10 and 20 min) of direct current, and three geometries of multiple-electrodes (one formed by collinear electrodes and two by pair-electrodes) were used. Tumor volume and mice weight were measured. In addition, the mean tumor doubling time, tumor regression percentage, tumor growth delay, direct current overall
Female Balb/c mice were oxvariectomed at lactation day 2, pups forced weaned at lactation day 12 to initiate mammary involution. At 24 hours post-weaning, mice were treated with anti-Ly6G antibodies or isotype control. At 48 hours post-weaning, mice were treated with 20µg/kg of body weight estrogen or vehicle control. Mice sacrificed after 24 hours estrogen treatment and mammary sample collected and frozen. Mammary samples were extracted for total RNA using Trizol reagen and then treated ...
We previously demonstrated that culturing antigen-sensitized draining lymph node (DLN) lymphocytes from BALB/c mice in interleukin (IL)-7/15 after activation with bryostatin/ionomycin (B/I) is superior to culture in IL-2 for expansion, differentiation to cluster of differentiation (CD)8+ cells and anti-tumor activity. We sought to determine whether the substitution or addition of IL-21 to culture had a similar effect. DLN lymphocytes were antigen-sensitized with 4T1 mammary carcinoma 10 days prior to harvest, activated with B/I, and expanded in culture for 7 days with either IL-2, IL-21, IL-2/21, IL-7/15, or IL-7/15/21. Cellular expansion, phenotype, interferon (IFN)-γ responses, and in vivo anti-tumor activity were compared. We found that T cells grown in IL7/15/21 demonstrated significantly greater lymphocyte expansion than IL-2, IL-21, IL-2/21, and IL-7/15 (38.4-fold vs. 5.5, 6.6, 9.5, and 23.9-fold, respectively). Of these expanded cells, IL-7/15/21 significantly expanded the greatest percentage of
In the last part the differential response of splenic mature B cells to the mitogen lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was investigated. It was known that frequencies of LPS-reactive B cells in C57BL/6 mice is higher than in BALB/c mice. In this study, it could be shown that actually the FOB cells of C57BL/6 respond stronger to LPS in vitro than FOB cells of the BALB/c strain. In addition, MZB cells of both mouse strains showed a stronger response to LPS than the FOB cells. However, in contrast to the observation in FOB cells, MZB cells of both tested strains responded equally strong. A genetic approach did not lead to the identification of a responsible locus for the observed differential response in FOB cells, but indicated that most probably multiple genes control the response in a differential fashion in FOB cells in the tested mouse strains. Furthermore, the results suggest that the stronger response of FOB cells from C57BL/6 mice either involves components within the MyD88-dependent pathway or ...
(Reuters) - Early results from tests for a coronavirus vaccine being developed by the University of Oxford, in collaboration with AstraZeneca Plc, show it produces a robust immune response in elderly people, the group at
75mm2 ip67 ip68 m17 Waterproof Cable for Water-Proof Wire Lead - (Cable Length: 3 core Waterproof, Color: 3c Male to Female 1m): SATA Cables - ✓ FREE DELIVERY possible on eligible purchases,Buy Computer Cables 3 core 0,Manufacturer Price,with exclusive discounts,Wholesale prices,Absolutely Price to value,Best trade-in values on the planet.
While Vγ9Vδ2 T cells have been shown to be effective as a cancer immunotherapy [1], especially when used in combination with N-BPs [5-15], little is known about the in vivo behaviour of human γδ T cells in murine models. This is important to find out if a correlation between the number of γδ T cells in tumour mass and the success of the therapy can be established. While the use of human γδ T cells in cancer therapy is well established, yet questions remain concerning mechanisms involved in recruiting these cells to specific tumours in different tissues. This is an important issue since localisation to the tumour mass is thought to be required for efficacy. Previous studies where human γδ T cells were adoptively transferred in different tumour models established in mice mostly used qualitative, histological approaches to address tumour accumulation [7, 10]. In this work a highly quantitative and unbiased approach is used to measure human γδ T cell accumulation in tumours grown in ...
One reason for the poor immunogenicity of many tumors may be that they cannot provide signals for CD28-mediated costimulation necessary to fully activate T cells. It has recently become apparent that CTLA-4, a second counterreceptor for the B7 family of costimulatory molecules, is a negative regulator of T cell activation. Here, in vivo administration of antibodies to CTLA-4 resulted in the rejection of tumors, including preestablished tumors. Furthermore, this rejection resulted in immunity to a secondary exposure to tumor cells. These results suggest that blockade of the inhibitory effects of CTLA-4 can allow for, and potentiate, effective immune responses against tumor cells.. ...
All products for disinfecting, cleaning and care. For your all-round protection at home, in the salon and on the road. Discover now!
Zyagen : Mouse Balbc Tissue cDNA - Antibodies Kits, Reagents & Biochemical Tissue Sections RNA Products cDNA Products Genomic DNA Products Tissue Lysates Products Premade Northern Blots Premade Western Blots Recombinant Proteins & Peptides Tissue Microarrays
CD4 T cells inhibit in vivo the CD8-mediated immune response against murine colon carcinoma cells transduced with interleukin-12 genes.: Retroviral-mediated cyt
We also use the Cre-loxP system, in which a gene of interest is engineered to contain loxP sites flanking a critical region of the gene. A mouse containing the floxed gene is normal, because the loxP sites are silent. Upon expression of the Cre recombinase, which removes DNA sequences flanked by loxP sites, that gene is inactivated. We use three methods for inducing Cre in a region-specific manner in brain. In one, we breed mice containing a floxed gene to mice in which Cre is inducibly expressed under the tetracycline system described above. In the second, we breed them to mice that express modified forms of Cre, which can be activated upon local injection of a chemical in brain. In the third, we use viral vectors encoding Cre to create localized knockouts of the floxed gene. Together, these various approaches enable us to exert powerful control over a drug- or stress-regulated protein ...
Immunization of Balb/c mice ( up to 5 animals) with antigen to stimulate antibody production. You may choose to follow our standard immunization protocol, or work with our staff to use your own protocol. We typically inject mouse every two weeks for 6 weeks before taking a test bleed. The test bleed serum samples are analyzed for antibody production using ELISA. If desired, clients can request up to 0.5 ml serum sample/per mouse for their own additional characterization. ELISA will be used to determine the highest titer mice to be used for cell fusion. Immunization may continue longer if response is not optimal. ...
