Clinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Wireless Technology: Techniques using energy such as radio frequency, infrared light, laser light, visible light, or acoustic energy to transfer information without the use of wires, over both short and long distances.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Ovulation Induction: Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Insemination, Artificial: Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Antineoplastic Protocols: Clinical protocols used to inhibit the growth or spread of NEOPLASMS.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Benchmarking: Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Therapy, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems utilized as adjuncts in the treatment of disease.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Fertility Agents, Female: Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Cryoprotective Agents: Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Estrus Synchronization: Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Tissue Fixation: The technique of using FIXATIVES in the preparation of cytologic, histologic, or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all the constituent elements.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Sample Size: The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Ethics Committees, Research: Hospital or other institutional committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects. Federal regulations (the "Common Rule" (45 CFR 46)) mandate the use of these committees to monitor federally-funded biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Multicenter Studies as Topic: Works about controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific patient populations, for example, a multicenter study of congenital anomalies in children.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma: A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Review Literature as Topic: Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Automation: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Ethical Review: A formal process of examination of patient care or research proposals for conformity with ethical standards. The review is usually conducted by an organized clinical or research ethics committee (CLINICAL ETHICS COMMITTEES or RESEARCH ETHICS COMMITTEES), sometimes by a subset of such a committee, an ad hoc group, or an individual ethicist (ETHICISTS).Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.United StatesPain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Asparaginase: A hydrolase enzyme that converts L-asparagine and water to L-aspartate and NH3. EC 3.5.1.1.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.GermanyNeoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Mice, Inbred C57BLPostoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Cell SeparationAcute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Menotropins: Extracts of urine from menopausal women that contain high concentrations of pituitary gonadotropins, FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE. Menotropins are used to treat infertility. The FSH:LH ratio and degree of purity vary in different preparations.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Human: A major gonadotropin secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and the LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. The alpha subunit is common in the three human pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Telemetry: Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Ventilator Weaning: Techniques for effecting the transition of the respiratory-failure patient from mechanical ventilation to spontaneous ventilation, while meeting the criteria that tidal volume be above a given threshold (greater than 5 ml/kg), respiratory frequency be below a given count (less than 30 breaths/min), and oxygen partial pressure be above a given threshold (PaO2 greater than 50mm Hg). Weaning studies focus on finding methods to monitor and predict the outcome of mechanical ventilator weaning as well as finding ventilatory support techniques which will facilitate successful weaning. Present methods include intermittent mandatory ventilation, intermittent positive pressure ventilation, and mandatory minute volume ventilation.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Dissection: The separation and isolation of tissues for surgical purposes, or for the analysis or study of their structures.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Artifacts: Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.Melengestrol Acetate: A 6-methyl PROGESTERONE acetate with reported glucocorticoid activity and effect on ESTRUS.Desensitization, Immunologic: Immunosuppression by the administration of increasing doses of antigen. Though the exact mechanism is not clear, the therapy results in an increase in serum levels of allergen-specific IMMUNOGLOBULIN G, suppression of specific IgE, and an increase in suppressor T-cell activity.Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Medical Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.Electroporation: A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.Great BritainClinical Trials Data Monitoring Committees: Committees established to review interim data and efficacy outcomes in clinical trials. The findings of these committees are used in deciding whether a trial should be continued as designed, changed, or terminated. Government regulations regarding federally-funded research involving human subjects (the "Common Rule") require (45 CFR 46.111) that research ethics committees reviewing large-scale clinical trials monitor the data collected using a mechanism such as a data monitoring committee. FDA regulations (21 CFR 50.24) require that such committees be established to monitor studies conducted in emergency settings.