Amnesia: Pathologic partial or complete loss of the ability to recall past experiences (AMNESIA, RETROGRADE) or to form new memories (AMNESIA, ANTEROGRADE). This condition may be of organic or psychologic origin. Organic forms of amnesia are usually associated with dysfunction of the DIENCEPHALON or HIPPOCAMPUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-7)Amnesia, Retrograde: Loss of the ability to recall information that had been previously encoded in memory prior to a specified or approximate point in time. This process may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organic forms may be associated with CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; and a wide variety of other conditions that impair cerebral function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-9)Amnesia, Anterograde: Loss of the ability to form new memories beyond a certain point in time. This condition may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organically induced anterograde amnesia may follow CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SEIZURES; ANOXIA; and other conditions which adversely affect neural structures associated with memory formation (e.g., the HIPPOCAMPUS; FORNIX (BRAIN); MAMMILLARY BODIES; and ANTERIOR THALAMIC NUCLEI). (From Memory 1997 Jan-Mar;5(1-2):49-71)Amnesia, Transient Global: A syndrome characterized by a transient loss of the ability to form new memories. It primarily occurs in middle aged or elderly individuals, and episodes may last from minutes to hours. During the period of amnesia, immediate and recent memory abilities are impaired, but the level of consciousness and ability to perform other intellectual tasks are preserved. The condition is related to bilateral dysfunction of the medial portions of each TEMPORAL LOBE. Complete recovery normally occurs, and recurrences are unusual. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp429-30)Korsakoff Syndrome: An acquired cognitive disorder characterized by inattentiveness and the inability to form short term memories. This disorder is frequently associated with chronic ALCOHOLISM; but it may also result from dietary deficiencies; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NEOPLASMS; CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; ENCEPHALITIS; EPILEPSY; and other conditions. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1139)Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Alcohol Amnestic Disorder: A mental disorder associated with chronic ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) and nutritional deficiencies characterized by short term memory loss, confabulations, and disturbances of attention. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1139)Retention (Psychology): The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Pyrithiamine: A thiamine antagonist due to its inhibition of thiamine pyrophosphorylation. It is used to produce thiamine deficiency.Diencephalon: The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.Scopolamine Hydrobromide: An alkaloid from SOLANACEAE, especially DATURA and SCOPOLIA. Scopolamine and its quaternary derivatives act as antimuscarinics like ATROPINE, but may have more central nervous system effects. Among the many uses are as an anesthetic premedication, in URINARY INCONTINENCE, in MOTION SICKNESS, as an antispasmodic, and as a mydriatic and cycloplegic.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Confusion: A mental state characterized by bewilderment, emotional disturbance, lack of clear thinking, and perceptual disorientation.Unconsciousness: Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Autobiography as Topic: The life of a person written by himself or herself. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Thalamic Diseases: Disorders of the centrally located thalamus, which integrates a wide range of cortical and subcortical information. Manifestations include sensory loss, MOVEMENT DISORDERS; ATAXIA, pain syndromes, visual disorders, a variety of neuropsychological conditions, and COMA. Relatively common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; BRAIN HYPOXIA; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; and infectious processes.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Midazolam: A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Anisomycin: An antibiotic isolated from various Streptomyces species. It interferes with protein and DNA synthesis by inhibiting peptidyl transferase or the 80S ribosome system.Paired-Associate Learning: Learning in which the subject must respond with one word or syllable when presented with another word or syllable.Mamillary Bodies: A pair of nuclei and associated gray matter in the interpeduncular space rostral to the posterior perforated substance in the posterior hypothalamus.Thiamine Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of THIAMINE in the diet, characterized by anorexia, irritability, and weight loss. Later, patients experience weakness, peripheral neuropathy, headache, and tachycardia. In addition to being caused by a poor diet, thiamine deficiency in the United States most commonly occurs as a result of alcoholism, since ethanol interferes with thiamine absorption. In countries relying on polished rice as a dietary staple, BERIBERI prevalence is very high. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1171)Preanesthetic Medication: Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.Recognition (Psychology): The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.Anterior Thalamic Nuclei: Three nuclei located beneath the dorsal surface of the most rostral part of the thalamus. The group includes the anterodorsal nucleus, anteromedial nucleus, and anteroventral nucleus. All receive connections from the MAMILLARY BODY and BRAIN FORNIX, and project fibers to the CINGULATE BODY.Multiple Personality Disorder: A dissociative disorder in which the individual adopts two or more distinct personalities. Each personality is a fully integrated and complex unit with memories, behavior patterns and social friendships. Transition from one personality to another is sudden.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Memory, Episodic: Type of declarative memory, consisting of personal memory in contrast to general knowledge.Microbiota: The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Viloxazine: A morpholine derivative used as an antidepressant. It is similar in action to IMIPRAMINE.Nootropic Agents: Drugs used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly to prevent the cognitive deficits associated with dementias. These drugs act by a variety of mechanisms. While no potent nootropic drugs have yet been accepted for general use, several are being actively investigated.Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of adrenergic transmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. The tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) and amphetamines are among the therapeutically important drugs that may act via inhibition of adrenergic transport. Many of these drugs also block transport of serotonin.PropylaminesSerotonin Uptake Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.Dictionaries, MedicalMemory, Long-Term: Remembrance of information from 3 or more years previously.Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.
