NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester: A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.Methyl Parathion: The methyl homolog of parathion. An effective, but highly toxic, organothiophosphate insecticide and cholinesterase inhibitor.Methyl Methanesulfonate: An alkylating agent in cancer therapy that may also act as a mutagen by interfering with and causing damage to DNA.Methyl Chloride: A hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent. It has been used as an aerosal propellent, as a refrigerant and as a local anesthetic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p1403)Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Hydrocarbons, BrominatedMethyl n-Butyl Ketone: An industrial solvent which causes nervous system degeneration. MBK is an acronym often used to refer to it.S-Adenosylmethionine: Physiologic methyl radical donor involved in enzymatic transmethylation reactions and present in all living organisms. It possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been used in treatment of chronic liver disease. (From Merck, 11th ed)Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.Hydrocarbons, IodinatedEstersNitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Isocyanates: Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.Methylmethacrylate: The methyl ester of methacrylic acid. It polymerizes easily to form POLYMETHYL METHACRYLATE. It is used as a bone cement.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Tosylarginine Methyl Ester: Arginine derivative which is a substrate for many proteolytic enzymes. As a substrate for the esterase from the first component of complement, it inhibits the action of C(l) on C(4).Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Cyanates: Organic salts of cyanic acid containing the -OCN radical.S-Adenosylhomocysteine: 5'-S-(3-Amino-3-carboxypropyl)-5'-thioadenosine. Formed from S-adenosylmethionine after transmethylation reactions.ButanonesMethionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.KetonesGas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Methylmethacrylates: The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.Fumigation: The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Protein O-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosylmethionine to free carboxyl groups of a protein molecule forming methyl esters. EC 2.1.1.-.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).tert-Butyl AlcoholAlkylation: The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.tRNA Methyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methylation of ribonucleotide bases within a transfer RNA molecule. EC 2.1.1.Polymethyl Methacrylate: Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.MethylglycosidesChemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Protein Methyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the methylation of amino acids after their incorporation into a polypeptide chain. S-Adenosyl-L-methionine acts as the methylating agent. EC 2.1.1.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Methylmercury Compounds: Organic compounds in which mercury is attached to a methyl group.Paraquat: A poisonous dipyridilium compound used as contact herbicide. Contact with concentrated solutions causes irritation of the skin, cracking and shedding of the nails, and delayed healing of cuts and wounds.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Glycine N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the METHYLATION of GLYCINE using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE to form SARCOSINE with the concomitant production of S-ADENOSYLHOMOCYSTEINE.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Parabens: Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Oleanolic Acid: A pentacyclic triterpene that occurs widely in many PLANTS as the free acid or the aglycone for many SAPONINS. It is biosynthesized from lupane. It can rearrange to the isomer, ursolic acid, or be oxidized to taraxasterol and amyrin.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Esterification: The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Azo CompoundsEugenol: A cinnamate derivative of the shikamate pathway found in CLOVE OIL and other PLANTS.Euryarchaeota: A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Mesna: A sulfhydryl compound used to prevent urothelial toxicity by inactivating metabolites from ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, such as IFOSFAMIDE or CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE.Tetrahydrofolates: Compounds based on 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Betaine: A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Betaine-Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase: A ZINC metalloenzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from BETAINE to HOMOCYSTEINE to produce dimethylglycine and METHIONINE, respectively. This enzyme is a member of a family of ZINC-dependent METHYLTRANSFERASES that use THIOLS or selenols as methyl acceptors.Formic Acid EstersMesylates: Organic salts or esters of methanesulfonic acid.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Salicylates: The salts or esters of salicylic acids, or salicylate esters of an organic acid. Some of these have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Nitric Oxide Donors: A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)Xylenes: A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Methyl-CpG-Binding Protein 2: A DNA-binding protein that interacts with methylated CPG ISLANDS. It plays a role in repressing GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and is frequently mutated in RETT SYNDROME.EsterasesCorrinoids: Cyclic TETRAPYRROLES based on the corrin skeleton.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Methionine Adenosyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine from methionine and ATP. EC 2.5.1.6.Methylmannosides: Mannosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with methyl alcohol. They include both alpha- and beta-methylmannosides.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Vitamin B 12: A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.GuanineBenzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)OxadiazolesDNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Deuterium: Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.Toluene: A widely used industrial solvent.Sulfonic Acids: Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.Propionates: Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Gallic Acid: A colorless or slightly yellow crystalline compound obtained from nutgalls. It is used in photography, pharmaceuticals, and as an analytical reagent.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Acetonitriles: Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.EthersMethylaminesAcrylatesMethanosarcina barkeri: A species of halophilic archaea whose organisms are nonmotile. Habitats include freshwater and marine mud, animal-waste lagoons, and the rumens of ungulates.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Cytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Amino Acid Oxidoreductases: A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Benzene DerivativesSpectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)CinnamatesCyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.AcetalsCyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.5-Methyltetrahydrofolate-Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of methionine by transfer of a methyl group from 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine. It requires a cobamide coenzyme. The enzyme can act on mono- or triglutamate derivatives. EC 2.1.1.13.Sarcosine: An amino acid intermediate in the metabolism of choline.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.HydrocarbonsHomocysteine: A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE to the 5-position of CYTOSINE residues in DNA.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Gasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Paraoxon: An organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a pesticide.Caproates: Derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated six carbon aliphatic structure.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Acetone: A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.TritiumImidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Dipeptides: Peptides composed of two amino acid units.TriterpenesPhylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Phosphatidylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses three sequential METHYLATION reactions for conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Bromides: Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)DiazomethaneIsotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.CyclopropanesCell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-, Methyl ester: A dihydropyridine derivative, which, in contrast to NIFEDIPINE, functions as a calcium channel agonist. The compound facilitates Ca2+ influx through partially activated voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, thereby causing vasoconstrictor and positive inotropic effects. It is used primarily as a research tool.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Methylbenzodioxolylpentanamine (MBDP; Methyl-K). *Ethylbenzodioxolylbutanamine (EBDB; Ethyl-J). *Ephylone (βk-Ethyl-K) ... N-Ethyl-1,3-benzodioxolylpentanamine (EBDP; Ethyl-K; 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethyl-α-propylphenethylamine) is a psychoactive drug ... It is the N-ethyl analog of 1,3-benzodioxolylpentanamine (BDP; K). Ethyl-K was first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin. In his ... This substance is a Class A drug in the Drugs controlled by the UK Misuse of Drugs Act.[3] ...