By Phage do you mean a plasmid? if this this so it could be some kind of DNA immunization. I have done it in the past for one of my research project. I wanted the BALB/c mouse to produce antibody against a complicated molecule that couldnt be purified and injected because the configuration could changed once the molecule was purified. Therefore, we decided to express the original molecule in mice by plasmid injection and immunization and have mice make the antibody against the foreign molecule expressed in the body ...
An increasing potential problem. This guidance is important to help you prepare or prevent contact or deal with any issues arising.
"BALB/c". Inbred Strains of Mice. Jackson Laboratory. Retrieved 2007-04-16. "BALB/cByJ". Jax Mice Data Sheet. Jackson Laboratory ... When compared directly to BALB/c mice, C57BL/6 mice also express both a robust response to social rewards and empathy. BALB/c ... BALB/c mice are distributed globally and are among the most widely used inbred strains used in animal experimentation. BALB/c ... inbred mouse strain and initiated the systematic generation of inbred strains. The mouse has since been used extensively as a ...
Schwartz WJ, Zimmerman P. Circadian timekeeping in BALB/c and C57BL/6 inbred mouse strains. J Neurosci. 1990; 10: 3685-3694. ...
Mouse NLRP1B is not activated by a receptor-ligand type mechanism. NLRP1B variants from certain inbred mouse strains, BALB/c ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Thorpe KL, Abdulla ... Loss of DPP9 in humans and mice, results in NLRP1 activation. As published by Bruno Reversade and colleagues several Mendelian ... Mice have three paralogs of the Nlrp1 gene (Nlrp1a, b, c). Nlrp1c is a pseudogene. ...
Some inbred laboratory mouse strains, such as BALB/c and C57BL/6, also have different proteins expressed in their urine. ... using white-footed mice, it was found that when mice derived from wild populations were inbred, there was reduced survival when ... Wild mice breeding freely in semi-natural enclosures showed inbreeding avoidance. This avoidance resulted from a strong deficit ... These findings suggest that inbreeding reduces fitness, and that scent signal recognition has evolved in mice as a means of ...
1985 - Started producing BALB/c mice. 1991 - Became the first commercial provider of the C.B-17 SCID mouse model. 1994 - ... Contracted with National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Disease to maintain a repository of inbred, congenic, and ... "Mice in microgravity: how rodent research in space accelerates study timelines". outsourcing-pharma.com. Retrieved 9 June 2017 ... They continue to supply NCI with BDF1 mice. 1975 - Began offering the SHR hypertensive rat and the WKY control strain. 1980 - ...
... and only three un-pedigreed mice remained alive. Soon after World War I, inbreeding in mice was started on a much larger scale ... A/J C3H C57BL/6 CBA DBA/2 BALB/c G. M. Rommel first started conducting inbreeding experiments on guinea pigs in 1906. Strain 2 ... "The period before World War I led to the initiation of inbreeding in rats by Dr Helen King in about 1909 and in mice by Dr C. C ... A genealogical chart of mouse inbred strains can be found here on the Jackson Laboratory website and is currently being ...
Mice of the inbred strain BALB/c were immunized with recombinant human CD28-Fc fusion proteins and boosted with a B lymphoma ... Animal trials on mice were not necessarily predictive of human responses, as it would require a much greater dosage to get the ... In 2016, a study carried out on humanized mice evaluated TGN1412's effects on the immune system, and confirmed that it could ... The more active of the two, 5.11A1, is a mouse IgG1 immunoglobulin. The complementarity-determining regions of 5.11A1 were ...
In the case of a typical mouse recombinant inbred strain made by crossing maternal strain BALB/cBy (C) with paternal strain ... Recombinant inbred strains or lines were first developed using inbred strains of mice but are now used to study a wide range of ... pairs of the F2 progeny are then mated to establish inbred strains through long-term inbreeding. Families of recombinant inbred ... Williams RW, Gu J, Qi S, Lu L (2001). "The genetic structure of recombinant inbred mice: high-resolution consensus maps for ...
... mice, inbred a MeSH B01.050.157.520.318 - mice, inbred akr MeSH B01.050.157.520.338 - mice, inbred balb c MeSH B01.050.157.520. ... mice, inbred a MeSH B01.050.199.520.520.318 - mice, inbred akr MeSH B01.050.199.520.520.338 - mice, inbred balb c MeSH B01.050. ... mice, inbred mdx MeSH B01.050.157.520.440 - mice, inbred cba MeSH B01.050.157.520.445 - mice, inbred cftr MeSH B01.050.157.520. ... mice, inbred hrs MeSH B01.050.157.520.510 - mice, inbred icr MeSH B01.050.157.520.555 - mice, inbred mrl lpr MeSH B01.050. ...
Examples include the BALB/c mouse and Wistar and Sprague Dawley rat strains, laboratory rabbits and ferrets. Albino axolotl (an ... Familiar albino animals include in-bred strains of laboratory animals (rats, mice and rabbits), but populations of naturally ... In mice, a total of 100 genes are known to affect albinism. All the genetic traits for albinism are recessive traits. This ... Brilliant, Murray H. (2001). "The Mouse p (pink-eyed dilution) and Human P Genes, Oculocutaneous Albinism Type 2 (OCA2), and ...
"Dirty" mice are possibly better suitable for mimicking human pathologies. In addition, inbred mouse strains are used in the ... Animal testing Animal model BALB/c C57BL/6 Fe, Fi, Fo, Fum, and Phooey, five mice who orbited the Moon in 1972 Mouse models of ... Mice differ from humans in several immune properties: mice are more resistant to some toxins than humans; have a lower total ... Thirty to fifty live mice are normally born from this number of injected blastocysts. Normally, the skin color of the mice from ...
... several strains of mice (including BALB/c mice) and in three common monkey species. In addition to natural killer cells being ... Smith HJ (December 1966). "Antigenicity of carcinogen-induced and spontaneous tumours in inbred mice". British Journal of ... in the mouse, and by Hugh Pross and doctoral student Mikael Jondal in the human. The mouse and human work was carried out under ... In both mice and humans, NKs can be seen to play a role in tumor immunosurveillance by directly inducing the death of tumor ...