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Triptorelin Pamoate: A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-tryptophan substitution at residue 6.Tissue Embedding: The technique of placing cells or tissue in a supporting medium so that thin sections can be cut using a microtome. The medium can be paraffin wax (PARAFFIN EMBEDDING) or plastics (PLASTIC EMBEDDING) such as epoxy resins.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Respiratory Therapy: Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Cytological Techniques: Methods used to study CELLS.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Skin Care: Maintenance of the hygienic state of the skin under optimal conditions of cleanliness and comfort. Effective in skin care are proper washing, bathing, cleansing, and the use of soaps, detergents, oils, etc. In various disease states, therapeutic and protective solutions and ointments are useful. The care of the skin is particularly important in various occupations, in exposure to sunlight, in neonates, and in PRESSURE ULCER.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Critical Care: Health care provided to a critically ill patient during a medical emergency or crisis.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Remission Induction: Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.Oocyte Retrieval: Procedures to obtain viable OOCYTES from the host. Oocytes most often are collected by needle aspiration from OVARIAN FOLLICLES before OVULATION.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Emergency Medical Services: Services specifically designed, staffed, and equipped for the emergency care of patients.Fluid Therapy: Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Prednisone: A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Whole Body Imaging: The creation of a visual display of the inside of the entire body of a human or animal for the purposes of diagnostic evaluation. This is most commonly achieved by using MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; or POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Intensive Care: Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.Microwaves: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome: A complication of OVULATION INDUCTION in infertility treatment. It is graded by the severity of symptoms which include OVARY enlargement, multiple OVARIAN FOLLICLES; OVARIAN CYSTS; ASCITES; and generalized EDEMA. The full-blown syndrome may lead to RENAL FAILURE, respiratory distress, and even DEATH. Increased capillary permeability is caused by the vasoactive substances, such as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS, secreted by the overly-stimulated OVARIES.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Methods[edit]. Single-cell RNA sequencing workflow. Current scRNA-seq protocols involve isolating single cells and their RNA, ... "Method of the year 2013". Nature Methods. 11 (1): 1. January 2014. doi:10.1038/nmeth.2801. PMID 24524124.. ... Another common method is MALBAC.[15] This method begins with isothermal amplification as done in MDA, but the primers are ... The choice of method depends on the goal of the sequencing because each method presents different advantages.[7] ...
Signal Transduction Protocols. Methods in Molecular Biology. Humana Press. pp. 67-77. doi:10.1385/1-59259-816-1:067. ISBN ...
Josefsen K, Nielsen H (2011). Nielsen H (ed.). RNA methods and protocols. Methods in Molecular Biology. 703. New York: Humana ... For more extensive list on protein methods, see protein methods. For more extensive list on nucleic acid methods, see nucleic ... Methods in Enzymology. 529. pp. 85-98. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-418687-3.00007-0. ISBN 978-0-12-418687-3. . ISSN 1557-7988. PMID ... "Methods in Enzymology. 530: 75-87. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-420037-1.00003-8. ISBN 978-0-12-420037-1. . PMC 4287216. PMID 24034315 ...
Mora, Maria F.; Stockton, Amanda M.; Willis, Peter A. (2015). Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis Protocols. Methods in ... This "digitisation" method facilitates the use of a hierarchical and cell-based approach for microfluidic biochip design. ... Confining cells and exerting controlled forces by coupling with external force-generation methods such as Stokes flow, optical ... One common actuation method for digital microfluidics is electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD). Many lab-on-a-chip applications ...
"In Lowrie DB, Whalen RG (eds.). DNA Vaccines: Methods and Protocols. Humana Press. ISBN 978-0-89603-580-5. .. ... between VAS and administration of aluminum adjuvated rabies and FeLV vaccines was established through epidemiologic methods, ...
Pollard, Andrew J.; Maiden, Martin C. J. (2001). Meningococcal Disease: Methods and Protocols. Humana Press. ISBN 978-0-89603- ...
Sometimes a hybrid method is employed such that the binding is done by the batch method, but the solid phase with the target ... Current Protocols in Protein Science. Chapter 9. pp. 9.1.1-9.1.9. doi:10.1002/0471140864.ps0901s00. ISBN 978-0471140863. . ISSN ... A third method, expanded bed absorption, which combines the advantages of the two methods mentioned above, has also been ... Methods used to elute the protein of interest include changing the pH, or adding a competitive molecule, such as imidazole.[20] ...
Methods in Enzymology. Laboratory Methods in Enzymology: Protein Part C. 541. Academic Press. pp. 85-94.. ... "Current Protocols in Protein Science. 13 (1): A.3F.1-8. doi:10.1002/0471140864.psa03fs13. ISSN 1934-3655. PMC 4817497 . PMID ... This method is called salting out and necessitates the use of high salt concentrations that can reliably dissolve in the ... As such, although high concentrations are needed for the method to work adding an abundance of the salt, over 100%, can also ...
