Cytosine NucleotidesMethylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)CpG Islands: Areas of increased density of the dinucleotide sequence cytosine--phosphate diester--guanine. They form stretches of DNA several hundred to several thousand base pairs long. In humans there are about 45,000 CpG islands, mostly found at the 5' ends of genes. They are unmethylated except for those on the inactive X chromosome and some associated with imprinted genes.Cytosine Deaminase: An enzyme which catalyzes the deamination of CYTOSINE resulting in the formation of URACIL. It can also act on 5-methylcytosine to form THYMIDINE.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.5-Methylcytosine: A methylated nucleotide base found in eukaryotic DNA. In ANIMALS, the DNA METHYLATION of CYTOSINE to form 5-methylcytosine is found primarily in the palindromic sequence CpG. In PLANTS, the methylated sequence is CpNpGp, where N can be any base.Sulfites: Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE to the 5-position of CYTOSINE residues in DNA.DNA-Cytosine Methylases: Methylases that are specific for CYTOSINE residues found on DNA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Azacitidine: A pyrimidine analogue that inhibits DNA methyltransferase, impairing DNA methylation. It is also an antimetabolite of cytidine, incorporated primarily into RNA. Azacytidine has been used as an antineoplastic agent.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Cytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.DNA Modification Methylases: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They are responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern, on either adenine or cytosine residues, in a specific short base sequence in the host cell's own DNA. This methylated sequence will occur many times in the host-cell DNA and remain intact for the lifetime of the cell. Any DNA from another species which gains entry into a living cell and lacks the characteristic methylation pattern will be recognized by the restriction endonucleases of similar specificity and destroyed by cleavage. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms.Adenine NucleotidesSequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Deamination: The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.Guanine NucleotidesMutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Genomic Imprinting: The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Epigenomics: The systematic study of the global gene expression changes due to EPIGENETIC PROCESSES and not due to DNA base sequence changes.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cytarabine: A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)S-Adenosylmethionine: Physiologic methyl radical donor involved in enzymatic transmethylation reactions and present in all living organisms. It possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been used in treatment of chronic liver disease. (From Merck, 11th ed)Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Purine Nucleotides: Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the methylation of the epsilon-amino group of lysine residues in proteins to yield epsilon mono-, di-, and trimethyllysine. EC 2.1.1.43.Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements: Highly repeated sequences, 6K-8K base pairs in length, which contain RNA polymerase II promoters. They also have an open reading frame that is related to the reverse transcriptase of retroviruses but they do not contain LTRs (long terminal repeats). Copies of the LINE 1 (L1) family form about 15% of the human genome. The jockey elements of Drosophila are LINEs.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.GuanineCytidine: A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.Flucytosine: A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.Protein Methyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the methylation of amino acids after their incorporation into a polypeptide chain. S-Adenosyl-L-methionine acts as the methylating agent. EC 2.1.1.Deoxyribonuclease HpaII: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequences C/CGG and GGC/C at the slash. HpaII is from Haemophilus parainfluenzae. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Dinucleoside Phosphates: A group of compounds which consist of a nucleotide molecule to which an additional nucleoside is attached through the phosphate molecule(s). The nucleotide can contain any number of phosphates.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Nucleoside Deaminases: Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleosides with the elimination of ammonia.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.UracilPyrimidine Nucleotides: Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Protein-Arginine N-Methyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the methylation of arginine residues of proteins to yield N-mono- and N,N-dimethylarginine. This enzyme is found in many organs, primarily brain and spleen.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Nucleotides, CyclicGuanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.S-Adenosylhomocysteine: 5'-S-(3-Amino-3-carboxypropyl)-5'-thioadenosine. Formed from S-adenosylmethionine after transmethylation reactions.