A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A species of METHYLOBACTERIUM which can utilize acetate, ethanol, or methylamine as a sole carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES isolated from exuded tree sap.
A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A pyrrolo-quinoline having two adjacent keto-groups at the 4 and 5 positions and three acidic carboxyl groups. It is a coenzyme of some DEHYDROGENASES.
A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of aldehyde or ketone residues. EC 2.2.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, facultatively methylotrophic rods occurring singly or occasionally in rosettes. Members of this genus are usually motile and are isolated from soil, dust, fresh water, lake sediments, leaf surfaces, rice, air, and hospital environments. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
A species of METHYLOPHILUS which is motile by single flagella. In addition to growth on methanol as a sole carbon source, growth also occurs on glucose. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
An isomer of 1-PROPANOL. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
A family of gram-negative bacteria in the order Methylophilales.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
An adverse drug interaction characterized by altered mental status, autonomic dysfunction, and neuromuscular abnormalities. It is most frequently caused by use of both serotonin reuptake inhibitors and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, leading to excess serotonin availability in the CNS at the serotonin 1A receptor.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A colorless, odorless, viscous dihydroxy alcohol. It has a sweet taste, but is poisonous if ingested. Ethylene glycol is the most important glycol commercially available and is manufactured on a large scale in the United States. It is used as an antifreeze and coolant, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of low-freezing dynamites and resins.
Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
The graphic recording of chest wall movement due to cardiac impulses.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
Proteins that bind to ice and modify the growth of ice crystals. They perform a cryoprotective role in a variety of organisms.
The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.
A subclass of ANTIFREEZE PROTEINS that are 3-5 kDa in size and contain a single alanine-rich amphipathic alpha-helix.
A subclass of ANTIFREEZE PROTEINS that are globular, 6.5 kDa in size and contain compact beta-sheet structures.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Water in its gaseous state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of anthranilate (o-aminobenzoate) and pyruvic acid from chorismate and glutamine. Anthranilate is the biosynthetic precursor of tryptophan and numerous secondary metabolites, including inducible plant defense compounds. EC 4.1.3.27.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.

Properties of non-polymerizable tropomyosin obtained by carboxypeptidase A digestion. (1/1719)

Tropomyosin digested with carboxypeptidase A [EC 3.4.12.2] (CTM) shows a lower viscosity than the undigested protein in solution. From the relation between the viscosity decrease and the amount of amino acids liberated from the carboxyl terminus during this digestion, it is inferred that loss of the tri-peptide-Thr-Ser-Ile from the C-terminus is responsible for the decrease in viscosity. The secondary structure of -TM was not affected by the digestion according to circular dichroic measurements. The viscosity of CTM did not increase in methanol-water mixtures, whereas that of tropomyosin increased markedly. These results indicate that polymerizability was lost upon the removal of a small peptide from the C-terminus without change in the secondary structure. A decrease in the viscosity of tropomyosin solutions was observed on the addition of CTM, indicating that CTM interacts with intact tropomyosin. The dependence of the viscosity decrease on the amount of CTM showed that CTM binds tropomyosin in a one-to-one ratio as a result of end-to-end interaction. Since paracrystals having a 400 A repeated band structure could be grown in the presence of Mg ions at neutral pH, side-by-side interactions in CTM molecules remain intact, even though polymerizability is lost. The disc gel electrophoretic pattern showed that troponin could bind to CTM, but no increase in viscosity due to the complex was observed in solution. That is, the C-terminal part of tropomyosin is not required for the formation of the complex. The amount of CTM bound to F-actin was less than half of that bound to undigested tropomyosin, and could be reduced to one-tenth by a washing procedure. In the presence of troponin, however, the amount recovered to the level of tropomyosin normally bound to F-actin. Therefore, it is concluded that troponin is bound in the middle of the tropomyosin molecule and strengthens the binding of tropomyosin to F-actin.  (+info)

Immunofluorescence detection of ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) proteins with their carboxyl-terminal threonine phosphorylated in cultured cells and tissues. (2/1719)

Ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) proteins are thought to play an important role in organizing cortical actin-based cytoskeletons through cross-linkage of actin filaments with integral membrane proteins. Recent in vitro biochemical studies have revealed that ERM proteins phosphorylated on their COOH-terminal threonine residue (CPERMs) are active in their cross-linking activity, but this has not yet been evaluated in vivo. To immunofluorescently visualize CPERMs in cultured cells as well as tissues using a mAb specific for CPERMs, we developed a new fixation protocol using trichloroacetic acid (TCA) as a fixative. Immunoblotting analyses in combination with immunofluorescence microscopy showed that TCA effectively inactivated soluble phosphatases, which maintained the phosphorylation level of CPERMs during sample processing for immunofluorescence staining. Immunofluorescence microscopy with TCA-fixed samples revealed that CPERMs were exclusively associated with plasma membranes in a variety of cells and tissues, whereas total ERM proteins were distributed in both the cytoplasm and plasma membranes. Furthermore, the amounts of CPERMs were shown to be regulated in a cell and tissue type-dependent manner. These findings favored the notion that phosphorylation of the COOH-terminal threonine plays a key role in the regulation of the cross-linking activity of ERM proteins in vivo.  (+info)

Formate-induced inhibition of photoreceptor function in methanol intoxication. (3/1719)

Formic acid is the toxic metabolite responsible for the retinal and optic nerve toxicity produced in methanol intoxication. Previous studies in our laboratory have documented formate-induced retinal dysfunction and histopathology in a rodent model of methanol intoxication. The present studies define the time and concentration dependence of formate-induced retinal toxicity in methanol-intoxicated rats. Retinal function was assessed 24, 48, and 72 h after the initial dose of methanol by flicker electroretinographic measurements. Retinal histopathology was assessed at the same time intervals. Rod- and cone-mediated electroretinogram (ERG) responses were attenuated in a formate concentration- and time-dependent manner, and both retinal sensitivity and maximal responsiveness to light were diminished. Attenuation of UV-cone-mediated responses was temporally delayed in comparison to the functional deficits observed in the 15 Hz/510 nm responses, which have a rod-mediated component and occurred at significantly higher formate concentrations. Both 15 Hz/510 nm and UV-cone-mediated ERG responses were undetectable by 72 h; however, if light intensity was increased, a retinal ERG response could be recorded, indicating that photoreceptor function was profoundly attenuated, but not abolished, under these intoxication conditions. Functional changes preceded structural alterations. Histopathological changes were most pronounced in the outer retina with evidence of inner segment swelling, photoreceptor mitochondrial disruption, and the appearance of fragmented photoreceptor nuclei in the outer nuclear layer. The nature of both the functional and structural alterations observed are consistent with formate-induced inhibition of mitochondrial energy production, resulting in photoreceptor dysfunction and pathology.  (+info)

