Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Blindness: The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Blind Loop Syndrome: A malabsorption syndrome that is associated with a blind loop in the upper SMALL INTESTINE that is characterized by the lack of peristaltic movement, stasis of INTESTINAL CONTENTS, and the overgrowth of BACTERIA. Such bacterial overgrowth interferes with BILE SALTS action, FATTY ACIDS processing, MICROVILLI integrity, and the ABSORPTION of nutrients such as VITAMIN B12 and FOLIC ACID.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Pregnenediones: Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.Ointments: Semisolid preparations used topically for protective emollient effects or as a vehicle for local administration of medications. Ointment bases are various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons.Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Sulfasalazine: A drug that is used in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Its activity is generally considered to lie in its metabolic breakdown product, 5-aminosalicylic acid (see MESALAMINE) released in the colon. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p907)Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Pizotyline: Serotonin antagonist used against MIGRAINE DISORDERS and vascular headaches.Beclomethasone: An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.Aminosalicylic Acids: A group of 2-hydroxybenzoic acids that can be substituted by amino groups at any of the 3-, 4-, 5-, or 6-positions.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cimetidine: A histamine congener, it competitively inhibits HISTAMINE binding to HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTORS. Cimetidine has a range of pharmacological actions. It inhibits GASTRIC ACID secretion, as well as PEPSIN and GASTRIN output.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Enprostil: A synthetic PGE2 analog that has an inhibitory effect on gastric acid secretion, a mucoprotective effect, and a postprandial lowering effect on gastrin. It has been shown to be efficient and safe in the treatment of gastroduodenal ulcers.Cisapride: A substituted benzamide used for its prokinetic properties. It is used in the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease, functional dyspepsia, and other disorders associated with impaired gastrointestinal motility. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Nedocromil: A pyranoquinolone derivative that inhibits activation of inflammatory cells which are associated with ASTHMA, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, and platelets.Placebo Effect: An effect usually, but not necessarily, beneficial that is attributable to an expectation that the regimen will have an effect, i.e., the effect is due to the power of suggestion.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Sensory Aids: Devices that help people with impaired sensory responses.Ranitidine: A non-imidazole blocker of those histamine receptors that mediate gastric secretion (H2 receptors). It is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers.Budesonide: A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.Prednisolone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.Nebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.Omeprazole: A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Food Coloring Agents: Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Crying: To utter an inarticulate, characteristic sound in order to communicate or express a feeling, or desire for attention.Homeopathy: A system of therapeutics founded by Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), based on the Law of Similars where "like cures like". Diseases are treated by highly diluted substances that cause, in healthy persons, symptoms like those of the disease to be treated.Croup: Inflammation involving the GLOTTIS or VOCAL CORDS and the subglottic larynx. Croup is characterized by a barking cough, HOARSENESS, and persistent inspiratory STRIDOR (a high-pitched breathing sound). It occurs chiefly in infants and children.Sucralfate: A basic aluminum complex of sulfated sucrose.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Metoprolol: A selective adrenergic beta-1 blocking agent that is commonly used to treat ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Inosine Pranobex: An alkylamino-alcohol complex of inosine used in the treatment of a variety of viral infections. Unlike other antiviral agents, it acts by modifying or stimulating cell-mediated immune processes rather than acting on the virus directly.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Terbutaline: A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Gastrointestinal Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Visually Impaired Persons: Persons with loss of vision such that there is an impact on activities of daily living.Neuromuscular Agents: Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.Methylprednisolone: A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.Dermatitis, Seborrheic: A chronic inflammatory disease of the skin with unknown etiology. It is characterized by moderate ERYTHEMA, dry, moist, or greasy (SEBACEOUS GLAND) scaling and yellow crusted patches on various areas, especially the scalp, that exfoliate as dandruff. Seborrheic dermatitis is common in children and adolescents with HIV INFECTIONS.Atenolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.Botulinum Toxins, Type A: A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.Cromolyn Sodium: A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.Anti-Asthmatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat asthma.Suppositories: Medicated dosage forms that are designed to be inserted into the rectal, vaginal, or urethral orifice of the body for absorption. Generally, the active ingredients are packaged in dosage forms containing fatty bases such as cocoa butter, hydrogenated oil, or glycerogelatin that are solid at room temperature but melt or dissolve at body temperature.Air Ionization: The dissociation of molecules in the air into positive and negative ions under the influence of an electric field.Duodenal Ulcer: A PEPTIC ULCER located in the DUODENUM.Anti-Ulcer Agents: Various agents with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate PEPTIC ULCER or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. This has included ANTIBIOTICS to treat HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS; HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS to reduce GASTRIC ACID secretion; and ANTACIDS for symptomatic relief.Heel: The back (or posterior) of the FOOT in PRIMATES, found behind the ANKLE and distal to the TOES.Rehydration Solutions: Fluids restored to the body in order to maintain normal water-electrolyte balance.