An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
A peptide that is a homopolymer of glutamic acid.
Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.
Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
A folic acid derivative used as a rodenticide that has been shown to be teratogenic.
Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.
Leukemia L1210 is a designation for a specific murine (mouse) leukemia cell line that was originally isolated from a female mouse with an induced acute myeloid leukemia, which is widely used as a model in cancer research, particularly for in vivo studies of drug efficacy and resistance.
A ubiquitously expressed folic acid transporter that functions via an antiporter mechanism which is coupled to the transport of organic phosphates.
A nonclassical folic acid inhibitor through its inhibition of the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase. It is being tested for efficacy as an antineoplastic agent and as an antiparasitic agent against PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS patients. Myelosuppression is its dose-limiting toxic effect.
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
Catalyzes the hydrolysis of pteroylpolyglutamic acids in gamma linkage to pterolylmonoglutamic acid and free glutamic acid. EC
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
The active metabolite of FOLIC ACID. Leucovorin is used principally as an antidote to FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS.
Compounds based on 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate.
Non-steroidal chemical compounds with abortifacient activity.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
A drug that is used in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Its activity is generally considered to lie in its metabolic breakdown product, 5-aminosalicylic acid (see MESALAMINE) released in the colon. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p907)
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
2'-Deoxyuridine. An antimetabolite that is converted to deoxyuridine triphosphate during DNA synthesis. Laboratory suppression of deoxyuridine is used to diagnose megaloblastic anemias due to vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies.
A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
An antimetabolite antineoplastic agent with immunosuppressant properties. It interferes with nucleic acid synthesis by inhibiting purine metabolism and is used, usually in combination with other drugs, in the treatment of or in remission maintenance programs for leukemia.
Drugs used to treat or prevent skin disorders or for the routine care of skin.
A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
Tetrahydrofolates which are substituted by a formyl group at either the nitrogen atom in the 5 position or the nitrogen atom in the 10 position. N(5)-Formyltetrahydrofolate is leukovorin (citrovorum factor) while N(10)-formyltetrahydrofolate is an active coenzyme which functions as a carrier of the formyl group in a number of enzymatic reactions.
Cell surface receptors that bind to and transport FOLIC ACID, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, and a variety of folic acid derivatives. The receptors are essential for normal NEURAL TUBE development and transport folic acid via receptor-mediated endocytosis.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide to 5-formyl-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide in the purine de novo synthesis pathway. It requires the cofactor N(10)-FORMYLTETRAHYDROFOLATE as the formyl donor.
A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)
An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the reaction 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate and dUMP to dihydrofolate and dTMP in the synthesis of thymidine triphosphate. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
A chemotherapeutic agent that acts against erythrocytic forms of malarial parasites. Hydroxychloroquine appears to concentrate in food vacuoles of affected protozoa. It inhibits plasmodial heme polymerase. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p970)
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.
The most common (>96%) type of ectopic pregnancy in which the extrauterine EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs in the FALLOPIAN TUBE, usually in the ampullary region where FERTILIZATION takes place.
Sarcoma 180 is an undifferentiated, transplantable mouse tumor model originally induced by methylcholanthrene, widely used in preclinical cancer research for evaluating efficacy of potential therapeutic agents.
Derivatives of folic acid (pteroylglutamic acid). In gamma-glutamyl linkage they are found in many tissues. They are converted to folic acid by the action of pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase or synthesized from folic acid by the action of folate polyglutamate synthetase. Synthetic pteroylpolyglutamic acids, which are in alpha-glutamyl linkage, are active in bacterial growth assays.
Azoles with an OXYGEN and a NITROGEN next to each other at the 1,2 positions, in contrast to OXAZOLES that have nitrogens at the 1,3 positions.
A common genetically determined, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by rounded erythematous, dry, scaling patches. The lesions have a predilection for nails, scalp, genitalia, extensor surfaces, and the lumbosacral region. Accelerated epidermopoiesis is considered to be the fundamental pathologic feature in psoriasis.
A hydrolase enzyme that converts L-asparagine and water to L-aspartate and NH3. EC
A group of diseases arising from pregnancy that are commonly associated with hyperplasia of trophoblasts (TROPHOBLAST) and markedly elevated human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. They include HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, invasive mole (HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, INVASIVE), placental-site trophoblastic tumor (TROPHOBLASTIC TUMOR, PLACENTAL SITE), and CHORIOCARCINOMA. These neoplasms have varying propensities for invasion and spread.
Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hydroxymethyl or formyl groups. EC 2.1.2.
The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.
An INFLAMMATION of the MUCOSA with burning or tingling sensation. It is characterized by atrophy of the squamous EPITHELIUM, vascular damage, inflammatory infiltration, and ulceration. It usually occurs at the mucous lining of the MOUTH, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the airway due to chemical irritations, CHEMOTHERAPY, or radiation therapy (RADIOTHERAPY).
Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotides with the elimination of ammonia.
A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Arthritis of children, with onset before 16 years of age. The terms juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) refer to classification systems for chronic arthritis in children. Only one subtype of juvenile arthritis (polyarticular-onset, rheumatoid factor-positive) clinically resembles adult rheumatoid arthritis and is considered its childhood equivalent.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
A type of inflammatory arthritis associated with PSORIASIS, often involving the axial joints and the peripheral terminal interphalangeal joints. It is characterized by the presence of HLA-B27-associated SPONDYLARTHROPATHY, and the absence of rheumatoid factor.
Trophoblastic growth, which may be gestational or nongestational in origin. Trophoblastic neoplasia resulting from pregnancy is often described as gestational trophoblastic disease to distinguish it from germ cell tumors which frequently show trophoblastic elements, and from the trophoblastic differentiation which sometimes occurs in a wide variety of epithelial cancers. Gestational trophoblastic growth has several forms, including HYDATIDIFORM MOLE and CHORIOCARCINOMA. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1691)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
An experimental lymphocytic leukemia of mice.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.

Electronic volume analysis of L1210 chemotherapy. (1/4604)

The rapid analysis of in vivo chemotherapy on the L1210 ascites tumor grown in C57BL/6 X DBA/2F1 mice has been shown by means of an electronic volume analysis. The drugs were injected on the 4th day of tumor growth, and the cells in the peritoneal cavity were studied at 24-hr intervals on the 5th through 7th day. Using the electronic cell volume distributions, combined with labeling indices, cell morphology, and cell counts, it was found that the alkylating agents. 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea and cyclophosphamide, at the dosages used, were more effective than the S-phase-specific drugs, palmitoyl ester of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine, vincristine, and methotrexate.  (+info)

Tissue pharmacokinetics, inhibition of DNA synthesis and tumor cell kill after high-dose methotrexate in murine tumor models. (2/4604)

In Sarcoma 180 and L1210 ascites tumor models, the initial rate of methotrexate accumulation in tumor cells in the peritoneal cavity and in small intestine (intracellularly) after s.c. doses up to 800 mg/kg, showed saturation kinetics. These results and the fact that initial uptake in these tissues within this dosage range was inhibited to the expected relative extent by the simultaneous administration of leucovorin suggest that carrier mediation and not passive diffusion is the major route of drug entry at these extremely high doses. Maximum accumulation of intracellular drug occurred within 2 hr and reached much higher levels in small intestine than in tumor cells at the higher dosages. At a 3-mg/kg dose of methotrexate s.c., intracellular exchangeable drug levels persisted more than four times longer in L1210 cells than in small intestine, but differences in persistence (L1210 cell versus gut) diminished markedly with increasing dosage. At 96 mg/kg, the difference in persistence was less than 2-fold. In small intestine and L1210 cells, theduration of inhibition of DNA synthesis at different dosages correlated with the extent to which exchangeable drug was retained. Toxic deaths occurred when inhibition in small intestine lasted longer than 25 to 30 hr. Recovery of synthesis in small intestine and L1210 cells occurred synchronously and only below dosages of 400 mg/kg. Within 24 hr after dosages of greater than 24 mg/kg, the rate of tumor cell loss increased to a point characterized by a single exponential (t1/2=8.5 hr). The total cell loss, but not the rate of cell loss, was dose dependent.  (+info)

Modulation of the cytotoxicity of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine and methotrexate after transduction of folate receptor cDNA into human cervical carcinoma: identification of a correlation between folate receptor expression and thymidine kinase activity. (3/4604)

Cervical carcinoma is an AIDS-defining illness. The expression of folate receptors (FRs) in cervical carcinoma (HeLa-IU1) cells was modulated by stable transduction of FR cDNA encapsidated in recombinant adeno-associated virus-2 in the sense and antisense orientation (sense and antisense cells, respectively). Although sense cells proliferated slower than antisense or untransduced cells in vivo and in vitro in 2% (but not 10%) FCS, [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA was significantly increased in sense cells in 10% serum; therefore, the basis for this discrepancy was investigated. The activity of thymidine kinase (TK) was subsequently directly correlated with the extent of FR expression in single cell-derived clones of transduced cells. This elevated TK activity was not a result of recruitment of the salvage pathway based on the presence of adequate dTTP pools, normal thymidylate synthase (TS) activity, persistence of increased thymidine incorporation despite the exogenous provision of excess 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate, and documentation of adequate folates in sense cells. The increase in TK activity conferred significant biological properties to sense cells (but not antisense or untransduced cells) as demonstrated by augmented phosphorylation of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) and concomitantly greater sensitivity to the cytotoxic effects of AZT. Conversely, sense cells were highly resistant to methotrexate, but this was reversed by the addition of AZT. The direct correlation of FR expression and TK activity indicates a previously unrecognized consequence of FR overexpression.  (+info)

Reduced folate carrier expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a mechanism for ploidy but not lineage differences in methotrexate accumulation. (4/4604)

Methotrexate (MTX) is one of the most active and widely used agents for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). To elucidate the mechanism for higher accumulation of MTX polyglutamates (MTX-PG) in hyperdiploid ALL and lower accumulation in T-lineage ALL, expression of the reduced folate carrier (RFC) was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in ALL blasts isolated from newly diagnosed patients. RFC expression exhibited a 60-fold range among 29 children, with significantly higher expression in hyperdiploid B-lineage ALL (median, 11.3) compared with nonhyperdiploid ALL (median, 2.1; P <.0006), but no significant difference between nonhyperdiploid B-lineage and T-lineage ALL. Furthermore, mRNA levels of RFC (mapped by FISH to chromosome 21) were significantly related to chromosome 21 copy number (P =.0013), with the highest expression in hyperdiploid ALL blasts with 4 copies of chromosome 21. To assess the functional significance of gene copy number, MTX-PG accumulation was compared in ALL blasts isolated from 121 patients treated with either low-dose MTX (LDMTX; n = 60) or high-dose MTX (HDMTX; n = 61). After LDMTX, MTX-PG accumulation was highest in hyperdiploid B-lineage ALL with 4 copies of chromosome 21 (P =.011), but MTX-PG accumulation was not significantly related to chromosome 21 copy number after HDMTX (P =.24). These data show higher RFC expression as a mechanism for greater MTX accumulation in hyperdiploid B-lineage ALL and indicate that lineage differences in MTX-PG accumulation are not due to lower RFC expression in T-lineage ALL.  (+info)

Role of folylpolyglutamate synthetase and folylpolyglutamate hydrolase in methotrexate accumulation and polyglutamylation in childhood leukemia. (5/4604)