Positive selection of novel peroxisome biogenesis-defective mutants of the yeast Pichia pastoris. (4/1719)

We have developed two novel schemes for the direct selection of peroxisome-biogenesis-defective (pex) mutants of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Both schemes take advantage of our observation that methanol-induced pex mutants contain little or no alcohol oxidase (AOX) activity. AOX is a peroxisomal matrix enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the methanol-utilization pathway. One scheme utilizes allyl alcohol, a compound that is not toxic to cells but is oxidized by AOX to acrolein, a compound that is toxic. Exposure of mutagenized populations of AOX-induced cells to allyl alcohol selectively kills AOX-containing cells. However, pex mutants without AOX are able to grow. The second scheme utilizes a P. pastoris strain that is defective in formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FLD), a methanol pathway enzyme required to metabolize formaldehyde, the product of AOX. AOX-induced cells of fld1 strains are sensitive to methanol because of the accumulation of formaldehyde. However, fld1 pex mutants, with little active AOX, do not efficiently oxidize methanol to formaldehyde and therefore are not sensitive to methanol. Using these selections, new pex mutant alleles in previously identified PEX genes have been isolated along with mutants in three previously unidentified PEX groups.  (+info)

Distribution of gangliosides, GM1 and GM3, in the rat oviduct. (5/1719)

It is known that gangliosides, being ubiquitous membrane components, play important roles in cell-cell recognition, differentiation and transmembrane signalling. GM3, GM1 and GD1a were detected in the rat oviduct as major gangliosides by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis. The total amounts of gangliosides from the oviducts at various times after hormone injection were not much changed. In order to identify their distribution and possible changes during ovulation, frozen sections of the rat oviducts were stained with specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the ganglio-series gangliosides. GM3 and GM1 were expressed in a different manner, but GD1a and other gangliosides were not immunohistochemically detected. In the ampullar region, GM3 was expressed in all the stroma and epithelial cells, but not GM1. GM1 was also not observed in epithelial cells. Staining by anti-GM1 monoclonal antibodies revealed long and minute thread-like structures in some of the stroma cells, whereas anti-GM3 monoclonal antibodies stained the entire cytoplasm, but not the nucleus, of all the stroma and epithelial cells. Other ganglio-series gangliosides, including GD1a, were not detected to some extent in the ampullar region by immunohistochemistry. Thus, these data suggest that GM3 and GM1 are oviduct-specific gangliosides.  (+info)

Effects of nickel and cobalt on kinetics of methanol conversion by methanogenic sludge as assessed by on-line CH4 monitoring. (6/1719)

When metals were added in a pulse mode to methylotrophic-methanogenic biomass, three methane production rate phases were recognized. Increased concentrations of Ni and Co accelerated the initial exponential and final arithmetic increases in the methane production rate and reduced the temporary decrease in the rate. When Ni and Co were added continuously, the temporary decrease phase was eliminated and the exponential production rate increased. We hypothesize that the temporary decrease in the methane production rate and the final arithmetic increase in the methane production rate were due to micronutrient limitations and that the precipitation-dissolution kinetics of metal sulfides may play a key role in the biovailability of these compounds.  (+info)

Antimalarial activities of various 4-pyridinemethanols with special attention to WR-172,435 and WR-180,409. (7/1719)

Pilot appraisals of the activities of 10 specially selected 2,6-substituted-4-pyridinemethanols against acute Plasmodium falciparum infections in owl monkeys identified three derivatives that were two to three times as active as chloroquine against infections with a 4-aminoquinoline-susceptible strain and, at the same doses, were equally effective against infections with a strain fully resistant to treatment with maximally tolerated doses of chloroquine, quinine, and pyrimethamine. Two of these derivatives, WR-172,435 and WR-180,409, deemed worthy of evaluation in human volunteers, were studied in greater depth in owl monkeys infected with either the multidrug-resistant Smith strain of P. falciparum or the pyrimethamine-resistant Palo Alto strain of P. vivax. These studies showed (i) that at the same total oral dose, 3-day and 7-day treatment schedules were equally effective and slightly superior to a single-dose schedule; (ii) that WR-172,435 was slightly more active than WR-180,409 in each treatment regimen; (iii) that intravenous delivery of WR-180,409 phosphate was feasible and effective; (iv) that both compounds effected control of parasitemia more rapidly than any standard or newly discovered antimalarial drug; and (v) that WR-172,435 and WR-180,409 had therapeutic indexes at least four to eight times those exhibited by chloroquine in infections with 4-aminoquinoline-susceptible strains, indexes retained by these pyridinemethanols against infections with various drug-resistant strains.  (+info)

Microbial oxidation of methane and methanol: isolation of methane-utilizing bacteria and characterization of a facultative methane-utilizing isolate. (8/1719)

A methane-utilizing organism capable of growth both on methane and on more complex organic substrates as a sole source of carbon and energy, has been isolated and studied in detail. Suspensions of methane-grown cells of this organism oxidized C-1 compounds (methane, methanol, formaldehyde, formate); hydrocarbons (ethane, propane); primary alcohols (ethanol, propanol); primary aldehydes (acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde); alkenes (ethylene, propylene); dimethylether; and organic acids (acetate, malate, succinate, isocitrate). Suspensions of methanol-or succinate-grown cells did not oxidize methane, ethane, propane, ethylene, propylene, or dimethylether, suggesting that the enzymatic systems required for oxidation of these substrates are induced only during growth on methane. Extracts of methane-grown cells contained a particulate reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent methane monooxygenase activity. Oxidation of methanol, formaldehyde, and primary alcohols was catalyzed by a phenazine methosulfate-linked, ammonium ion-requiring methanol dehydrogenase. Oxidation of primary aldehydes was catalyzed by a phenazine methosulfate-linked, ammonium ion-independent aldehyde dehydrogenase. Formate was oxidized by a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-specific formate dehydrogenase. Extracts of methane-grown, but not succinate-grown, cells contained the key enzymes of the serine pathway, hydroxypyruvate reductase and malate lyase, indicating that the enzymes of C-1 assimilation are induced only during growth on C-1 compounds. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was induced during growth on glucose. Extracts of methane-grown cells contained low levels of enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, including alpha-keto glutarate dehydrogenase, relative to the levels found during growth on succinate.  (+info)