  • citation needed] Blackouts are frequently described as having effects similar to that of anterograde amnesia, in which the subject cannot recall any events after the event that caused amnesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacosides on anterograde administration (before training) in mice, significantly decreased the escape latency time (ELT) during the acquisition trials for 4 consecutive days and increased the time spent (TS) in target quadrant during the retrieval trials on 5th day, and on retrograde administration (after training) bacosides were found not to affect TS significantly. (bvsalud.org)
  • On the basis of the present results it can be concluded that bacosides facilitate anterograde memory and attenuate anterograde experimental amnesia induced by scopolamine and sodium nitrite possibly by improving acetylcholine level and hypoxic conditions, respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • People with extensive, bilateral hippocampal damage may experience anterograde amnesia -the inability to form and retain new memories. (google.com)
  • Although benzodiazepines have well-known benefits, their side effects are prominent, including sedation, muscle relaxation, anterograde amnesia and physical dependence (2). (slideshare.net)
  • 6 reported that coadministration of an N -methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist with γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA A ) receptor agonists synergistically potentiated neonatal brain cell death and resulted in functional deficits in adult mice, although the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. (asahq.org)
  • 10 In this investigation, we studied the potential risks of neonatal exposure to sevoflurane to cause social abnormalities and cognitive deficits in mice. (asahq.org)
  • cFos creERT2 transgenic mice (Fos-TRAP) provide valid proxies of neural activity ( 12 and Figure 1-figure supplement 1 ) and a means to permanently label activated dentate granule cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • Both the normal and the transgenic mice showed no defect in their sense of smell because both normal and knockout mice had the same level of success in an olfactory-guided foraging task and reacted normally to a non-social olfactory stimulus. (genomenewsnetwork.org)
  • The research team also demonstrated that it was possible to repair social memory in the transgenic mice by injecting low doses of oxytocin. (genomenewsnetwork.org)
  • SI (40 mg/kg) administration significantly enhanced cholinergic system function and suppressed oxidative stress levels in the hippocampus of SCOP-treated mice. (mdpi.com)
  • S1/2 −/− mice show enhanced cortex (Cx)-dependent remote fear memory formation as well as improved reversal learning, but do not display alterations in hippocampus (Hi)-dependent recent fear memory formation. (pnas.org)
  • We have analyzed the developmental molecular programs of the mouse hippocampus, a cortical structure critical for learning and memory, by means of large-scale DNA microarray techniques. (pnas.org)
  • Recent work from mice hints that a flurry of newborn nerve cells in the brain's hippocampus might interfere with early memories. (sciencenews.org)
  • Led by Professor of Neurology Todd Sacktor , the SUNY team made a stir in the neuroscience community when they discovered that they could erase the existing long-term memory of mice by giving them injections of a molecule known as ZIP in the hippocampus, a region of the brain associated with memory formation. (redorbit.com)
  • Alberini and M.D./Ph.D. student Stephen M. Taubenfeld suspected that CREB protein depends on certain consolidation-related genes from within the region of the brain known as the hippocampus (injuries to this area often result in amnesia). (brownalumnimagazine.com)
  • This new study shows that this amnesia is associated with high levels of new neuron production - a process called neurogenesis - in the hippocampus, and that more permanent memory formation is associated with a reduction in neurogenesis. (psychcentral.com)
  • Frankland and Josselyn's research looked at the retention of memories in young mice in which they suppressed the usual high levels of neurogenesis in the hippocampus (thereby replicating the circuit stability normally observed in adult mice). (psychcentral.com)
  • Therefore, the present study (30 days) was conducted to investigate the neuroprotective effects of soy isoflavones (SI) on scopolamine (SCOP)-induced memory impairments in Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice (aged 4 weeks) and to elucidate its underlying mechanisms of action. (mdpi.com)
  • In the current study, we aimed to explore the beneficial effect of PGM on learning and memory function in aluminum chloride (AlCl 3 )-induced amnesia in mice and to explore the underlying mechanisms. (begellhouse.com)