Mice * Mice, Inbred BALB C * Mycobacterium / immunology* * Ovalbumin / immunology * Spleen / immunology * Th1 Cells / ... Inhibition of an established allergic response to ovalbumin in BALB/c mice by killed Mycobacterium vaccae Immunology. 1998 Mar; ... A single injection of M. vaccae into ovalbumin (OVA)-preimmunized BALB/c mice suppressed serum IgE over a wide dose range (10(7 ...
The susceptibility of BALB/C and other inbred mouse strains to Brugia pahangi. Acta Trop. 1983;40(4):341-350.. View this ... BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice, 14 dpi (n = 20 WT BALB/c sham, n = 21 WT BALB/c BmL3, n = 8 IL-4Rα-/- BALB/c sham, n = 15 IL-4Rα-/- ... mice, 14 dpi (n = 8 WT BALB/c BmL3, n = 5 IL-4Rα-/- BALB/c BmL3, n = 8 WT C57BL/6J BmL3, n = 5 IL-4Rα-/- sham and IL-4Rα-/- Bm ... BALB/c IL-4Rα-/- mice were originally purchased from The Jackson Laboratory. C57BL/6J IL-4rα-/- mice were originally gifted by ...
This choice is based on the historical relevance of mouse studies in understanding the disease and the present and long- ... using mouse models of tuberculosis (TB) as a case study. ... 2009) Aging in inbred strains of mice: study design and interim ... used non-genetically modified inbred strains. Of these (n = 231), 44% used solely C57BL/6, 23% BALB/c and 4% other inbred ... Mouse models Is the Subject Area "Mouse models" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
... and laboratory studies have shown that numerous inbred strains of mice (e.g., Balb/C, C3H, DBA/2) are also highly susceptible ... Inbred laboratory mice infected with AP-ha may remain infected for up to 55 days (6), and previous infections induce an immune ... Hodzic E, IJdo JW, Feng S, Katavolos P, Sun W, Maretzki CH, Granulocytic ehrlichiosis in the laboratory mouse. J Infect Dis. ... Hodzic E, IJdo JW, Feng S, Katavolos P, Sun W, Maretzki CH, Granulocytic ehrlichiosis in the laboratory mouse. J Infect Dis. ...
"Inbred Strains of Mice. Jackson Laboratory. Retrieved 2007-04-16.. *^ "BALB/cByJ". Jax Mice Data Sheet. Jackson Laboratory. ... inbred mouse strain and initiated the systematic generation of inbred strains.[4] The mouse has since been used extensively as ... However, the BALB/Lac substrain is much more docile.[25] Most BALB/c mice substrains have a long reproductive life-span.[22] ... With over 200 generations bred since 1920, BALB/c mice are distributed globally and are among the most widely used inbred ...
CB6F1/6J is a hybrid mouse model which comes from breeding two inbred mice (C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ). This animal showed similar ... pairs of adult mice prenatally exposed to valproic acid displayed increased inter-mouse proximity compared with control mice ( ... One example is a study that monitored spontaneous home-cage behavior of 11 inbred strains of mice (129S1/SvImJ, A/J, C3H/HeJ, ... Tang, X., Orchard, S. M., and Sanford, L. D. (2002). Home cage activity and behavioral performance inbred and hybrid mice. ...
Inbred female Balb/c-mice were exposed to silica (7631869) dust over a period of 39 weeks to study alterations of B-lymphocyte ... At all time points following the aerosol stimulation of the mice with whole Escherichia-coli-055:B5, the thymus independent ...
This is a "connection" page, showing publications Todd Getz has written about Mice, Inbred BALB C. ...
... in mice, which requires the sensing of TLR agonists, as well as the production of interleukin (IL)-23 by dendritic cells, ... ligands during sickness is shown to induce fucosylation of the small intestine in mice; some of the fucose is shed into the ... or food deprivation for 24 h of BALB/c SPF mouse. b, LPS injection causes small intestine fucosylation in various inbred mouse ... At least two mice per mutant genotype were stained along with two control mice in the experiments shown. b, SPF mice were pre- ...
... comes from the LSXSS series of 22 recombinant mouse strains plus six classical inbred strains: under CR, strains such as 12956 ... and C57BL/6 showed a drop of 1-2 °C in T b whilst others such as BALB/c and A had a T b drop of 3-5 °C (Rikke and Johnson 2004 ... in both mice. The cage switching caused a rise in T b for both mice, though dwarf mice still maintained a lower T b (Hunter et ... In one experiment, six female dwarf mice and six control mice had their T b measured over 24 h across three separate conditions ...
Mice, Inbred A B1. Mice, Inbred AKR B1. Mice, Inbred BALB C B1. Mice, Inbred ... Mice, Inbred CBA B1. Mice, Inbred CFTR B1. Mice, Inbred DBA B1. Mice, Inbred ... Mice, Inbred MRL lpr B1. Mice, Inbred NOD B1. Mice, Inbred NZB B1. Mice, ... Inbred ACI B1. Rats, Inbred BB B1. Rats, Inbred BN B1. Rats, Inbred BUF B1.50. ...
... are injected back into the compatible inbred mouse strain of origin (BALB/cJ in this case), these syngeneic models allow the ... Figure 1: NSG vs NSG-SGM3 Mice. NSG™ mice (NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ, 005557) are devoid of mature B, T, and NK cells. ... Why humanized mice?. If you read about biomedical breakthroughs, you are hearing more and more about "humanized" mice. But, ... Immunodeficient mice permit the study of human T cells and human cancers in vivo. Permissive immunodeficient mouse strains, ...
Mice, Inbred BALB C; Ofloxacin; Polymers; Prosthesis-Related Infections; Staphylococcal Infections; Staphylococcus aureus; ... Mice were surgically implanted with the coated discs placed subcutaneously and infection was initiated by injection of 10(6) ... Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Bioware; Colony Count, Microbial; Disease Models, Animal; Female; Foreign Bodies; Humans; Mice ...
Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Molecular Sequence Data. Plant Proteins/immunology* ... T cell epitopes of the timothy grass pollen allergen Phl p 5 of mice and men and the detection of allergen-specific T cells ...
Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Pneumonia, Respiratory Function Tests", ... Mice were exposed to an aerosol of either saline or endotoxin (5 mg/ml) for 10 min. Half of the endotoxin-exposed mice were ... Mice were exposed to an aerosol of either saline or endotoxin (5 mg/ml) for 10 min. Half of the endotoxin-exposed mice were ... Mice were exposed to an aerosol of either saline or endotoxin (5 mg/ml) for 10 min. Half of the endotoxin-exposed mice were ...
The immune response of mice from the C57BL/6 strain distinguish it from other inbred strains like BALB/c. ... BALB/c. An albino strain of laboratory mouse from which a number of common substrains are derived. BALB/c substrains are " ... C57BL/6 often referred to as "C57 black 6" or just "black 6" is a common inbred strain of lab mouse. Dark brown, nearly black, ... Nude mouse. A laboratory mouse from a strain with a genetic mutation that causes a deteriorated or absent thymus, resulting in ...
Sequenced Mouse Inbred Strain Genome Meta-data. Organism. mouse. Strain/Species. BALB/cJ ... Mouse Genome Database (MGD), Gene Expression Database (GXD), Mouse Models of Human Cancer database (MMHCdb) (formerly Mouse ... Annotation of mouse strain BALB/cJ genome assembly provided by GENCODE consortium. Distributed via Ensembl Release 103. Gene ... J:259852 Mouse Genome Informatics and the WTSI Mouse Genomes Project, MGI Strain Genome Feature and Gene Model Load. Database ...
... used Baggs albinos to create a third inbred strain of mice, called BALB/c (short for Bagg albino), in 1922. ... For more on the history of inbred mice, see the fascinating book Making Mice by Karen Rader. ... killing all the mice. Luckily, another scientist was at this time also becoming interested in inbred mice, a man named Halsey ... by mating one of the new Strain A mice with a DBA mouse from this stock, and repeating the inbreeding process, Strong created ...
Known for Dna Damage , Inbred Balb Mice , Murine Keratinocytes , Cells Skin Association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in ... caused the regression of highly immunogenic tumors in syngeneic mice. In this study, we examined whether B16F10 melanoma cells ... Ogg1 knockout mice and C57BL/6J wild ... ...
Inbred BALB C, Keratins, Knockout, Lipopolysaccharides/metabolism, Lozano Juan Jose, Male, Matsushita Hiroshi, Mice, Middle ... Inbred BALB C; Keratins; Knockout; Lipopolysaccharides/metabolism; Male; Mice; Middle Aged; Signal Transduction; Toll-Like ... LPS-TLR4 pathway role in ductular cell expansion was assessed in human and mouse progenitor cells, liver slices and liver ... injured TLR4 KO mice. In AH patients, ductular cell expansion correlated with portal hypertension and collagen expression. ...
This is a "connection" page, showing publications Jennifer Schuster has written about Mice, Inbred BALB C. ...
Mice. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. Mice, Inbred BALB C. en_US. ... Experimental animals (Swiss mice, Balb/c mice and guineapigs) ... assessed by 3H thymidine incorporation by lymphocytes from JE vaccinated individuals and experimentally immunized Balb/c mice. ...
BALB C Mice BALB C Mice, Inbred BALB C Mouse BALB C Mouse, Inbred Inbred BALB C Mice Inbred BALB C Mouse Mice, BALB C Mouse, ... BALB C Mice. BALB C Mice, Inbred. BALB C Mouse. BALB C Mouse, Inbred. Inbred BALB C Mice. Inbred BALB C Mouse. Mice, BALB C. ... Mice, Inbred BALB C - Preferred Concept UI. M0013731. Scope note. An inbred strain of mouse that is widely used in IMMUNOLOGY ... Mouse, BALB C. Mouse, Inbred BALB C. Tree number(s):. B01. B01.050.150.900.649.313.992.635.505.500. ...
Most inbred mice carry germline proviruses of the retrovirus, mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) (called Mtvs), which have ... A BALB/c congenic mouse strain lacking all endogenous Mtvs (Mtv-null) was resistant to MMTV oral and intraperitoneal infection ... and tumorigenesis compared to wild-type BALB/c mice. Infection of Mtv-null mice with an MMTV-related retrovirus, type B ... but susceptibility to Salmonella typhimurium was not significantly different from BALB/c mice. Susceptibility to both MMTV and ...
... and H4R-induced signal transmission was tested in a scratching assay in mice in vivo as well as via Ca2+ imaging of murine ... Female BALB/c mice (BALB/cAnNCrl, (7 ± 1 weeks old, body weight 18 ± 1 g)), female CD-1 mice (Crl:CD-1, (7 ± 1 weeks old, body ... They identified the inbred mouse strain C57BL/6 and the outbred strain CD-1 (ICR) as the most susceptible strains to local ... or BALB/c mice (29%). After capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist) stimulation, fewer neurons obtained from BALB/c mice (15%) reacted with ...
Interleukin-4 Lung mice Mice, Inbred BALB C Mice, Inbred C57BL Mycobacterium tuberculosis Spleen T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic ... Molecular Cytokines mice Mice, Inbred BALB C Mice, Inbred C57BL Molecular Weight Vaccines, DNA Abstract: Using spleen cells ...
Taconic Biosciences offers three key models as off-the-shelf germ-free mice for immediate delivery in typical study sizes. ... Taconics inbred C57BL/6NTac and BALB/cAnNTac mice and outbred Swiss Webster mice are immediately available from our commercial ... Germ Free BALB/c. Taconic is the only commercial provider of germ-free BALB/c mice.. Strain snapshot:. *BALB/c is a commonly ... More information and pricing is available on the BALB/c page.. Availability: Germ Free BALB/c mice are available in small ...
T cells were induced at high frequencies by all prime-boost regimens in BALB/c mice but not in CD-1 mice; in CD-1 mice, they ... In BALB/c mice, no immunization regimens provided significant protection against a ,jats:italic,Pb-Pv,/jats:italic, CelTOS ... A single Ad immunization in BALB/c and CD-1 mice induced anti- ,jats:italic,Pv,/jats:italic, CelTOS antibodies which were ... In CD-1 mice, modest protective efficacy against challenge with chimeric ,jats:named-content content-type=genus-species,P. ...