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Site-Specific DNA-Methyltransferase (Adenine-Specific): An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC 2.1.1.72.ThymineGenome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).RNA, Long Noncoding: A class of untranslated RNA molecules that are typically greater than 200 nucleotides in length and do not code for proteins. Members of this class have been found to play roles in transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional processing, CHROMATIN REMODELING, and in the epigenetic control of chromatin.Genes, p16: Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 9 in the region 9p21. This gene is either deleted or mutated in a wide range of malignancies. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995) Two alternatively spliced gene products are encoded by p16: CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Deoxycytosine Nucleotides: Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Death-Associated Protein Kinases: A family of calcium/calmodulin-dependent PROETIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. They are ubiquitously expressed in adult and embryonic mammalian tissues, and their functions are tightly related to the early stages of eukaryotic programmed cell death.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.tRNA Methyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methylation of ribonucleotide bases within a transfer RNA molecule. EC 2.1.1.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)Heterochromatin: The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.RNA, Untranslated: RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16: A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Deoxyribonucleases, Type II Site-Specific: Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 3.1.21.4.Guanosine: A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Base Pair Mismatch: The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Cytidine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC 3.5.4.5.Alu Elements: The Alu sequence family (named for the restriction endonuclease cleavage enzyme Alu I) is the most highly repeated interspersed repeat element in humans (over a million copies). It is derived from the 7SL RNA component of the SIGNAL RECOGNITION PARTICLE and contains an RNA polymerase III promoter. Transposition of this element into coding and regulatory regions of genes is responsible for many heritable diseases.Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Prodrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
DNA is methylated on cytosine in CG di-nucleotides in many places in the genome. This modification is one of the best- ... Tiling array studies have generated high-resolution methylation maps for the Arabidopsis genome to generate the first " ... Methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation followed by tiling array allows DNA methylation mapping and measurement across the genome. ... of DNA methylation (MeDIP-chip) and of sensitivity to DNase (DNase Chip) and array CGH. In addition to detecting previously ...
The DNA methylation of SKA2 gene and the Single-nucleotide polymorphism rs7208505 genotype may have effects on suicidal ... The genotype rs7208505 contains a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) containing a Cytosine variant allele instead of Thymine ... This SNP allows the dinucleotide repeat (CpG) elements to occur providing a gene segment for methylation. Thus DNA methylation ... This genetic variant containing a Cytosine (existing in the less common allele) instead of Thymine along with epigenetic ...
Methylation of DNA is a common method of gene silencing. DNA is typically methylated by methyltransferase enzymes on cytosine ... nucleotides in a CpG dinucleotide sequence (also called "CpG islands" when densely clustered). Analysis of the pattern of ... Often, DNA methylation and histone deacetylation work together in gene silencing. The combination of the two seems to be a ... Abnormal methylation patterns are thought to be involved in oncogenesis. Histone acetylation is also an important process in ...
"Rapid quantitation of methylation differences at specific sites using methylation-sensitive single nucleotide primer extension ... Olek A, Oswald J, Walter J (December 1996). "A modified and improved method for bisulphite based cytosine methylation analysis ... The objective of this analysis is therefore reduced to differentiating between single nucleotide polymorphisms (cytosines and ... yielding single-nucleotide resolution information about the methylation status of a segment of DNA. Various analyses can be ...
Cytosine methylations change the amount of UV light absorption of the nucleotide base, creating pyrimidine dimers. When ... CpG island methylation is important in regulation of gene expression, yet cytosine methylation can lead directly to ... However, epigenetic DNA methylation differs between normal cells and tumor cells in humans. The "normal" CpG methylation ... "Targeted DNA methylation by homology-directed repair in mammalian cells. Transcription reshapes methylation on the repaired ...
... and direct modification of nucleotides via cytosine methylation and enzymatic deamination. Shapiro responded to the review in ...
The original adenosine nucleotide will pair with a thymine, whereas the methylated inosine will pair with a cytosine. cDNA ... 2008). "RNA cytosine methylation analysis by bisulphite sequencing". Nucleic Acids Research. 37 (2): e12. doi:10.1093/nar/ ... following methylation of the residue. For 5-aza-C, due to a nitrogen substitution in the C5 position of cytosine, the RNA ... Methylation of adenosine does not affect its ability to base-pair with thymidine or uracil, so N6-methyladenosine (m6A) cannot ...