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Antiparkinson Agents: Agents used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.Thevetia: A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. Members contain thevetin.Torticollis: A symptom, not a disease, of a twisted neck. In most instances, the head is tipped toward one side and the chin rotated toward the other. The involuntary muscle contractions in the neck region of patients with torticollis can be due to congenital defects, trauma, inflammation, tumors, and neurological or other factors.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Enema: A solution or compound that is introduced into the RECTUM with the purpose of cleansing the COLON or for diagnostic procedures.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Asthma, Exercise-Induced: Asthma attacks following a period of exercise. Usually the induced attack is short-lived and regresses spontaneously. The magnitude of postexertional airway obstruction is strongly influenced by the environment in which exercise is performed (i.e. inhalation of cold air during physical exertion markedly augments the severity of the airway obstruction; conversely, warm humid air blunts or abolishes it).Trazodone: A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used as an antidepressive agent. It has been shown to be effective in patients with major depressive disorders and other subsets of depressive disorders. It is generally more useful in depressive disorders associated with insomnia and anxiety. This drug does not aggravate psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p309)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Ipratropium: A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.Androstadienes: Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Premedication: Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.Podophyllin: Caustic extract from the roots of Podophyllum peltatum and P. emodi. It contains PODOPHYLLOTOXIN and its congeners and is very irritating to mucous membranes and skin. Podophyllin is a violent purgative that may cause CNS damage and teratogenesis. It is used as a paint for warts, skin neoplasms, and senile keratoses.Spalax: A genus of blind, subterranean MOLE RATS, in the subfamily Spalacidae, family MURIDAE, used as a animal model in neurophysiology. There are at least five different species described, all found in the Ukraine.Fluid Therapy: Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.Hydroxychloroquine: A chemotherapeutic agent that acts against erythrocytic forms of malarial parasites. Hydroxychloroquine appears to concentrate in food vacuoles of affected protozoa. It inhibits plasmodial heme polymerase. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p970)Prenalterol: A partial adrenergic agonist with functional beta 1-receptor specificity and inotropic effect. It is effective in the treatment of acute CARDIAC FAILURE, postmyocardial infarction low-output syndrome, SHOCK, and reducing ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION in the SHY-RAGER SYNDROME.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Oxandrolone: A synthetic hormone with anabolic and androgenic properties.Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic: Agents that aid or increase the action of the principle drug (DRUG SYNERGISM) or that affect the absorption, mechanism of action, metabolism, or excretion of the primary drug (PHARMACOKINETICS) in such a way as to enhance its effects.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Piroxicam: A cyclooxygenase inhibiting, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that is well established in treating rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis and used for musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and postoperative pain. Its long half-life enables it to be administered once daily.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Pruritus Ani: Intense chronic itching in the anal area.Psyllium: Dried, ripe seeds of PLANTAGO PSYLLIUM; PLANTAGO INDICA; and PLANTAGO OVATA. Plantain seeds swell in water and are used as demulcents and bulk laxatives.Radioallergosorbent Test: An in vitro allergen radioimmunoassay in which allergens are coupled to an immunosorbent. The coupled allergens bind the IgE in the sera of patients which in turn binds radioisotope-labeled anti-IMMUNOGLOBULIN E antibodies.Multicenter Studies as Topic: Works about controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific patient populations, for example, a multicenter study of congenital anomalies in children.Penicillin V: A broad-spectrum penicillin antibiotic used orally in the treatment of mild to moderate infections by susceptible gram-positive organisms.Neuropsychiatry: A subfield of psychiatry that emphasizes the somatic substructure on which mental operations and emotions are based, and the functional or organic disturbances of the central nervous system that give rise to, contribute to, or are associated with mental and emotional disorders. (From Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Materia Medica: Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.Aminophylline: A drug combination that contains THEOPHYLLINE and ethylenediamine. It is more soluble in water than theophylline but has similar pharmacologic actions. It's most common use is in bronchial asthma, but it has been investigated for several other applications.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Cathartics: Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels.Celiprolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic antagonist that has intrinsic symopathomimetic activity. It is used in the management of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.Fissure in Ano: A painful linear ulcer at the margin of the anus. It appears as a crack or slit in the mucous membrane of the anus and is very painful and difficult to heal. (Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Metoclopramide: A dopamine D2 antagonist that is used as an antiemetic.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Stomach Ulcer: Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Boswellia: A plant genus of the family BURSERACEAE used medicinally since ancient times. It is a source of salai guggal (the gum resin), boswellic acid (ursane type TRITERPENES), and FRANKINCENSE.Iodophors: Complexes of iodine and non-ionic SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS acting as carrier and solubilizing agent for the iodine in water. Iodophors usually enhance bactericidal activity of iodine, reduce vapor pressure and odor, minimize staining, and allow wide dilution with water. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Levodopa: The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Hydroxyzine: A histamine H1 receptor antagonist that is effective in the treatment of chronic urticaria, dermatitis, and histamine-mediated pruritus. Unlike its major metabolite CETIRIZINE, it does cause drowsiness. It is also effective as an antiemetic, for relief of anxiety and tension, and as a sedative.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Auranofin: An oral chrysotherapeutic agent for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Its exact mechanism of action is unknown, but it is believed to act via immunological mechanisms and alteration of lysosomal enzyme activity. Its efficacy is slightly less than that of injected gold salts, but it is better tolerated, and side effects which occur are potentially less serious.Esophagitis, Peptic: INFLAMMATION of the ESOPHAGUS that is caused by the reflux of GASTRIC JUICE with contents of the STOMACH and DUODENUM.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Tremor: Cyclical movement of a body part that can represent either a physiologic process or a manifestation of disease. Intention or action tremor, a common manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES, is aggravated by movement. In contrast, resting tremor is maximal when there is no attempt at voluntary movement, and occurs as a relatively frequent manifestation of PARKINSON DISEASE.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Xamoterol: A phenoxypropanolamine derivative that is a selective beta-1-adrenergic agonist.Rutin: A flavonol glycoside found in many plants, including BUCKWHEAT; TOBACCO; FORSYTHIA; HYDRANGEA; VIOLA, etc. It has been used therapeutically to decrease capillary fragility.Blindness, Cortical: Total loss of vision in all or part of the visual field due to bilateral OCCIPITAL LOBE (i.e., VISUAL CORTEX) damage or dysfunction. Anton syndrome is characterized by the psychic denial of true, organic cortical blindness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p460)Atropine Derivatives: Analogs and derivatives of atropine.Colitis, Ulcerative: Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.Niridazole: An antischistosomal agent that has become obsolete.Isosorbide Dinitrate: A vasodilator used in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS. Its actions are similar to NITROGLYCERIN but with a slower onset of action.Zinc Sulfate: A compound given in the treatment of conditions associated with zinc deficiency such as acrodermatitis enteropathica. Externally, zinc sulfate is used as an astringent in lotions and eye drops. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)Dyspepsia: Impaired digestion, especially after eating.Magnetic Field Therapy: The magnetic stimulation of specific target tissues or areas of the body for therapeutic purposes via the application of magnetic fields generated by MAGNETS or ELECTROMAGNETS.Meperidine: A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.Aminosalicylic Acid: An antitubercular agent often administered in association with ISONIAZID. The sodium salt of the drug is better tolerated than the free acid.Stomatitis, Herpetic: Stomatitis caused by Herpesvirus hominis. It usually occurs as acute herpetic stomatitis (or gingivostomatitis), an oral manifestation of primary herpes simplex seen primarily in children and adolescents.Migraine Disorders: A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.Naproxen: An anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Both the acid and its sodium salt are used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic or musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and acute gout.Angina Pectoris: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.Bromelains: Protein-digesting and milk-clotting enzymes found in PINEAPPLE fruit juice and stem tissue. Enzymes from the two sources are distinguished as fruit bromelain and stem bromelain. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.22.4.Meptazinol: A narcotic antagonist with analgesic properties. It is used for the control of moderate to severe pain.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Cryoanesthesia: ANESTHESIA achieved by lowering either BODY TEMPERATURE (core cooling) or SKIN TEMPERATURE (external cooling).Colic: A clinical syndrome with intermittent abdominal pain characterized by sudden onset and cessation that is commonly seen in infants. It is usually associated with obstruction of the INTESTINES; of the CYSTIC DUCT; or of the URINARY TRACT.Antirheumatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.Mesalamine: An anti-inflammatory agent, structurally related to the SALICYLATES, which is active in INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE. It is considered to be the active moiety of SULPHASALAZINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)Mountaineering: A sport involving mountain climbing techniques.Methenamine: An anti-infective agent most commonly used in the treatment of urinary tract infections. Its anti-infective action derives from the slow release of formaldehyde by hydrolysis at acidic pH. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p173)Dermatologic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent skin disorders or for the routine care of skin.Emollients: Oleagenous substances used topically to soothe, soften or protect skin or mucous membranes. They are used also as vehicles for other dermatologic agents.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Constipation: Infrequent or difficult evacuation of FECES. These symptoms are associated with a variety of causes, including low DIETARY FIBER intake, emotional or nervous disturbances, systemic and structural disorders, drug-induced aggravation, and infections.Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Enalapril: An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is used to treat HYPERTENSION and HEART FAILURE.