The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris can be used to express recombinant genes at high levels under the control of the methanol-inducible alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter. Accurate regulation of the methanol concentration in P. pastoris cultures is necessary to maintain induction, while preventing accumulation of methanol to cytotoxic levels. We developed an inexpensive methanol sensor that uses a gas-permeable silicone rubber tube immersed in the culture medium and an organic solvent vapor detector. The sensor was used to monitor methanol concentration continuously throughout a fed-batch shake-flask culture of a P. pastoris clone producing the N-lobe of human transferrin. The sensor calibration was stable for the duration of the culture and the output signal accurately reflected the methanol concentration determined off-line by HPLC. A closed-loop control system utilizing this sensor was developed and used to maintain a 0.3% (v/v) methanol concentration in the culture. Use of this system ...
Methanol poisoning is a serious public health issue in developing countries, but few data are available in the literature on acute kidney injury (AKI) after methanol intoxication. This study examined the clinical features, spectrum and outcomes of AKI in patients with methanol intoxication and evaluated the predictors of mortality after methanol intoxication. A total of 50 patients with methanol intoxication were seen at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital between 2000 and 2013. Patients were grouped according to the status of renal damage as AKI (n = 33) or non-AKI (n = 19). Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and mortality data were obtained for analysis. Most patients were middle-aged (47.8 ± 14.9 years), predominantly male (74.0%), and habitual alcohol consumers (70.0%). Most incidents were oral exposures (96.0%) and unintentional (66.0%). Two (4.0%) patients attempted suicide by intravenous injection of methanol. Five (10.0%) patients suffered methanol intoxication after ingestion of methomyl pesticide
Abstract. This work reports the first comprehensive analysis of methanol concentrations in rainwater. Methanol concentrations measured in 49 rain events collected between 28 August 2007 and 10 July 2008 in Wilmington, NC, USA, ranged from below the detection limit of 6 nM to 9.3 μM with a volume-weighted average concentration of 1 ± 0.2 μM. Methanol concentrations in rainwater were up to ~200 times greater than concentrations reported previously in marine waters, indicating wet deposition as a potentially significant source of methanol to marine waters. Assuming that these methanol concentrations are an appropriate proxy for global methanol rainwater concentrations, the global methanol wet deposition sink is estimated as 20 Tg yr−1, which implies that previous methanol budgets underestimate removal by precipitation. Methanol concentrations in rainwater did not correlate significantly with H+, NO3−, and NSS, which suggests that the dominant source of the alcohol to rainwater is not ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Real time measurements of methanol crossover in a DMFC. AU - Han, Jiahua. AU - Liu, Hongtan. PY - 2007/1/10. Y1 - 2007/1/10. N2 - Methanol crossover is a serious problem in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), which causes significant voltage loss and waste of fuel. Due to methanol crossover, most DMFCs must operate on a fuel with a very low methanol concentration; yet very low methanol concentration also causes a poor cell performance. Thus, it is very important to find the optimal operating conditions of methanol concentration and other operating parameters. In this research, methanol crossover rate in a DMFC is determined by measuring the carbon dioxide concentration at the cathode exit in real time. By measuring methanol crossover and cell performances at different inlet methanol concentrations and various operating conditions three types of characteristics are identified in the relationships between methanol crossover and cell current density. Further analysis of these ...
In order to regulate methanol concentration, since the methanol crossover rate is roughly proportional to the methanol concentration at the anode, it is necessary to accurately sense the concentration of methanol in solution. Various types of sensors may be used to measure the concentration of methanol in an aqueous solution. Capacitance devices, which measure the change in the dielectric constant of the methanol solution, can be used as methanol sensors. However, the difference in dielectric constants for a methanol-water system is small leading to less accurate values. A sensing device, in wide range of methanol concentrations, up to about, 10 mol/L, would be very helpful for DMFC optimized operation. A passive mode design, of about 1/10th of a cm area, using a single parameter function, will be designed. The design and simulation would involve optimization of various parameters like the area of the working electrodes and counter electrodes, separation distance and overlap length between ...
In this work, methanol in crude glycerol solution was used to assist the lipid production with oleaginous yeast Trichosporon oleaginosus cultivated under non-sterilized conditions. The investigated methanol concentration was 0%, 1.4%, 2.2%, 3.3% and 4.4% (w/v). The results showed that methanol played a significant role in the non-sterilized fermentation for lipid production. The optimal methanol concentration was around 1.4% (w/v) in which the growth of T. oleaginosus was promoted and overcame that of the contaminants. The non-sterilized fed-batch fermentation with initial methanol concentration of 1.4% (w/v) was then performed and high biomass production (43.39 g/L) and lipid production (20.42 g/L) were achieved.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Design and fabrication of pumpless small direct methanol fuel cells for portable applications. AU - Shimizu, Takahiro. AU - Momma, Toshiyuki. AU - Mohamedi, Mohamed. AU - Osaka, Tetsuya. AU - Sarangapani, Srinivasan. PY - 2004/10/29. Y1 - 2004/10/29. N2 - This work studied the design, fabrication, and performance evaluation of a 36 cm2, passive, air-breathing, room-temperature, direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The cell is completely passive with no external pumps or other ancillary devices. It takes oxygen from the surrounding air, and the methanol solution is stored in a built-in reservoir. The fuel cell runs successfully with methanol concentration ranging from 0.5 to 4 M. It produced a power density of 11 mW cm-2 reached with 4 M methanol at current densities as high as 36 mA cm-2 and at a voltage of 0.3.. AB - This work studied the design, fabrication, and performance evaluation of a 36 cm2, passive, air-breathing, room-temperature, direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The cell ...