Inefficient polyglutamylation is a mechanism of resistance to methotrexate (MTX) in childhood T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in comparison with childhood c/preB-ALL. We analyzed the profile of MTX polyglutamylation in childhood c/preB-ALL, T-ALL, and AML (n = 45, 15, and 14, respectively), the activity of the MTX-polyglutamate synthesizing enzyme folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS) (n = 39, 11, and 19, respectively) and of the MTX-polyglutamate breakdown enzyme folylpolyglutamate hydrolase (FPGH) (n = 98, 25, and 34, respectively). MTX-Glu4-6 accumulation after 24 hours exposure to 1 micromol/L [3H]-MTX in vitro was lower in T-ALL (threefold) and AML (fourfold) compared with c/preB-ALL (P +info)

Multimodality therapy for locally advanced and limited stage IV breast cancer: the impact of effective non-cross-resistance late-consolidation chemotherapy. (6/4604)

To determine the effectiveness of non-cross-resistant late-consolidation chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) and stage IV breast cancer, we review our experience with two regimens. Between 1985 and 1991, we enrolled 56 patients with LABC, who were treated with a doxorubicin-based adjuvant regimen, followed by a late-consolidation non-cross-resistant regimen containing methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, and cyclophosphamide. Between 1985 and 1996, a total of 45 patients with limited stage IV breast cancer underwent surgical excision of all evaluable disease, making them metastatic (stage IV) with no evaluable disease. Surgery was followed by a doxorubicin-containing regimen and then a late-consolidation non-cross-resistant regimen, which was either methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, cisplatinum, and cyclophosphamide or 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin. Twenty-four patients with limited bone metastases that were unresectable were treated with a doxorubicin-containing regimen, radiation therapy to all sites of disease, and then one of the two late non-cross-resistant regimens. With a median follow-up of 84 months, 78% of patients with LABC are alive, and 68% are free of disease. After a median follow-up of 44 months, 53% of patients with stage IV with no evaluable disease are alive and free of disease. The use of non-cross-resistant late-consolidation chemotherapy is an effective strategy in the treatment of patients with LABC and selected patients with limited stage IV breast cancer.  (+info)

High dose chemotherapy with busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and etoposide as conditioning regimen for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for patients with acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission. (7/4604)

We explored the combination of busulfan/cyclophosphamide/etoposide as conditioning regimen prior to bone marrow transplantation in 31 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission. The preparative regimen consisted of 16 mg/kg busulfan, 30-60 mg/kg VP-16, and 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide. With a median follow-up of 30.5 months (range, 5-60 months), 25 patients are alive in continuous complete remission. Estimated disease-free survival at 5 years is 80.5%. Death was due to transplant-related toxicity (graft-versus-host disease and cytomegalovirus infection, graft-versus-host disease and pneumonia, sepsis and mucositis, respectively). None of the patients have relapsed. As demonstrated by the results of this analysis, the conditioning regimen busulfan/cyclophosphamide/etoposide is effective and well tolerated in patients with AML in first complete remission. Main nonhematological toxicities were mucositis and hepatotoxicity. The low mortality and relapse rate appears to justify allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for patients with AML in first complete remission who have an HLA-identical donor. Whether this regimen offers a substantial improvement in disease-free and overall survival over presently used regimens warrants further investigation.  (+info)

The effectiveness of non-surgical management of early interstitial pregnancy: a report of ten cases and review of the literature. (8/4604)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of non-surgical management of interstitial pregnancy. DESIGN: A prospective interventional study. SUBJECTS: Eleven women with the ultrasound diagnosis of interstitial ectopic pregnancy. METHODS: Women with suspected early pregnancy complications were examined by transvaginal ultrasound. Those with the diagnosis of interstitial pregnancy were offered non-surgical treatment with methotrexate, which was administered systemically or by local injection. Follow-up with regular measurements of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and ultrasound scans continued until the pregnancy had resolved completely. RESULTS: Ten women were managed non-surgically, and one woman opted for surgery. Five women received systemic and five local methotrexate. Local therapy was successful in all five cases (100%), whereas four out of five (80%) women receiving systemic methotrexate were cured. Significant side-effects were noted in two women following systemic therapy. In comparison, there were no side-effects in the group of women who received local therapy. There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups in the length of time taken for the pregnancy to resolve. CONCLUSIONS: Non-surgical treatment of interstitial pregnancy with methotrexate appears to be safe and effective. Local administration appears to be more successful and better tolerated by patients and may be used as the first-line therapy.  (+info)

Methotrexate is a medication used in the treatment of certain types of cancer and autoimmune diseases. It is an antimetabolite that inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, which is necessary for the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines, essential components of DNA and RNA. By blocking this enzyme, methotrexate interferes with cell division and growth, making it effective in treating rapidly dividing cells such as cancer cells.

In addition to its use in cancer treatment, methotrexate is also used to manage autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease. In these conditions, methotrexate modulates the immune system and reduces inflammation.

It's important to note that methotrexate can have significant side effects and should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider. Regular monitoring of blood counts, liver function, and kidney function is necessary during treatment with methotrexate.

Polyglutamic acid (PGA) is not a medical term per se, but it is a term used in biochemistry and cosmetics. Medically, it may be mentioned in the context of certain medical conditions or treatments. Here's a definition:

Polyglutamic acid is a polymer of glutamic acid, a type of amino acid. It is a natural substance found in various foods such as natto, a traditional Japanese fermented soybean dish. In the human body, it is produced by certain bacteria during fermentation processes.

PGA has been studied for its potential medical applications due to its unique properties, including its ability to retain moisture and form gels. It has been explored as a wound dressing material, drug delivery vehicle, and anti-aging cosmetic ingredient. However, it is not a widely used or recognized medical treatment at this time.

Antirheumatic agents are a class of drugs used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, other inflammatory types of arthritis, and related conditions. These medications work by reducing inflammation in the body, relieving symptoms such as pain, swelling, and stiffness in the joints. They can also help slow down or prevent joint damage and disability caused by the disease.

There are several types of antirheumatic agents, including:

1. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): These medications, such as ibuprofen and naproxen, reduce inflammation and relieve pain. They are often used to treat mild to moderate symptoms of arthritis.
2. Corticosteroids: These powerful anti-inflammatory drugs, such as prednisone and cortisone, can quickly reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system. They are usually used for short-term relief of severe symptoms or in combination with other antirheumatic agents.
3. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs): These medications, such as methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine, work by slowing down the progression of rheumatoid arthritis and preventing joint damage. They can take several weeks or months to become fully effective.
4. Biologic response modifiers (biologics): These are a newer class of DMARDs that target specific molecules involved in the immune response. They include drugs such as adalimumab, etanercept, and infliximab. Biologics are usually used in combination with other antirheumatic agents for patients who have not responded to traditional DMARD therapy.
5. Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors: These medications, such as tofacitinib and baricitinib, work by blocking the action of enzymes called JAKs that are involved in the immune response. They are used to treat moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis and can be used in combination with other antirheumatic agents.

It is important to note that antirheumatic agents can have significant side effects and should only be prescribed by a healthcare provider who is experienced in the management of rheumatoid arthritis. Regular monitoring and follow-up are essential to ensure safe and effective treatment.

Folic acid antagonists are a class of medications that work by inhibiting the action of folic acid or its metabolic pathways. These drugs are commonly used in the treatment of various types of cancer and certain other conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis. They include drugs such as methotrexate, pemetrexed, and trimetrexate.

Folic acid is a type of B vitamin that is essential for the production of DNA and RNA, the genetic material found in cells. Folic acid antagonists work by interfering with the enzyme responsible for converting folic acid into its active form, tetrahydrofolate. This interference prevents the formation of new DNA and RNA, which is necessary for cell division and growth. As a result, these drugs can inhibit the proliferation of rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells.

It's important to note that folic acid antagonists can also affect normal, non-cancerous cells in the body, particularly those that divide quickly, such as cells in the bone marrow and digestive tract. This can lead to side effects such as anemia, mouth sores, and diarrhea. Therefore, these drugs must be used carefully and under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (EC is an enzyme involved in folate metabolism. The enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of tetrahydrofolate (THF) to dihydrofolate (DHF), while simultaneously reducing NADP+ to NADPH.

The reaction can be summarized as follows:


This enzyme plays a crucial role in the synthesis of purines and thymidylate, which are essential components of DNA and RNA. Therefore, any defects or deficiencies in tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase can lead to various medical conditions, including megaloblastic anemia and neural tube defects during fetal development.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease that primarily affects the joints. It is characterized by persistent inflammation, synovial hyperplasia, and subsequent damage to the articular cartilage and bone. The immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own tissues, specifically targeting the synovial membrane lining the joint capsule. This results in swelling, pain, warmth, and stiffness in affected joints, often most severely in the hands and feet.

RA can also have extra-articular manifestations, affecting other organs such as the lungs, heart, skin, eyes, and blood vessels. The exact cause of RA remains unknown, but it is believed to involve a complex interplay between genetic susceptibility and environmental triggers. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial in managing rheumatoid arthritis to prevent joint damage, disability, and systemic complications.

Aminopterin is a type of anti-folate drug that is primarily used in cancer treatment and research. It works by inhibiting the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, which is necessary for the synthesis of nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA and RNA. By blocking this enzyme, aminopterin prevents the growth and multiplication of cancer cells.

In addition to its use in cancer treatment, aminopterin has also been used in experimental studies to investigate the role of folate metabolism in various biological processes, including embryonic development and immune function. However, due to its potent anti-proliferative effects, the use of aminopterin is limited to specialized medical and research settings, and it is not commonly used as a therapeutic agent in clinical practice.

Antimetabolites are a class of antineoplastic (chemotherapy) drugs that interfere with the metabolism of cancer cells and inhibit their growth and proliferation. These agents are structurally similar to naturally occurring metabolites, such as amino acids, nucleotides, and folic acid, which are essential for cellular replication and growth. Antimetabolites act as false analogs and get incorporated into the growing cells' DNA or RNA, causing disruption of the normal synthesis process, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Examples of antimetabolite drugs include:

1. Folate antagonists: Methotrexate, Pemetrexed
2. Purine analogs: Mercaptopurine, Thioguanine, Fludarabine, Cladribine
3. Pyrimidine analogs: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), Capecitabine, Cytarabine, Gemcitabine

These drugs are used to treat various types of cancers, such as leukemias, lymphomas, breast, ovarian, and gastrointestinal cancers. Due to their mechanism of action, antimetabolites can also affect normal, rapidly dividing cells in the body, leading to side effects like myelosuppression (decreased production of blood cells), mucositis (inflammation and ulceration of the gastrointestinal tract), and alopecia (hair loss).

Leukemia L1210 is not a medical definition itself, but it refers to a specific mouse leukemia cell line that was established in 1948. These cells are a type of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and have been widely used in cancer research as a model for studying the disease, testing new therapies, and understanding the biology of leukemia. The L1210 cell line has contributed significantly to the development of various chemotherapeutic agents and treatment strategies for leukemia and other cancers.

The Reduced Folate Carrier Protein (RFC) is also known as the Folate Receptor Alpha (FR-α). It is a transmembrane protein responsible for the cellular influx of reduced folates, which are essential cofactors in various metabolic processes, particularly DNA synthesis and methylation. These processes are vital for cell growth, division, and development.

Reduced Folate Carrier Protein is widely expressed in many tissues, including the kidneys, liver, intestines, and choroid plexus. It plays a crucial role in maintaining intracellular folate homeostasis by facilitating the uptake of reduced folates from circulation into cells.

Dysfunctions or mutations in the RFC gene can lead to impaired folate transport, which may result in various clinical manifestations, such as megaloblastic anemia and neurological disorders. Proper folate status is essential for overall health, particularly during pregnancy and fetal development, as it helps prevent neural tube defects in newborns.