  • Anti-PD-L1 therapy generated stronger tumor-specific T cell responses and intratumoral CD8 + T cell accumulation when the cells were implanted in the C57BL/6J mouse substrain from The Jackson Laboratory (JAX) compared to the C57BL/6Tac mouse substrain from Taconic Farms. (jax.org)
  • Taconic's inbred C57BL/6NTac and BALB/cAnNTac mice and outbred Swiss Webster mice are immediately available from our commercial production colonies at the Germ Free (GF) health standard . (taconic.com)
  • In addition the C57BL/6 Germ Free Il10 Knockout (B6) and Il10 Knockout (BALB/c) are available in small quantities for pilot studies. (taconic.com)
  • C57BL/6, also called Black 6 or B6, is the most commonly used inbred strain. (taconic.com)
  • More information and pricing is available on the C57BL/6 Il10 Knockout (B6) and Il10 Knockout (BALB/c) pages. (taconic.com)
  • Two highly inbred strains (BALB/cBy and C57BL/6By), their F1 hybrids, a backcross generation, and seven recombinant-inbred strains derived from the F2 generation were tested. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • The BXD platform is a recombinant inbred panel derived from the C57BL/6J "B6" and DBA/2J "D2" founder strains. (jax.org)
  • Here, we established several immortalized cell clones from respiratory regions of inbred mice (C57BL/6 and BALB/c) by transformation using simian virus 40 large T antigen expression vector. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • Mice belong to the Euarchontoglires clade, which includes humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • This close relationship, the associated high homology with humans, their ease of maintenance and handling, and their high reproduction rate, make mice particularly suitable models for human-oriented research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice are mammals of the clade (a group consisting of an ancestor and all its descendants) Euarchontoglires , which means they are amongst the closest non- primate relatives of humans along with lagomorphs , treeshrews , and flying lemurs . (wikipedia.org)
  • Lab mice differ in important ways from the common house mouse ( mus musculus ) that humans have lived with for centuries. (cancerresearch.org)
  • Mice have long been objects of fascination for humans, especially in East Asian countries where they were prized for their distinct color varieties and unique behaviors, such as a circular movement described as "waltzing. (cancerresearch.org)
  • Since human endogenous retroviruses also encode Sags, these studies have broad implications for pathogen-induced responses in mice and humans. (utexas.edu)
  • The distribution of these leucocyte integrin molecules has been shown to be similar to that observed in humans and determination of the N-terminal sequence of rabbit CD11b shows strong homology with human and mouse sequences. (ox.ac.uk)
  • [3] Together they generated the DBA (Dilute, Brown and non-Agouti) inbred mouse strain and initiated the systematic generation of inbred strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • When these cell lines (such as CT26 colon carcinoma or 4T1 mammary carcinoma cell lines) are injected back into the compatible inbred mouse strain of origin ( BALB/cJ in this case), these syngeneic models allow the study of endogenous T cell function in fully immune competent mice. (jax.org)
  • To address this, Sommermeyer and colleagues employed the severely immunodeficient NSG mouse strain to test fully human CD19 chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) against a human leukemia . (jax.org)
  • Annotation of mouse strain BALB/cJ genome assembly provided by GENCODE consortium. (jax.org)
  • J:259852 Mouse Genome Informatics and the WTSI Mouse Genomes Project, MGI Strain Genome Feature and Gene Model Load. (jax.org)
  • Today, researchers can order up a batch of lab mice of any strain by simply placing an order online. (cancerresearch.org)
  • A BALB/c congenic mouse strain lacking all endogenous Mtvs (Mtv-null) was resistant to MMTV oral and intraperitoneal infection and tumorigenesis compared to wild-type BALB/c mice. (utexas.edu)
  • An inbred strain of mouse that is widely used in IMMUNOLOGY studies and cancer research. (bvsalud.org)
  • It is the preferred background strain for most genetically engineered mouse models. (taconic.com)
  • B6 is a versatile mouse strain. (taconic.com)
  • BALB/c is a commonly used, general purpose inbred strain with good reproductive performance. (taconic.com)
  • Mouse research is often performed in genetically-defined inbred mouse strains, where each mouse within a strain is virtually identical to one another. (jax.org)
  • While controlling for genetic variability can be helpful for mechanistic research, using a single inbred strain may limit the translatability of preclinical experimental findings. (jax.org)
  • BALB/c is widely used for immunology studies. (taconic.com)
  • The white-footed mouse serves as a natural reservoir for AP-ha, and laboratory studies have shown that numerous inbred strains of mice (e.g. (cdc.gov)
  • Together, in a series of careful scientific experiments conducted between 1908 and 1919, Loeb and Lathrop showed that different strains of mice had different propensities for developing cancer (typically mammary cancer), and that cancer risk seemed to run in families of mice. (cancerresearch.org)
  • Recombinant inbred (RI) strains, for example, are generated by first crossing several inbred strains together, then multiple lines are inbred to create a set of new inbred strains. (jax.org)
  • We observed increased pulmonary Th1-type cytokine production in lung homogenates and classical macrophage activation as evidenced by enhanced expression of inducible NO synthase in the lungs of H99γ-immunized mice compared with mice given a nonprotective immunization with heat-killed C. neoformans (HKCn). (elsevier.com)
  • In this study, humoral and cellular immune response elicited in inbred BALB/c mice by immunization with a recombinant classical swine fever virus (CSFV) E2 protein fused to porcine CD154 antigen (E2CD154) was assessed. (edu.sa)
  • Moreover, CSFV specific splenocyte gamma-interferon production, measured after seven and twenty-eight days of immunization, was significantly higher in mice immunized with 12.5 μg of E2CD154. (edu.sa)
  • Severity of EAU was assessed in DBA1 and 129/CD1 wild-type (WT) or IL-18 knockout (KO) mice after immunization with the uveitogenic antigen: interphotoreceptor retinal binding protein (IRBP) peptide 161-180. (arvojournals.org)
  • Lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production were also measured in WT and IL-18 KO DBA1 mice 15 days after immunization. (arvojournals.org)
  • EAU-resistant mice (129/CD1) with an IL-18 −/− phenotype remained resistant after immunization with IRBP peptide (P161-180). (arvojournals.org)
  • Taconic offers three key models as off-the-shelf germ-free mice for immediate delivery in typical study sizes, as well as two new constitutive knockout models. (taconic.com)
  • Il10 Knockout mice are useful for studying colitis and immunoregulatory pathways. (taconic.com)