The CpG sites or CG sites are regions of DNA where a cytosine nucleotide is followed by a guanine nucleotide in the linear ... TLR9, detector of unmethylated CpG sites DNA methylation age Jabbari K, Bernardi G (May 2004). "Cytosine methylation and CpG, ... In humans, DNA methylation occurs at the 5 position of the pyrimidine ring of the cytosine residues within CpG sites to form 5- ... For example, in the human genome, which has a 42% GC content, a pair of nucleotides consisting of cytosine followed by guanine ...
Methylation of DNA is a common method of gene silencing. DNA is typically methylated by methyltransferase enzymes on cytosine ... nucleotides in a CpG dinucleotide sequence (also called "CpG islands" when densely clustered). Analysis of the pattern of ... These are (1) histone acetylations and histone methylations, (2) DNA methylation at CpG sites, and (3) epigenetic ... Abnormal methylation patterns are thought to be involved in oncogenesis.[2] Histone acetylation is also an important process in ...
... and have regions of DNA where a cytosine nucleotide is followed by a guanine nucleotide and this occurs frequently in the ... In humans, DNA methylation occurs at the 5' position of the pyrimidine ring of the cytosine residues within CpG sites to form 5 ... see DNA methylation in cancer). DNA methylation causing silencing in cancer typically occurs at multiple CpG sites in the CpG ... Silencing of transcription of a gene may be initiated by other mechanisms, but this is often followed by methylation of CpG ...
... while DNA methylation in mammals mainly occurs on the cytosine nucleotide in a CpG site, in plants the cytosine can be ... Cytosine methylation is widespread in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, even though the rate of cytosine DNA methylation can ... maintenance methylation and de novo methylation. Maintenance methylation activity is necessary to preserve DNA methylation ... of total cytosine Adenine or cytosine methylation is part of the restriction modification system of many bacteria, in which ...
... while DNA methylation in mammals mainly occurs on the cytosine nucleotide in a CpG site, in plants the cytosine can be ... Cytosine methylation is widespread in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, even though the rate of cytosine DNA methylation can ... maintenance methylation and de novo methylation.[56] Maintenance methylation activity is necessary to preserve DNA methylation ... DNA methylation marks[edit]. DNA methylation marks - genomic regions with specific methylation pattern in a specific biological ...
Main article: Nucleotide. The canonical structure of DNA has four bases: thymine (T), adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G ... such as cytosine methylation). This happens through the observation of polymerase kinetics. This approach allows reads of ... Each strand is composed of four complementary nucleotides - adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T) - with an A ... If the introduced nucleotide is complementary to the leading template nucleotide it is incorporated into the growing ...
A large number of the individual nucleotides in a tRNA molecule may be chemically modified, often by methylation or deamidation ... The CCA tail is a cytosine-cytosine-adenine sequence at the 3' end of the tRNA molecule. The amino acid loaded onto the tRNA by ... derived from cytosine). An anticodon is a unit made up of three nucleotides that correspond to the three bases of the codon on ... Frequently, the first nucleotide of the anticodon is one not found on mRNA: inosine, which can hydrogen bond to more than one ...
Chemical modification of the nucleotide bases that constitute the genetic code such as methylation of cytosines as well as ... Such changes are called epigenetic because they do not alter the nucleotide sequence.[citation needed] Germplasm, the ...
DNA methylation, a key component of genetic regulation, occurs primarily at the 5-carbon of the base cytosine, forming ... have been found to be highly toxic due to their similarity to cytosine (see right); this similarity to the nucleotide causes ... 2'-O-methylation, m6A methylation, m1G methylation as well as m5C are most commonly methylation marks observed in different ... Methylation, and Depression" on Psychology Today "DNA Methylation - What is DNA Methylation?" from News-Medical.net "Histone ...
Removal of entire DNA patch and following filling it with new nucleotides by nucleotide excision repair (NER) or mismatch ... DNA methylation Demethylating agent Hackett, JA; Sengupta, R; Zylicz, JJ; Murakami, K; Lee, C; Down, T; Surani, MA (2012-12-06 ... Removal of methylated bases (either by direct removal of methylcytosine, or through cytosine deamination followed by removal of ... DNA demethylation is the process of removal of a methyl group from nucleotides in DNA. DNA demethylation could be passive or ...