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Trichlorfon: An organochlorophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide for the control of flies and roaches. It is also used in anthelmintic compositions for animals. (From Merck, 11th ed)Colonic Diseases, Functional: Chronic or recurrent colonic disorders without an identifiable structural or biochemical explanation. The widely recognized IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME falls into this category.Oxytocics: Drugs that stimulate contraction of the myometrium. They are used to induce LABOR, OBSTETRIC at term, to prevent or control postpartum or postabortion hemorrhage, and to assess fetal status in high risk pregnancies. They may also be used alone or with other drugs to induce abortions (ABORTIFACIENTS). Oxytocics used clinically include the neurohypophyseal hormone OXYTOCIN and certain prostaglandins and ergot alkaloids. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p1157)Prilocaine: A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.Ondansetron: A competitive serotonin type 3 receptor antagonist. It is effective in the treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs, including cisplatin, and has reported anxiolytic and neuroleptic properties.Mouthwashes: Solutions for rinsing the mouth, possessing cleansing, germicidal, or palliative properties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Chewing Gum: A preparation of chicle, sometimes mixed with other plastic substances, sweetened and flavored. It is masticated usually for pleasure as a candy substitute but it sometimes acts as a vehicle for the administration of medication.Food Hypersensitivity: Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Defecation: The normal process of elimination of fecal material from the RECTUM.Vomiting: The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.Mites: Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.Gastric Emptying: The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.Cyclohexanecarboxylic AcidsGels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Temazepam: A benzodiazepine that acts as a GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID modulator and anti-anxiety agent.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Bursitis: Inflammation or irritation of a bursa, the fibrous sac that acts as a cushion between moving structures of bones, muscles, tendons or skin.Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Food Additives: Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.Vision, Low: Vision considered to be inferior to normal vision as represented by accepted standards of acuity, field of vision, or motility. Low vision generally refers to visual disorders that are caused by diseases that cannot be corrected by refraction (e.g., MACULAR DEGENERATION; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, etc.).QuinolinesPromethazine: A phenothiazine derivative with histamine H1-blocking, antimuscarinic, and sedative properties. It is used as an antiallergic, in pruritus, for motion sickness and sedation, and also in animals.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Antacids: Substances that counteract or neutralize acidity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
To scientifically prove that a compression method is not transparent, double-blind tests may be useful. The ABX method is ... All lossless data compression methods are transparent, by nature. However, a double-blind comparison could still yield claims ... the compression method, bit-rate used, input characteristics, and the listening/viewing conditions and equipment. Despite this ...
Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 18 EIB-positive subjects (age: 25.2 +/- 9.01 yr; weight: 77.3 ... Dependent upon the method of GSH manipulation protection could be demonstrated in normal but not in tumor cell line. ... Methods: A single site prospective, non-blinded trial. Seven patients with psoriasis were recruited to take a nondenatured ... This double-blind randomized controlled study recruited 99 sedentary non-frail elderly subjects aged between 65 and 88 years ...
The critics claim that the results cannot be compared because one method was not double-blind while the other was double-blind ... an experiment to determine whether or not sequential double-blind administration would be superior to the simultaneous methods ... the Illinois study compared the traditional simultaneous method of lineup presentation with the sequential double-blind method ... The traditional method is not conducted double-blind (meaning that the person presenting the lineup does not know which person ...
Methods for avoiding or overcoming such biases include random sampling and double-blind trials.[citation needed] Next to ... are part of a social process whose purpose is to strengthen the objective aspect of the scientific method.[citation needed] A ... Methods for avoiding or overcoming such biases include random sampling and double-blind trials.[citation needed] Another ...
... non-blind) tests. Those who employ the double-blind testing method may try to reduce listener stress by allowing a certain ... Digital and analog differ in both the methods of transfer and storage, as well as the behavior exhibited by the systems due to ... This type of test is called a double-blind test. This sort of test is often used to evaluate the performance of digital audio ... A double-blind subjective test between high resolution linear PCM (DVD-Audio) and DSD did not reveal a statistically ...
Double Blind Bidding Double blind bidding is a negotiation method for two parties where the offer and demand are kept hidden ... Dispute resolution techniques range from methods where parties have full control of the procedure, to methods where a third ... double blind bidding, which is a method for single monetary issues between two parties, and Visual Blind Bidding, which can be ... In traditional double blind bidding, the offers and demands are kept hidden, whereas with visual blind bidding what is kept ...
Double-blind methods can be applied to any experimental situation in which there is a possibility that the results will be ... It is also difficult to use the double blind method to compare surgical and non-surgical interventions (although sham surgery, ... Double-blind trials[edit]. "Double blind" redirects here. It is not to be confused with double bind. ... Triple-blind trials[edit]. A triple-blind study is an extension of the double-blind design; the committee monitoring response ...
It could be a classical experiment in a laboratory setting, a double-blind study or an archaeological excavation. Even taking a ... He outlined four methods of settling opinion, ordered from least to most successful: The method of tenacity (policy of sticking ... For example, tests of medical treatments are commonly run as double-blind tests. Test personnel, who might unwittingly reveal ... We beg to differ." The DNA example below is a synopsis of this method The scientific method is the process by which science is ...