Trimetrexate is a antifolate drug, which means it interferes with the use of folic acid in the body. It is primarily used in the treatment of certain types of cancer and parasitic infections. Trimetrexate works by blocking the action of an enzyme called dihydrofolate reductase, which is necessary for the production of DNA and RNA, the genetic material found in cells. By inhibiting this enzyme, trimetrexate can help to stop the growth and multiplication of cancer cells or parasites.

In medical terms, Trimetrexate is classified as an antineoplastic agent and an antiprotozoal agent. It may be used to treat certain types of cancer such as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and it may also be used to treat parasitic infections caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii (formerly known as Pneumocystis carinii) in patients with weakened immune systems.

It is important to note that Trimetrexate can have significant side effects and should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Folic acid is the synthetic form of folate, a type of B vitamin (B9). It is widely used in dietary supplements and fortified foods because it is more stable and has a longer shelf life than folate. Folate is essential for normal cell growth and metabolism, and it plays a critical role in the formation of DNA and RNA, the body's genetic material. Folic acid is also crucial during early pregnancy to prevent birth defects of the brain and spine called neural tube defects.

Medical Definition: "Folic acid is the synthetic form of folate (vitamin B9), a water-soluble vitamin involved in DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation. It is used in dietary supplementation and food fortification due to its stability and longer shelf life compared to folate. Folic acid is critical for normal cell growth, development, and red blood cell production."

Gamma-glutamyl hydrolase (GGH) is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of certain amino acids, specifically glutathione and its related compounds. Glutathione is a tripeptide consisting of cysteine, glutamic acid, and glycine, and it functions as an important antioxidant in the body.

GGH catalyzes the hydrolysis of the gamma-glutamyl bond in glutathione and its related compounds, releasing free glutamate and a dipeptide. This reaction is an essential step in the recycling of these amino acids and the synthesis of new glutathione molecules.

A deficiency in GGH activity has been associated with several diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders and cancer. Inhibitors of GGH have also been investigated as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of certain cancers, as they may help to reduce the levels of glutathione and enhance the effectiveness of chemotherapy drugs.

Combination drug therapy is a treatment approach that involves the use of multiple medications with different mechanisms of action to achieve better therapeutic outcomes. This approach is often used in the management of complex medical conditions such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, and cardiovascular diseases. The goal of combination drug therapy is to improve efficacy, reduce the risk of drug resistance, decrease the likelihood of adverse effects, and enhance the overall quality of life for patients.

In combining drugs, healthcare providers aim to target various pathways involved in the disease process, which may help to:

1. Increase the effectiveness of treatment by attacking the disease from multiple angles.
2. Decrease the dosage of individual medications, reducing the risk and severity of side effects.
3. Slow down or prevent the development of drug resistance, a common problem in chronic diseases like HIV/AIDS and cancer.
4. Improve patient compliance by simplifying dosing schedules and reducing pill burden.

Examples of combination drug therapy include:

1. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV treatment, which typically involves three or more drugs from different classes to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
2. Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where multiple cytotoxic agents are used to target various stages of the cell cycle and reduce the likelihood of tumor cells developing resistance.
3. Cardiovascular disease management, which may involve combining medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, diuretics, and statins to control blood pressure, heart rate, fluid balance, and cholesterol levels.
4. Treatment of tuberculosis, which often involves a combination of several antibiotics to target different aspects of the bacterial life cycle and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

When prescribing combination drug therapy, healthcare providers must carefully consider factors such as potential drug interactions, dosing schedules, adverse effects, and contraindications to ensure safe and effective treatment. Regular monitoring of patients is essential to assess treatment response, manage side effects, and adjust the treatment plan as needed.

Leucovorin is the pharmaceutical name for a form of folic acid, also known as folinic acid. It is used in medicine as a medication to reduce the toxic effects of certain chemotherapy drugs, such as methotrexate, that work by blocking the action of folic acid in the body. Leucovorin is able to bypass this blockage and restore some of the necessary functions of folic acid, helping to prevent or reduce the severity of side effects like nausea, vomiting, and damage to the mucous membranes.

Leucovorin may also be used in combination with fluorouracil chemotherapy to enhance its effectiveness in treating certain types of cancer. It is important to note that leucovorin should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can interact with other medications and have potentially serious side effects if not used properly.

Tetrahydrofolates (THFs) are a type of folate, which is a form of vitamin B9. Folate is essential for the production and maintenance of new cells, especially in DNA synthesis and methylation. THFs are the active forms of folate in the body and are involved in various metabolic processes, including:

1. The conversion of homocysteine to methionine, an amino acid required for protein synthesis and the formation of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a major methyl donor in the body.
2. The transfer of one-carbon units in various metabolic reactions, such as the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines, which are essential components of DNA and RNA.
3. The remethylation of homocysteine to methionine, a process that helps maintain normal homocysteine levels in the body. Elevated homocysteine levels have been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

THFs can be obtained from dietary sources, such as leafy green vegetables, legumes, and fortified cereals. They can also be synthesized endogenously in the body through the action of the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), which reduces dihydrofolate (DHF) to THF using NADPH as a cofactor.

Deficiencies in folate or impaired THF metabolism can lead to various health issues, including megaloblastic anemia, neural tube defects during fetal development, and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease due to elevated homocysteine levels.

Non-steroidal abortifacient agents are medications or substances that can cause abortion by interfering with the normal functioning of the hormones in the reproductive system. These agents do not contain steroids and work primarily by preventing the implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus or by causing the shedding of the uterine lining, leading to the termination of an early pregnancy.

Examples of non-steroidal abortifacient agents include:

1. Mifepristone (RU-486): This medication works by blocking the action of progesterone, a hormone necessary for maintaining pregnancy. When used in combination with another medication called misoprostol, it can cause an abortion during the early stages of pregnancy.
2. Misoprostol: This medication is primarily used to prevent and treat stomach ulcers but can also be used as an abortifacient agent. It causes uterine contractions and cervical dilation, leading to the expulsion of the contents of the uterus.
3. High-dose estrogen and progestin: These hormones can interfere with the normal functioning of the reproductive system and cause an early abortion when taken in high doses.
4. Herbal remedies: Certain herbs, such as pennyroyal, tansy, and savin, have been used traditionally as abortifacient agents. However, their effectiveness and safety are not well-established, and they can cause serious side effects or even death when taken in large quantities.

It is important to note that the use of non-steroidal abortifacient agents for the purpose of inducing an abortion should only be done under the supervision of a licensed healthcare provider, as there are potential risks and complications associated with their use. Additionally, some of these agents may be restricted or illegal in certain jurisdictions, so it is essential to comply with local laws and regulations regarding their use.

Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent, which is a type of chemotherapy medication. It works by interfering with the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. This helps to stop the spread of cancer in the body. Cyclophosphamide is used to treat various types of cancer, including lymphoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma, and breast cancer. It can be given orally as a tablet or intravenously as an injection.

Cyclophosphamide can also have immunosuppressive effects, which means it can suppress the activity of the immune system. This makes it useful in treating certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. However, this immunosuppression can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects.

Like all chemotherapy medications, cyclophosphamide can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and increased susceptibility to infections. It is important for patients receiving cyclophosphamide to be closely monitored by their healthcare team to manage these side effects and ensure the medication is working effectively.

Drug resistance, also known as antimicrobial resistance, is the ability of a microorganism (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand the effects of a drug that was originally designed to inhibit or kill it. This occurs when the microorganism undergoes genetic changes that allow it to survive in the presence of the drug. As a result, the drug becomes less effective or even completely ineffective at treating infections caused by these resistant organisms.

Drug resistance can develop through various mechanisms, including mutations in the genes responsible for producing the target protein of the drug, alteration of the drug's target site, modification or destruction of the drug by enzymes produced by the microorganism, and active efflux of the drug from the cell.

The emergence and spread of drug-resistant microorganisms pose significant challenges in medical treatment, as they can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. The overuse and misuse of antimicrobial agents, as well as poor infection control practices, contribute to the development and dissemination of drug-resistant strains. To address this issue, it is crucial to promote prudent use of antimicrobials, enhance surveillance and monitoring of resistance patterns, invest in research and development of new antimicrobial agents, and strengthen infection prevention and control measures.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols refer to a treatment plan for cancer that involves the use of more than one antineoplastic (chemotherapy) drug given in a specific sequence and schedule. The combination of drugs is used because they may work better together to destroy cancer cells compared to using a single agent alone. This approach can also help to reduce the likelihood of cancer cells becoming resistant to the treatment.

The choice of drugs, dose, duration, and frequency are determined by various factors such as the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and potential side effects. Combination chemotherapy protocols can be used in various settings, including as a primary treatment, adjuvant therapy (given after surgery or radiation to kill any remaining cancer cells), neoadjuvant therapy (given before surgery or radiation to shrink the tumor), or palliative care (to alleviate symptoms and prolong survival).

It is important to note that while combined chemotherapy protocols can be effective in treating certain types of cancer, they can also cause significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and an increased risk of infection. Therefore, patients undergoing such treatment should be closely monitored and managed by a healthcare team experienced in administering chemotherapy.

Immunosuppressive agents are medications that decrease the activity of the immune system. They are often used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs and to treat autoimmune diseases, where the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own tissues. These drugs work by interfering with the immune system's normal responses, which helps to reduce inflammation and damage to tissues. However, because they suppress the immune system, people who take immunosuppressive agents are at increased risk for infections and other complications. Examples of immunosuppressive agents include corticosteroids, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, and sirolimus.

Sulfasalazine is defined as a medication that is commonly used to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. It is also used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Sulfasalazine has an anti-inflammatory effect, which helps to reduce inflammation in the gut or joints.

The medication contains two components: sulfapyridine and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). The sulfapyridine component is an antibiotic that may help to reduce the number of harmful bacteria in the gut, while the 5-ASA component is responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect.

Sulfasalazine works by being broken down into its two components after it is ingested. The 5-ASA component then acts directly on the lining of the gut to reduce inflammation, while the sulfapyridine component is absorbed into the bloodstream and excreted in the urine.

Common side effects of sulfasalazine include nausea, vomiting, heartburn, headache, and loss of appetite. Less common but more serious side effects may include allergic reactions, liver or kidney problems, and blood disorders. It is important to take sulfasalazine exactly as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any concerning symptoms promptly.

Vincristine is an antineoplastic agent, specifically a vinca alkaloid. It is derived from the Madagascar periwinkle plant (Catharanthus roseus). Vincristine binds to tubulin, a protein found in microtubules, and inhibits their polymerization, which results in disruption of mitotic spindles leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death). It is used in the treatment of various types of cancer including leukemias, lymphomas, and solid tumors. Common side effects include peripheral neuropathy, constipation, and alopecia.

Deoxyuridine is a chemical compound that is a component of DNA. It is a nucleoside, which means it consists of a sugar (deoxyribose) linked to a nitrogenous base (uracil). In the case of deoxyuridine, the uracil is not methylated, which differentiates it from thymidine.

Deoxyuridine can be converted into deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) by the enzyme thymidine kinase. The dUMP can then be converted into deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP), which is a building block of DNA, through a series of reactions involving other enzymes.

Deoxyuridine has been used in research and medicine as a marker for DNA synthesis and repair. It can also be used to inhibit the growth of certain types of cells, such as cancer cells, by disrupting their DNA synthesis.

Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma (previously known as Precursor T-lymphoblastic Leukemia/Lymphoma) is a type of cancer that affects the early stages of T-cell development. It is a subtype of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which is characterized by the overproduction of immature white blood cells called lymphoblasts in the bone marrow, blood, and other organs.

In Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma, these abnormal lymphoblasts accumulate primarily in the lymphoid tissues such as the thymus and lymph nodes, leading to the enlargement of these organs. This subtype is more aggressive than other forms of ALL and has a higher risk of spreading to the central nervous system (CNS).