Methods in Molecular Biology. . 359, 2007, S. 37-52. doi:10.1007/978-1-59745-255-7_3. PMID 17484109. ... Nature Protocols. . 3, Nr. 3, 2008, S. 505-16. doi:10.1038/nprot.2008.2. PMID 18323819. ... Nature Protocols. . 1, Nr. 6, 2006, S. 2650-60. doi:10.1038/nprot.2006.427. PMID 17406521. ...
2012). Ancient DNA: Methods and Protocols. New York: Humana Press. ISBN 978-1-61779-515-2.. ...
An optimised protocol developed by two of the authors of the original publication was published in 2006. It should be noted ... Methods Cell Biol 63:527-559, PMID 11060857 "Cell Cycle Basics" (PDF). University College London. Archived from the original ( ... The first protocol for cell cycle analysis using propidium iodide staining was presented in 1975 by Awtar Krishan from Harvard ... Cell cycle analysis by DNA content measurement is a method that most frequently employs flow cytometry to distinguish cells in ...
Glycovirology Protocols. Methods in Molecular Biology. 379. pp. 51-68. doi:10.1007/978-1-59745-393-6_4. ISBN 978-1-58829-590-3 ... Methods in Molecular Biology. 454. pp. 319-29. doi:10.1007/978-1-59745-181-9_22. ISBN 978-1-58829-867-6. Regan, A. D.; ...
Nelson, Joel D; Denisenko, Oleg; Bomsztyk, Karol (2006). "Protocol for the fast chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) method". ... Nelson J, Denisenko O, Bomsztyk K (2009). "The fast chromatin immunoprecipitation method". Methods in Molecular Biology. 567: ... However, the fast protocol is suitable only for large cell samples (in the range of 106~107). Up to 24 sheared chromatin ... Briefly, the conventional method is as follows: DNA and associated proteins on chromatin in living cells or tissues are ...
Nature Methods. 12 (1): 7-8. doi:10.1038/nmeth.3213. PMID 25549265. Roy A, Kucukural A, Zhang Y (April 2010). "I-TASSER: a ... unified platform for automated protein structure and function prediction". Nature Protocols. 5 (4): 725-38. doi:10.1038/nprot. ...
Trinucleotide Repeat Protocols. Methods in Molecular Biology. Humana Press. pp. 95-109. doi:10.1007/978-1-62703-411-1_7. ISBN ... Electroporation Protocols. Methods in Molecular Biology. Springer New York. pp. 131-138. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-9632-8_11. ISBN ... This method has been used to deliver siRNA targeting VEGF into the xenografted tumors in nude mice, which resulted in a ... This method is advantageous because it can deliver siRNA to most types of cells, has high efficiency and reproducibility, and ...
Yang, J. (2015). "The I-TASSER Suite: Protein structure and function prediction". Nature Methods. 12 (1): 7-8. doi:10.1038/ ... Roy, A. (2010). "I-TASSER: a unified platform for automated protein structure and function prediction". Nature Protocols. 5: ...
The most general method to monitor the purification process is by running a SDS-PAGE of the different steps. This method only ... "The Strep-tag system for one-step purification and high-affinity detection or capturing of proteins". Nature Protocols. 2 (6): ... In analytical methods, the protein migrate as bands based on size. Each band can be detected using stains such as Coomassie ... Another method to be considered is Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). SPR can detect binding of label free molecules on the ...
... is a unique method and the initial step that opens the bottleneck of protein isolation in complex protein mixtures. ... Wittig I, Braun HP, Schägger H (2006). "Blue native PAGE". Nature Protocols. 1 (1): 418-28. doi:10.1038/nprot.2006.62. PMID ... Cerchiaro G, Manieri TM, Bertuchi FR (2013). "Analytical methods for copper, zinc and iron quantification in mammalian cells". ... Kastenholz B (2014) [2003]. "Method for isolating metal cofactors out from biologically-organic systems involving the use of ...
An alternative method used in Vaa3D is to combine both global and local 3D viewers. The global 3D viewer optionally displays ... 2014). "Extensible visualization and analysis for multidimensional images using Vaa3D". Nature Protocols. 9 (1): 193-208. doi: ... In a recent Nature Methods review article, it has been viewed as one of the leading Open Source software suites in the related ... Vaa3D also provides methods to annotate these cells and identify their names. Vaa3D also provides a SRS (Simultaneous ...