... double blind studies, and the development of methods for analyzing blood levels with respect to clinical outcome and increased ... The other central method through which drugs act is by affecting communications between cells through hormones. ... A defining feature of this era includes an evolution of research methods, with the establishment of placebo-controlled, ...
Double-blind methods came into especial prominence in the mid-20th century. Single-blind describes experiments where ... It is also difficult to use the double blind method to compare surgical and non-surgical interventions (although sham surgery, ... If both tester and subject are blinded, the trial is called a double-blind experiment. Blind testing is used wherever items are ... double-blind experiments are regarded to achieve a higher standard of scientific rigor than single-blind or non-blind ...
Double blind experiment 1962 - Meta study of scientific method (Thomas Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions) 1964 - ... Certain systematic methods of scientific thinking may produce much more rapid progress than others (Science, 16 October 1964, ... 1027 - In The Book of Healing, Avicenna criticizes the Aristotelian method of induction, arguing that "it does not lead to the ... This timeline of the history of scientific method shows an overview of the cultural inventions that have contributed to the ...
Some methods to compensate for epistemic feedback are to use a "double-blind study" or to conduct secret surveys to quietly ... The concept can also apply to changing the method of observation, rather than affecting the data. For example, if after asking ... Hence, the interplay can alter either the observations, or the method of observation, or both. The effects of epistemic ...
A 1990 double-blind study[48][49][50] was undertaken in Kassel, Germany, under the direction of the Gesellschaft zur ... This article is about the divination method. For other uses, see Dowsing (disambiguation). ... a b Double-Blind Field Evaluation of the MOLE Programmable Detection System, Sandia National Laboratories Archived November 4, ... A randomized double-blind trial in 2012 was carried out to determine whether homeopaths were able to distinguish between ...
Being before even rudimentary scientific methods such as control groups-and by extension, double-blind experiments-existed, ... and that the newer method of treating the insane by the removal of focal infection placed the institution in a unique position ... He could only follow faulty methods to compile data, much of it allowing for projection of anticipated results. He reported ... asked to make presentations about his work and to share information with the others who practiced the same or similar methods. ...
All randomized double-blind studies, whether finding for or against the solutions, have suffered from small cohort sizes but ... Bach was satisfied with the method, because of its simplicity, and because it involved a process of combination of the four ... rather than using research based on scientific methods.[16]p. 185 If Bach felt a negative emotion, he would hold his hand over ... Walach H, Rilling C, Engelke U (2001). "Efficacy of Bach-flower remedies in test anxiety: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, ...
To avoid bias and wishful thinking, double-blind prediction competitions have been organized, the original example of which ( ... There are several current or proposed methods for making this distinction such as Random Coil Index, but so far the NMR ... Zemla, A. (2003). "LGA: a method for finding 3D similarities in protein structures". Nucleic Acids Research. 31 (13): 3370-4. ... Lütteke, Thomas; von der Lieth, Claus W. (2009-01-01). "Data mining the PDB for glyco-related data". Methods in Molecular ...
... double-blinded, placebo-controlled study demonstrated that domperidone increased milk production in mothers of preterm infants. ... After the above treatment methods have been attempted, many breastfeeding specialists and lactation consultants recommend ... The main method for increasing milk supply is improved breastfeeding practices and/or expressing milk through pumping or hand ... The primary method for increasing milk supply is to increase the frequency and the thoroughness of milk drainage from the ...
... double blind multi-centre trial (high level of reliability) indicates that Orthoptic Vision Therapy is an effective method of ... Vision therapy encompasses a wide variety of non-surgical methods which may be divided into several broad categories: Orthoptic ... His method, called the MKH method, is not recognized as an evidence-based approach. Some physicians are skeptical about the ... Patients who experience eyestrain, "tired" eyes, or diplopia (double vision) while reading or performing other near work, and ...
A randomized double-blind trial in 2012 was carried out to determine whether homeopaths were able to distinguish between ... Bryonia and placebo by use of a dowsing method. The results were negative. A 1990 double-blind study was undertaken in Kassel, ... and said modern methods such as drones and listening devices were preferred." Fictional dowsers include: The player in the ... Devotes 19 pages to double-blind tests in Italy which yielded results no better than chance. Spiesberger, Karl, Reveal the ...
A double blind protocol comes into play when human subjects are tested and requires ensuring neither the experimenter nor ... Methods of statistical analysis may be included to guide interpretation of the data. Many protocols include provisions for ... Protocols are written whenever it is desirable to standardize a laboratory method to ensure successful replication of results ... The placebo effect and observer bias often require an experiment to use a double blind protocol and a control group. A protocol ...
non-early intervention in acute migraine-'Act when Mild (AwM)'. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of almotriptan. ... Triptans (serotonin, 5-HT1B/1D agonists) in migraine: detailed results and methods of a meta-analysis of 53 trials. MD Ferrari ... Triptans in the treatment of migraine: drug selection by means of the SOJA method Expert Opin Pharmacother. Janknegt J,2007 Oct ... Almotriptan is effective and well tolerated in migraine patients who respond poorly to oral sumatriptan: A double-blind, ...