  • Members of the genus Bifidobacterium , found in higher composition in the microbiome of the JAX mice, exerted these anti-tumor effects. (jax.org)
  • Most inbred mice carry germline proviruses of the retrovirus, mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) (called Mtvs), which have multiple replication defects. (utexas.edu)
  • BALB/c is widely used for syngeneic tumor model studies as well as in asthma and allergy studies. (taconic.com)
  • In this study, the global lipidomics and RNA sequencing data show that, in the tumor tissues of CRC-bearing mouse models, HFD not only increases tumor weight, but also the palmitic acid level and TLR4 expression, which are reduced when HFD is replaced by control diet. (edu.hk)
  • Importantly, lncNB1 knockdown abolishes neuroblastoma cell clonogenic capacity in vitro and leads to neuroblastoma tumor regression in mice, while high levels of lncNB1 and RPL35 in human neuroblastoma tissues predict poor patient prognosis. (springernature.com)
  • Also, breast tumor was induced by subcutaneous injection of MC4-L2 cells in BALB/c inbred mice breast tissue. (bvsalud.org)
  • After tumor growth, mice were treated with TI, EXT, and TAM to examine their effects on the tumor characteristics and expression of angiogenesis-related genes including MMP-2, MMP-9, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, EAU-susceptible mice (DBA1) exhibited disease with similar histologic characteristics, despite a generalized reduction of interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α on an IL-18 −/− phenotype. (arvojournals.org)
  • no living organisms can be cultured from germ-free mouse specimens. (cyagen.com)
  • Seres relies on Taconic's germ-free mice to study the microbiome and our drug candidates. (taconic.com)
  • Federation Bio utilizes Taconic's germ-free mouse models to advance our pre-clinical research programs. (taconic.com)
  • Germ-free mice may be maintained as germ-free long-term or they may be associated with a custom microbiota. (taconic.com)
  • Germ Free Black 6 mice are available for immediate delivery. (taconic.com)
  • Taconic is the only commercial provider of germ-free BALB/c mice. (taconic.com)
  • Germ Free BALB/c mice are available in small cohort quantities. (taconic.com)
  • Germ Free Swiss Webster mice are available for immediate delivery. (taconic.com)
  • 1. What are Germ-free Mice? (cyagen.com)
  • Germ-free mice lack all microorganisms (as determined within the limitations of the detection methods available) and are housed in tightly controlled and monitored isolators to prevent contamination. (cyagen.com)
  • In the past decades, the amount of literature featuring applications of germ-free mice has grown exponentially. (cyagen.com)
  • Germ-free mice are bred in isolators that fully block exposure to other microorganisms, with the intent of keeping their experimental results free from the interference of other biological and environmental factors - such a 'clean slate' is conducive to analyzing host pathology and determining how specific microbiomes influence physiology and disease. (cyagen.com)
  • We can provide customers with germ-free (GF) mouse technical services that meet a wide variety of SPF standards as well as after-sales and training services. (cyagen.com)
  • Thus, Cyagen can produce germ-free mice and provide relevant experimental services. (cyagen.com)
  • Here we show that systemic exposure to Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands causes rapid α(1,2)-fucosylation of small intestine epithelial cells (IECs) in mice, which requires the sensing of TLR agonists, as well as the production of interleukin (IL)-23 by dendritic cells, activation of innate lymphoid cells and expression of fucosyltransferase 2 (Fut2) by IL-22-stimulated IECs. (nature.com)
  • DNA vaccines based on genetically detoxified derivatives of pneumolysin fail to protect mice against challenge with Streptococcus pneumoniae. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Tumors that spontaneously arise or are experimentally induced in a mouse can sometimes be isolated and propagated in vitro . (jax.org)
  • The anti-idiotypes were also found to stimulate a cellular immune response in vitro as assessed by 3H thymidine incorporation by lymphocytes from JE vaccinated individuals and experimentally immunized Balb/c mice. (who.int)
  • Results obtained in vitro and in vivo were confirmed by immunohistochemical staining of histological sections of spheroids, spheroids in brain slice cultures and tumors in mice brains. (refbase.net)
  • Furthermore, macrophages isolated from H99γ-immunized mice on day 7 postchallenge and cultured in vitro were fungistatic against C. neoformans, whereas cryptococcal growth was uncontrolled within macrophages from HKCn-immunized mice. (elsevier.com)
  • Th2-type cytokine production and induction of alternatively activated macrophages were also observed in lungs of HKCn-immunized mice during rechallenge. (elsevier.com)
  • The present study aims to identify the main sources of animal distress and to assess the possible implementation of refinement measures in experimental infection research, using mouse models of tuberculosis (TB) as a case study. (plos.org)
  • Experimental animals (Swiss mice, Balb/c mice and guineapigs) immunized with S-Ab2 or X-Ab2 produced anti-JE virus antibodies (Ab3) which could be detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescence, haemagglutination inhibition and neutralization tests. (who.int)
  • Its pathogenicity is determined in part by expression of the Spa-immune subversion protein, neutralising the activity of which provides partial protection in murine models, as does experimental infection with live S. aureus with Spa gene deletions followed by antibiotic-mediated cure in mice. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Therefore, we compared the virulence and dissemination of Australian clinical isolates collected during October 1989-October 2012 from patients with neurologic and nonneurologic melioidosis after intranasal and subcutaneous infection of mice in an experimental model. (edu.au)
  • Experimental pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans infection in BALB/c mice is associated with polarized Th2-type cytokine production, alternative macrophage activation, and severe bronchopneumonia. (elsevier.com)
  • Mariathasan and colleagues selected the BALB/c-derived EMT6 mammary carcinoma cell line to study tumors that do not respond to anti-PD-L1 therapy . (jax.org)
  • Balb/C, C3H, DBA/2) are also highly susceptible to infection ( 1 , 6 , 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Mice were surgically implanted with the coated discs placed subcutaneously and infection was initiated by injection of 10(6) cfu of Staphylococcus aureus into the subcutaneous pocket containing the implant. (perkinelmer.com)
  • Infection of Mtv-null mice with an MMTV-related retrovirus, type B leukemogenic virus, also resulted in severely reduced viral loads and failure to induce T-cell lymphomas, indicating that resistance is not dependent on expression of a superantigen (Sag) encoded by exogenous MMTV. (utexas.edu)