Ryder SP, Strobel SA (1999). "Nucleotide Analog Interference Mapping". Methods: A Comparison to Methods in Enzymology. 18: 38- ... Waldsich C (2008). "Dissecting RNA folding by nucleotide analog interference mapping (NAIM)". Nature Protocols. 3 (5): 811-823 ... While methods for each type of probing differ in steps, the probing of secondary structure involves certain steps in order to ... Two-dimensional NMR methods are almost always used, such as correlation spectroscopy (COSY) and total coherence transfer ...
Methods Cell Biol, 103:55-98. PMID 21722800 PMC 3263828. Gold R, Schmied M, Rothe G, Zischler H, Breitschopf H, Wekerle H, ... Nature Protocols. 1 (3): 1458-1461. doi:10.1038/nprot.2006.238. PMID 17406435. Nagata, S.; Enari, M.; Sakahira, H.; Yokoyama, H ... Nicoletti I, Migliorati G, Pagliacci MC, Grignani F, Riccardi C (3 June 1991). "A rapid and simple method for measuring ... which become one of the standard methods to detect and identify apoptotic cells. Flow cytometry is most frequently used to ...
Brendel V, Bucher P, Nourbakhsh IR, Blaisdell BE, Karlin S (March 1992). "Methods and algorithms for statistical analysis of ... Nature Protocols. 5 (4): 725-38. doi:10.1038/nprot.2010.5. PMID 20360767. Yang J, Yan R, Roy A, Xu D, Poisson J, Zhang Y ( ... Garnier J, Osguthorpe DJ, Robson B (March 1978). "Analysis of the accuracy and implications of simple methods for predicting ... "Methods and algorithms for statistical analysis of protein sequences". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ...
Standardized protocols of SILAC for various application have also been published. While SILAC had been mostly used in studying ... Pulsed SILAC (pSILAC) is a variation of the SILAC method where the labelled amino acids are added to the growth medium for only ... It is a popular method for quantitative proteomics. Two populations of cells are cultivated in cell culture. One of the cell ... In addition, SILAC has become an important method in secretomics, the global study of secreted proteins and secretory pathways ...
Methods in Enzymology. Methods in Enzymology. 326: 271-304. doi:10.1016/S0076-6879(00)26060-6. ISBN 978-0-12-182227-9. PMID ... Nature Protocols. 2 (6): 1528-35. doi:10.1038/nprot.2007.209. PMID 17571060. Skerra, A; Schmidt, TG (2000). "Use of the Strep- ... The Strep-tag® system is a method which allows the purification and detection of proteins by affinity chromatography. The Strep ...
"In Stockand, James D.; Shapiro, Mark S. Ion Channels: Methods and Protocols. Methods in Molecular Biology, Volume 337. Totowa, ... "In Chalfie, Martin; Kain, Steven R. Green Fluorescent Protein: Properties, Applications and Protocols. Methods of Biochemical ... "Nature Methods. 3 (3): 165-174. doi:10.1038/nmeth841. PMID 16489332.. *^ Pfleger, Kevin D. G.; Eidne, Karin A. (2005-02-01). " ... "Nature Methods. 12 (7): 661-663. doi:10.1038/nmeth.3398. ISSN 1548-7105. PMC 4488387 . PMID 26030448.. ...
a b "[A]lternative medicine refers to all treatments that have not been proven effective using scientific methods."[10] ... Research into alternative therapies often fails to follow proper research protocols (such as placebo-controlled trials, blind ... Unlike medicine,[n 4] an alternative product or practice does not originate from using scientific methods, but may instead be ... Methods may incorporate or base themselves on traditional medicine, folk knowledge, spiritual beliefs, ignorance or ...
Payment method: Visa / MasterCard / Wiretransfer / Amex. Delivery Time: 5-7 business days by Courier Service or 10-21 business ... interactions cytoxan for chemo cyclophosphamide chemical class cyclophosphamide chemotherapy drug cyclophosphamide protocol ...
MLVA Protocols *Analysis: Shiga-Toxin Producing E. coli O157 Applied BioSystems Genetic Analyzer 3130/3500 pdf icon[PDF - 10 ... These protocols are listed below and can also be found on CDCs Web pages describing each pathogen. ... Because of differences in the bacteria that PulseNet subtypes, PulseNet has developed separate protocols for each bacteria that ... Additionally, because of the variation between machines, MLVA protocols have been developed separately for specific machines. ...