The medical definition of Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma includes:

1. A malignant neoplasm of immature T-cell precursors, also known as lymphoblasts.
2. Characterized by the proliferation and accumulation of these abnormal cells in the bone marrow, blood, and lymphoid tissues such as the thymus and lymph nodes.
3. Often associated with chromosomal abnormalities, genetic mutations, or aberrant gene expression that contribute to its aggressive behavior and poor prognosis.
4. Typically presents with symptoms related to bone marrow failure (anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia), lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes), hepatosplenomegaly (enlarged liver and spleen), and potential CNS involvement.
5. Diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and laboratory tests, including bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, immunophenotyping, cytogenetic analysis, and molecular genetic testing.
6. Treated with intensive multi-agent chemotherapy regimens, often combined with radiation therapy and/or stem cell transplantation to achieve remission and improve survival outcomes.

A "Drug Administration Schedule" refers to the plan for when and how a medication should be given to a patient. It includes details such as the dose, frequency (how often it should be taken), route (how it should be administered, such as orally, intravenously, etc.), and duration (how long it should be taken) of the medication. This schedule is often created and prescribed by healthcare professionals, such as doctors or pharmacists, to ensure that the medication is taken safely and effectively. It may also include instructions for missed doses or changes in the dosage.

6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP) is a medication used primarily in the treatment of cancer, specifically acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and to prevent rejection in organ transplantation. It is an antimetabolite that works by interfering with the synthesis of DNA and RNA, thereby inhibiting cell division and growth.

6-MP is a prodrug, meaning it requires metabolic activation in the body to exert its therapeutic effects. Once absorbed, 6-MP is converted into several active metabolites, including thioguanine nucleotides (TGN), which are incorporated into DNA and RNA, leading to cytotoxicity and cell death.

Common side effects of 6-MP include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, mouth sores, and increased susceptibility to infections. Long-term use of the medication can also lead to liver toxicity, pancreatitis, and anemia. Regular monitoring of blood counts, liver function tests, and TGN levels is necessary during treatment with 6-MP to minimize potential side effects and ensure safe and effective dosing.

Dermatologic agents are medications, chemicals, or other substances that are applied to the skin (dermis) for therapeutic or cosmetic purposes. They can be used to treat various skin conditions such as acne, eczema, psoriasis, fungal infections, and wounds. Dermatologic agents include topical corticosteroids, antibiotics, antifungals, retinoids, benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, and many others. They can come in various forms such as creams, ointments, gels, lotions, solutions, and patches. It is important to follow the instructions for use carefully to ensure safety and effectiveness.

Ectopic pregnancy is a type of abnormal pregnancy that occurs outside the uterine cavity. The most common site for an ectopic pregnancy is the fallopian tube, accounting for about 95% of cases. This condition is also known as tubal pregnancy. Other less common sites include the ovary, cervix, and abdominal cavity.

In a normal pregnancy, the fertilized egg travels down the fallopian tube and implants itself in the lining of the uterus. However, in an ectopic pregnancy, the fertilized egg implants and starts to develop somewhere other than the uterus. The growing embryo cannot survive outside the uterus, and if left untreated, an ectopic pregnancy can cause life-threatening bleeding due to the rupture of the fallopian tube or other organs.

Symptoms of ectopic pregnancy may include abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, shoulder pain, lightheadedness, fainting, and in severe cases, shock. Diagnosis is usually made through a combination of medical history, physical examination, ultrasound, and blood tests to measure the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced during pregnancy.

Treatment for ectopic pregnancy depends on several factors, including the location, size, and growth rate of the ectopic mass, as well as the patient's overall health and desire for future pregnancies. Treatment options may include medication to stop the growth of the embryo or surgery to remove the ectopic tissue. In some cases, both methods may be used together. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent serious complications and improve the chances of preserving fertility in future pregnancies.

Fluorouracil is a antineoplastic medication, which means it is used to treat cancer. It is a type of chemotherapy drug known as an antimetabolite. Fluorouracil works by interfering with the growth of cancer cells and ultimately killing them. It is often used to treat colon, esophageal, stomach, and breast cancers, as well as skin conditions such as actinic keratosis and superficial basal cell carcinoma. Fluorouracil may be given by injection or applied directly to the skin in the form of a cream.

It is important to note that fluorouracil can have serious side effects, including suppression of bone marrow function, mouth sores, stomach and intestinal ulcers, and nerve damage. It should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

Formyltetrahydrofolates are a type of folate coenzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of amino acids and nucleotides. They are formed from tetrahydrofolate, a reduced form of folic acid, by the addition of a one-carbon unit in the form of a formyl group (CHO). This process is catalyzed by the enzyme formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase.

Formyltetrahydrofolates are involved in several important metabolic pathways, including the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines, which are essential components of DNA and RNA. They also play a role in the methionine cycle, which is involved in the synthesis of various essential molecules such as neurotransmitters, phospholipids, and methyl groups required for DNA methylation.

Deficiencies in formyltetrahydrofolates or their precursors can lead to a variety of health problems, including megaloblastic anemia, neural tube defects, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, it is important to ensure adequate intake of folate-rich foods or supplements, especially during pregnancy and in individuals with certain genetic polymorphisms that affect folate metabolism.

Folate receptors (FRs) are a group of cell surface proteins that bind and transport folate (vitamin B9) into cells. The subtype referred to as "GPI-anchored" refers to the type of anchoring that these receptors have in the cell membrane.

GPI stands for glycosylphosphatidylinositol, which is a molecule that acts as an anchor for certain proteins in the cell membrane. GPI-anchored folate receptors are attached to the outer layer of the cell membrane through this GPI anchor, rather than being embedded within the membrane like many other proteins.

GPI-anchored folate receptors are found on various types of cells, including some cancer cells, and they play a role in the uptake of folate into those cells. Folate is an essential nutrient that plays a critical role in DNA synthesis and methylation, among other processes. Abnormalities in folate metabolism have been linked to various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Doxorubicin is a type of chemotherapy medication known as an anthracycline. It works by interfering with the DNA in cancer cells, which prevents them from growing and multiplying. Doxorubicin is used to treat a wide variety of cancers, including leukemia, lymphoma, breast cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, and many others. It may be given alone or in combination with other chemotherapy drugs.

Doxorubicin is usually administered through a vein (intravenously) and can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, mouth sores, and increased risk of infection. It can also cause damage to the heart muscle, which can lead to heart failure in some cases. For this reason, doctors may monitor patients' heart function closely while they are receiving doxorubicin treatment.

It is important for patients to discuss the potential risks and benefits of doxorubicin therapy with their healthcare provider before starting treatment.

Phosphoribosylaminoimidazolecarboxamide formyltransferase (AIRFT) is an enzyme involved in the purine nucleotide biosynthesis pathway. The systematic medical name for this enzyme is "phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxamide formyltransferase, IMP cyclohydrolase, and GMP synthase."

The primary function of AIRFT is to catalyze the conversion of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) to formylated AICAR (FAICAR), which is an essential step in the synthesis of inosine monophosphate (IMP). IMP is a key precursor for the biosynthesis of both adenine and guanine nucleotides.

The enzyme's activity can be measured by determining the rate of conversion of AICAR to FAICAR, which requires the presence of 10-formyltetrahydrofolate (10-Formyl-THF) as a cofactor. Deficiency in this enzyme can lead to impaired purine synthesis and may result in various clinical manifestations such as developmental delay, neurological symptoms, and immunodeficiency.

Osteosarcoma is defined as a type of cancerous tumor that arises from the cells that form bones (osteoblasts). It's the most common primary bone cancer, and it typically develops in the long bones of the body, such as the arms or legs, near the growth plates. Osteosarcoma can metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body, including the lungs, making it a highly malignant form of cancer. Symptoms may include bone pain, swelling, and fractures. Treatment usually involves a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy.

Spinal injections, also known as epidural injections or intrathecal injections, are medical procedures involving the injection of medications directly into the spinal canal. The medication is usually delivered into the space surrounding the spinal cord (the epidural space) or into the cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds and protects the spinal cord (the subarachnoid space).

The medications used in spinal injections can include local anesthetics, steroids, opioids, or a combination of these. The purpose of spinal injections is to provide diagnostic information, therapeutic relief, or both. They are commonly used to treat various conditions affecting the spine, such as radicular pain (pain that radiates down the arms or legs), disc herniation, spinal stenosis, and degenerative disc disease.

Spinal injections can be administered using different techniques, including fluoroscopy-guided injections, computed tomography (CT) scan-guided injections, or with the help of a nerve stimulator. These techniques ensure accurate placement of the medication and minimize the risk of complications.

It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for specific information regarding spinal injections and their potential benefits and risks.

Prednisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid, which is a type of corticosteroid hormone. It is primarily used to reduce inflammation in various conditions such as asthma, allergies, arthritis, and autoimmune disorders. Prednisone works by mimicking the effects of natural hormones produced by the adrenal glands, suppressing the immune system's response and reducing the release of substances that cause inflammation.

It is available in oral tablet form and is typically prescribed to be taken at specific times during the day, depending on the condition being treated. Common side effects of prednisone include increased appetite, weight gain, mood changes, insomnia, and easy bruising. Long-term use or high doses can lead to more serious side effects such as osteoporosis, diabetes, cataracts, and increased susceptibility to infections.

Healthcare providers closely monitor patients taking prednisone for extended periods to minimize the risk of adverse effects. It is essential to follow the prescribed dosage regimen and not discontinue the medication abruptly without medical supervision, as this can lead to withdrawal symptoms or a rebound of the underlying condition.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Cytarabine is a chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of various types of cancer, including leukemias and lymphomas. Its chemical name is cytosine arabinoside, and it works by interfering with the DNA synthesis of cancer cells, which ultimately leads to their death.

Cytarabine is often used in combination with other chemotherapy drugs and may be administered through various routes, such as intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous injection, or orally. The specific dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as the patient's overall health status.

Like all chemotherapy drugs, cytarabine can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hair loss, and an increased risk of infection. It may also cause more serious side effects, such as damage to the liver, kidneys, or nervous system, and it is important for patients to be closely monitored during treatment to minimize these risks.

It's important to note that medical treatments should only be administered under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, and this information should not be used as a substitute for medical advice.

Thymidylate synthase (TS) is an essential enzyme in the metabolic pathway for DNA synthesis and repair. It catalyzes the conversion of deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) to deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP), which is a crucial building block for DNA replication and repair. This reaction also involves the methylation of dUMP using a methyl group donated by N5,N10-methylenetetrahydrofolate, resulting in the formation of dihydrofolate as a byproduct. The regeneration of dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate is necessary for TS to continue functioning, making it dependent on the folate cycle. Thymidylate synthase inhibitors are used in cancer chemotherapy to interfere with DNA synthesis and replication, leading to cytotoxic effects in rapidly dividing cells.

Leukemia, lymphoid is a type of cancer that affects the lymphoid cells, which are a vital part of the body's immune system. It is characterized by the uncontrolled production of abnormal white blood cells (leukocytes or WBCs) in the bone marrow, specifically the lymphocytes. These abnormal lymphocytes accumulate and interfere with the production of normal blood cells, leading to a decrease in red blood cells (anemia), platelets (thrombocytopenia), and healthy white blood cells (leukopenia).

There are two main types of lymphoid leukemia: acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Acute lymphoblastic leukemia progresses rapidly, while chronic lymphocytic leukemia has a slower onset and progression.

Symptoms of lymphoid leukemia may include fatigue, frequent infections, easy bruising or bleeding, weight loss, swollen lymph nodes, and bone pain. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and individual patient factors but often involve chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, or stem cell transplantation.