"Density of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 messenger RNA-containing neurons that express the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor ... 5 (2-3): 109-18. PMID 9777629.. *^ a b c Soghomonian JJ, Martin DL (December 1998). "Two isoforms of glutamate decarboxylase: ... 10.1186/1750-1172-6-3. PMC 3042903. PMID 21294897.. *^ Mitoma H, Manto M, Hampe CS (2017-03-12). "Pathogenic Roles of Glutamic ... 3] Together, these two enzymes maintain the only physiological supply of GABA in mammals.[2] ...
3 (9): 728-739. doi:10.1038/nrn920. PMID 12209121.. *^ Obrietan K, Gao XB, Van Den Pol AN (August 2002). "Excitatory actions of ... doi:10.1007/s12264-008-0109-3. PMC 5552538. PMID 18500393.. *^ Ben-Ari Y, Gaiarsa JL, Tyzio R, Khazipov R (October 2007). "GABA ... doi:10.1016/S0074-7742(05)71002-3. ISBN 9780123668721. PMID 16512345.. *^ Marín O, Rubenstein JL (November 2001). "A long, ... 3 (4): 217-227. doi:10.3233/PEP-14097. PMC 4256671. PMID 25485164. Clinical disorders known to affect inherited GABA metabolism ...
... has also been used as part of a sensitive detection process for microplastics in bottled water.[3][4] ... InChI=1S/C20H18N2O2/c1-3-22(4-2)13-9-10-16-18(11-13)24-19-12-17(23)14-7-5-6-8-15(14)20(19)21-16/h5-12H,3-4H2,1-2H3 Y ... From left to right: 1. water, 2. methanol, 3. ethanol, 4. acetonitrile, 5. dimethylformamide, 6. acetone, 7. ethyl acetate, 8. ... InChI=1/C20H18N2O2/c1-3-22(4-2)13-9-10-16-18(11-13)24-19-12-17(23)14-7-5-6-8-15(14)20(19)21-16/h5-12H,3-4H2,1-2H3 ...
... one mole of methyl iodide weighs almost three times as much as one mole of methyl chloride. On the other hand, methyl chloride ... Methyl iodide has an LD50 for oral administration to rats 76 mg/kg, and in the liver it undergoes rapid conversion to S-methyl ... The generated methyl iodide can be distilled from the reaction mixture. Methyl iodide may also be prepared by treating iodoform ... The iodide leaving group in methyl iodide may cause unwanted side reactions. Finally, being highly reactive, methyl iodide is ...
In a chemical structural formula, an organic substituent such as methyl, ethyl, or aryl can be written as R (or R1, R2, etc.) ... The suffix "-yl" arose by extracting it from the word "methyl". Methane substituents[edit]. According to the above rules, a ... The top 5 most common are the methyl, phenyl, chlorine, methoxy, and hydroxyl substituents. The total number of organic ... methyl group or methanyl. one single bond to a non-hydrogen atom ... For instance, the substituents methyl (-CH3) and pentyl (-C5H11 ...
Collective Volume, 7, p. 135 Goheen, D. W.; Vaughan, W. R. (1963). "Cyclopentanecarboxylic acid, methyl ester". Organic ... in German). 414 (3): 271-296. doi:10.1002/jlac.19184140303. Wallach, O. (1918). "Zur Kenntnis der Terpene und der ätherischen ... in German). 414 (3): 296-366. doi:10.1002/jlac.19184140304. Park, Chan-Ho; Givens, Richard S. (1997). "New Photoactivated ... The deprotection proceeds through a triplet diradical (3) and a dione spiro intermediate (4) although the latter has thus far ...
Three of these alcohols, active amyl alcohol (2-methylbutan-1-ol), methyl (n) propyl carbinol (pentan-2-ol), and methyl ... methyl isopropyl carbinol secondary 3-Methylbutan-2-ol 113.6 dimethyl ethyl carbinol. or tertiary amyl alcohol tertiary 2- ... methyl (n) propyl carbinol secondary Pentan-2-ol 118.8 ... alcohols (3°). *tert-Butyl alcohol (C. 4). *tert-Amyl alcohol ( ... It is a solid that melts at 48 to 50 °C and boils at 112.3 °C.[3] ...