  • The mechanisms by which volatile anesthetics (VAs) produce their effects (loss of consciousness, analgesia, amnesia, and immobility) remain an unsolved mystery. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, the significant cognitive enhancement observed in mice after MEC administration is closely related to higher brain anti-oxidant properties and inhibition of AChE activity. (rsc.org)
  • These results suggest that EFAA containing physiological phenolics might enhance drug-induced amnesia through AChE inhibition and neuroprotection. (hindawi.com)
  • We propose that CA1 presynaptic excitatory neurotransmission is hypersensitive to isoflurane in Ndufs4(KO) mice due to the inhibition of pre-existing reduced complex I function, reaching a critical reduction that can no longer meet metabolic demands. (nih.gov)
  • After the rats had completed their task a pre-determined number of times, the experimenters administered an electroconvulsive shock to the rats meant to induce selective amnesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In October 1991, extracts of razor clams from the coast of Oregon were found to induce DA acid-like symptoms in mice. (fao.org)
  • In the present study, the effects of bilateral injections of the GABAergic receptor agents into the dorsal hippocampal CA1 regions (intra-CA1) on morphine-induced amnesia were examined in morphine sensitized-mice. (ac.ir)
  • Intra-CA1 injections of GABAA receptor agonist, muscimol (0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 microg/mouse) or the GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen (1, 1.5 and 2 microg/mouse) prior to injection of morphine (20 mg/kg per dayx3 days) decreased the reversion of morphine-induced amnesia in morphine sensitized-mice. (ac.ir)
  • These findings indicated that PGM could significantly attenuate the AlCl 3 -induced amnesia through the synergistic action of its active component on tau pathology, AMPAR and BDNF signaling pathway. (begellhouse.com)
  • Neuroprotective potential of ethanolic extract of Pseudarthria viscida (L) Wight and Arn against -amyloid(25-35)-induced amnesia in mice. (bvsalud.org)
  • Methanolic extract of Chaga (MEC) at 50 and 100 mg kg −1 doses were administered orally for 7 days to amnesic mice. (rsc.org)
  • The mice were then given 120 milligrams per kilogram of blueberry vinegar or 120 milligrams per kilogram of blueberry extract every day for 1 week. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Lycopersicon esculentum extract enhances cognitive function and hippocampal neurogenesis in aged mice. (begellhouse.com)
  • in mice M. Rabbani1, S. E. Sajjadi2 and A. Mohammadi3 1 Department of Pharmacology, 2Department of Pharmacognosy and 3Isfahan Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Centre, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anxiolytic effects of hydroalcoholic extract (HE) of Nepeta persica Boiss. (slideshare.net)
  • The extract of arial parts of the plant was administered intraperitoneally to male NMRI mice, at various doses, 30 min before behavioural evaluation. (slideshare.net)
  • The PSP mouse bioassay involves acidic aqueous extraction of the tissue (whole animal or selected organs) followed by intraperitoneal injection of 1 ml of the extract into mice. (fao.org)
  • brahmi), on experimental amnesia in mice. (bvsalud.org)
  • One experimental strategy for defining the contribution of individual receptor subunits to drug action is to create and characterize point mutated gene knockin mice that harbor mutations that render individual subunits insensitive to the drug of interest but otherwise do not affect receptor function. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In our investigation, intracerebroventricular injection of A(25-35) in mice induced the neurodegeneration, exhibited the increased time of escape latency in behavioral pattern using water maze and decreased the levels of antioxidants namley superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase ( CAT ) and vitamin C with elevated level of acetylcholinesterase enzyme ( AChE ). (bvsalud.org)
  • To investigate the behavioral effects of RyR3 deficiency, we subjected RyR3 knockout (RyR3−/−) mice to a battery of behavioral tests. (frontiersin.org)
  • These studies strongly demonstrated the usefulness of applying a comprehensive battery of behavioral test on genetically engineered mice to efficiently obtain a mouse model of human psychiatric disorders. (frontiersin.org)
  • After the behavioral tests, the antioxidant activities were confirmed using mice brain tissues. (hindawi.com)
  • Amnesia induced by pre-training morphine was significantly reversed in mice which had previously received once daily injections of morphine (20 and 30 mg/kg, s.c.) for 3 days, which may be due to behavioral sensitization. (ac.ir)
  • Andre Delacourte on AAV-tau mediates pyramidal neurodegeneration by cell-cycle re-entry without neurofibrillary tangle formation in wild-type mice. (alzforum.org)