... while CpG motifs occurring in eukaryotes are methylated at the cytosine nucleotide. In contrast, nucleotide sequences that ... The mechanism behind this may be more complicated than simple methylation - hypomethylated murine DNA has not been found to ...
The nucleotide deletion predicted to cause a large C-terminal protein truncation. ^A triple nucleotide change. ^Congenital ... Tawa, R; Ono, T; Kurishita, A; Okada, S; Hirose, S (October 1990). "Changes of DNA methylation level during pre- and postnatal ... DNA; A: adenine, T: thymine, G: guanine, C: cytosine. Amino acid; C: cysteine, W: tryptophan, Y: tyrosine, V: valine, D: ... These observations establish a formal causal link between DNA methylation defects and a disease of the peripheral nervous ...
When an unconverted cytosine is observed, it is challenging to differentiate between lack of methylation and an artifact. The ... is an efficient and high-throughput technique used to analyze the genome-wide methylation profiles on a single nucleotide level ... This is unfortunate in regards to methylation studies, as these repeated sequences often contain methylated cytosines. This is ... The methylated adapter oligonucleotides have all cytosines replaced with 5'methyl-cytosines, in order to prevent the ...
In eukaryotes, methylation is most commonly found on the carbon 5 position of cytosine residues (5mC) adjacent to guanine, ... While this now allows for methylation pattern to be determined on the highest resolution possible, on the single nucleotide ... DNA methylation patterns vary greatly between species and even within the same organism. The usage of methylation among animals ... Consistent with a role of DNA methylation in gene repression, regions that were associated with high levels of DNA methylation ...
In the guanine riboswitch this residue is always a cytosine (i.e. C74), in the adenine residue it is always a uracil (i.e. U74 ... but have more significant differences than a single nucleotide mutation. SAH riboswitches bind S-adenosylhomocysteine to ... regulate genes involved in recycling this metabolite that is produced when S-adenosylmethionine is used in methylation ... and have moderately complex secondary structures and several highly conserved nucleotide positions, as these features are ...
This property is often exploited to analyze DNA cytosine methylation patterns with bisulfite sequencing. Matthews AP (2012). ... a methylated nucleotide. In 1925, Johnson and Coghill successfully detected a minor amount of a methylated cytosine derivative ... In addition, active enzymatic deamination of cytosine or 5-methylcytosine by the APOBEC family of cytosine deaminases could ... by which he detected a unique methylated cytosine, quite distinct from conventional cytosine and uracil. After seven decades, ...
... and the nucleotides always pair in the same way (Adenine (A) with Thymine (T) for DNA, with Uracil (U) for RNA; Cytosine (C) ... For example, in PBR322 methylation at the tetracyclin resistant gene makes the plasmid liable to tetracyclin; after methylation ... For example, the DNA sequence ACCTAGGT is palindromic because its nucleotide-by-nucleotide complement is TGGATCCA, and ... Nucleotide insertions at V-D and D-J junctions are random, but some small subsets of these insertions are exceptional, in that ...
... by which he detected a unique methylated cytosine, quite distinct from cytosine and uracil. Matthews AP (2012). Physiological ... He claimed that the tuberculosamin was bound to the nucleotide. Ruppel also found that his new compound was the most toxic ... It was from this compound that DNA methylation was discovered as it was the first molecule found to contain 5-methylcytosine. ... In addition it contains thymine, guanine and cytosine. It was first identified by a German chemist W.G. Ruppel in 1898 while ...
In mammals, methylation occurs on DNA and histone proteins. DNA methylation occurs on the cytosine of CpG dinucleotides in the ... SMN1 and SMN2 are nearly identical except for a single nucleotide change in SMN2 resulting in an alternative splicing site ... but lower levels of methylation in patients greater than 70 years old.[71] Studies on differential DNA methylation in human AD ... DNA-methylation inhibitor chemical analogue of cytidine Azathioprine M (ny) M (ny) ...