4'-Methyl-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (MPPP). *4'-Methoxy-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (MOPPP). *3',4'-Methylenedioxy-α- ... 6 (3): 259-74. doi:10.2174/1389200054021825. PMID 15975043.. *^ a b Springer, D; Staack, RF; Paul, LD; Kraemer, T; Maurer, HH ( ... 35 (3): 227-37. doi:10.1080/00498250400028239. PMID 16019948.. *^ Gannon, BM; Galindo, KI; Mesmin, MP; Sulima, A; Rice, KC; ... 3',4'-Methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (MDPPP) is a stimulant designer drug. It was sold in Germany in the late 1990s ...
Starting with the left-most methyl group in the figure: CC(C)(O1)C[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@]1(O2)[[email protected]@H](C)[[email protected]@H]3CC=C4[[email protected]]3(C2)C(=O)C[[email protected]]5 ... methyl (. C. ), and carboxylate (. C(=O)O. ) groups appear clockwise. D-Alanine can be written as N[[email protected]](C)C(=O)O (see ... ISBN 978-3-540-27967-9. Retrieved 2013-02-12.. *^ Byers, JA; Birgersson, G; Löfqvist, J; Appelgren, M; Bergström, G (Mar 1990 ... 16 (3): 861-76. doi:10.1007/BF01016496. PMID 24263601.. *^ National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). PubChem ...
2-Methyl-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene. TNT, Tolite, Trilite, Trinitrotoluol, Trinol, Tritolo, Tritolol, Triton, Tritone, Trotol, ... 978-3-540-30421-0. .. *^ a b Brown GI (1998). The Big Bang: a History of Explosives. Sutton Publishing. pp. 151-153. ISBN 978-0 ... as a result of the oxidation of methyl groups, reduction of nitro groups, and dimer formation."[32] ... 978-0-9728111-3-2. .. *^ Grad, Paul (April 2013). "Quantum clusters serve as ultra-sensitive detectors". Chemical Engineering. ...
Methyl ethers - Cleavage is by TMSI in dichloromethane or acetonitrile or chloroform. An alternative method to cleave methyl ... Methyl (Me) - removed by strong nucleophiles e.c. thiophenole/TEA.. Terminal alkyne protecting groups[edit]. *Propargyl ... Part 3 Total synthesis of (±)-hapalindoles H and U Tetrahedron, Volume 46, Issue 18, 1990, Pages 6351-6360 Hideaki Muratake, ... such as NaF, TBAF (tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride, HF-Py, or HF-NEt3)). TBDMS and TOM groups are used for protection of 2'- ...
6R,7R)-7-{[(2Z)-2-(2-amino-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)-. 2-methoxyiminoacetyl]amino}-3-methyl-8-oxo-. 5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene ... InChI=1S/C14H15N5O5S2/c1-5-3-25-12-8(11(21)19(12)9(5)13(22)23)17-10(20)7(18-24-2)6-4-26-14(15)16-6/h4,8,12H,3H2,1-2H3,(H2,15,16 ...
8R,9S,13S,14S)-17-methoxy-13-methyl-3-propoxy-6,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16,17-decahydrocyclopenta[a]phenanthrene ... methyl diether of estradiol.[5] The drug is described as a tropic agent and antiseborrheic.[1] It has not been found to be ... ISBN 978-0-8155-1856-3.. *^ Muller (19 June 1998). European Drug Index: European Drug Registrations, Fourth Edition. CRC Press ... ISBN 978-3-88763-075-1.. *^ William Andrew Publishing (22 October 2013). Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition ...
19-Nortestosterone derivatives: 7α-Methyl-19-norandrostenedione (MENT dione, trestione). *11β-Methyl-19-nortestosterone *11β- ... 978-1-4757-2085-3. .. *^ a b c d e f g h i j Llewellyn W (2009). Anabolics. Molecular Nutrition Llc. pp. 19, 163. ISBN 978- ... 978-0-8155-1856-3. .. *^ a b c d e f g Elks J (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data: Chemical Data, ... 2alpha-Methyl dihydrotestosterone propionate". Cancer. 14 (4): 705-6. doi:10.1002/1097-0142(199007/08)14:4,705::AID- ...
19-Nortestosterone derivatives: 7α-Methyl-19-norandrostenedione (MENT dione, trestione). *11β-Methyl-19-nortestosterone *11β- ... Atraric acid is a naturally occurring phenolic compound and ester with the IUPAC name methyl 2,4-dihydroxy-3,6-dimethylbenzoate ... 5α-Dihydro-17α-ethynyltestosterone derivatives: 17α-Ethynyl-3α-androstanediol ... InChI=1S/C10H12O4/c1-5-4-7(11)6(2)9(12)8(5)10(13)14-3/h4,11-12H,1-3H3 ...
1985). "Photolysis of methyl 3-diazo-2-oxopropionate. Wolff migration of the carbomethoxy group". J. Org. Chem. 50 (22): 4404. ... which yields a one-to-one mixture of α-diazo ketone and the corresponding methyl ester. This method can also be used with ... 92 (3): 528. doi:10.1002/cber.19590920303. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Tao, Y. McKervey, M. A. (1994). " ... 3:887. doi:10.1016/B978-0-08-052349-1.00085-8. ISBN 978-0-08-052349-1 Wolff, L. (1902). "Ueber Diazoanhydride". Justus Liebigs ...