  • Anesthetic agents sometimes have to be administered during an important period of brain growth, the brain growth spurt period, which occurs from the last 3 months of pregnancy until approximately 2 yr after birth (in humans) or during the first 2 weeks after birth (in mice and rats). (asahq.org)
  • To elucidate the mechanism of the cognitive enhancing activity of MEC, the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), anti-oxidant enzymes, the levels of acetylcholine (ACh) and nitrite of mice brain homogenates were evaluated. (rsc.org)
  • The study also revealed that blueberry vinegar led to a rise in brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the mice, which is a protein that plays a role in the growth and maintenance of nerve cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In the present study, the effect of repeated administration of histamine on amnesia induced by post-training administration of the drug was examined. (semanticscholar.org)
  • For their recent study, Huganir´s team wanted to explore how PKM-zeta works by comparing the synapses of normal mice with those of mice that lacked the gene for the enzyme. (redorbit.com)
  • According to the report on their study, the team was able to find no difference between the brain function of normal mice and the mice that lacked the PKM-zeta gene. (redorbit.com)
  • Lead researcher of the study associate professor Felice Jacka, commented: "We've known for some time that components of diet, both healthy and unhealthy, have a rapid impact on aspects of the brain that affect hippocampal size and function, but up until now these studies have only been done in rats and mice. (naturalnews.com)
  • The present study assessed the role of Brahmarasayana (BR) on Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-and Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)-induced genotoxicity and DNA repair in in vivo mouse test system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Acute and sub-chronic toxicity study of Dregea volubilis fruit in mice demonstrated no noticeable toxicity. (stuartxchange.org)
  • A study 2 , 3 published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry involving lab mice with amnesia suggests blueberry vinegar, which is produced by fermenting fresh blueberries , effectively improves short-term memory. (mercola.com)
  • This project uses TetOffAPP mice in which the expression of mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP) is controlled by a tetracycline-regulated promoter. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • We then produced mutant (knockin) mice in which this mutated subunit replaced the wild-type α2 subunit. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Phenotypic differences between mice lacking GIRK1, GIRK2 and GIRK3 correlate well with the known impact of GIRK subunit ablation on neurotransmitter-gated GIRK currents, arguing that most neuronal GIRK channels contain GIRK1 and/or GIRK2. (wiley.com)
  • Ndufs4 knockout (KO) mice lack a subunit of mitochondrial complex I and are strikingly hypersensitive to VAs yet resistant to the intravenous anesthetic ketamine . (nih.gov)
  • What the team expected was a genetically modified breed of mice that would be incapable of strengthening their synapses and would therefore be unable to form long-term memories. (redorbit.com)
  • Building on their previous work that identified and activated memory cells, a group led by RIKEN Brain Science Institute and RIKEN-MIT Center Director Susumu Tonegawa has now shown that spines - small knobs on brain-cell dendrites through which synaptic connections are formed - are essential for memory retrieval in these AD mice. (riken.jp)
  • Amnesia is a problem of retrieval impairment. (brown.edu)
  • The team found that the mice given the blueberry vinegar showed a reduction in the breakdown of acetylcholine in their brains. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • By doing this, they were able to remove the enzyme from the mice just before injecting them with the ZIP molecule, thus leaving their brains no time to develop an alternate pathway for strengthening synapses. (redorbit.com)
  • On the other hand, daily intra-CA1 injections of bicuculline or CGP35348 alone for 3 days did not alter the amnesia induced by pre-training injection of morphine. (ac.ir)
  • Blocking histamine H(1) improves learning and mnemonic dysfunction in mice with social isolation plus repeated methamphetamine injection. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Animals were treated with EEFH for periods of 4 weeks dose-dependently (200 and 400 mg kg -1 ) then received a single intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of Aβ 25-35 (10 μg mouse -1 ). (scialert.net)
  • The time from initial injection to mouse death (usually under 15 minutes) is recorded. (fao.org)