... binding to a nucleotide, usually cytosine. In general, this binding, called methylation, turns off the gene in question. ... which has no effect on cytosines with methyl groups bound to them but turns nonmethylated cytosines into another nucleotide ... DNA is made up of four basic building blocks - adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine - and the sequence of these nucleotides ... This analysis confirmed that older people have a lower amount of cytosine methylation than newborns. ...
DNA is methylated on cytosine in CG di-nucleotides in many places in the genome. This modification is one of the best- ... Tiling array studies have generated high-resolution methylation maps for the Arabidopsis genome to generate the first " ... Methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation followed by tiling array allows DNA methylation mapping and measurement across the genome. ... of DNA methylation (MeDIP-chip) and of sensitivity to DNase (DNase Chip) and array CGH. In addition to detecting previously ...
Detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) and cytosine-methylations. US20050176025. Aug 20, 2004. Aug 11, 2005. ... Detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) and cytosine-methylations. WO2004050885A2. Dec 5, 2003. Jun 17, 2004. ... between nucleotides 161-350 of SEQ ID NO:1, between nucleotides 401-590 of SEQ ID NO:1 or between nucleotides 1002-1260 of SEQ ... 5-halouracil and cytosine, 5-propynyl uracil and cytosine, 6-azo uracil, cytosine and thymine, 5-uracil (pseudouracil), 4- ...
... to DNA nucleotides. HhaI methyltransferase catalyses the transfer to cytosine nucleotides. Methylation of the nucleotides ...
Such modifications include methylation of cytosine nucleotides at CpG sites and histone protein modification. Such epigenetic ... as no methylation (0) or methylation (1) of a cytosine at a particular autosomal CpG site (Figure 1). Therefore, a disease ... 2002 The control of natural variation in cytosine methylation in Arabidopsis. Genetics 162: 355-363. ... 2002 Analysis of DNA methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana based on methylation-sensitive aflp markers. Mol. Genet. Genomics 268 ...
Here we collect nasal swabs from the anterior nares of 547 children (mean-age 12.9 y), and measure DNA methylation (DNAm) with ... DNA methylation (DNAm) of cytosine nucleotides (CpG sites) is one of the most widely studied epigenetic modifications3. DNAm ... DNA methylation in nasal epithelium, atopy, and atopic asthma in children: a genome-wide study. Lancet Respir. Med. 7, 336-346 ... DNA methylation-based measures of biological age: meta-analysis predicting time to death. Aging (Albany, NY) 8, 1844 (2016). ...
CpG is a coupling of a cytosine and guanine nucleotide in linear sequence; the cytosines in CpG dinucleotides can be methylated ... with its 30 million CpG dinucleotides4 in various states of methylation, compared to the genomes more than 300 million base ... NOTE: GRS = genetic risk score; NGS = next-generation sequencing; SNP = single nucleotide polymorphism. SOURCE: Presented by ... most of the information comes from observational studies linking single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to dietary patterns. " ...
The DNA methylation of SKA2 gene and the Single-nucleotide polymorphism rs7208505 genotype may have effects on suicidal ... The genotype rs7208505 contains a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) containing a Cytosine variant allele instead of Thymine ... This SNP allows the dinucleotide repeat (CpG) elements to occur providing a gene segment for methylation. Thus DNA methylation ... This genetic variant containing a Cytosine (existing in the less common allele) instead of Thymine along with epigenetic ...
... which was associated with changes in Kcnmb2 promoter methylation in MD F1 mice. Hippocampal overexpression of Kcnmb2 in MD F1 ... to DNA cytosine nucleotides.1 Abundant methylation in gene promoters, particularly in CpG residues, recruits chromatin ... Targeted and genome-wide DNA methylation analyses identified differential methylation in MD F1 offspring. We next explored the ... DNA methylation changes in hippocampal tissue of MD F1 mice. (a) Targeted bisulfite sequencing-based analysis of CpG ...