Methyl vinyl ketone, acetoacetic ester, and diethyl-methyl-(3-oxo-butyl)-ammonium iodide react to form a cyclic aldol product. ... Methyl vinyl ketone and acetoacetic ester undergo aldol cyclization in the presence of catalytic pyrrolidinum acetate or Triton ... Hagemann's ester, or ethyl-2-methyl-4-oxo-2-cyclohexenecarboxylate, is an organic compound that was first prepared and ... Ethyl 2-methyl-4-oxocyclohex-2-enecarboxylate. 4-Carbethoxy-3-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one ...
Methyl 2-cyanoacrylate (. CH. 2. =. C. (. C. ≡. N. ). COOCH. 3. {\displaystyle {\ce {CH2=C(C#N)COOCH3}}}. or C. 5. H. 5. NO. 2 ... "ICSC 1272 - METHYL 2-CYANOACRYLATE".. *^ Petrie, Edward M. (2000). Handbook of adhesives and sealants. New York: McGraw-Hill. p ... Methyl Cyanoacrylate and Ethyl Cyanoacrylate from inchem.org *^ Clarke, TFE (March 2011). "Superglue (Cyanoacrylate) in the ... Cyanoacrylates include methyl 2-cyanoacrylate (MCA), ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate (ECA, commonly sold under trade names such as "Super ...
LXXX.11-Methyl-19-nortestosterone and 1-Methyl-17α-ethinyl-19-nortestosterone". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 78 ( ... 19-Nortestosterone derivatives: 7α-Methyl-19-norandrostenedione (MENT dione, trestione). *11β-Methyl-19-nortestosterone *11β- ... 8R,9S,10R,13S,14S,17R)-17-ethynyl-17-hydroxy-13-methyl-1,2,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,14,15,16-dodecahydrocyclopenta[a]phenanthren-3-one ... The C17α alkyl derivative normethandrone (17α-methyl-19-NT). *The C17α cyanomethyl derivative dienogest (17α-cyanomethyl-δ9-19- ...
N-Methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate (JB-336, BZ). Piperidine is also commonly used in chemical degradation reactions, such as the ... 1H NMR: (CDCl3, ppm) 2.79, 2.19, 1.51[citation needed]. Uses[edit]. Piperidine is used as a solvent and as a base. The same is ... C5H5N + 3 H2 → C5H10NH. Pyridine can also be reduced to piperidine via a modified Birch reduction using sodium in ethanol.[10] ... 13C NMR: (CDCl3, ppm) 47.27.2, 25.2[citation needed]. * ... "Spiro[5.7]trideca-1,4-dien-3-one". Organic Syntheses ...
... , known by the nicknames M-Sten, Methyl-Sten, and Ultradrol, is a synthetic and orally active anabolic- ... Related AAS include mestanolone and methyl-1-testosterone. Rahnema CD, Crosnoe LE, Kim ED (2015). "Designer steroids - over-the ... 3 (2): 150-5. doi:10.1111/andr.307. PMID 25684733. Kimergård A, Walker C, Cowan D (2015). "Potent and untested drugs sold as " ... 17α-dimethyl-5α-androst-1-en-17β-ol-3-one, is a synthetic androstane steroid and a 17α-alkylated derivative of DHT. It is the ...
4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-4-(phenylazo)-3H-pyrazol-3-on. It is soluble in fats and oils. ... InChI=1S/C16H14N4O/c1-12-15(18-17-13-8-4-2-5-9-13)16(21)20(19-12)14-10-6-3-7-11-14/h2-11,19H,1H3/b18-17+ Y ... Solvent Yellow 16; C.I. disperse yellow; C.I. 12700; 4-phenylazo-1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone; 2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl- ... InChI=1/C16H14N4O/c1-12-15(18-17-13-8-4-2-5-9-13)16(21)20(19-12)14-10-6-3-7-11-14/h2-11,19H,1H3/b18-17+ ...
2-[(4-tert-butyl-2,6-dimethylphenyl)methyl]-. 4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole ... InChI=1S/C16H24N2/c1-11-8-13(16(3,4)5)9-12(2)14(11)10-15-17-6-7-18-15/h8-9H,6-7,10H2,1-5H3,(H,17,18) Y ... 3] Xylometazoline is available as a generic medication.[2] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 0.75 USD for a ... 3] It is used directly in the nose as a spray or drops.[2] ...
... acp methyl ester reductase activity]. Cellular component. • Golgi apparatus. • membrane. • melanosome. • plasma membrane. • ... acp methyl ester reductase activity]. • RNA binding. • cadherin binding. • 3-oxo-glutaryl-[ ... 12 (3): 225-32. doi:10.1038/nsmb899. PMID 15711565.. *^ Maier T, Leibundgut M, Ban N (September 2008). "The crystal structure ... 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein reductase (NADPH) activity]. • drug binding. • NADPH binding. • lyase activity. • identical ...
4-Dihydroxy-13-methyl-7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16-octahydro-6H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one ... 4-Hydroxyestrone (4-OHE1), also known as estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,4-diol-17-one, is an endogenous, naturally occurring catechol ... 978-1-4612-5525-3. .. *^ Bhavnani BR, Nisker JA, Martin J, Aletebi F, Watson L, Milne JK (2000). "Comparison of ... InChI=1S/C18H22O3/c1-18-9-8-11-10-4-6-15(19)17(21)13(10)3-2-12(11)14(18)5-7-16(18)20/h4,6,11-12,14,19,21H,2-3,5,7-9H2,1H3/t11-, ...