Hydroxychloroquine is an antimalarial and autoimmune disease medication. It's primarily used to prevent or treat malaria, a disease caused by parasites that enter the body through the bites of infected mosquitoes. It works by killing the malaria parasite in the red blood cells of the human body.

In addition, hydroxychloroquine is also used to treat autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. In these conditions, the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissues, causing inflammation and damage. Hydroxychloroquine helps to regulate the immune system and reduce inflammation.

It is important to note that while hydroxychloroquine has been studied as a potential treatment for COVID-19, current evidence does not support its use outside of a clinical trial setting due to lack of efficacy and potential for harm.

Central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms refer to a group of abnormal growths or tumors that develop within the brain or spinal cord. These tumors can be benign or malignant, and their growth can compress or disrupt the normal functioning of surrounding brain or spinal cord tissue.

Benign CNS neoplasms are slow-growing and rarely spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause significant problems if they grow large enough to put pressure on vital structures within the brain or spinal cord. Malignant CNS neoplasms, on the other hand, are aggressive tumors that can invade and destroy surrounding tissue. They may also spread to other parts of the CNS or, rarely, to other organs in the body.

CNS neoplasms can arise from various types of cells within the brain or spinal cord, including nerve cells, glial cells (which provide support and insulation for nerve cells), and supportive tissues such as blood vessels. The specific type of CNS neoplasm is often used to help guide treatment decisions and determine prognosis.

Symptoms of CNS neoplasms can vary widely depending on the location and size of the tumor, but may include headaches, seizures, weakness or paralysis, vision or hearing changes, balance problems, memory loss, and changes in behavior or personality. Treatment options for CNS neoplasms may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Tubal pregnancy, also known as an ectopic pregnancy, is a type of pregnancy that occurs outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube. The fertilized egg implants and starts to develop in the tube instead of the uterine lining. This condition is not viable and can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

The symptoms of a tubal pregnancy may include abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, shoulder pain, dizziness or fainting, and pelvic discomfort or tenderness. If you suspect that you have a tubal pregnancy, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment options for tubal pregnancies include medication or surgery to remove the embryo and repair or remove the affected fallopian tube.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sarcoma 180" is not a recognized medical term or an official classification of sarcomas in humans. It appears to be a term used primarily in research involving mice. Sarcoma 180 is a transplantable tumor that was first isolated from a mouse and has been used as a model for cancer research, particularly in studies involving immunotherapy and cancer treatment.

In general, sarcomas are cancers that develop from connective tissues such as bones, muscles, tendons, cartilages, nerves, and blood vessels. They can be further classified into various subtypes based on the specific type of tissue they originate from and their genetic characteristics. If you have any concerns about a specific medical condition or term, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional for accurate information.

Pteroylpolyglutamic acids are forms of folic acid that are composed of multiple glutamic acid molecules linked together in a chain. This compound is also known as polyglutamated folate or folylpolyglutamates. The length of the glutamic acid chain can vary, and these compounds are often found naturally in foods such as leafy green vegetables, fruits, and dried beans.

In the body, pteroylpolyglutamic acids must be converted to the active form of folate, called tetrahydrofolate, before they can participate in various metabolic processes, including DNA synthesis and methylation reactions. Some people may have difficulty absorbing or converting these compounds due to genetic factors or certain medical conditions, which can lead to folate deficiency and related health problems.

It's worth noting that supplemental forms of folic acid are typically in the form of a single glutamate molecule (pteroylmonoglutamic acid) and may not be as effective at raising folate levels in the body as the polyglutamated forms found in food. However, the monoglutamate form is more easily absorbed and utilized by the body, making it a common choice for supplementation.

Isoxazoles are not a medical term, but a chemical compound. They are organic compounds containing a five-membered ring consisting of one nitrogen atom, one oxygen atom, and three carbon atoms. Isoxazoles have various applications in the pharmaceutical industry as they can be used to synthesize different drugs. Some isoxazole derivatives have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects. However, isoxazoles themselves are not a medical diagnosis or treatment.

Psoriasis is a chronic skin disorder that is characterized by recurrent episodes of red, scaly patches on the skin. The scales are typically silvery-white and often occur on the elbows, knees, scalp, and lower back, but they can appear anywhere on the body. The exact cause of psoriasis is unknown, but it is believed to be related to an immune system issue that causes skin cells to grow too quickly.

There are several types of psoriasis, including plaque psoriasis (the most common form), guttate psoriasis, inverse psoriasis, pustular psoriasis, and erythrodermic psoriasis. The symptoms and severity of the condition can vary widely from person to person, ranging from mild to severe.

While there is no cure for psoriasis, various treatments are available that can help manage the symptoms and improve quality of life. These may include topical medications, light therapy, and systemic medications such as biologics. Lifestyle measures such as stress reduction, quitting smoking, and avoiding triggers (such as certain foods or alcohol) may also be helpful in managing psoriasis.

Asparaginase is a medication that is used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). It is an enzyme that breaks down the amino acid asparagine, which is a building block of proteins. Some cancer cells are unable to produce their own asparagine and rely on obtaining it from the bloodstream. By reducing the amount of asparagine in the blood, asparaginase can help to slow or stop the growth of these cancer cells.

Asparaginase is usually given as an injection into a muscle (intramuscularly) or into a vein (intravenously). It may be given alone or in combination with other chemotherapy drugs. The specific dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the individual's medical history, the type and stage of cancer being treated, and how well the person tolerates the medication.

Like all medications, asparaginase can cause side effects. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and changes in liver function tests. Less common but more serious side effects may include allergic reactions, pancreatitis, and blood clotting problems. It is important for patients to discuss the potential risks and benefits of asparaginase with their healthcare provider before starting treatment.

Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD) is a group of rare pregnancy-related disorders that involve abnormal growth of cells inside a woman's uterus. These cells are part of the placenta, which provides nutrients to the developing fetus. GTD occurs when some of these cells grow in an uncontrolled way, forming tumors or tumor-like growths.

There are several types of GTD:

1. Hydatidiform Mole (HM): Also known as a molar pregnancy, this is the most common type of GTD. It occurs when an egg that has no genetic information is fertilized by a sperm and then divides into multiple copies. This results in a growth that resembles a cluster of grapes, rather than a developing fetus. There are two types of HMs: complete and partial. A complete HM forms when an empty egg is fertilized by two sperms, resulting in no fetal tissue. A partial HM forms when a normal egg is fertilized by two sperm or an abnormal egg with two sets of genetic material, resulting in some fetal tissue.

2. Invasive Mole: This type of GTD occurs when cells from a molar pregnancy invade the uterine wall and surrounding tissues. It can also spread to other parts of the body, such as the lungs or brain.

3. Choriocarcinoma: This is a rare form of GTD that develops from trophoblastic cells and forms a malignant tumor. It can grow rapidly and spread quickly to other organs.

4. Placental Site Trophoblastic Tumor (PSTT): This is an even rarer type of GTD that forms in the tissue where the placenta attaches to the uterus. PSTTs are usually slow-growing but can sometimes spread to other parts of the body.

5. Epithelioid Trophoblastic Tumor (ETT): This is a very rare type of GTD that forms in the tissue where the placenta attaches to the uterus. ETTs are usually slow-growing and have a good prognosis.

It's important to note that most molar pregnancies do not develop into more serious forms of GTD, but regular follow-up care is necessary to monitor for any signs of progression. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of GTD and may include surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy.

Remission induction is a treatment approach in medicine, particularly in the field of oncology and hematology. It refers to the initial phase of therapy aimed at reducing or eliminating the signs and symptoms of active disease, such as cancer or autoimmune disorders. The primary goal of remission induction is to achieve a complete response (disappearance of all detectable signs of the disease) or a partial response (a decrease in the measurable extent of the disease). This phase of treatment is often intensive and may involve the use of multiple drugs or therapies, including chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or targeted therapy. After remission induction, patients may receive additional treatments to maintain the remission and prevent relapse, known as consolidation or maintenance therapy.

Biological transport refers to the movement of molecules, ions, or solutes across biological membranes or through cells in living organisms. This process is essential for maintaining homeostasis, regulating cellular functions, and enabling communication between cells. There are two main types of biological transport: passive transport and active transport.

Passive transport does not require the input of energy and includes:

1. Diffusion: The random movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached.
2. Osmosis: The diffusion of solvent molecules (usually water) across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
3. Facilitated diffusion: The assisted passage of polar or charged substances through protein channels or carriers in the cell membrane, which increases the rate of diffusion without consuming energy.

Active transport requires the input of energy (in the form of ATP) and includes:

1. Primary active transport: The direct use of ATP to move molecules against their concentration gradient, often driven by specific transport proteins called pumps.
2. Secondary active transport: The coupling of the movement of one substance down its electrochemical gradient with the uphill transport of another substance, mediated by a shared transport protein. This process is also known as co-transport or counter-transport.

Hydroxymethyl and Formyl Transferases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hydroxymethyl or formyl groups from one molecule to another. These enzymes play important roles in various metabolic pathways, including the synthesis and modification of nucleotides, amino acids, and other biomolecules.

One example of a Hydroxymethyl Transferase is DNA methyltransferase (DNMT), which catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to the 5-carbon of cytosine residues in DNA, forming 5-methylcytosine. This enzyme can also function as a Hydroxymethyl Transferase by catalyzing the transfer of a hydroxymethyl group from SAM to cytosine residues, forming 5-hydroxymethylcytosine.

Formyl Transferases are another class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of formyl groups from one molecule to another. One example is formyltransferase domain containing protein 1 (FTCD1), which catalyzes the transfer of a formyl group from 10-formyltetrahydrofolate to methionine, forming N5-formiminotetrahydrofolate and methionine semialdehyde.

These enzymes are essential for maintaining proper cellular function and are involved in various physiological processes, including gene regulation, DNA repair, and metabolism. Dysregulation of these enzymes has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular disease.

Probenecid is a medication that is primarily used to treat gout and hyperuricemia (high levels of uric acid in the blood). It works by decreasing the production of uric acid in the body and increasing its excretion through the kidneys.

In medical terms, probenecid is a uricosuric agent, which means it increases the urinary excretion of urate, the salt form of uric acid. It does this by inhibiting the reabsorption of urate in the proximal tubules of the kidneys, thereby promoting its elimination in the urine.

Probenecid is also used in conjunction with certain antibiotics, such as penicillin and cephalosporins, to increase their concentration in the body by reducing their excretion by the kidneys. This is known as probenecid-antibiotic interaction.

It's important to note that probenecid should be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, and its use may be contraindicated in certain medical conditions or in combination with specific medications.

Mucositis is a common side effect of cancer treatment, particularly chemotherapy and radiation therapy. It's defined as the inflammation and damage to the mucous membranes that line the digestive tract, from the mouth to the anus. This condition can cause symptoms such as pain, redness, swelling, and ulcers in the mouth, throat, esophagus, stomach, and intestines.

Mucositis can make it difficult for patients to eat, drink, and swallow, which can lead to dehydration, malnutrition, and weight loss. It can also increase the risk of infection, as the damaged mucous membranes provide an entry point for bacteria and other microorganisms.

The severity of mucositis can vary depending on the type and dose of chemotherapy or radiation therapy, as well as individual patient factors such as age, overall health status, and genetic makeup. Mucositis typically occurs within a few days to a week after starting cancer treatment and may persist for several weeks or even months after treatment has ended.

Management of mucositis typically involves a combination of strategies, including pain relief, oral hygiene measures, nutritional support, and infection prevention. In severe cases, hospitalization and intravenous fluids may be necessary to prevent dehydration and manage infection.