In Complement Methods and Protocols, B. Paul Morgan and a team of expert laboratorians present a comprehensive set of readily ... Comprehensive and cutting-edge, Complement Methods and Protocols offers todays basic and clinical investigators powerful tools ... Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 150) ... reproducible methods to study this critical system. These cutting-edge techniques are suitable both for the basic scientist ...
In Allergy: Methods and Protocols a groundbreaking new title from the Methods in Molecular Medicine series, leaders in the ... Allergy: Methods and Protocols will be a remarkably useful bench tool for anyone embarking in or continuing with their research ... These cover a range of disciplines including allergy, immunology, cell biology and histology and include methods to investigate ... The Facilitated Antigen Binding (FAB) Assay - A Protocol to Measure Allergen-Specific Inhibitory Antibody Activity ...
Methods and protocols. Chick heart whole mount preparations (Ehler et al. 1999). The heart was dissected in cold PBS and fixed ... Home , Faculty of Life Sciences & Medicine , Research , Schools , Our research , Muscle Biophysics , Ehler Group , Methods and ...
... - a new series This month, Silence launches a new series on methods and protocols to study silencing ... RNA: Methods and Protocols. This special collection of articles has been launched with the intention of providing novel ... Content type: Methods. Strand-specific libraries for high throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) prepared without poly(A) ... Content type: Methods. Development of a luciferase-based reporter of transcriptional gene silencing that enables bidirectional ...
Volume 1 provides readily reproducible protocols for studying embryo-uterine implantation, trophoblast cell development, and ... A companion second volume concentrates on methods for investigating placental function. ... Placenta and Trophoblast: Methods and Protocols. Methods in molecular medicine, ISSN 1543-1894. Springer protocols. ... Placenta and Trophoblast: Methods and Protocols, Volume 2. Michael J. Soares,Joan S. Hunt. No preview available - 2006. ...
The methods described in this book help scientists and researchers visualize, fractionate, purify, and study primary and ... Methods and Protocols Editors. * Eric Marechal Series Title. Methods in Molecular Biology. Series Volume. 1829. Copyright. 2018 ... Cutting-edge and thorough, Plastids: Methods and Protocols is a valuable resource for students, engineers, and researchers who ... The methods described in this book help scientists visualize, fractionate, purify, and study primary and secondary plastids in ...
Chapters cover a wide range of approaches focusing on genetic, biochemical, spectroscopic, chemical methods, and theoretical ... in-depth overview of the methods that have been applied to studying the complex metalloproteins at a molecular level. ... Methods and Protocols Editors. * YILIN HU Series Title. Methods in Molecular Biology. Series Volume. 1876. Copyright. 2019. ... Authoritative and cutting-edge, Metalloproteins: Methods and Protocols aims to be useful for anyone who is interested in ...
... methods and protocols. [Pascal Bailon;] -- Annotation,p,Affinity chromatography is a powerful tool, with exquisite specificity ... This comprehensive collection of detailed affinity chromatography methods ... ... methods and protocols schema:name "Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) ;" ;. . ... methods and protocols schema:name "Methods in molecular biology ;" ;. . ...
In Genotoxicity Assessment: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers in the ... ... methods and protocols. [Alok Dhawan; Mahima Bajpayee;] -- Genetic toxicology is recognized by geneticists and researchers ... methods and protocols schema:issn "1064-3745" ;. schema:name "Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) ;" ;. . ... methods and protocols schema:name "Methods in molecular biology ;" ;. . ...
Written with the practitioner in mind, all the methods and techniques are described with step-by-step protocols backed by much ... this handbook and reference presents current methods and protocols for the analysis of human kidney and urine. The worlds ... Simple Methods for Sample Preparation in Gel-Based Urinary Proteomics (Thongboonkerd). Prefractionation of Urinary Proteins ( ... Applied Statistics for Network Biology: Methods in Systems Biology. by Matthias Dehmer (Editor), Frank Emmert-Streib (Editor), ...
This activity provides an approach to teach field methods that is programmed to avoid common pitfalls in teaching field methods ... Round Robin Field Methods Protocols for Improved Outcomes Round Robin Field Methods Protocols for Improved Outcomes Todd ... Environmental Sampling Methods from Microbial Life Educational Resources. *Biogeochemical Methods from Microbial Life ... Environmental Sampling Methods from Microbial Life Educational Resources. *Biogeochemical Methods from Microbial Life ...