The new novel prduct 1211535-54-4 2-AMINO-5-FLUORO-3-PYRIDINECARBOXYLIC ACID METHYL ESTER is in stock and on sales,we can ... For details, please visit the URL:http://www.debyetec.com/DT-00039.html​ 新化合物1211535-54-4 2-AMINO-5-FLUORO-3- ... The new novel prduct 1211535-54-4 2-AMINO-5-FLUORO-3-PYRIDINECARBOXYLIC ACID METHYL ESTER is in stock and on sales,we can ... New novel compound:1265484-33-0,TERT-BUTYL 4-(4-(4,4,5,5-TETRAMETHYL-1,3,2-DIOXABOROLAN-2-YL)-1H-PYRAZOL-1-YL)PIPERIDINE-1- ...
Human volunteers complained of slight throat irritation at 360mg/m3 and of ocular and upper respiratory tract irritation after ... Animal experiments show isoamyl alcohol (3-methyl-1-butanol) to be an irritant to mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and ... of 200mg/m3, and a short-term exposure limit value of 400mg/m3.. ... 3-Methyl-1-butanol. Original title. 3-Metylobutan-1-ol [in ... exposure at 540mg/m3 for three to five minutes. Based on these human data, the Polish Expert Group for Chemical Agents ...
Formula: C5H8O/(H3C)2C=CHCHO. Molecular mass: 84.12 Boiling point: 136°C Melting point: -20°C Density: 0.9 g/cm³. Solubility in ...
... is a 3-methyl-2-oxovalerate (CHEBI:28654) (S)-3-methyl-2-oxovalerate (CHEBI:35146) is ... CHEBI:35146 - (S)-3-methyl-2-oxovalerate. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... S)-3-methyl-2-oxovalerate (CHEBI:35146) has functional parent valerate (CHEBI:31011) (S)-3-methyl-2-oxovalerate (CHEBI:35146) ... S)-3-methyl-2-oxovaleric acid (CHEBI:15614) is conjugate acid of (S)-3-methyl-2-oxovalerate (CHEBI:35146). ...
Other names: 3-Methylundecane; 2-Ethyl-decane; (dl) 3-methylundecane * Permanent link for this species. Use this link for ... InChI=1S/C12H26/c1-4-6-7-8-9-10-11-12(3)5-2/h12H,4-11H2,1-3H3 ... Undecane, 3-methyl-. *Formula: C12H26. *Molecular weight: ...
CAS Registry Number: 832-71-3. *Chemical structure: This structure is also available as a 2d Mol file or as a computed 3d SD ... InChI=1S/C15H12/c1-11-6-7-13-9-8-12-4-2-3-5-14(12)15(13)10-11/h2-10H,1H3 ...
4-amino-2-methyl-5-diphosphooxymethylpyrimidine (CHEBI:16629) is conjugate acid of 4-amino-2-methyl-5- ... CHEBI:57841 - 4-amino-2-methyl-5-diphosphonatooxymethylpyrimidine(3−). Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. ... 4-amino-2-methyl-5-diphosphonatooxymethylpyrimidine(3−) (CHEBI:57841) has role Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolite (CHEBI:75772 ... 4-amino-2-methyl-5-diphosphonatooxymethylpyrimidine(3−) (CHEBI:57841) is a organophosphate oxoanion (CHEBI:58945) 4-amino-2- ...
... BRN 5007839 2-(3-phenylphenyl)propanoic acid 3-BIPHENYLACETIC ACID, alpha-METHYL- 51498-07-8 ... alpha-Methyl-3-biphenylacetic acid 3-2-4-7-12/h2-11H,1H3,(H,16,17)/f/h16H InChIKey: InChIKey= ... Registries: 3-2-4-7-12/h2-11H,1H3,(H,16,17)/f/h16H ...
InChI=1S/C20H38F3NO/c1-4-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16-17-19(3,5-2)24-18(25)20(21,22)23/h4-17H2,1-3H3,(H,24,25) ... 3-Methyl-3-heptadecaneamine TFA. *Formula: C20H38F3NO ... C @ 1. min, 3. K/min, 280. C @ 50. min. References. Go To: Top ...
2-methyl-; 2-Methyl-hept-1-en-3-yne; 2-Methyl-1-heptene-3-yne ... 2-Methyl-1-hepten-3-yne. *Formula: C8H12. *Molecular weight: ... Other names: n-C3H7C«equiv»CC(CH3)=CH2; 1-Hepten-3-yne, ... InChI=1S/C8H12/c1-4-5-6-7-8(2)3/h2,4-5H2,1,3H3 ...
N-Methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate (JB-336) is an anticholinergic drug related to the chemical warfare agent 3-quinuclidinyl ... N-methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate is less potent and shorter acting than 3-quinuclidyl benzilate, but like 3-QNB its effects on ... Both the N-methyl and N-ethyl analogues of 3-piperidyl benzilate are, however, Schedule I controlled drugs. ... methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate as a potent radioligand for positron emission tomography". Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 50 (3 ...
The object of the present invention is to synthesize vitamin D derivatives in which the 3-position is substituted with methyl ... 7-hydroxy-7-methyl-2-octyl, 5,6-dihydroxy-6-methyl-2-heptyl, 4,6,7-trihydroxy-6-methyl-2-heptyl, etc. More preferably R is 4- ... An A-ring compound having methyl at the 3-position is synthesizable by the method described on page 105 of Abstracts of the ... Non-limiting examples of R include 4-hydroxy-4-methylpentyl, 4-ethyl-4-hydroxyhexyl, 6-hydroxy-6-methyl-2-heptyl, ...