... "blind users" of statistical tools and methods. He states that statistics is fundamentally incomplete as a field as it cannot ... can blind us to values associated with double-loop learning and the learning organization, organization adaptability, workforce ... Other early adopters of Six Sigma include Honeywell and General Electric, where Jack Welch introduced the method. By the late ... It uses a set of quality management methods, mainly empirical, statistical methods, and creates a special infrastructure of ...
... double blind testing has failed to show any advantage of pressure cooking over steaming, and has further shown that starting ... One method is to bring water to a boil and cook for ten minutes.[10] Another method is to bring the water to a boil, but then ... Other methods include breaking the eggshell by tapping gently around the top of the shell with a spoon.[7] Soft-boiled eggs can ... There are variations both in degree of cooking and in the method of how eggs are boiled, and a variety of kitchen gadgets for ...
In a 2004 double blind-study, researchers concluded that there was no perceivable benefit gained from lengthening the flexor ... Non-surgical treatment methods include aspirin and other anti-inflammatory drugs. Additionally, the wrist may also be ... retinaculum during surgery and so division of the ligament remains the preferred method of surgery. Peroneal retinacula Dorsal ... Carpal tunnel syndrome may be treated surgically; although this is usually done after all non-surgical methods of treatment ...
A double-blind study was conducted by the ALTA Foundation for Sports Medicine Research in Santa Monica, California and ... Another study has shown that, as an evaluative method, AK "is no more useful than random guessing", and the American Cancer ... and other evaluative methods, even invested researchers delivered the following opinion: One shortcoming is the lack of RCTs to ... alongside conventional diagnostic methods. The essential premise of applied kinesiology, which is not shared by mainstream ...
A 2001 double-blind study of 799 discharged coronary surgery patients found that "intercessory prayer had no significant effect ... a b "[A]lternative medicine refers to all treatments that have not been proven effective using scientific methods."[10] ... By scientific method, he meant testing ideas with well-planned experiments to establish accurate facts. The clinician's ... Unlike medicine,[n 4] an alternative product or practice does not originate from using scientific methods, but may instead be ...
The presented method was validated according to ICH guidelines. Statistical comparison of the results was performed using ... It could be said that the validated TLC-densitometry method is suitable for the routine analysis of inosine pranobex in ... and there was no significant difference between the reference and proposed method with regard to accuracy and precision. ... "Randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial of inosine pranobex in rheumatoid arthritis" J. Ann. Rheum. , 49, pp. 293- ...
Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted for a period of 12 months using 1 unit/ml HS and NS 0.9% solution. The ...
Angoff Method. *Body of Work Method. *Bookmark Method. *Construct-Related Validity Evidence ... the use of double-blind design in randomized controlled trials, and the importance of the double-blind design in minimizing ... Blinding is used in various study designs but is most often associated with randomized controlled trials. Double-blind designs ... Double-Blind Design , The SAGE Encyclopedia of Educational Research, Measurement, and Evaluation Search form. ...
double blind method [mh]. *. single blind method [mh]. *. cross-over studies [mh] ... Methods. Study selection. Using an extended version of Phase 1 from the Cochrane search strategy (see box 1),6 we identified ... However, for 32% (90/281) of these responses, we found evidence of outcomes that were mentioned in the methods section but not ... We identified unreported outcomes if they were described in the methods section but not the results section of any publication ...
METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, two-arm, placebo-controlled study was set in the King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, ... Glutathione as an oral whitening agent: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.. Arjinpathana N1, Asawanonda P. ...
Pain Measurement/methods. Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control. Prospective Studies. Double-Blind Method. Tibial Fractures/ ... Gourlay GK, Willis RJ, Lamberty J. A double-blind comparison of the efficacy of methadone and morphine in postoperative pain ... Intraoperative Care/methods. Male. Methadone/administration & dosage. Analgesics/therapeutic use. Methadone/therapeutic use. ...
The double-blind test seeks to eliminate two unpopular methods of photo identification. The first is the non-sequential or ... No Cheating Allowed: Prince Georges County Adopts the Double-Blind Method of Eyewitness Photo Identification ... "double-blind" method. The new changes will require police officers to institute two safeguards when showing eyewitnesses a ... Labels: double-blind, eyewitness misidentification, Jennifer Thompson, Manson v. Brathwaite, Neil v. Biggers, photo lineup, ...
exp double-blind method/. 28. exp single-blind method/. 29. randomized controlled trial.pt.. ... Data-Gathering Workshop Methods and Approaches to the Assessment of WIC Food Packages Committee to Review WIC Food Packages ... Simplify method for determining infant formula quantities/add flexibility to minimum and maximum ranges. The current method ... Methods and Approaches to the Assessment of WIC Food Packages Committee to Review WIC Food Packages: Public Comment Session ...