This enzyme is involved in DNA methylation, which is the addition of methyl groups, consisting of one carbon atom and three ... In particular, the enzyme helps add methyl groups to DNA building blocks (nucleotides) called cytosines. ... that helps direct the methylation process to the correct segments of DNA. As a result of these mutations, methylation is ... As a result of the DNMT1 gene mutations, methylation is abnormal and maintenance of the neurons that make up the nervous system ...
In particular, the enzyme helps add methyl groups to DNA building blocks (nucleotides) called cytosines. ... DNMT1 gene mutations that cause ADCADN affect a region of the DNA methyltransferase 1 enzyme that helps target the methylation ... As a result of these mutations, methylation is abnormal, which affects the expression of multiple genes. Maintenance of the ... This enzyme is involved in DNA methylation, which is the addition of methyl groups, consisting of one carbon atom and three ...
What is DNA methylation? -Adds a methyl to the Cytosine/Adenine DNA nucleotide;. -When methylated strands of DNA are replicated ... Main component of DNA and RNA nucleotide bases;. -6-membered rings containing N in positions 1 & 3. -Uracil, cytosine & ... Methylation. -Acetylation. -Phosphorylation. -EX: ACETYLATION of H3 and H4 = ACTIVE chromatin while METHYLATION = INACTIVE ... Single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population;. -Changes the ...
Methylation of DNA is a common method of gene silencing. DNA is typically methylated by methyltransferase enzymes on cytosine ... nucleotides in a CpG dinucleotide sequence (also called "CpG islands" when densely clustered). Analysis of the pattern of ... These are (1) histone acetylations and histone methylations, (2) DNA methylation at CpG sites, and (3) epigenetic ... Abnormal methylation patterns are thought to be involved in oncogenesis.[2] Histone acetylation is also an important process in ...
Yellow region is a section of cytosine-guanine (CpG-GpC) di-nucleotides that play a role in chromatin formation. Also shown are ... "DNA methylation is like a storyteller. We believe that it keeps a memory of the cell of origin during development and it is ... "We believe that DNA methylation helps us better classify this disease, and the cell of origin seems to be associated with ... Martin-Subero and colleagues examined DNA methylation changes in 139 patients with CLL. The availability of the methylome, exon ...
DNA methylation on cytosine nucleotides dictates those gene expression programs. However, the steady state levels and patterns ... Liu XS, Wu H, Ji X et al (2016) Editing DNA methylation in the mammalian genome. Cell 167:233-247 e17CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Antequera F, Tamame M, Villanueva JR et al (1984) DNA methylation in the fungi. J Biol Chem 259:8033-8036PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Cedar H, Bergman Y (2012) Programming of DNA methylation patterns. Annu Rev Biochem 81:97-117CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
The predominant epigenetic modification of DNA in mammalian genomes is methylation of cytosine nucleotides (5-MeC). DNA ... Methylated cytosines are protected from deamination and thus remain as cytosines, enabling identification of DNA methylation at ... for DNA methylation analysis and facilitates identification and quantification of DNA methylation at single nucleotide ... In mammals, DNA methylation typically comprises the covalent addition of a methyl group at the 5-position of cytosine within ...
The predominant epigenetic modification of DNA in mammalian genomes is methylation of cytosine nucleotides (5-MeC). DNA ... for DNA methylation analysis and facilitates identification and quantification of DNA methylation at single nucleotide ... Cloning and sequencing is still the most readily available method that can give single nucleotide resolution for methylation ... DNA methylation, protein methylation, biotin labeling, fluorescence labeling, SMILing, mTAG ...
Recently scientists have discovered a new role for Dam methylation. Da...The Dam enzyme begins by binding non-specifically to ... In humans DNA methylation occurs on the C (cytosine) rather than the A (adenine) nucleotide. ... nucleotide in the DNA sequence GATC through a chemical reaction known as methylation. Methylation is a biological process used ... Each time it finds the sequence GATC it stops and methylates the A nucleotide. Dam must move quickly, because if the bacteria ...