Owing to the serious crossover of methanol from the anode to the cathode through the polymer electrolyte membrane, direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) usually use dilute methanol solutions as fuel. However, the use of high-concentration methanol is highly demanded to improve the energy density of a DMFC system. Instead of the conventional strategies (for example, improving the fuel-feed system, membrane development, modification of electrode, and water management), we demonstrate the use of selective electrocatalysts to run a DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. In particular, at an operating temperature of 80°C, the as-fabricated DMFC with core-shell-shell [email protected]@Pt nanocomposites at the anode and core-shell [email protected] nanoparticles at the cathode produces a maximum power density of 89.7 mW cm−2 at a methanol feed concentration of 10 M and maintains good performance at a methanol concentration of up to 15 M. The high selectivity of the electrocatalysts achieved through structural construction ...
Methanol oxidation catalysts comprising an outer Pt-shell with an inner Ni-core supported on carbon, (Pt-Ni/C), were prepared with either crystalline or amorphous Ni core structures. Structural comparisons of the two forms of catalyst were made using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and methanol oxidation activity compared using CV and chronoamperometry (CA). While both the amorphous Ni core and crystalline Ni core structures were covered by similar Pt shell thickness and structure, the Pt-Ni(amorphous)/C catalyst had higher methanol oxidation activity. The amorphous Ni core thus offers improved Pt usage efficiency in direct methanol fuel cells.
1. The effect of methanol on the β-galactosidase-catalysed hydrolysis of some nitrophenyl β-d-galactopyranosides has been studied under steady-state conditions. 2. The initial fractional rate of increase of kcat. as a function of methanol concentration with 2,4- and 3,5-dinitrophenyl β-d-galactopyranosides, but not with the other substrates studied, indicated that degalactosylation of the enzyme was rate-limiting. 3. The decrease in kcat. at high methanol concentrations for these substrates is considered to arise from causes other than galactosylation becoming rate-limiting. 4. Both galactosylation and degalactosylation of the enzyme require protonation of a group of pKa approx. 9.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An NMR study of methanol diffusion in polymer electrolyte fuel cell membranes. AU - Every, Hayley A.. AU - Hickner, Michael A.. AU - McGrath, James E.. AU - Zawodzinski, Thomas A.. N1 - Funding Information: The authors would like to thank the Department of Energy, DARPA and the U.S. Army Research Office for financially supporting this research. PY - 2005/3/15. Y1 - 2005/3/15. N2 - Methanol diffusion in two polymer electrolyte membranes, Nafion 117 and BPSH 40 (a 40% disulfonated wholly aromatic polyarylene ether sulfone), was measured using a modified pulsed field gradient NMR method. This method allowed for the diffusion coefficient of methanol within the membrane to be determined while immersed in a methanol solution of known concentration. A second set of gradient pulses suppressed the signal from the solvent in solution, thus allowing the methanol within the membrane to be monitored unambiguously. Over a methanol concentration range of 0.5-8 M, methanol diffusion coefficients ...
Abstract: A binary metallic catalyst (PtSn/C) and a ternary metallic catalyst (PtSnCo/C) with a metal mass fraction of 20% were prepared by borohydride reduction and subsequent hydrothermal treatment in a glycol liquid phase. The structure and composition of the as-prepared electrocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Their activity and stability for the catalysis of methanol oxidation were evaluated by anodic linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and the anodic stripping of a pre-adsorbed CO monolayer. We found that the PtSnCo/C catalyst gave the best catalytic activity for the methanol oxidation of all the catalysts including the commercial JM-PtRu/C catalyst. After 100 cycles, the peak current of methanol oxidation for the PtSn/C catalyst rapidly decreased to 11% of its initial peak current but PtSnCo/C decreased to only 50%. This result suggests that the PtSnCo/C catalyst has better chemical stability for the ...
Methyl alcohol poisoning has been mainly reported in community. Two cases of methyl alcohol poisoning occurred in a small-sized subcontracted factory which manufactured smartphone parts in Korea. One young female patient presented with dyspnea and visual disturbance. Another young male patient presented with visual disturbance and myalgia. They treated with sodium bicarbonate infusion and hemodialysis for metabolic acidosis. In addition, he received ethyl alcohol per oral treatment. Her and his urinary methyl alcohol concentration was detected as 7.632 mg/L, 46.8 mg/L, respectively, although they were treated hemodialysis. Results of the working environment measurement showed that the concentration of methyl alcohol (1030.1-2220.5 ppm) in the air exceeded the time weighted average (200 ppm). They were diagnosed with optic neuropathy due to methyl alcohol poisoning and still have visual impairment. Workers who hired as dispatched employees in a small-sized subcontracted factory were exposed to high
A patient who is suspected to suffer from methanol toxicity should be brought to the hospital as soon as possible. Information such as the type of methanol the patient was exposed to, the amount and the time the exposure occurred will be helpful in the management of the toxicity [2].. Once the patient arrives at the hospital, the priority is to establish the airway and breathing. Intubation may be required if there is acute pulmonary distress or pulmonary edema. An intravenous access will also be established to administer fluid and medications. If the ingestion occurred less than 60 minutes prior, a tube may be inserted through the patients nose to remove any remaining poison in the stomach. Once the patient is stable, antidotes may be given to the patient.. The antidotes used for methanol toxicity are ethanol or fomepizole. These substances delay the metabolism of methanol until it is removed from the body either naturally or through the help of hemodialysis. Delayed metabolism of methanol ...
The electrochemical and in-situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) techniques were used to investigate the electrooxidation behavior of methanol in acidic, neutral and alkaline media at a Pt-Ru nanoparticle modified glassy carbon (Pt-Ru/GC) electrode. The results showed that methanol could be dissociated spontaneously at the Pt-Ru/GC electrode to produce a strongly adsorbed intermediate, CO. It was found that CO could be oxidized more easily in the alkaline medium than in the acidic and neutral media. The peak potential of methanol oxidation was shifted from 0.663 and 0.708 V in the acidic and neutral media to -0.030 V in the alkaline medium, which is due to that the adsorption strength of CO on the Pt surface in the alkaline medium is weaker than that in the acidic and neutral media. The final product of the methanol oxidation is C02. However, in the alkaline medium, CO2 proCO(2) duced would form CO32- and HCO3- resulting in the decrease in the alkaline concentration and then in the ...