... methyl]aniline hydrochloride. Molbank. 2006; 2006(5):M502. Chicago/Turabian Style. Grohmann, Daniel G.; Hathaway, Bruce A. 2006 ... methyl]aniline hydrochloride. Daniel G. Grohmann and Bruce A. Hathaway * ... Supplementary File 3: m502.mol (MOL, 2 KB) Display in MOL Viewer ... methyl]aniline hydrochloride." Molbank 2006, no. 5: M502. Find ... Grohmann, D.G.; Hathaway, B.A. 3-[(Phenylsulfonyl)methyl]aniline hydrochloride. Molbank 2006, 2006, M502. ...
... *Formula: C9H23O3PSi ... InChI=1S/C9H23O3PSi/c1-9(2)7-8-11-13(3,10)12-14(4,5)6/h9H,7-8H2,1-6H3 ...
2-Methyl-3-pentanol for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references. ... 2-Methyl-3-pentanol (Ethyl isopropyl carbinol) was detected by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-fl. ... 2-Methyl-3-pentanol (Ethyl isopropyl carbinol) was used as a volatile marker. ... Linear Formula CH3CH2CH(OH)CH(CH3)2 ...
3-METHYL-4-OCTANONE AldrichCPR; CAS Number: 20754-04-5; Linear Formula: C9H18O; find null-S431486 MSDS, related peer-reviewed ...
InChI: InChI=1/C7H6ClNO2/c1-5-3-2-4-6(8)7(5)9(10)11/h2-4H,1H3 InChIKey: InChIKey=JLDKNVUJLUGIBQ-UHFFFAOYAJ SMILES: CC1=C(C(=CC= ... 1-chloro-3-methyl-2-nitro-benzene 3-2-4-6(8)7(5)9(10)11/h2-4H,1H3", "jqp049/79328.html ... 1-chloro-3-methyl-2-nitro-benzene 3-2-4-6(8)7(5)9(10)11/h2-4H,1H3", "InChIKey=JLDKNVUJLUGIBQ-UHFFFAOYAJ ...
B. Methyl Perfluoro(2-methyl-5-oxo-3-oxahexanoate). A solution of 179 g (0.58 mol) of the lactol from Part A and 1 ml of conc H ... Methyl Perfluoro(2-methyl-5-oxo-3-oxahexanoate) From the Lactone Perfluoro(3,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-1,4-Dioxane. A suspension of 50.4 ... A homogeneous mixture of 0.29 g (0.005 mol) of KF, 32.2 g (0.10 mol) of the ketoester methyl perfluoro(2-methyl-5-oxo-3- ... The resultant mixture was allowed to stand for about 65 h and then distilled to give 272.6 g (85%) of methyl perfluoro(2-methyl ...
Methyl 3,4-dicarboxy-3-hydroxyeicosanoate (1) was isolated from the acetone extract of the fruiting bodies of Ciborinia ... Methyl 3,4-Dicarboxy-3-hydroxyeicosanoate by Yoshihito Shiono *, Tetsuya Murayama and Takuya Koseki ... 2-Fluoro-N-methyl-N-{[(3S*,4S*)-4-(2-methylphenoxy)-3,4-dihydro-1H-isochromen-3-yl]methyl}ethanamine ... Methyl 3,4-dicarboxy-3-hydroxyeicosanoate (1) was isolated from the acetone extract of the fruiting bodies of Ciborinia ...
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3-Methyl-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridine , C7H6F3N , CID 14761445 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, ...
3-ethyl 5-methyl 2-(2-aminoethoxymethyl)-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-6-methyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate. ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate hydroxymethyltransferase. YP_207590.1. *EC 2.1.2.11. *catalyzes the formation of tetrahydrofolate and 2 ... 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate hydroxymethyltransferase. Locus tag. NGO0436. Gene type. protein coding. RefSeq status. PROVISIONAL. ... panB 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate hydroxymethyltransferase [ Neisseria gonorrhoeae FA 1090 ] Gene ID: 3282104, updated on 30-Jan- ... YP_207590.1 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate hydroxymethyltransferase [Neisseria gonorrhoeae FA 1090]. See identical proteins and their ...