  • Additionally, mice infected with H99γ resolve the acute infection and are subsequently protected against challenge with wild-type C. neoformans. (elsevier.com)
  • Gene expression arrays showed that classical macrophage activation during challenge infection in H99γ-immunized mice was associated with induction of the transcription factor STAT1 and its downstream targets IFN regulatory factor-1, suppressor of cytokine signaling-1, CXCL9, and CXCL10. (elsevier.com)
  • Inbred BALB/c mice and outbred CD-1 mice were immunized using the following prime-boost regimens: Ad-MVA, Ad-VLPs, and Ad-protein. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Prior to co-engraftment of human tumors, mice are validated for human multilineage engraftment and establishment of human immunity . (jax.org)
  • In 1908, she noticed that some of her mice had developed tumors. (cancerresearch.org)
  • Researchers at Merck chose both syngeneic models and NSG mice humanized with CD34+ hematopoietic cells to test the efficacy of anti-GITR on a human melanoma cell line . (jax.org)
  • Additionally, when NSG mice are engineered to express human MHC molecules, such as NSG HLA-A2 , and are paired with matched PDX and CD34+ cells, the humanized T cells can become appropriately HLA restricted. (jax.org)
  • NSG™ mice (NOD.Cg- Prkdc scid Il2rg tm1Wjl /SzJ, 005557) are devoid of mature B, T, and NK cells. (jax.org)
  • Recipient mice were irradiated at 3-4 weeks of age and engrafted with human-cord-blood derived CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells. (jax.org)
  • T cell epitopes of the timothy grass pollen allergen Phl p 5 of mice and men and the detection of allergen-specific T cells using Class II Ultimers. (pmu.ac.at)
  • LPS-TLR4 pathway role in ductular cell expansion was assessed in human and mouse progenitor cells, liver slices and liver injured TLR4 KO mice. (omeka.net)
  • The laboratory mouse genome has been sequenced and many mouse genes have human homologues. (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] The laboratory is also the world's source for more than 8,000 strains of genetically defined mice and is home of the Mouse Genome Informatics database. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to their strong breeding performance and ease of care, J:ARC mice are also ideal for IVF and other reproductive strategies and can be utilized as sentinels for health monitoring programs. (jax.org)
  • Inbred mice have been widely used for the study of influenza viruses as a mammalian model, while suitable cell lines derived from murine tissue have been limited. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • This is a population of diverse animals with randomly segregating alleles, where each mouse is a genetically unique individual. (jax.org)
  • In contrast, AP-Variant 1 does not infect the white-footed mouse, DBA/2, and severely immunocompromised (SCID) mice ( 8 ). (cdc.gov)
  • NSG™-SGM3 ( NOD.Cg- Prkdc scid Il2rg tm1Wjl Tg(CMV-IL3,CSF2,KITLG)1Eav/MloySzJ, 013062) are NSG™ mice that contain transgenes expressing human Stem Cell Factor (KITLG), GM-CSF (CSF2), and IL-3. (jax.org)
  • Irradiated wild-type and Spa mutant Staphylococcus aureus induce anti-S. aureus immune responses in mice which do not protect against subsequent intravenous challenge. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Inbred female Balb/c-mice were exposed to silica (7631869) dust over a period of 39 weeks to study alterations of B-lymphocyte immunocompetence. (cdc.gov)
  • It was concluded that there is a genetic component to the response of female mice to placenta in the absence of previous experience, and that more than one, but possibly as few as two loci are involved. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Permissive immunodeficient mouse strains, which lack the ability to mount an immune response, can be engrafted with tissues from human donors to generate human-specific therapies. (jax.org)
  • However, the current versions can elicit unintended inflammatory immune reactions, because they contain fragments of mouse origin. (jax.org)
  • Immune system humanization continues to be improved with the addition of transgenic human cytokines, such as in NSG-SGM3 mice that express human IL3, CSF2, and KITLG. (jax.org)
  • As a conclusion, E2CD154 emulsified in Montanide ISA50 V2 was able to induce a potent humoral and an early cellular immune response in inbred BALB/c mice. (edu.sa)
  • This study aimed to investigate the effect of bioactive compounds of melon seed on the expression of angiogenesis genes in BALB/c mice with breast cancer. (bvsalud.org)
  • IL-18 detection was performed by using 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoyl-β-- d -galactopyranoside (X-Gal) staining on frozen sections of eyes from mice (129/CD1, DBA1, and Balb/c), either of normal phenotype (+/+) or of deficiency (±, −/−) in the IL-18 gene which had been replaced by introduced genes including LacZ under the control of an IL-18 promotor. (arvojournals.org)
  • For many centuries, the Chinese government kept records of albino mice found in the wild. (cancerresearch.org)
  • Methods A syngeneic model system for invasive breast cancer with (4T1.2) or without (67NR) the tendency to form lung metastasis was established in BALB/c mice. (icr.ac.uk)
  • Alternatively, outbred mice that intentionally avoid sibling mating such as the JAX Swiss Outbred ( J:ARC ) can be used to produce a population of mice with a modest amount of diversity, including randomly segregating heterozygous alleles. (jax.org)
  • Alternatively, crossing inbred strains together and then outbreeding maximizes diversity to create a heterogeneous stock. (jax.org)
  • Here, we find that gamma-irradiated S. aureus strains, both wild-type and null mutant of spa, are immunogenic in mice when administered intramuscularly, eliciting large amounts of anti-S. aureus antibodies, as judged by whole-cell immunoassay on fixed microorganisms. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here, we developed a pilot-scale production of PiCoVacc, a purified inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus vaccine candidate, which induced SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies in mice, rats, and nonhuman primates. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A single injection of M. vaccae into ovalbumin (OVA)-preimmunized BALB/c mice suppressed serum IgE over a wide dose range (10(7), 10(8) or 10(9) M. vaccae). (nih.gov)
  • Strikingly, BMP4 concentrations are higher in serum from HGPS vs. age-matched mice. (transhumanist.ru)
  • In the early part of the 20th century, Harvard undergraduate Clarence Cook Little was conducting studies on mouse genetics in the laboratory of William Ernest Castle . (wikipedia.org)
  • Three mammalian species are reservoir competent: the white-footed mouse ( Peromyscus leucopus ), raccoon ( Procyon lotor ), and gray squirrel ( Sciurus carolinensis ), although serologic and molecular evidence has suggested that numerous other small, medium, and large mammals may also be reservoirs ( 1 , 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Laboratory mice are usually of the species Mus musculus . (wikipedia.org)