Global Sodium Methoxide Market is segmented, By product Type into Caustic soda, Methanol as Raw Materials, Sodium Metal, Methanol as Raw Materials. Sodium Methoxide is a compound with molecular formula CH3ONa. It is also termed as Sodium methylate. This is a colorless solid, white to pale yellow in color, present in the powdered form; and a chemical compound, which is formed by the process of deprotonation of the methanol; or also, it is produced by the exothermic reaction within the elemental sodium and methanol; which is a widely used reagent in the industry and the chemical laboratory.. Full Research Report On Global Sodium Methoxide Market Analysis available at: https://www.millioninsights.com/industry-reports/sodium-methoxide-methylate-market. Sodium methoxide is used as the catalyst in the production of the biodiesel. It is a flammable compound, but not explosive. When exposed to high heat it can be decomposed. It is available in the liquid and solid form; for e.g. vitamin A1, B1, ...
Methanol crossover on the cathodes causes significant performance loss in direct methanol fuel cells, and the parasitic current induced by the electrochemical oxidation of methanol on the cathodes is believed to be the cause. Palladium cathodes are known to bear resistance to methanol but not platinum cathodes. By means of the density functional theory (DFT), the distorted molecular structure of the adsorbed methanol on platinum was revealed, and this distorted molecular structure indicates that platinum makes methanol has a tendency toward the elimination of the first hydrogen (involved in the first step of electrochemical oxidation of methanol) in electric neutrality, and loss of an electron can reinforce this tendency. However, palladium cannot distort the molecular structure of the adsorbed methanol, even in the loss of electron condition. The activation energies and the reaction energies calculated by means of DFT also show that after losing an electron, the elimination of the first ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electrochemical characterization of PtRu/C electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation reaction. AU - Lin, Yan. AU - Luo, Jin. AU - Maye, Mathew M.. AU - Kariuki, Nancy N.. AU - Wang, Lingyan. AU - Njoki, Peter N.. AU - Han, Li. AU - Schadt, Mark. AU - Zhong, Chuan Jian. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. N2 - Direct methanol fuel cells are increasingly considered as an attractive power source for mobile applications because of the high energy density. The binary PtRu nanoparticle catalyst on carbon support is currently one of the most-studied electrocatalysts showing a bifunctional catalytic mechanism. A systematical electrochemical characterization of PtRu/Vulcan carbon catalysts (E-tek) for methanol oxidation under various conditions was carried out. The results revealed some initial insights into the experimental conditions for comparing the catalytic activities of different electrocatalysts. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 228th ACS National Meeting (Philadelphia, PA ...
The role of methanol produced in-situ in the liquid phase methanol synthesis process has been experimentally examined. The catalyst crystallite size is found to be more stable when the produced water and methanol are consistently removed from the catalyst active sites. The experimental evidence shows that in-situ produced water is not the only culprit for the catalyst crystallite size growth, rather, methanol is also responsible for contributing to crystallite growth and therefore catalyst deactivation. Hydrothermal leaching of the catalyst was also determined to be an active participant in catalyst deactivation. Two experimental designs were run to assess the influence of temperature, leaching solution concentration and pretreatment conditions on the extent of leaching of the methanol synthesis catalyst. Water and methanol were found to be active participants in the reduction of catalyst activity. Hence, the methanol/water solutions serve as potentially harmful agents in the leaching of aluminum and
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Methanol prices, methanol reports, methanol market intelligence, methanol directory, methanol buy sell offers, methanol news, methanol articles, methanol market analysis, Methanol import, methanol export, methanol trade, Acetic acid, acetic acid prices, acetic acid ...
Methanol prices, methanol reports, methanol market intelligence, methanol directory, methanol buy sell offers, methanol news, methanol articles, methanol market analysis, Methanol import, methanol export, methanol trade, Acetic acid, acetic acid prices, acetic acid ...
The flowing electrolyte-direct methanol fuel cell (FE-DMFC) is a type of fuel cell in which a flowing liquid electrolyte is used, in addition to two solid membranes, to reduce methanol crossover. In this study, FE-DMFCs having new materials and design were manufactured and studied. In this design, the flow field plates were made of stainless steel 2205 and had a pin type flow structure. PTFE treated carbon felts were used as the backing layers as well as the flowing electrolyte channel. Nafion® 115 or Nafion® 212 was used as the membranes. The polarization curves and methanol crossover current densities under different methanol concentrations and flow rates of sulfuric acid were measured using fully automated DMFC test stations. The performances of the FE-DMFCs were compared with those of the DMFCs having a single or double membrane. This study is, to the authors knowledge, the first experimental study on measuring the methanol crossover in a FE-DMFC. The results of this study demonstrate that this
Theoretical calculations based on density functional theory have made significant contributions to our understanding of metal oxides, their surfaces, and the binding of molecules at these surfaces. In this paper we investigate the binding of methanol at the alpha-Al2O3(0001) surface using first-principles density functional theory. We calculate the molecular adsorption energy of methanol to be E^g_ads=1.03 eV/molecule. Taking the methanol-methanol interaction into account, we obtain the adsorption energy E_ads=1.01 eV/molecule. Our calculations indicate that methanol adsorbs chemically by donating electron charge from the methanol oxygen to the surface aluminum. We find that the surface atomic structure changes upon adsorption, most notably the spacing between the outermost Al and O layers changes from 0.11 Angstrom to 0.33 Angstrom.
The methanol-induced conformational transitions under acidic conditions for beta -lactoglobulin, cytochrome c, and ubiquitin, representing three different classes of proteins with beta -sheets, alpha -helices, and both alpha -helices and beta -sheets, respectively, are studied under equilibrium conditions by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The folding states of proteins in solution are monitored by the charge state distributions that they produce during ESI and by hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange followed by ESI-MS. The changes in charge state distributions are correlated with earlier studies by optical and other methods which have shown that, in methanol, these proteins form partially unfolded intermediates with induced ct-helix structure. Intermediate states formed at about 35% methanol concentration are found to give bimodal charge state distributions. The same rate of H/D exchange is shown by the two contributions to the bimodal distributions. This suggests the ...