  • 3. Compound of the formula ##STR23## wherein R is alkyl of 1 to 8 carbon atoms and n is 1 to 6. (google.co.uk)
  • No. 3,847,978 includes within its disclosure acids and esters of the formula ##STR6## wherein R is H or alkyl, X is CF 3 COCF 2 , ##STR7## RO 2 CCF 2 or ##STR8## and m is an integer within the range 1-50. (google.co.uk)
  • Although such disclosure embraces compounds of the formula ##STR11## wherein X' is SO 2 F, COF, CO 2 H, Cl, OCF 2 CF 2 , OCF 2 CO 2 R or CO 2 R wherein R is CH 3 or C 2 H 5 , and p is 0-2, no method of preparing such compounds is provided. (google.co.uk)
  • IRVING, Texas, Jan. 03, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Reata Pharmaceuticals, Inc. ( RETA ), a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company, today announced that it has completed a successful end-of-Phase 2 meeting with the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regarding the design of a Phase 3 clinical trial of bardoxolone methyl (bardoxolone) in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). (yahoo.com)
  • This international, multi-center, Phase 2/3 trial will study the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of bardoxolone methyl in qualified patients with Alport syndrome. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients in the Phase 2 cohort will receive bardoxolone methyl throughout the study. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients in the Phase 3 cohort will be randomized 1:1 to either bardoxolone methyl or placebo and randomization will be stratified by baseline albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients under the age of 18 receiving bardoxolone methyl will start 5 mg every other day during the first week and begin once-daily dosing with 5 mg during the second week of the study, and then continue with once-daily dosing following the same aforementioned dose titration scheme based on baseline ACR at Weeks 2, 4, and 6. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Bardoxolone methyl dose escalated from 5 mg to a maximum of 20 or 30 mg, depending on baseline proteinuria status. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The title compound chosen for DFT studies to extract different molecular properties has been experimentally synthesized and prepared using 1 amino pyrene and (ethyl 3-formyl-4-hydroxybenzoate) at room temperature for six hours in the presence of dry MeOH [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Methyl pyrrole-3-carboxylate is used as an organic chemical synthesis intermediate. (fishersci.ca)
  • 3. The vitamin D compound of claim 1, wherein R is straight or branched C 1-10 alkyl substituted with hydroxy. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 2. Compound of claim 1 wherein X is CO 2 R and R is CH 3 . (google.co.uk)
  • The title compound, C 10 H 11 N 2 O 2 + ·NO 3 − ·0.5H 2 O, crystallizes in a monoclinic unit cell with two benzimidazolium cations, two NO 3 − anions and one water mol-ecule in the asymmetric unit. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The title compound, C 10 H 12 N 2 O 2 , was prepared by the reaction of methyl carbazate and 4-methyl-benzaldehyde. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 3,4-Epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3',4'-epoxycyclohexane carboxylate (ECC), also known as ERL-4221 is a cycloaliphatic, diepoxy functional organic compound that is a useful building block in the production of semi-hard to hard cured epoxy resins that are suitable for use at high temperatures. (polysciences.com)
  • Treatment of either 6- O -benzoyl-1,2- O -isopropylidene-3- O -methyl-5- O -methyl-sulphonyl-α- D -gulofuranose (21) or the debenzoylated compound (22) with sodium methoxide afforded 5,6-an-hydro-1,2- O -isopropylidene-3- O -methyl-β- L -mannofuranose (23), which yielded L -acofriose (25) on reductive ring-opening and hydrolysis with acid. (rsc.org)
  • N -Methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate ( JB-336 ) is an anticholinergic drug related to the chemical warfare agent 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate . (rug.nl)
  • N -methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate is less potent and shorter acting than 3-quinuclidyl benzilate, but like 3-QNB its effects on the central nervous system predominate over peripheral effects. (rug.nl)
  • Takahashi K, Murakami M, Miura S, Iida H, Kanno I, Uemura K. Synthesis and autoradiographic localization of muscarinic cholinergic antagonist (+)N-[11C]methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate as a potent radioligand for positron emission tomography. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Human volunteers complained of slight throat irritation at 360mg/m 3 and of ocular and upper respiratory tract irritation after exposure at 540mg/m 3 for three to five minutes. (ilo.org)
  • Methyl mercaptan is highly irritant when it contacts moist tissues such as the eyes, skin, and upper respiratory tract. (cdc.gov)
  • Methyl isocyanate is readily absorbed through the upper respiratory tract. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, if the A-ring of an active vitamin D 3 derivative is substituted, the possible conformation of the molecule may be limited, resulting in a characteristic activity of the resulting vitamin D derivative. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In addition, a vitamin D derivative having methyl at the 3-position is described in Abstracts of the 120th Annual Meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan 2 (p. 105). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • However, no vitamin D 3 derivative has been reported in which the 3-position is substituted with methyl and the steric configuration at the 20-position is epimerized. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 17β-Nitro-5α-androstan-3α-ol and its 3β-methyl derivative: Neurosteroid analogs with potent anticonvulsant and anxiolytic activities. (rti.org)
  • Indole-3-acetic acid derivatives are compounds containing an acetic acid (or a derivative) linked to the C3 carbon atom of an indole. (hmdb.ca)
  • The object of the present invention is to synthesize vitamin D derivatives in which the 3-position is substituted with methyl and the steric configuration at the 20-position is epimerized. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The present invention relates to novel vitamin D derivatives, more particularly, relates to 3-methyl-20-epi-vitamin D derivatives, in which the steric configuration at the 20-position is not native and the 3-position is substituted with methyl. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Vitamin D derivatives including 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 are known to have many physiological activities such as calcium metabolism regulatory activities, growth inhibitory and differentiation inducing activities for tumor cells and immunoregulatory activities. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • However, some active vitamin D 3 derivatives may cause hypercalcemia during long-term and continuous administration, therefore they are not suitable for use as antitumor agents, antirheumatic agents and the like. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • For example, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 derivatives having methyl at the 2- or 4-position are described by K. Konno et al. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This invention relates to alkyl perfluoro(2-methyl-5-oxo-3-oxahexanoates) and derivatives thereof, including copolymers of certain derivatives. (google.co.uk)