... cytosine nucleotide being followed by a guanine nucleotide; BP, blood pressure. ... DNA methylation age estimator (DNAmAge). Request a detailed protocol Genome-wide methylation levels were measured from ... Measurements of methylation groups added to DNA (known as DNA methylation age) and frailty (the frailty index) led to improved ... "One of the potential BAs, telomere length, is the length of a nucleotide sequence at the chromosomal ends, and represents the ...
DNA methylation is a heritable epigenetic modification of the genes w...Scientists at UCLA and the University of Parma measured ... DNA methylation is a heritable epigenetic modification of the genes, where a methyl group is added to cytosine DNA nucleotides ... the black truffle has very little gene body methylation and it appears that the methylation is occurring in the transposon. All ... They found the methylation could be partly reversed by treatment with 5-azacytidine, an analogue of cytidine, resulting in the ...
... or nucleotides, that make up the human genome. The human sequence of the human genome is of enormous value and promises to ... More specifically, one of the nucleotides, namely cytosine, can be present in two functional states - methylated or ... DNA methylation profiles are highly variable across different cells, even in the same organism, and such variation depends on ... The ultimate goal of the Human Genome Project was to determine the sequence of the 3 billion "genetic elements", or nucleotides ...
DNA methylation. A biochemical process involving the addition of a methyl group to the cytosine of DNA nucleotides. DNA ... Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP). A variation in a single base (A, T, C or G) within a sequence of DNA. For any single base ... Nucleotide. Organic compound made up of a purine or pyrimidine (base) joined to a sugar and a phosphate group. Nucleic acids ( ... For example, determining the order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA chain or the amino acids within a protein. ...
... is a process by which methyl groups are added to DNA. Methylation modifies the function of the ... Two of DNAs four nucleotides, cytosine and adenine, can be methylated.. Epigenomics AG. Geneststraße 5. 10829 Berlin. Germany ... DNA methylation is essential for normal development and is associated with a number of key processes including genomic ... This means that every cell type has a unique DNA methylation fingerprint that changes during normal biological processes and ...
In primary tumors, case 1 showed methylation at cytosines −37, −43, and −53 in six of six clones. Case 5 showed methylation at ... Other unmethylated cytosine nucleotides, including those in the CpG dinucleotides, changed to thymines because of bisulfite ... Methylation Analysis of the WWOX Gene Promoter Region.. To evaluate the methylation status of the promoter region of WWOX in ... This site-specific methylation of a single CpG site of Panc1 and Hs766T was detected in six of six and five of six clones, ...
Desrosiers RC, Mulder C, Fleckenstein B. Methylation of Herpesvirus saimiri DNA in lymphoid tumor cell lines. Proc Natl Acad ... "Cytosine Nucleotides" by people in this website by year, and whether "Cytosine Nucleotides" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Cytosine Nucleotides" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Cytosine Nucleotides" by people in Profiles. ...
  • To get a better idea of how methylation patterns change with age, a team led by Manel Esteller, an epigenetics researcher at the Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute in Barcelona, Spain, looked at two extreme cases: A newborn male baby and a man aged 103 years. (wired.com)
  • In a new paper published online Sunday in Nature Genetics , first author Hon, senior author Bing Ren, PhD, Ludwig scientist at UC San Diego, and colleagues probe deeper into the mysteries of epigenetics, reporting on how DNA methylation changes in different kinds of tissue. (ludwigcancerresearch.org)
  • In recent years, CpG methylation analyses have been focused mainly on epigenetics, allowing researchers to quantitatively assess important markers of differential gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Based on comparisons of global gene expression and DNA methylation between the wild-type and resistant epiRILs, we discuss mechanisms by which the pericentromeric epiQTLs could regulate the defence-related transcriptome. (elifesciences.org)
  • The present study aimed to evaluate how the gene expression and DNA methylation of PIK3R1, an obesity and insulin-related gene, change after RYGB. (bvsalud.org)
  • To understand the biological role of DNA methylation and its role in human disease, precise, efficient and reproducible methods are required to detect and quantify individual 5-MeCs. (jove.com)
  • To test for a role of DNA methylation, we exposed replicate offspring of isogenic shaded and fully insolated parents to either the demethylating agent zebularine or to control conditions during germination, then raised them in simulated growth chamber shade. (frontiersin.org)