In a double-blind, randomized trial of infliximab for chronic pulmonary sarcoidosis, changes in serial chest roent ... The best method to interpret the chest roentgenogram and its sensitivity to detect effect of treatment for sarcoidosis remains ... Double-Blind Method. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Probability. Radiography, ... blinded to order or treatment.. METHODS: Chest roentgenograms were obtained at 0, 6, and 24 weeks of therapy with either ...
Method of randomisation not stated. Method of concealment of allocation stated. Double-blind. Unclear if other IBS medications ... Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched (up to July 2017). Randomised controlled ... Method of randomisation stated. Method of concealment of allocation not stated. Double-blind. No other IBS medications allowed. ... Method of randomisation stated. Method of concealment of allocation not stated. Double-blind. Other IBS medications allowed.. ...
Methods:A Multiple-Center, Randomized, Double-Blind.. Study Design. Go to Top of Page Study Description Study Design Arms and ... Aripiprazole group,5mg/pill,10mg/day non-forced titration method,last 12weeks ... A Multiple-Center, Randomized, Double-Blind Study of Aripiprazole for Treatment of Methamphetamine Dependence. ... placebo group,5mg/pill,10mg/day non-forced titration method,last 12 weeks ...
METHODS: We conducted a prospective, 24-week, followup, multicenter, double-blind, controlled study of CCII ... Double-Blind Method. Female. Humans. Male. Methotrexate / adverse effects, therapeutic use*. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome. ... METHODS: We conducted a prospective, 24-week, followup, multicenter, double-blind, controlled study of CCII (0.1 mg/day) versus ... A randomized, double-blind, multicenter, controlled clinical trial of chicken type II collagen in patients with rheumatoid ...
Double-blind methods can be applied to any experimental situation in which there is a possibility that the results will be ... It is also difficult to use the double blind method to compare surgical and non-surgical interventions (although sham surgery, ... Double-blind trials[edit]. "Double blind" redirects here. It is not to be confused with double bind. ... Triple-blind trials[edit]. A triple-blind study is an extension of the double-blind design; the committee monitoring response ...
... leading to the difficulty of blind method enforcement. This article described a double-blind method. It could be used in ... and in two phases to achieve double-blind. This method not only guaranteed investigators and subjects to be in blinded ... We describe methods used in the Year 6 Follow-Up (Y6FU) of children who participated in the Infant Feeding Practices Study II ( ... Methods: Stroke was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by a two-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) using a ...
Method. Design. The study followed a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover methodology. It used multi-dose, ... Methods. This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial (N = 32, healthy young adults) assessed the acute ... Haskell C, Kennedy D, Wesnes K, Milne A, Scholey A (2007) A double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-dose evaluation of the ... Effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) on neurocognitive function: an acute, randomised, double-blind, placebo- ...
"Single-Blind Method"[MeSH]; "Double-Blind Method"[MeSH]; "Random Allocation"[MeSH]; "meta-analysis"[Publication Type]; "meta- ... Available at /sites/default/files/pdf/methods-guidance-observational-studies_methods.pdf. ... uses appropriate statistical and analytical methods, reports low attrition, and reports methods and outcomes clearly and ... Health Topics Consumers Products & Tools Research Methods Get Involved Browse Products About News Contact Us Email Updates ...
2. Methods and Material. This was a double blind, prospective randomized study. Inclusion criteria were an isolated ACL rupture ... One could argue whether an inherent limitation of the study was the method of PRP application. Murray in an in vitro study has ... Methods. This is a double blind, prospective randomized study. 51 patients have completed the assigned protocol. Recruited ... Strong points of our study include the methodology and the homogeneity of the sample, of the fixation method, and the ...
The test was conducted in a double-blind method. I. Before Intake ... in an appropriate medium in accordance with the conventional methods or the known methods. ... A double-blind test was conducted with respect to the VDT workers. The VDT workers were divided into an astaxanthin- ... 8. The method of claim 1, wherein the astaxanthin and/or ester thereof is administered in a food or a drink. 9. A method for ...
METHODS: Randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study. […]. Continue Reading 0 Suppression of growth and invasive ... Dosage and Method: Turmeric * African Medicinal Plant Research Review * New Poisonous Plant Guide ...
23 exp Double-Blind Method/ or double blind.mp. or exp Placebos/ (111321) ... Methods: A systematic search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PEDro, and the Cochrane Library was performed to identify relevant ... Double-blind cross-over comparison of indomethacin, flurbiprofen, and placebo in ankylosing spondylitis. Ann Rheum Dis1974;33: ... Dougados M, Caporal R, Doury P, Thiesce A, Pattin S, Laffez B, et al. A double blind crossover placebo controlled trial of ...