Within the EndAdd method of the proxy class, the EndInvoke method starts an asynchronous invocation of the Add XML Web service ... The IAsyncResult returned from the BeginInvoke method. Return Value. Type: System.Object. An array of objects containing the ... Namespace: System.Web.Services.Protocols. Assembly: System.Web.Services (in System.Web.Services.dll). Syntax. ... System.Web.Services.Protocols.UrlParameterWriter))] public int Add(int num1, int num2) { return ((int)(this.Invoke("Add", (( ...
In Immunotoxicity Testing: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers explore these changes, providing the reader with current, ... Methods and Protocols. Editors. * Rodney R. Dietert Series Title. Methods in Molecular Biology. Series Volume. 598. Copyright. ... Methods and Protocols is a critical, one-stop reference resource for the most important and commonly used laboratory protocols ... "This volume forms part of the Springer Protocols Methods in Molecular Biology series … . All the chapters are quite well ...
General Laboratory Protocol. *NIOSH has a general protocol for evaluating methods of laboratory analysis: *Kennedy, E.R.; ... ISO: Workplace Atmospheres - Protocol for Evaluating the Performance of Diffusive Samplers, International Organization for ... Fischbach, T.J.; Song, R; Eller, P.M.; Shulman, S.A.: "Guidelines for Air Sampling and Analytical Method Development and ... NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods 4th Edition. ...
Methods and Appplications in Microscopy and is $127.10. Free shipping on all orders over $35.00. ... Current Protocols Select : Methods and Appplications in Microscopy and Imaging. by Watkins, Simon; St. Croix, Claudette *ISBN13 ... Because these are Current Protocols articles, they provide detailed step-by-step instructions for the various methods and ... applications, described and written at a level that lets every investigator employ even very sophisticated microscopy methods. ...
... and are distinguished by the presence of the DRCP Protocol Identifier in the Protocol Identification Field of a SNAP PDU. DRCP ... and are distinguished by the presence of the DRCP Protocol Identifier in the Protocol Identification Field of a SNAP PDU. ... 6. The method of claim 4 wherein a Bid message is sent by a device to the access point if the device ascertains that the access ... The method of claim 16 wherein a Bid message is sent by the station to the access point if the station ascertains that the ...
Transcriptional Regulation: Methods and Protocols takes this progress and builds upon it with a collection of key protocols ... Comprehensive and accessible, Transcriptional Regulation: Methods and Protocols equally serves senior researchers and ... Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology (TM) series format, chapters include introductions to their ... respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and ...
Methods and Protocols, experts in the field provide readers with production and characterization protocols of glycoproteins and ... Authoritative and cutting-edge, Glycosylation Engineering of Biopharmaceuticals: Methods and Protocols serves as an ideal guide ... Glyco-engineering is being developed as a method to control the composition of carbohydrates and to enhance the pharmacological ... Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) series format, chapters include introductions to their ...
Methods and Protocols by Alexei V. Tulin at Barnes & Noble. FREE Shipping on $35.0 or more! ... Authoritative and practical, Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition serves as an ideal companion to ... Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase: Methods and Protocols. by Alexei V. Tulin (Editor)Alexei V. Tulin ... Biochemical and Biophysical Methods for Analysis of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1 and Its Interactions with Chromatin ...
Buy the Paperback Book Neurodegeneration Methods and Protocols by Jean Harry at Indigo.ca, Canadas largest bookstore. + Get ... Neurodegeneration Methods and Protocols. byJean HarryEditorHugh A. Tilson. Paperback , November 9, 2010. ... Title:Neurodegeneration Methods and ProtocolsFormat:PaperbackDimensions:306 pagesPublished:November 9, 2010Publisher:Springer- ... Zymographic Method for the Measurement of Gelatinase Activity in Brain Tissue, Paul E. Gottschall, J. Wenjun Zhang, and Suman ...
The server computer executes one or more applications to perform protocol analysis based on the received data. A client ... A method and system for analyzing a public switched communications network from a remote place via the public Internet. The ... a Web browser may be used to communicate with the server computer via the Internet and access the outcome of the protocol ... The method as defined in claim 16. , wherein the step of performing a protocol analysis includes conducting protocol analysis ...
The chapters in Colorectal Cancer: Methods and Protocols describe state of the art methods to analyze colorectal tumors, ... Methods and Protocols aim to instruct investigators in all the key genetic, cellular, and molecular biological methods of ... Of note, most of the chapters in this volume are written by those scientists who p- neered these methods and assays in their ... The chapters in Colorectal Cancer: Methods and Protocols describe "state of the art" methods to analyze colorectal tumors, ...