  • The authors find that DNA methylation patterns in buccal cells are more similar than blood to those of brain tissue. (tebu-bio.com)
  • Additionally, we find that DNA methylation is significantly depleted near gene transcriptional start sites, which may explain the recently discovered elevated rate of recombination in these same regions.Using a model-based approach, we demonstrate that methylation patterns are an important predictor of variation in gene expression.This model provides a novel approach for differential methylation analysis that generates distinct and testable hypotheses regarding gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, we find that DNA methylation is significantly depleted near gene transcriptional start sites, which may explain the recently discovered elevated rate of recombination in these same regions. (nih.gov)
  • Since then, the importance of DNA methylation in modulating transcriptional programs during development and differentiation processes has been strongly supported by many studies. (frontiersin.org)
  • They simply help understanding of development," said Hon. But they may also auger greater import in the future, bolstering the recognized importance of DNA methylation and providing "an epigenetic signature that can be used to find regulatory elements active in development, but which are no longer active in adult tissues. (ludwigcancerresearch.org)
  • The authors conclude that the degree of methylation decreases in a cumulative fashion over time. (wired.com)
  • Over the last decade a series of new methods have been developed to investigate DNA methylation profiles across large DNA regions - chromosomes and even entire genomes. (genomecanada.ca)
  • Finally, we will attempt to adapt the so-called deep sequencing for fine methylomic studies of complex genomes that should generate very detailed DNA methylation maps across a number of cells in one experiment. (genomecanada.ca)
  • Our first observation was that there was a general loss of methylation (hypo-methylation) within the cells and that this loss was focused at regions of the genome which were only partially methylated (as opposed to completely unmethylated or fully methylated). (mcbryan.co.uk)
  • SNP = single nucleotide polymorphism. (nih.gov)
  • The SKA2 gene contains one Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs7208505 located in the 3' UTR. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA methylation of SKA2 gene and the Single-nucleotide polymorphism rs7208505 genotype may have effects on suicidal behaviour according to linear model suggested by a study in 2014. (wikipedia.org)
  • Large-scale single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping was hoped to reveal DNA variants that would explain much of the variance in complex phenotypes. (genetics.org)
  • This protocol for bisulphite conversion is the "gold standard" for DNA methylation analysis and facilitates identification and quantification of DNA methylation at single nucleotide resolution. (jove.com)
  • Cloning and sequencing is still the most readily available method that can give single nucleotide resolution for methylation across the DNA molecule. (jove.com)
  • Notably the authors demonstrate that buccal DNA contains enrichment of these hypomethylated tDMRs (hypo-tDMRs) near disease associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and that buccal DNA shows a signfiicantly greater agreement with methylation patterns in other tissues: skeletal muscle, islets, brain, and liver. (tebu-bio.com)
  • GWAS search the genome for small variations, called single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that occur more frequently in people with a particular illness versus those without. (lunenfeld.ca)
  • Further research is also needed to determine whether it is possible to breed crop plants with lower levels of methylation at specific DNA locations to improve disease resistance, but without decreasing the amount and quality of food produced. (elifesciences.org)
  • The exact levels of methylation expression are not fully considered yet. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we collect nasal swabs from the anterior nares of 547 children (mean-age 12.9 y), and measure DNA methylation (DNAm) with the Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip. (nature.com)
  • 1) Sulphonation: The addition of bisulphite to the 5-6 double bond of cytosine (2) Hydrolic Deamination: hydrolytic deamination of the resulting cytosine-bisulphite derivative to give a uracil-bisulphite derivative (3) Alkali Desulphonation: Removal of the sulphonate group by an alkali treatment, to give uracil. (jove.com)
  • Bisulphite preferentially deaminates cytosine to uracil in single stranded DNA, whereas 5-MeC, is refractory to bisulphite-mediated deamination. (jove.com)
  • We report the development of a negative selection system based upon transgenic expression of a yeast cytosine deaminase and uracil phosphoribosyl transferase chimera (FCU1) and selection with prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC). (jove.com)