Nucleotide deaminases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the removal of an amino group (-NH2) from nucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA and RNA. Specifically, these enzymes convert cytidine or adenosine to uridine or inosine, respectively, by removing an amino group from the corresponding nitrogenous base (cytosine or adenine).

There are several types of nucleotide deaminases that differ in their substrate specificity and cellular localization. For example, some enzymes deaminate DNA or RNA directly, while others act on free nucleotides or nucleosides. Nucleotide deaminases play important roles in various biological processes, including the regulation of gene expression, immune response, and DNA repair.

Abnormal activity or mutations in nucleotide deaminases have been associated with several human diseases, such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, and viral infections. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of these enzymes is crucial for developing new therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor" is not a recognized medical term or a valid medical definition. The term "Ehrlich tumor" is sometimes used to refer to a type of transplantable tumor that was first developed by the German physician Paul Ehrlich in the early 20th century for cancer research purposes. However, it's important to note that this type of tumor is not a naturally occurring cancer and is typically used only in laboratory experiments.

Carcinoma, on the other hand, is a medical term that refers to a type of cancer that starts in cells that line the inner or outer surfaces of organs. Carcinomas can develop in various parts of the body, including the lungs, breasts, colon, and skin.

If you have any specific questions about cancer or a particular medical condition, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Vinblastine is an alkaloid derived from the Madagascar periwinkle plant (Catharanthus roseus) and is primarily used in cancer chemotherapy. It is classified as a vinca alkaloid, along with vincristine, vinorelbine, and others.

Medically, vinblastine is an antimicrotubule agent that binds to tubulin, a protein involved in the formation of microtubules during cell division. By binding to tubulin, vinblastine prevents the assembly of microtubules, which are essential for mitosis (cell division). This leads to the inhibition of cell division and ultimately results in the death of rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells.

Vinblastine is used to treat various types of cancers, including Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, testicular cancer, breast cancer, and others. It is often administered intravenously in a healthcare setting and may be given as part of a combination chemotherapy regimen with other anticancer drugs.

As with any medication, vinblastine can have side effects, including bone marrow suppression (leading to an increased risk of infection, anemia, and bleeding), neurotoxicity (resulting in peripheral neuropathy, constipation, and jaw pain), nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and mouth sores. Regular monitoring by a healthcare professional is necessary during vinblastine treatment to manage side effects and ensure the safe and effective use of this medication.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

Juvenile arthritis (JA) is a term used to describe a group of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders that can affect children aged 16 or younger. In JA, the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own tissues, causing inflammation in the joints, which can lead to pain, swelling, stiffness, and damage over time.

There are several types of juvenile arthritis, including:

1. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA): This is the most common form of JA, and it includes several subtypes that are classified based on the number of joints affected and the presence or absence of certain symptoms.
2. Juvenile Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (JSLE): This is a type of lupus that affects children, and it can cause inflammation in various parts of the body, including the joints, skin, kidneys, and lungs.
3. Juvenile Dermatomyositis (JDM): This is a rare autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation of the blood vessels, leading to muscle weakness, skin rashes, and joint pain.
4. Juvenile Scleroderma: This is a group of disorders that cause hardening and tightening of the skin and connective tissues, which can also affect the joints.
5. Juvenile Psoriatic Arthritis (JPsA): This is a type of arthritis that affects children who have psoriasis, a chronic skin condition. JPsA can cause inflammation in the joints and skin.

The causes of juvenile arthritis are not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. There is no cure for JA, but treatments such as medication, physical therapy, and lifestyle changes can help manage the symptoms and prevent long-term complications.

Combined modality therapy (CMT) is a medical treatment approach that utilizes more than one method or type of therapy simultaneously or in close succession, with the goal of enhancing the overall effectiveness of the treatment. In the context of cancer care, CMT often refers to the combination of two or more primary treatment modalities, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and systemic therapies (chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, etc.).

The rationale behind using combined modality therapy is that each treatment method can target cancer cells in different ways, potentially increasing the likelihood of eliminating all cancer cells and reducing the risk of recurrence. The specific combination and sequence of treatments will depend on various factors, including the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and individual preferences.

For example, a common CMT approach for locally advanced rectal cancer may involve preoperative (neoadjuvant) chemoradiation therapy, followed by surgery to remove the tumor, and then postoperative (adjuvant) chemotherapy. This combined approach allows for the reduction of the tumor size before surgery, increases the likelihood of complete tumor removal, and targets any remaining microscopic cancer cells with systemic chemotherapy.

It is essential to consult with a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals to determine the most appropriate CMT plan for each individual patient, considering both the potential benefits and risks associated with each treatment method.

Psoriatic arthritis is a form of inflammatory arthritis that occurs in some people with psoriasis, a skin condition characterized by scaly, red, and itchy patches. The Arthritis Foundation defines psoriatic arthritis as "a chronic disease characterized by swelling, pain, and stiffness in and around the joints. It usually affects the fingers and toes but can also affect the lower back, knees, ankles, and spine."

Psoriatic arthritis can cause a variety of symptoms, including:

* Joint pain, swelling, and stiffness
* Swollen fingers or toes (dactylitis)
* Tenderness, pain, and swelling where tendons and ligaments attach to bones (enthesitis)
* Changes in nail growth, such as pitting, ridging, or separation from the nail bed
* Fatigue and weakness
* Reduced range of motion and mobility

The exact cause of psoriatic arthritis is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and immune system factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, lifestyle changes, and physical therapy to manage symptoms and prevent joint damage.

Trophoblastic neoplasms are a group of rare tumors that originate from the trophoblast, which is the outer layer of cells that surrounds a developing embryo and helps to form the placenta during pregnancy. These tumors can be benign or malignant and are characterized by their ability to produce human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone that is normally produced during pregnancy.

There are several types of trophoblastic neoplasms, including:

1. Hydatidiform mole: A benign growth that forms in the uterus when a fertilized egg implants but does not develop into a normal embryo. There are two types of hydatidiform moles: complete and partial. Complete moles have no fetal tissue, while partial moles have some fetal tissue.
2. Invasive mole: A malignant form of hydatidiform mole that invades the uterine wall and may spread to other parts of the body.
3. Choriocarcinoma: A rapidly growing and highly invasive malignant tumor that can arise from a hydatidiform mole, a normal pregnancy, or an ectopic pregnancy. It can spread quickly to other parts of the body, such as the lungs, liver, and brain.
4. Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT): A rare type of trophoblastic neoplasm that arises from the cells that attach the placenta to the uterine wall. It is usually slow-growing but can be aggressive in some cases.
5. Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT): Another rare type of trophoblastic neoplasm that arises from the cells that form the placental villi. It is typically low-grade and has a good prognosis, but it can recur in some cases.

The treatment for trophoblastic neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the tumor. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular monitoring of hCG levels is also important to ensure that the tumor has been completely removed and to detect any recurrence early.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Oral administration is a route of giving medications or other substances by mouth. This can be in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, pastes, or other forms that can be swallowed. Once ingested, the substance is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and enters the bloodstream to reach its intended target site in the body. Oral administration is a common and convenient route of medication delivery, but it may not be appropriate for all substances or in certain situations, such as when rapid onset of action is required or when the patient has difficulty swallowing.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Leukemia L5178" is not a recognized medical term or classification for leukemia. The World Health Organization (WHO) and other organizations have established specific classifications for different types of leukemias based on factors such as cell type, genetic mutations, and other characteristics. However, "L5178" does not appear in these classifications.

It's possible that "L5178" might refer to a specific research cell line used in scientific studies, but without more context, it's difficult to provide a precise definition. If you have more information about where you encountered this term, I may be able to provide a more accurate response.

Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat various types of cancers, including testicular, ovarian, bladder, head and neck, lung, and cervical cancers. It is an inorganic platinum compound that contains a central platinum atom surrounded by two chloride atoms and two ammonia molecules in a cis configuration.

Cisplatin works by forming crosslinks between DNA strands, which disrupts the structure of DNA and prevents cancer cells from replicating. This ultimately leads to cell death and slows down or stops the growth of tumors. However, cisplatin can also cause damage to normal cells, leading to side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hearing loss, and kidney damage. Therefore, it is essential to monitor patients closely during treatment and manage any adverse effects promptly.

Hypoxanthine is not a medical condition but a purine base that is a component of many organic compounds, including nucleotides and nucleic acids, which are the building blocks of DNA and RNA. In the body, hypoxanthine is produced as a byproduct of normal cellular metabolism and is converted to xanthine and then uric acid, which is excreted in the urine.

However, abnormally high levels of hypoxanthine in the body can indicate tissue damage or disease. For example, during intense exercise or hypoxia (low oxygen levels), cells may break down ATP (adenosine triphosphate) rapidly, releasing large amounts of hypoxanthine. Similarly, in some genetic disorders such as Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, there is an accumulation of hypoxanthine due to a deficiency of the enzyme that converts it to xanthine. High levels of hypoxanthine can lead to the formation of kidney stones and other complications.