Protocol for the BALB/c 3T3 NRU Cytotoxicity Test Method. Protocol for the NHK NRU Cytotoxicity Test Method. Published as ... Protocol for the Mono Mac 6/Interleukin-6 Test Method. Protocols were published as Appendix C to ICCVAM Test Method Evaluation ... Protocol for the Human Whole Blood/Interleukin-1β Test Method. *Protocol for the Human Whole Blood/Interleukin-1β Test Method: ... Protocol for the Hens Egg Test-Chorioallantoic Membrane Test Method. *Protocol for the Isolated Chicken Eye Test Method ...
  • In Allergy: Methods and Protocols a groundbreaking new title from the Methods in Molecular Medicine series, leaders in the field provide assistance for researchers to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in allergy by featuring an array of protocols. (springer.com)
  • Cutting-edge and thorough, Plastids: Methods and Protocols is a valuable resource for students, engineers, and researchers who are interested in this evolving organelle and overall field. (springer.com)
  • In Genotoxicity Assessment: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers in the field provide comprehensive genetictoxicology protocols. (worldcat.org)
  • In Immunotoxicity Testing: Methods and Protocols , expert researchers explore these changes, providing the reader with current, lab-ready procedures, along with the corresponding background information that is necessary to identify effective testing approaches for chemicals and drugs. (apress.com)
  • Through very well-devised and illustrated texts by renowned researchers in immunotoxicology, the 26 chapters of this book cover the vast literature on approaches and strategies for immunotoxic testing, with detailed laboratory protocols. (apress.com)
  • Comprehensive and accessible, Transcriptional Regulation: Methods and Protocols equally serves senior researchers and scientists experienced in transcriptional regulation as well as graduate students and scientists who wish to study transcriptional regulation for the first time. (foyles.co.uk)
  • In Cancer Stem Cells: Methods and Protocols , preeminent researchers have compiled cancer stem cell research techniques and protocols to promote healthy competition, discourse, and collaboration in this vital field. (abebooks.com)
  • Authoritative and cutting-edge, Non-Natural Nucleic Acids: Methods and Protocols aims to serve as a guide for researchers exploring their own inquiries and to provide a springboard for new endeavors. (kriso.ee)
  • Tissue culture methods for specific cell types allow researchers to break these systems down into component parts that can be readily manipulated and observed. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Open access repository of scientific methods allows researchers to view and use experimental protocols, as well as share improvements with their peers. (neb.com)
  • In Argonaute Proteins: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers in this burgeoning field provide detailed, up-to-date methods to study Argonaute protein functions and interactions in a wide variety of cell types ranging from yeast to mammalian systems, as well as in vitro. (buchfreund.de)
  • Because these are Current Protocols articles, they provide detailed step-by-step instructions for the various methods and applications, described and written at a level that lets every investigator employ even very sophisticated microscopy methods. (ecampus.com)
  • The methods described in this book help scientists visualize, fractionate, purify, and study primary and secondary plastids in plant and algal materials. (springer.com)
  • Authoritative and cutting-edge, Genotoxicity Assessment: Methods and Protocols seeks to aid research students and scientists working in regulatory toxicology as well as biomedical, biochemical and pharmaceutical sciences. (worldcat.org)
  • Authoritative and cutting-edge, Glycosylation Engineering of Biopharmaceuticals: Methods and Protocols serves as an ideal guide for scientists striving to push forward the exciting field of engineered biopharmaceuticals. (platekompaniet.no)
  • Authoritative and practical, Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition serves as an ideal companion to the first edition for scientists whose investigations involve this important pathway. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Comprehensive and cutting-edge, Cancer Stem Cells: Methods and Protocols will aid scientists around the world in the furthering of our understanding of cancer initiation and propagation and, most importantly, in the development of novel targets for cancer therapy. (abebooks.com)
  • The goal of the new online platform protocols.io is to provide scientists the ability to easily share experimental methods, including any improvements made to them. (neb.com)
  • Scientists are constantly re-discovering what others have not had the time to publish, and improving existing methods without the ability to share these improvements with the world. (neb.com)
  • More importantly, this will enable scientists to change the protocols online, according to their needs. (neb.com)
  • In Heterologous Gene Expression in E. coli: tools and Protocols, specialist scientists in detail acquainted with the appropriate strategies supply chapters that enormously extend the software of this expression host. (chinatowncoffee.com)
  • In order to predict interactions, unsupervised inference methods generally derive a score expressing the confidence for a pair of nodes to interact, based on analysis of some experimental data such as gene expression measurements. (frontiersin.org)