  • belongs to the class of organic compounds known as indole-3-acetic acid derivatives. (hmdb.ca)
  • No. 3,321,517 discloses the preparation of the lactone perfluoro(3,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-1,4-dioxane), its hydrolysis to perfluoro(2-methyl-5-oxo-3-oxahexanoic)acid hydrate and the reaction of the hydrate with concentrated sulfuric acid to produce perfluoro(2-methyl-5-oxo-3-oxahexanoic)acid. (google.co.uk)
  • IBMX inhibits cyclic nucleotide PDE with subsequent inhibition of cyclic nucleotide hydrolysis, resulting in accumulation of cyclic AMP and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate. (mpbio.com)
  • Potentiation by oxiracetam was specific for AMPA receptor-mediated signal transduction, as the drug changed neither the stimulation of 45Ca2+ influx by kainate or N-methyl-D-aspartate nor the activation of inositol phospholipid hydrolysis elicited by quisqualate or (+-)-1-aminocyclopentane-trans-1,3-dicarboxylic acid. (nih.gov)
  • A new and convenient synthesis of 6-deoxy-3- O -methyl- D -gulose (16) has been achieved by a route involving methylation and partial hydrolysis of 1,2 : 5,6-di- O -isopropylidene-α- D -gulofuranose (9) with acid to give 1,2- O -isopropylidene-3- O -methyl-α- D -gulofuranose (11). (rsc.org)
  • The diol (11) was converted into 6-deoxy-3- O -methyl- D -gulose (16) by ring-opening of the derived epoxide (14) with lithium aluminium hydride followed by hydrolysis with acid of the 6-deoxy-1,2- O -isopropylidene-3- O -methyl-α- D -gulofuranose (15) so formed. (rsc.org)
  • The Grignard reaction between 3 bromoanisole and the appropriate Mannich base in the presence of an amine or ether additive gives the amine product in an improved trans/cis ratio. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 3. The method of claim 2 wherein a nitrogen atom of said amine is part of a heterocyclic ring. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • It is the second to last step in the synthesis of 3-methylbutanoyl-CoA and is converted from 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate via the enzyme 2-oxoisovalerate dehydrogenase [EC:1.2.4. (hmdb.ca)
  • R*,R*)-2-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-1-(3-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexanol (Tramadol) is synthesized in a Grignard reaction in the presence of an additive resulting in a higher trans:cis ratio of product than is obtained in the absence of the additive. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • (A) Diagrammatic representation of the 314 amino acid SmMBD2/3 (encoded by Smp_138180) illustrating the methyl-CpG (mCpG) binding domain (PF01429), two putative predicted bipartite nuclear localisation signals (NLS), a coiled-coil domain (CC) and a C-terminal domain of methyl CpG binding protein 2 and 3 (PF140489). (plos.org)
  • Children exposed to the same levels of methyl mercaptan as adults may receive a larger dose because they have a greater lung surface area:body weight ratios and higher minute volume:weight ratios. (cdc.gov)
  • We know that with even one dose of Methyl-1-D, you will feel the difference in your mental aggression, the strength of your lifts and even your attitude toward life, while having no side effects. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • 6-Methoxy-carbonyl-2-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-3-ium nitrate hemihyd. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Intense Research has been recently published a fresh research report- Global 2-Methyl-3(5/6)methoxy pyrazine (CAS 63450-30-6) Market - By - Manufacturers, States, Type and Application, Forecast to 2021 - By - Manufacturers, States, Type and Application, Forecast to 2021 . (beforeitsnews.com)
  • This report offers a deep examination of the 2-Methyl-3(5/6)methoxy pyrazine (CAS 63450-30-6) market for the period 2013-2023. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • As per the report, the 2-Methyl-3(5/6)methoxy pyrazine (CAS 63450-30-6) market is estimated to grow at elevated CAGR recorded in 2017. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • The towering competitive 2-Methyl-3(5/6)methoxy pyrazine (CAS 63450-30-6) market has been observing huge and whooping investments in development and research from government as well as private firms. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • The primary factors such as revenues, supply chain management, product valuation and other crucial factors are also examined in the 2-Methyl-3(5/6)methoxy pyrazine (CAS 63450-30-6) market report. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • The segmentation of 2-Methyl-3(5/6)methoxy pyrazine (CAS 63450-30-6) market has been classified into Regions, Manufacturers, Applications, and Types. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • 3-Methyl-4-octanolide, also called β-methyl-γ-octalactone or 5-butyldihydro-4-methylfuran-2-one can be any of two chemical products of the lactone family: cis-3-Methyl-4-octanolide, or "whisky lactone", the component of oak wood that imparts flavor to whisky trans-3-Methyl-4-octanolide, also found in oak wood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on these human data, the Polish Expert Group for Chemical Agents established a threshold limit value (8-hour time-weighted average) of 200mg/m 3 , and a short-term exposure limit value of 400mg/m 3 . (ilo.org)
  • Body protection must be chosen depending on activity and possible exposure, e.g. apron, protecting boots, chemical-protection suit (according to DIN-EN 465). (europa.eu)
  • Inhalation is the major route of exposure to methyl mercaptan. (cdc.gov)
  • Individuals with pre-existing respiratory, cardiac, nervous system, or liver impairment may be more susceptible to exposure to methyl mercaptan. (cdc.gov)
  • Significant dermal exposure to methyl isocyanate would not likely occur outside an occupational environment in which methyl isocyanate is stored or used. (cdc.gov)
  • FALCON closely mirrors the design of CARDINAL, our ongoing Phase 3 study of bardoxolone in Alport syndrome patients. (yahoo.com)
  • It is then converted to S-(3-methylbutanoyl)-dihydrolipoamide-E via the enzyme 2-oxoisovalerate dehydrogenase [EC:1.2.4. (hmdb.ca)