The answer is Maybe 0.3% will probably be fine, but it depends on the cell line a lot. Note that if the drug is soluble in methanol, it will also be soluble in ethanol, which might be less toxic.. ...
Acid-Treated Nickel-Rich Platinum-Nickel Alloys for Oxygen Reduction and Methanol Oxidation Reactions in Alkaline MediaAcid-Treated Nickel-Rich Platinum-Nickel Alloys for Oxygen Reduction and Methanol Oxidation Reactions in Alkaline Media ...
Methanol toxicity is poisoning from methanol.[1] Symptoms may include a decreased level of consciousness, poor coordination, vomiting, abdominal pain, and a specific smell on the breath.[1][2] Decreased vision may start as early as twelve hours after exposure.[2] Long-term outcomes may include blindness and kidney failure.[1] Toxicity and death may occur even after drinking a small amount.[1] Methanol poisoning most commonly occurs following the drinking of windshield washer fluid.[2] This may be accidental or done purposefully in an attempt to die by suicide.[1] Toxicity may also rarely occur through extensive skin exposure or breathing in fumes.[1] When methanol is broken down by the body it results in formaldehyde, formic acid, and formate which cause much of the toxicity.[2] The diagnosis may be suspected when there is acidosis or an increased osmol gap and confirmed by directly measuring blood levels.[1][2] Other conditions that can produce similar symptoms include infections, exposure to ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Solving environmental problems of breathing gases purification from methanol. AU - Bochkarev, V. V.. AU - Kukurina, O. S.. AU - Vdovin, A. S.. PY - 2012/12/1. Y1 - 2012/12/1. N2 - The true reasons of decrease in efficiency of breathing gases cleaning of tanks and railway tanks from methanol on CJSC Methanol (Tomsk, Russia) are determined. Platinum catalyst aging is caused by sintering and partial destruction of ceramic blocks owing to excess of ultimate service temperature, blocking of the active centers by coke, nonoptimum working of the catalytic installation. The economic way of block platinum catalysts regeneration is developed. Also the kinetics of the methanol deep oxidation on platinum and metal-complex catalysts is investigated. Moreover optimal operation of installation for breathing gases purification is defined.. AB - The true reasons of decrease in efficiency of breathing gases cleaning of tanks and railway tanks from methanol on CJSC Methanol (Tomsk, ...
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Get information, facts, and pictures about methyl alcohol at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about methyl alcohol easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
This PhD thesis deeply analyzes the mechanistic and kinetic behavior of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) in the industrially relevant Methanol-To-Hydrocarbons (MTH) reaction, which employs zeolitic materials as catalysts. Industrial MTH processes use methanol, DME or combined methanol/DME feeds over zeolitic catalysts. Methanol and its dehydration product, DME, are conventionally attributed an analogous behavior in MTH; however, a thorough investigation on the theme was missing even though the MTH reaction has been studied for 40 years already. By means of mechanistic and kinetic studies, methanol has been found to negatively impact catalyst stability as compared to DME. This is rationalized based on the ability of methanol to form formaldehyde, a molecule that can act as coke promoter. Furthermore, the work presented in this PhD thesis suggest different strategies to reduce the impact of methanol on catalyst deactivation, thereby optimizing the lifetime of the catalyst during MTH operation ...
This study aims at investigating the emissions of cathode gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a single direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) at different operating parameters (methanol concentration, methanol flowrate, oxygen flowrate, and cell temperature). At the standard test condition (run A1), the concentrations of stage 1 (S1) and S2 PAHs ranged from non-detect (ND) to 10.3 ± 2.54 (Nap) and ND to 0.148 ± 0.047 (IND) µg Nm-3, respectively; furthermore, the Total-PAHs and Total-BaPeq concentrations of S1 + S2 were 21.2 ± 4.48 µg Nm-3 and 409 ± 226 ng Nm-3, respectively. The operating parameters significantly influenced the patterns of PAH concentration profiles. Decreasing with increasing methanol flowrate and concentration or decreasing oxygen flowrate and cell temperature, the ranges of Total-PAHs and Total-BaPeq concentrations of S1 + S2 for different runs were (36.4 ± 10.9)‒(0.98 ± 0.21) µg Nm-3 and (409 ± 226)‒(98.7 ± 30.3) ng Nm-3, respectively, with corresponding
Background: Acute methanol poisoning is a fatal illness. Several Atypical presentations could make it difficult to suspect the diagnosis.. Case Report: A 50 years old male known chronic alcoholic presented to the emergency department with severe acute abdominal pain nausea and vomiting. He rapidly deteriorated within 2 hours to develop confusion and seizures, was found to have double gap severe metabolic acidosis and elevated serum methanol. The patient was managed with Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT) and supportive measures. He gradually improved and was discharged with no neurological or visual complications.. Conclusion and Recommendations: Acute methanol toxicity should be expected if the alcoholic patient develops a rapid neurological deterioration and shows double anion gap acidosis.. Health authorities should provide the serum formic acid test for diagnosis and the fomepizole as a preferable antidote. Until then, supportive treatment, intravenous ethanol and CRRT should be ...
In the February and May 2010 tips of the month (TOTM) we presented the distribution and concentration of sulfur compounds in an NGL Fractionation Train (NFT) using commercial simulation software [1-3]
In the February and May 2010 tips of the month (TOTM) we presented the distribution and concentration of sulfur compounds in an NGL Fractionation Train (NFT) using commercial simulation software [1-3]
Objective: Methanol-induced optic neuropathy is a visual impairment that results from damage to the optic nerve fibers caused by methanol. It is frequently bilateral with permanent visual deterioration. According to the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology (AACT), methanol-poisoned patients who present with ocular manifestations should be treated with fomepizole, ethanol, or hemodialysis, which do not remove the metabolites from the optic nerve. High-dose intravenous steroid treatment has been proposed in several studies to salvage vision because of its anti-inflammatory effect. This article examines the existing literature on the efficacy of high-dose intravenous steroid treatment in patients with methanol-induced optic neuropathy. ...