... double-blind, and placebo-controlled study in a population of 120 healthy adults between the ages of 60 and 80 years. The study ... Others who took a double dose of NRPT had even higher levels of NAD+, while those who took the placebo saw no increase. ... All subjects took their blinded supplement daily for eight weeks. Analysis of NAD+ in whole blood demonstrated that NRPT ... consisted of three treatment arms: placebo, recommended dose of NRPT (NRPT 1X), and double dose of NRPT (NRPT 2X). ...
... allergenic activity evaluated by double-blind, placebo-controlled food challeng were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime ... METHODS. Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFC) with roasted hazelnuts (140 degrees C, 40 min) were ... ImmunologicDouble-Blind MethodFemaleHistamine ReleaseHumansImmunoblottingImmunoglobulin EMaleMiddle AgedNut Hypersensitivity ... METHODS: Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFC) with roasted hazelnuts (140 degrees C, 40 min) were ...
Methods. Two randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover studies of postmenopausal women were performed. Subjects ... Double-Blind Method, Drug Administration Schedule, Drug Therapy; Combination, Estradiol/analogs & derivatives/pharmacology, ...
Methods. Study patients. Eligible patients were aged ≥ 18 years and had PTNP for ≥ 6 months after a surgical or non-surgical ... A multiple imputation (MI) method was used to impute missing MPS for the primary efficacy analysis, with poor outcomes imputed ... Following a single-blind screening period, the 15-week double-blind treatment period comprised 3 weeks of dose titration/ ... This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of patients with PTNP did not demonstrate a ...
METHODS: Prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Thirty-three male patients over the age of 18 years with functional class ... The AT was determined as the point of inflection in the VO2 x VCO2 curve, by using the V-slope method. The CPET was symptom- ... This is a prospective, randomized, double-blind study carried out from April 2009 to January 2010 at the Hospital das Clínicas ... Hemodynamic effects of creatine phosphate in patients with congestive heart failure: a double-blind comparison trial versus ...
  • The improvement in AHR at the end of treatment was 1.5 doubling doses (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.0 to 2.9, p=0.047) greater in the yoga intervention group than in the control group. (bmj.com)
  • Single-blind describes experiments where information that could introduce bias or otherwise skew the result is withheld from the participants, but the experimenter will be in full possession of the facts. (wikipedia.org)
  • After 4-6 weeks of baseline and double-blind, placebo-controlled challenges for diagnosis of cow's milk allergy (CMA), infants less than 5 months old with AD received a hydrolysed whey-based formula as placebo (n = 17), or supplemented with either Lactobacillus rhamnosus (n = 17) or Lactobacillus GG (n = 16) for 3 months. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • BACKGROUND: The best method to interpret the chest roentgenogram and its sensitivity to detect effect of treatment for sarcoidosis remains unclear. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Single-blind experimental design is used where the experimenters either must know the full facts (for example, when comparing sham to real surgery) and so the experimenters cannot themselves be blind, or where the experimenters will not introduce further bias and so the experimenters need not be blind. (wikipedia.org)
  • In lijn met zijn achtergrond (MD, PhD, klinisch farmacoloog en epidemioloog B) heeft hij een grote interesse en kennis op het gebied van geneesmiddeleffecten en het onderzoek van geneesmiddelen vanaf de vroege ontwikkeling (fase 1 studies) tot en met farmaco-epidemiologische studies na toelating van geneesmiddelen op de markt. (uu.nl)
  • 1. A method of treating a failure of accommodation in a subject comprising the step of administering to said subject a pharmacologically effective amount of astaxanthin and/or an ester thereof. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Primary outcome measures were reduction in medication and headache days/month 3 months after the intervention and were assessed by a blinded clinical investigator. (bmj.com)
  • Blind experiments are an important tool of the scientific method , in many fields of research- medicine , psychology and the social sciences , natural sciences such as physics and biology , applied sciences such as market research , and many others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blind experiments went on to be used outside of purely scientific settings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experienced teacher across all levels from undergraduate to Continuing Professional Development for practising Health Professionals passionate about the communication of up to date science and scientific methods. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Investigators noted while these reports showed little evidence of colon cleansing benefits, there were a number of side effects reported following the use of these cleansing methods. (cnn.com)
  • Imagine all the people who are using these products and methods and have side effects and never go to the hospital. (cnn.com)
  • 4 Buteyko breathing, a method of controlled breathing, has recently attracted attention in Australia and some preliminary evidence suggests that it may have beneficial effects. (bmj.com)
  • The terms blind ( adjective ) or to blind ( transitive verb ) when used in this sense are figurative extensions of the literal idea of blindfolding someone. (wikipedia.org)