"methotrexate". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. "methotrexate". Unabridged (Online). n.d. "Methotrexate". The ... Methotrexate can also cause mucositis. Methotrexate pneumonitis is a rare complication of therapy, and appears to be reducing ... "Methotrexate and its use in rheumatoid arthritis (RA)". NRAS. Retrieved 19 February 2023. Weinblatt ME (2013). "Methotrexate in ... "methotrexate - definition of methotrexate in English from the Oxford dictionary". Archived from the ...
... appears in patients being treated with methotrexate, such as those with rheumatic disease ... January 2008). "Methotrexate-induced papular eruption following treatment of psoriasis". Ann Pharmacother. 42 (1): 138-41. doi: ...
6 January 2014). "Methotrexate". Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference. Pharmaceutical Press. Archived from the original on ...
Methotrexate is given either orally or intramuscularly, followed by vaginal misoprostol 3-5 days later. The methotrexate ... The WHO authorizes the methotrexate-misoprostol combination but recommends the mifepristone combination because methotrexate ... Methotrexate, which is sometimes used instead of mifepristone, stops the cytotrophoblastic tissue from growing and becoming a ... The methotrexate-misoprostol combination is considered more effective than misoprostol alone. Both drugs - mifepristone and ...
"Methotrexate". PubChem. U.S. National Library of Medicine. "Aminopterin". PubChem. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Köhler G ... After fusion, the cells are grown in a medium with methotrexate or aminopterin that inhibit the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase ...
As such, it will help to reduce the side effects of methotrexate. Contraindications of methotrexate include: Patient with ... "Methotrexate". Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference. 2021-01-26. Retrieved 2021-03-14. "Methotrexate". British National ... Methotrexate is a DMARDs that acts as a competitive inhibitor on the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase and hinders the formation ... In addition, methotrexate is teratogenic and has been associated with fetal deaths. As a consequence, it is avoided during ...
Bischoff, K.B.; Dedrick, R.L.; Zaharko, D.S.; Longstreth, J.A. (1971). "Methotrexate pharmacokinetics". Journal of ...
Jacobs, Peter; Stuart Rutherford, G.; King, Helen S.; Vincent, Mark (1991). "Methotrexate encephalopathy". European Journal of ...
The anti-folates include methotrexate and pemetrexed. Methotrexate inhibits dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), an enzyme that ... Although methotrexate is used to treat both multiple sclerosis and ankylosing spondylitis, its efficacy in these diseases is ... Methotrexate is used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis, ankylosing spondylitis and multiple sclerosis. ... "ARK Methotrexate Assay". Ark Diagnostics. Archived from the original on 28 April 2014. Retrieved 28 April 2014. "Customizing ...
Methotrexate can cause termination or deformity in fetuses and is a common abortifacient, and for men taking a high dose and ... "Methotrexate - Maxtrex, Metoject. Side effects and dosage". Retrieved 2022-06-30. D'Cruz DP (April 2006). " ... Treatments may include NSAIDs, corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, hydroxychloroquine, and methotrexate. Although ...
... high dose methotrexate; or etoposide, ifosfamide, and cisplatin. These treatment regimens have been reported to lower local ...
In fact, it has been shown that Methotrexate, a drug often used in rheumatoid arthritis, is actually correlated with the ... Takashima S, Ota M (July 2015). "Methotrexate-induced nodulosis". CMAJ. 187 (10): E327. doi:10.1503/cmaj.140852. PMC 4500730. ... Additionally, other clinical studies have reported increased pulmonary nodule growth following treatments with methotrexate, ... Trauma to small vessels Having severe rheumatoid arthritis Taking Methotrexate over other arthritis drugs Differential ...
Methotrexate, administered in the treatment of psoriasis, has been known to cause hyperosmia, and may be more likely to do so ... Zargari, O (2006-12-10). "Methotrexate, hyperosmia, and migraine". Dermatology Online Journal. 12 (7): 28. doi:10.5070/ ...
Methotrexate, or amethopterin, is a drug developed by Sidney Farber. It operates by inhibiting the production of folic acid, a ... "Methotrexate: Mechanism of Action". IBM Micromedex. Hande, Kenneth (2002). Encyclopedia of Cancer (Second ed.). Elsevier. pp. ... Tian, Henghe; Cronstein, Bruce N. (2007). "Understanding the mechanisms of action of methotrexate: implications for the ... By interfering with several major enzymes involved in folic acid production, including dihydrofolate reductase, methotrexate ...
According to a recent Cochrane review, low dose oral methotrexate was slightly more effective than placebos. Immunosuppressant ... Wilsdon, Tom D; Whittle, Samuel L; Thynne, Tilenka RJ; Mangoni, Arduino A (2019-01-18). "Methotrexate for psoriatic arthritis ... Oral small molecules such as methotrexate, leflunomide, cyclosporin, azathioprine, and sulfasalazine are used in persistent ...
... may interact with these drugs: Anticoagulants (dabigatran, warfarin). Methotrexate (chemotherapy and ...
"Methotrexate for rheumatoid arthritis". Retrieved 2013-06-24. Edwards J; Szczepanski L; Szechinski J; ... and methotrexate for moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis. The biologic agent rituximab (anti-B cell therapy) is now ...
For example, the drug methotrexate is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, which catalyzes the ... Many such drugs are reversible competitive inhibitors that resemble the enzyme's native substrate, similar to methotrexate ... doi:10.1016/0968-0004(79)90205-6. Goodsell DS (1 August 1999). "The molecular perspective: methotrexate". The Oncologist. 4 (4 ...
In 1951, Jane C. Wright demonstrated the use of methotrexate in solid tumors, showing remission in breast cancer. Wright's ... Joseph Burchenal, at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York, with Farber's help, started his own methotrexate study ... Li, MC; Hertz, R; Spencer, DB (1956). "Effect of methotrexate upon choriocarcinoma". Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 93 (2): 361-366. ... Wright, JC; Gumport, SL; Golomb, FM (1960). "Remissions produced with the use of methotrexate in patients with my- cosis ...
Methotrexate's anti-inflammatory effect may be due to its stimulation of adenosine release. In general, adenosine has an ... Cronstein B (2010). "How does methotrexate suppress inflammation?". Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology. 28 (5 Suppl 61): ...
For example, Methotrexate, a chemotherapeutic, acts as a competitive inhibitor at the dihydrofolate reductase active site. This ... Widemann BC, Adamson PC (June 2006). "Understanding and managing methotrexate nephrotoxicity". The Oncologist. 11 (6): 694-703 ... "Interaction of dihydrofolate reductase with methotrexate: ensemble and single-molecule kinetics". Proceedings of the National ...
Kalb, Robert E.; Strober, Bruce; Weinstein, Gerald; Lebwohl, Mark (May 2009). "Methotrexate and psoriasis: 2009 National ... "Methotrexate in psoriasis: Consensus conference". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 38 (3): 478-485. doi:10.1016/ ...
High doses of intravenous methotrexate, or intrathecal (injection into the spinal fluid) methotrexate are both necessary ... In contrast to intravenous methotrexate for cancer patients, leukoencephalopathy induced by orally taken methotrexate may be ... Methotrexate-related leukoencephalopathy prevalence has been reported to decline with time and dosage. Other chemotherapeutic ... Besides its role in chemotherapy, methotrexate is also used as an orally administered treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. ...
Methotrexate: May increase methotrexate levels. Phenobarbital: May decrease fenoprofen t 1⁄2 . Dosage adjustments of fenoprofen ...
Methotrexate is another immunosuppressive drug. It works by inhibiting folic acid, which is necessary for DNA replication and, ... Methotrexate, which inhibits folic acid. Mercaptopurine is a cytostatic drug that is an antimetabolite. The mercaptopurine ... This may, however, be counter-productive for patients who are also taking methotrexate, which is a folic acid inhibitor. Folic ...
... high-dose methotrexate or cytarabine; or intrathecal chemotherapy). As the mortality rates of childhood cancers have plummeted ...
Examples include methotrexate, prednisone and amoxycillin. Certain medications listed on the PBS are available only for ...
While not specifically an antidote for methotrexate, folinic acid may also be useful in the treatment of acute methotrexate ... Different dosing protocols are used, but folinic acid should be redosed until the methotrexate level is less than 5 x 10−8 M. ... No apparent effect is seen on pre-existing methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity. Folinic acid can be taken as a pill (orally) or ... Folinic acid is given following methotrexate as part of a total chemotherapeutic plan, where it may protect against bone marrow ...
Methotrexate is a folic acid analogue. It binds dihydrofolate reductase and prevents synthesis of tetrahydrofolate. It is used ... These include: folic acid analogues, such as methotrexate purine analogues, such as azathioprine and mercaptopurine pyrimidine ...
Methotrexate is commonly prescribed to children with juvenile arthritis. These treatments are focused on reducing swelling, ... Takken, Tim; van der Net, Janjaap J; Helders, Paul PJM (2001-10-23). "Methotrexate for treating juvenile idiopathic arthritis ...
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  • Methotrexate can be given by mouth or by injection (intramuscular, intravenous, subcutaneous, or intrathecal). (
  • Methotrexate comes either as pills or as a subcutaneous injection. (
  • The ACR is aware of the current methotrexate injection shortage. (
  • Many drugs can interact with methotrexate injection. (
  • This list is not complete and there may be other drugs that can interact with methotrexate injection. (
  • The methotrexate injection market has huge growth potential, driven by a surge in healthcare spending and infrastructure improvements, especially in emerging nations. (
  • The investigators gave each eye a 0.16-mL (400-μg) intravitreal injection of methotrexate (Haupt Pharma) then measured BCVA with a Snellen chart and CST and MRT with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography 6 months after methotrexate injection. (
  • Based on these results, the investigators concluded that intravitreal methotrexate injection is effective in treating persistent DME is a subset of eyes. (
  • What is the difference between taking methotrexate tablets versus the injection? (
  • Your doctor will monitor you more carefully and may need to give you a lower dose of methotrexate or stop your treatment with methotrexate. (
  • Methotrexate is usually taken as a single dose once per week, although occasionally the dose is split into two to improve absorption or avoid side effects. (
  • When taken both methotrexate and meloxicam, your Oncologist may monitor you more closely and adjust your dose of these drugs. (
  • SAN DIEGO - A split dose of methotrexate (MTX) given orally once per week showed significantly higher efficacy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) at 16 weeks compared with a single MTX dose weekly, according to new research. (
  • CHICAGO -- Low-dose methotrexate given to reduce inflammation had no impact on cardiovascular events in high-risk but stable atherosclerosis, the CIRT randomized trial showed. (
  • Mortality actually came out numerically higher with low-dose methotrexate, both from cardiovascular causes (0.92 vs 0.80 per 100 person-years, HR 1.14, 95% CI 0.76-1.72) and overall (1.80 vs 1.55 per 100 person-years, HR 1.16, 95% CI 0.87-1.56). (
  • Low-dose methotrexate was chosen as a more broad-based anti-inflammatory agent, with a generic available, and a reputation as generally safe in wide use. (
  • Notably, in CIRT, low-dose methotrexate didn't reduce levels of the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein or interleukin-1 beta or interleukin 6 in this stable atherosclerotic population as it has been shown to do in prior trials of rheumatoid arthritis and other systemic inflammatory conditions it is used to treat. (
  • This low-dose methotrexate has more broad-based anti-inflammatory effects," Lloyd-Jones noted. (
  • Dosing was adjusted by computerized algorithm based on levels of centrally measured laboratory values and adverse event reporting, with an initial dose of 15 mg and a target of 20 mg methotrexate. (
  • Although side effects are more common with high dose methotrexate therapy, no serious side effects have been observed. (
  • Studies comparing lower dose oral methotrexate (12.5 to 15 mg/week) to placebo (e.g. sugar pill) or other active drugs (e.g. azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine) indicate that lower dose oral methotrexate does not appear to provide any benefit for treatment of active treatment resistant Crohn's disease. (
  • Lower dose oral methotrexate does not appear to provide any significant benefit relative to placebo or active comparator. (
  • Acute or subacute neurologic disorders can be observed in patients receiving high-dose methotrexate therapy for lymphoblastic leukemia or malignant tumor. (
  • A sequential analysis of cerebrospinal fluid was performed for each patient: cerebrospinal fluid samples were obtained before therapy and after each of the four high-dose methotrexate infusions during the CNS prophylaxis phase. (
  • A significant increase of total biopterin concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid was observed after high-dose methotrexate therapy compared with the pretreatment values. (
  • The increase of total biopterin mimicking that observed in inherited dihydropteridine reductase deficiencies suggests that methotrexate inhibits the regenerating system of biopterin in the brain of patients undergoing high-dose methotrexate therapy. (
  • Because of its efficacy and safety, low-dose methotrexate is now first-line therapy for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. (
  • What is the typical dose for methotrexate? (
  • Most rheumatologists will dose methotrexate between 15mg and 25mg. (
  • There is good evidence that injectable methotrexate is more reliably effective than tablets, particularly as the dose increases. (
  • When used in the treatment of a rheumatic condition, methotrexate is considered to be a relatively low dose and would not be used that way to treat cancer. (
  • At the time of the first methotrexate dose, the serum hCG concentration was 27,995 IU/L. The laboratory was consulted 3.5 months after the surgery, because serum hCG levels had stopped declining and had leveled off to around 80 to 90 IU/L but with negative urine pregnancy tests. (
  • Methotrexate is one of the first-line therapies for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. (
  • Use of low doses of methotrexate together with NSAIDs such as aspirin or analgesics such as paracetamol is relatively safe in people being treated for rheumatoid arthritis, with appropriate monitoring. (
  • Studies and reviews have found that most rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with methotrexate for up to one year had less pain, functioned better, had fewer swollen and tender joints, and had less disease activity overall as reported by themselves and their doctors[citation needed]. (