One of the reasons why Methanol has the potential to be an enduring solution to human energy needs is because the beltched out C02 (greenhouse gas emission) both from using Methanol and while producing Methanol can be tapped back to produce Methanol. Thereby a seamless loop of CO2 sequestration cycle is created to perpetually burn fuels without polluting the environment at all. C02 from steel plants, Thermal Power plants, Cement Plants etc. can be tapped in large quantities to produce Methanol. The Technology has acquired commercial maturity and countries like Iceland are producing in meaningful quantities already.. NITI Aayog has drawn out a comprehensive plan to replace 20% of crude imports from Methanol alone. Adopting Methanol in this scale would bring down pollution in the country by more than 40% and not to forget the benefits from import substitution. Over a period of time of time diesel can completely be done away with. Indian Railways alone burns three billion litres of diesel every ...
Press Release issued Apr 9, 2015: A Detailed analysis of the international and China Sodium Methoxide market is presented in the Global Sodium Methoxide Industry 2015. The report analyses of the Sodium Methoxide market based on a variety of important industry verticals such as variety of products, key applications, developments, key market trends, key technologies in the marketplace, and the competitive landscape.
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Improving the electrocatalytic activity and durability of electrocatalysts is of vital importance to the direct methanol fuel cells. PtRu materials are the most effective catalysts for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) in an acidic medium, but they still exhibits partial defects, such as limited catalytic ac Journal of Materials Chemistry A HOT Papers
CAS No. 67-56-1. Methyl alcohol (CH 3 OH) is a colorless liquid with a strong odor. It is a poisonous substance that can be absorbed through the eyes, skin, lungs, and digestive system. Overexposure can cause death. Workers may be harmed by exposure to methyl alcohol. The level of harm depends upon the dose, duration, and work being done ...
Methanol enters in our every days life with a vast variety of applications: from paints, to fibres, resins, coatings and many more. For instance, it can be found in computers, in our homes and cars, in the garments we wear, in the appliances we use and in our furniture.. But not only: it holds the promise to play a key role in a much-needed greener future. Its simple molecule, easy to make out of a wide variety of feedstocks - whether solid, liquid or gaseous, including renewables - in fact makes it an excellent energy carrier. It can be easily blended directly with gasoline or turned into diesel or olefins and such new fuel applications account for most part of the current growth in the methanol consumption, especially in the bustling Asian megacities.. Casale can deliver several methanol solutions, ranging from very efficient and highly reliable processes for new plants up to technologies for revamping existing facilities. Each one can be tailored to meet the specific needs of our ...
Theres a useful general principle in chemistry where like dissolves like relative to polarity of solids and liquids. The light fraction of petroleum, literally it weighs less by volume, is hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons are considered non-polar molecules. The petroleum distillates in petrol (gasoline) are also non-polar hydrocarbon molecules. Methanol alcohol is a hydroxide group bonded to a carbon atom with three hydrogen atoms also bonded to the carbon atom. A result is methanol is a polar molecule, it also participates in hydrogen bonding. Where like dissolves like, methanol is not like hydrocarbons relative to polarity. So methanol is not very miscible (soluble) in pure hydrocarbons. Pour lighter fluid into a jar with methanol and you will see, pure methanol doesnt dissovle much in lighter fluid. But methanol dissolves in biodiesel, and kerosene (hydrocarbon) is miscible (dissolves) to a degree in biodiesel ...
The discovery may also spur research leading to biofuel applications in the future. Methanol can be considered a baby sugar molecule and is rapidly consumed in the ocean by abundant bacteria - called methylotrophs - which specialize in this type of food, said Dr. Tracy Mincer, WHOI associate scientist and lead author of the paper.. However, up until now, the thought was that methanol in the ocean came from an overflow of terrestrial methanol in the atmosphere. So, this discovery reveals a huge source of methanol that has gone completely unaccounted for in global methanol estimates.. Mincer first became interested in the idea of biologically-produced methanol in the ocean through previous work where he found methanol-nibbling bacteria in a phytoplankton culture he was growing. Intrigued, he extracted the microbe s DNA and its barcodes matched up with a well-known methylotroph in the ocean. Once we were able to characterize this bacteria, I wanted to explore the idea of plankton-produced ...
ANCHORAGE - BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. has agreed to pay $675,000 to the state to settle claims and cleanup monitoring costs from a pipeline leak on the North Slope last year that spilled crude oil and methanol.
One of the prerequisites for the detailed understanding of heterogeneous catalysis is the identification of the dynamic response of the catalyst surface under variable reaction conditions. The present study of methanol oxidation on different model Ru pre-catalysts, performed approaching the realistic catalyt
The molecular weight of Methanol is 32.04 g/mol. in new window. But somewhere in the Internet I found that methanol can dissolve some non polar molecules as well. In addition, no difference was observed in polar bear hair washed with methanol compared with isopropanol, which serves as further evidence that methanol is not extracting internal hair shaft cortisol. Die polare Hydroxygruppe ist dafür verantwortlich, dass Wasserstoffbrücken ausgebildet werden können, weswegen Ethanol wasserlöslich ist. The combination of carbons and hydrogens as in hydrocarbons A practical reality check for the answer is also this: methanol dissolves in water! in new window. Methanol is protic whereas acetone is aprotic. The chemical is also used to produce biodiesel via transesterification reaction. a small polar effect. From each of these structures we can see that they too, have a polar Oxygen-Hydrogen bond, which looks similar to what water has, but the other side have Carbon-Hydrogen bonds, which are very ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrogen bonding and dynamics of methanol by high-pressure diamond-anvil cell NMR. AU - Okuchi, Takuo. AU - Cody, George D.. AU - Mao, Ho Kwang. AU - Hemley, Russell J.. PY - 2005/8/1. Y1 - 2005/8/1. N2 - Liquid methanol at densities up to ρ ρ 0 =1.7 was studied by NMR in a specially designed diamond-anvil cell. Methyl and hydroxyl resonances have been separately observed at pressures to 43 kbars which exceeds equilibrium freezing pressure of methanol. The chemical shift difference between methyl and hydroxyl protons increases nonlinearly with increasing density, indicating a noticeable decrease in hydrogen bond length. The analyses of spin-lattice relaxation rates of both hydroxyl and methyl protons indicate that compression enhances intermolecular proton exchange and selectively reduces motion of the hydroxyl protons. Collectively these observations reveal that hydrogen bonding interaction in liquid methanol noticeably increases with compression, inhibiting the liquid-solid ...