  • As supervised methods take advantage of known interactions, they can model node specific properties (e.g., in gene regulatory networks, the experimental conditions where a specific regulator becomes active) and thus perform typically much better than unsupervised ones. (frontiersin.org)
  • Performance estimation of both unsupervised and supervised inference methods requires a gold standard of experimentally tested interactions, i.e., pairs of entities labeled as interacting or non-interacting. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, the interactions are uniform and do not follow any protocol and hierarchy as set by culture of an organization or a family. (ip.com)
  • The method and system disclosed herein align such interactions with such established protocol and hierarchy. (ip.com)
  • Figure 1 illustrates a flow chat of modeling CR in-runtime to align interactions with the protocols and hierarchies for a group that could be an organization group or a family group. (ip.com)
  • There can be complex interactions between stateful and stateless protocols among different protocol layers. (wikipedia.org)
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  • Composed in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology(tm) series format, most chapters contain a brief introduction, step-by-step methods, a list of necessary materials, and a Notes section which shares tips from the experts on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. (apress.com)
  • These cover a range of disciplines including allergy, immunology, cell biology and histology and include methods to investigate the cellular response to allergens, cytokine profile, MHC restriction, T regulatory cells. (springer.com)
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  • Synopsis This text presents a comprehensive collection of detailed experimental protocols for studying the cell biology, biochemistry, and molecular biology of natural killer (NK) cells. (uni-protokolle.de)
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  • This video provides the doctor of chiropractic with the latest AMCT protocol for the assessment of flexion, extension, and lateral spinal subluxations. (activator.com)
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  • Capillary Electrophoresis of Biomolecules: Methods and Protocols details key techniques used to investigate Capillary electrophoresis (CE). (nhbs.com)
  • In HTTP, a resource is often used to search for information, and existing systems varyingly use the HTTP GET and POST methods to perform a search. (ietf.org)
  • Often, a POST method is used solely so that a larger set of parameters to the search can be supplied in the request body than can comfortably be transferred in the URI with a GET request. (ietf.org)
  • HTTP-SEARCH ] proposes a SEARCH method that is similar to GET in most properties but enables sending a request body, as is done with POST. (ietf.org)
  • The FETCH method defined in the present specification is inspired by [ HTTP-SEARCH ], which updates the definition and semantics of the HTTP SEARCH request method previously defined by [ RFC5323 ]. (ietf.org)
  • The processor is instructed by the memory to perform the steps of: searching a memory for a destination Internet protocol. (google.ca)
  • and adding the media access control address to the Internet protocol packet as the destination of the packet, if the destination media access control address is not equal to zero. (google.ca)
  • 3. The method of claim 1 , wherein said weight factor is utilized to select said row when more than one destination Internet protocol address is similar. (google.ca)
  • The present invention is an Internet Protocol (IP) network clustering system which can provide a highly scalable system which optimizes message throughput by adaptively load balancing its components, and which minimizes delay and packet loss especially in the TCP mode by a controlled fail-over process. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Examples of stateless protocols include the Internet Protocol (IP), which is the foundation for the Internet, and the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web. (wikipedia.org)
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  • The world's leading experts cover everything from basic techniques for routine analysis to advanced methods for difficult samples or analytes. (wiley.com)
  • The server computer executes one or more applications to perform protocol analysis based on the received data. (google.com)
  • A client computer executing a Web browser may be used to communicate with the server computer via the Internet and access the outcome of the protocol analysis. (google.com)
  • 9. The system as defined in claim 1 , wherein the server computer instructs the device to perform at least one of monitoring, non-intrusive testing, intrusive testing, traffic-injection, and protocol analysis of the first communications network conforming to at least one of a frame relay, ATM, TCP/IP, ISDN, and FDDI protocols. (google.com)
  • It is for these problems that Protocols for Gene Analysis attempts to offer solutions. (abebooks.com)
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  • Lenny Teytelman, cofounder of protocols.io, spent over a year of his postdoctoral research at MIT discovering that a single step of a commonly used scientific method had been incorrectly documented. (neb.com)