  • Those individuals with rheumatoid arthritis treated with methotrexate have been found to have a lower risk of cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarctions and strokes. (
  • Results of a systematic review exploring the comparative effectiveness of treatments of early rheumatoid arthritis show that treatment efficacy can be improved with combination therapy with anti-TNF or other biologic medications, compared with methotrexate monotherapy. (
  • Methotrexate is one of the most effective and commonly used medications in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other forms of inflammatory arthritis. (
  • The success of methotrexate as a treatment for rheumatoid arthritis led to its evaluation in patients with refractory Crohn's disease. (
  • Methotrexate (MTX) is an essential anti-rheumatic drug used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (
  • Methotrexate is considered the current gold standard first line treatment for rheumatoid arthritis because of its effectiveness and side effect profile. (
  • Folic acid is commonly co-prescribed with methotrexate to minimise the risk of adverse effects. (
  • Methotrexate is also sometimes used in combination with other conventional DMARDs, such as sulfasalazine and hydroxychloroquine. (
  • Methotrexate is in a class of medications called Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs, or DMARDs. (
  • Like all DMARDs, Methotrexate takes time to work. (
  • These patients may need a reminder about the importance of using contraception during therapy with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), especially methotrexate, leflunomide, and cyclophosphamide. (
  • Comparative studies of methotrexate to drugs such as azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine would require the randomization of large numbers of patients. (
  • Methotrexate has been studied for induction of remission of refractory Crohn's disease and has become the principal alternative to azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine therapy. (
  • Randomized trial of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil chemotherapy added to tamoxifen as adjuvant therapy in postmenopausal women with node-positive estrogen and/or progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer: a report of the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group. (
  • Adjuvant polychemotherapy (e.g. with 58% to 68%) for patients under the age of 50.1 Besides an cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil (CMF)) or improvement in clinical outcome, these figures indicate that anthracycline-containing regimes, produce substantial reduc- a large proportion of the patients will never recur after the tion in recurrence and mortality. (
  • If you experience any of the following symptoms, stop taking methotrexate and call your doctor right away: mouth sores, diarrhea, black, tarry, or bloody stools, or vomit that is bloody or looks like coffee grounds. (
  • If you do develop lymphoma, it might go away without treatment when you stop taking methotrexate, or it might need to be treated with chemotherapy. (
  • Methotrexate (MTX), formerly known as amethopterin, is a chemotherapy agent and immune-system suppressant. (
  • Methotrexate was originally developed and continues to be used for chemotherapy, either alone or in combination with other agents. (
  • Although originally designed as a chemotherapy drug, in lower doses methotrexate is a generally safe and well-tolerated drug in the treatment of certain autoimmune diseases. (
  • Although methotrexate was originally designed as a chemotherapy drug (in high doses), in low-doses methotrexate is a safe and well tolerated drug in the treatment of certain autoimmune diseases. (
  • The primary objective was to assess the efficacy and safety of methotrexate for induction of remission in patients with active Crohn's disease in the presence or absence of concomitant steroid therapy. (
  • Three additional doses of methotrexate over six months were required for serum hCG concentrations to decline to undetectable levels. (
  • Initial protocols for medical therapy required long-term hospitalization and multiple doses of methotrexate and were associated with significant side effects. (
  • Until now, there has been no adequately powered randomised clinical trial evidence in relation to the safety and treatment success of methotrexate and ciclosporin for paediatric patients with atopic dermatitis. (
  • There is evidence from one large study which suggests that methotrexate (25 mg/week) injected intramuscularly for 16 weeks among patients with active treatment resistant Crohn's disease may provide a benefit for induction of remission and complete withdrawal from steroids. (
  • Methotrexate is an abortifacient and is used to treat ectopic pregnancies, provided the fallopian tube has not ruptured. (
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  • The case study is a 33-year-old white female with persistently elevated serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels following methotrexate treatment and emergency surgery for ectopic pregnancy. (
  • With evolving experience with methotrexate, the treatment of selected ectopic pregnancies has been revolutionized. (
  • Mortality risk with methotrexate and biologic use was not different in those with CLD compared to those without (p interaction = 0.15) using multiple exposure definitions and propensity score adjustment. (
  • You should only take methotrexate to treat cancer or certain other conditions that are very severe and that cannot be treated with other medications. (
  • If you drink or have ever drunk large amounts of alcohol or if you have or have ever had liver disease, your doctor may tell you not to take methotrexate unless you have a life-threatening form of cancer because there is a higher risk that you will develop liver damage. (
  • Your doctor may tell you that you should not take methotrexate unless you have life-threatening cancer. (
  • 1. What day of the week do you take methotrexate? (
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  • Methotrexate injection’s record of success in treating these inflammatory eye diseases prompted researchers to evaluate its efficacy in treating persistent diabetic macular edema. (
  • Methotrexate injection's record of success in treating these inflammatory eye diseases prompted an Iranian team to evaluate its efficacy in treating persistent DME in a prospective interventional case series recently reported in Graefe's Archives for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology . (
  • 1. At the low doses used to treat inflammatory arthritis, methotrexate does not usually harm the kidneys. (
  • Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunomodulating agent used to treat inflammatory diseases and has an excellent safety profile and worldwide availability. (
  • However these studies were relatively small and further research is needed to determine the role of methotrexate when used in conjunction with infliximab or other biological therapies. (
  • The rising awareness and acceptance of alternative therapies also drive the methotrexate drug industry. (
  • With new high-cost therapies being introduced, establishing a gold standard for treatment with the conventional systemic therapies like methotrexate and ciclosporin is deemed necessary. (
  • This risk is attributable not only to ILD but also to other chronic lung conditions and does not appear to be substantially greater in those receiving methotrexate or biologic therapies. (
  • Methotrexate rarely can cause liver issues, most likely to occur in patients who already have liver problems or are using alcohol or taking other drugs that are toxic to the liver. (
  • Their CIRT trial included 6,158 patients in the open-label run-in, among whom 4,786 were randomized to double-blind methotrexate or placebo. (
  • There is evidence from a single large randomized trial which suggests that intramuscular methotrexate (25 mg/week) provides a benefit for induction of remission and complete withdrawal from steroids in patients with refractory Crohn's disease. (
  • As more patients seek complementary and different treatments for their health conditions, methotrexate emerges as an effective option worldwide. (
  • Personalizing medical care for patients based on their unique characteristics is gaining ground, and methotrexate injections can be incorporated into individualized treatment plans. (
  • According to the Iranian team, their results suggest that intravitreal methotrexate may also have a role in treating naïve eyes with DME in patients with systemic factors that contraindicate the use of anti-VEGF agents or in those who are unable to afford or are unwilling to pay for these expensive agents. (
  • [ 2 ] [ 3 ] Indeed, multiple studies and reviews showed that patients receiving methotrexate for up to 1 year had less pain, functioned better, had fewer swollen and tender joints, and had less disease activity overall as reported by themselves and their doctors. (
  • X-rays also showed that the progress of the disease slowed or stopped in many patients receiving methotrexate. (
  • Most patients start to feel the positive effects of methotrexate at 4-8 weeks, with maximum benefit at 3-6 months. (
  • p53, mdm-2, p21, and mib-1 expression were assessed by immunohistochemical methods in primary tumors derived from 134 patients who took part in a randomized multicenter trial comparing docetaxel to sequential methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil (MF) in advanced breast cancer. (
  • Some drug delivery methods, such as injectable formulations, offer more convenient and easier administration of methotrexate. (
  • Injectable technologies and drug delivery systems can make methotrexate injections more patient-compliant, convenient, and safe. (
  • Likewise, a 2016 study found the use of methotrexate, in combination with anti-TNF agents, has been shown to be effective for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. (
  • Your doctor may order liver biopsies (removal of a small piece of liver tissue to be examined in a laboratory) before and during your treatment with methotrexate. (
  • Methotrexate treatment should be discontinued for at least three months before attempting to become pregnant. (
  • Methotrexate is an immunosuppressive drug that is used to treat active treatment resistant Crohn's disease. (
  • Doctors and other health professionals are actively prescribing methotrexate as an effective treatment. (
  • Thus, methotrexate is gaining popularity as a primary drug for such treatment. (
  • Methotrexate (MTX) is an effective treatment for children with severe atopic dermatitis and provides more sustained disease control than ciclosporin (CyA) upon discontinuation, according to the findings of a recent randomised controlled trial. (
  • While methotrexate is used in the treatment of cancer, its frequency and dosing is much higher. (
  • If methotrexate is the gold standard treatment, why am I on more than just methotrexate? (
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  • Methotrexate may cause very serious, life-threatening side effects. (
  • These conditions and medications may increase the risk that you will develop serious side effects of methotrexate. (
  • Common side effects associated with methotrexate therapy include nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, skin rash and headache. (
  • The use of methotrexate injections includes several risks and negative side effects. (
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  • if your kidneys are not working properly, your rheumatologist may need to decrease or stop methotrexate. (
  • If this happens, your rheumatologist will likely stop your methotrexate. (
  • Two studies looked at the combination of methotrexate and infliximab (a biological drug) compared to infliximab therapy alone. (
  • These studies indicated that the addition of methotrexate to infliximab therapy does not appear to provide any additional benefit over infiximab. (
  • They also noted that repeated intravitreal injections of methotrexate may be useful in eyes with an initial response to therapy. (
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  • Some of the key concerns with methotrexate injections are their savior complications and life-threatening reactions that occur shortly after receiving the medication. (
  • Intraocular injections of methotrexate have been used successfully to treat indeterminate and sarcoid uveitis as well as age-related macular degeneration. (
  • Contraception is highly encouraged while on Methotrexate as this medication can cause fetal abnormalities. (
  • Methotrexate with dilation and curettage is used to treat molar pregnancy. (
  • Methotrexate is a highly teratogenic drug and categorized in pregnancy category X by the FDA. (
  • Methotrexate may cause liver damage, especially when it is taken for a long period of time. (
  • Methotrexate was first made in 1947 and initially was used to treat cancer, as it was less toxic than the then-current treatments. (
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  • Methotrexate may cause serious or life-threatening skin reactions. (
  • Methotrexate as a corticosteroid-sparing agent in leprosy reactions: A French multicenter retrospective study. (
  • The global Methotrexate market was valued at $XX million in 2019, and Our analysts predict the global market size will reach $XX million by the end of 2029, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2019 and 2029. (
  • This report provides detailed historical analysis of global market for Methotrexate from 2013-2019, and provides extensive market forecasts from 2019-2029 by region/country and subsectors. (
  • Methotrexate is an anti-folate drug, and it also has many different specific effects which modulate the body's immune system. (
  • Methotrexate began to replace the more toxic antifolate aminopterin starting in the 1950s. (
  • Alcohol should be avoided as it can significantly increase the risk for liver damage while taking methotrexate. (
  • 2. Minimize your alcohol intake , as both alcohol and methotrexate can irritate your liver. (
  • Part of the problem is that "oral methotrexate absorption from the gut reduces as the doses go up," Dhir noted, because the transport mechanism gets saturated. (
  • However, these trials were small in size and further studies of oral methotrexate may be justified. (
  • Objective: This in vivo experimental study evaluated the effect of methotrexate on the oral mucosa of mice. (
  • Methotrexate is commonly used (generally in combination with misoprostol ) to terminate pregnancies during the early stages (i.e., as an abortifacient ). (
  • It cannot be excluded that methotrexate is persistent, due to the lack of data. (
  • If you are taking methotrexate to treat cancer, you may develop certain complications as methotrexate works to destroy the cancer cells. (
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  • Methotrexate may cause a decrease in the number of blood cells made by your bone marrow. (
  • Methotrexate may decrease the activity of your immune system, and you may develop serious infections. (
  • Impairment of biopterin metabolism leading to decreased availability of monoamine neurotransmitters has been suggested to explain methotrexate neurotoxicity. (
  • Taking methotrexate may increase the risk that you will develop lymphoma (cancer that begins in the cells of the immune system). (
  • Talk to your doctor about the risks of taking methotrexate for your condition. (
  • 1. You should not become pregnant if you are on methotrexate. (
  • Isn't methotrexate used to treat cancer? (