  • Other mouse species sometimes used in laboratory research include two American species, the white-footed mouse ( Peromyscus leucopus ) and the North American deer mouse ( Peromyscus maniculatus ). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1902 Lucien Cuénot published the results of his experiments using mice which showed that Mendel's laws of inheritance were also valid for animals - results that were soon confirmed and extended to other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was then further explored in species that can generate their own body heat (endotherms) and usually maintain a relatively constant body temperature ( T b ), also known as homeotherms, like mice whereby marijuana derivatives were used to induce hypothermia. (springer.com)
  • The present study characterizes macrophage activation during the protective response to wild-type C. neoformans in mice previously immunized with H99γ. (elsevier.com)
  • These studies demonstrate that protective responses to C. neoformans challenge in immunized mice include classical macrophage activation and enhanced macrophage fungistasis of C. neoformans yeasts. (elsevier.com)
  • For one thing, lab mice are essentially genetic clones of each other-the product of generations of careful inbreeding. (cancerresearch.org)
  • Twenty-five cell clones from C57/BL and BALB/c, designated as MRDC/C and MRDC/B series, respectively, showed different susceptibility to Thai isolates of influenza A virus H5N1. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • GF Swiss Webster mice are excellent embryo recipients or foster mothers. (taconic.com)
  • The JAX Swiss Outbred (J:ARC) model is a conventional outbred stock derived from Swiss mouse ancestors. (jax.org)
  • I had the opportunity to co-present a workshop discussing The Jackson Laboratory's Onco-Hu® Mouse Models as novel immuno-oncology platforms to test the efficacy of check-point inhibitor molecules. (jax.org)
  • However, translatability will likely be improved in the near future with the advent of CRISPR/cas9 technology to quickly generate mouse models with human-specific variant molecules ( JAX CRISPR/cas9 Precision Mouse Models Service ). (jax.org)
  • Among several commercial services who have claimed to be specialized to generate mouse models with genetic modifications, I recognize that Cyagen is one of the best. (cyagen.com)
  • Mouse models that incorporate genetic diversity provide new opportunities for translationally-relevant mouse research and expand the spectrum of research applications for laboratory mice. (jax.org)
  • With an expanded portfolio of diversity mouse models, researchers can now choose the diversity option that best suits their research goals at every stage of the research pipeline. (jax.org)
  • The JAX Diversity Outbred (J:DO ) mice, for example, is a unique platform to test therapeutic interventions in a population that models the diversity seen in a human population. (jax.org)
  • At all time points following the aerosol stimulation of the mice with whole Escherichia-coli-055:B5, the thymus independent anti Escherichia-coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) response was significantly suppressed in the spleen. (cdc.gov)
  • Further, Mtv-null mice were resistant to rapid mortality induced by intragastric inoculation of the Gram-negative bacterium, Vibrio cholerae, but susceptibility to Salmonella typhimurium was not significantly different from BALB/c mice. (utexas.edu)
  • Several varieties of such mice were preserved by mouse fanciers in the 19th century who bred them as a hobby. (cancerresearch.org)
  • One approach is to include multiple inbred strains with different characteristics (i.e. (jax.org)
  • Mice have been used in biomedical research since the 17th Century (from May 30, 1678) when William Harvey used them for his studies on reproduction and blood circulation and Robert Hooke used them to investigate the biological consequences of an increase in air pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar to many other standard outbred mice used in biomedical research, J:ARC is derived from the CD-1(ICR) outbred stock, and has genetic contributions from NMRI/br, FVB/NJ, and SWR/J mice. (jax.org)
  • This could not be reproduced in the organotypic three dimensional spheroid-brain slice culture model or in the mice xenograft model. (refbase.net)
  • Little and Castle collaborated closely with Abbie Lathrop who was a breeder of fancy mice and rats which she marketed to rodent hobbyists and keepers of exotic pets, and later began selling in large numbers to scientific researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Known by contemporaries as the "Mouse Woman of Granby," Lathrop bred fancy mice on her farm and sold them to other fanciers. (cancerresearch.org)
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were exposed to an aerosol of either saline or endotoxin (5 mg/ml) for 10 min. (lu.se)
  • Forty-eight hours after the aerosol exposure, the mice were anaesthetized for subsequent imaging. (lu.se)
  • The aim of the current study was to evaluate the capability of ¹H and HP ³He MRI to assess the effects of a glucocorticoid on endotoxin-induced pulmonary inflammation in vivo.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were exposed to an aerosol of either saline or endotoxin (5 mg/ml) for 10 min. (lu.se)
  • This choice is based on the historical relevance of mouse studies in understanding the disease and the present and long-standing impact of TB on a global scale. (plos.org)
  • The initial studies were conducted to detect the expression of IL-18 in normal mouse eye tissue, and the later studies investigated induction of EAU in mice with an IL-18 −/− phenotype. (arvojournals.org)
  • This diversity, paired with their consistent body weights, make these mice ideal for preclinical safety testing and PK/PD studies of novel therapeutics. (jax.org)
  • The laboratory mouse or lab mouse is a small mammal of the order Rodentia which is bred and used for scientific research or feeders for certain pets. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine is currently one of the world's largest suppliers of laboratory mice, at around 3 million mice a year. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic diversity can be incorporated into laboratory mouse research in several ways. (jax.org)
  • Male BALB/c mice were exposed head/nose-only during three consecutive days for 45, 90, 180, or 360 min/day to et al. (cdc.gov)
  • The genetic influence on the response of nonpregnant nulliparous mice to foster placenta was investigated. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • [2] During the 18th century Joseph Priestley and Antoine Lavoisier both used mice to study respiration . (wikipedia.org)
  • Once referred to as " test tubes with tails ," lab mice are commonly the first stop on the road to cancer drug development. (cancerresearch.org)
  • J:ARC mice are commonly utilized when researchers are interested in incorporating a modest level of diversity into their experiments. (jax.org)