Due to high potential of pollution risk of the untreated palm oil mill effluent (POME), it can be treated and converted into methane gas and with a further conversion that can produce into methanol. Previously, methanol is widely used in domestic and industrial applications as a solvent. It has a unique characteristic, which are colourless, flammable, volatile, odourless liquid that is readily miscible in water and has boiling point approximately 64.5˚C. Nowadays, the methanol has more been used in transportation and energy production. In future, it is predicted that the use of methanol in fuel applications will generate a huge demand. This study targets to design the process of transforming carbon dioxide, captured from the biogas through anaerobic digestion into synthesizing the methanol with the aim to produce 200 tonnes of methanol per year. This expectation is due to several advantages offered by the use of methanol, which less polluted to the environment, economically attractive, less ...
Methanol[edit]. Main article: Methanol fuel. Methanol is the lightest and simplest alcohol, produced from the natural gas ... Methanol is also called methyl alcohol or wood alcohol, the latter because it was formerly produced from the distillation of ... 40 per litre or 1.50 per gallon) and methanol. On June 20, 2006, DuPont and BP announced that they were converting an existing ... Ethanol and methanol are the most common, being sufficiently inexpensive to be useful. ...
Methanol Injection[edit]. Methanol/water injection has been around since the 1920s but was not utilized until World War II. ... Methanol/water mixture allows for higher compression because of the less detonation-prone and, thus, safer combustion inside ... "Get Schooled: Water Methanol Injection 101". Dragzine.. *^ a b c "How Turbocharged Piston Engines Work". TurboKart.com ...
... thus methanol is often referred to as the "tails." (This is not the case, methanol boils off at approximatly 65 degrees celcius ... the super-moonshiner has 1/20 of the wisky methanol not 1/100,000. If the methanol in whisley would ne 1e5 ppm=10%, then it ... Methanol, however, boils at a higher temperature in mixture (see azeotrope diagrams) than ethanol (or ethyl alcohol, to which ... Methanol. The following piece removed from the paragraph about danges of moonshine, due to contradictory text. ...
... (RMFC) or Indirect Methanol Fuel Cell (IMFC) systems are a subcategory of proton-exchange fuel ... Methanol is used as a fuel because it is naturally hydrogen dense (a hydrogen carrier) and can be steam reformed into hydrogen ... Methanol→Partial oxidation(POX)/Autothermal reforming (ATR)→Water gas shift reaction (WGS)→preferential oxidation (PROX) The ... Additionally, methanol is naturally occurring, biodegradable, and energy dense. RMFC systems consist of a fuel processing ...
Methanol hazards. Cut from article:. Methanol is intoxicating but not directly poisonous. It is toxic by its breakdown ( ... The methanol article has information in slightly greater detail about the treatment of methanol poisoning. --Mantispid 14:35, 5 ... maybe they mean methanol, which is why its poisonous?Tourskin (talk) 17:32, 14 January 2008 (UTC). Oxidation section changed. I ... "Methanol and Blindness". Ask A Scientist, Chemistry Archive. Retrieved 22 May 2007.. Unknown parameter ,dateformat=. ignored ( ...
methanol. ethanol. Pyridine. Acetic Acid. Water Eluent[edit]. The eluent or eluant is the "carrier" portion of the mobile phase ... Normally such a series progresses from non-polar solvents, such as n-hexane, to polar solvents such as methanol or water. The ...
The most popular additives include aromatic hydrocarbons, ethers and alcohol (usually ethanol or methanol). For technical ...
methanol. 0.00004. water. 1.3 × 10−11. pentane. 0.004. octane. 0.025. isooctane. 0.026. ...
The simplest primary alcohol is methanol (CH3OH), for which R=H, and the next is ethanol, for which R=CH3, the methyl group. ... The metabolism of methanol (and ethylene glycol) is affected by the presence of ethanol, which has a higher affinity for liver ... Methanol is the most common industrial alcohol, with about 12 million tons/y produced in 1980. The combined capacity of the ... In this way methanol will be excreted intact in urine.[21][22][23] ...
Methanol. 20. 22.60 n-Octane. 20. 21.80 Sodium chloride 6.0 M aqueous solution. 20. 82.55 ...
The fuel used to power the engine is called Model Engine Fuel, a mixture of methanol (70-40%), castor oil (20%) and ... and the catalytic reaction of the platinum element in the glow plug and the methanol in the fuel and does not depend in any way ...
As a chemical feedstock, it is used for the manufacture of potassium hydroxide and potassium metal. It is also used in medicine, lethal injections, scientific applications, food processing, soaps, and as a sodium-free substitute for table salt for people concerned about the health effects of sodium. It is used as a supplement in animal feed to boost the number of nutrients in the feed, which in turn promotes healthy growth in animals. As an added benefit, it is known to increase milk production. It is sometimes used in water as a completion fluid in petroleum and natural gas operations, as well as being an alternative to sodium chloride in household water softener units. Glass manufacturers use granular potash as a flux, lowering the temperature at which a mixture melts. Because potash confers excellent clarity to glass, it is commonly used in eyeglasses, glassware, televisions, and computer monitors. KCl is useful as a beta radiation source for calibration of radiation monitoring equipment, ...
C-Stoff: 57% methanol / 30% hydrazine / 13% water / small amount of Catalyst 431 potassium-cuprous cyanide coordination complex ...
Methanol. Oral microflora: Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans Anti-inflammatory. S. acmella. ... Chloroform, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol. Phenethylephrine-induced rat Antimutagenic. S. calva. NA. Chloroform. Ames ... Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol. Helopeltis theivora Antimalarial, larvicidal. S. acmella, S. calva, S. paniculata ... Methanol. Chemicals (acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and formalin-, capsaicin-, glutamate-induced paw-licking test) ...
Methanol. 30 Ethylene glycol. 37 Furfural. 42.0 Glycerol. 41.2, 47, 42.5 (0, 20, 25 °C) ...
Methanol. 19.930. 15.78. 8,570. 638.55. Ethanol. 26.70. 22.77. 12,412. 1,329.8. 1-Propanol. 30.680. 24.65. 13,192. 1,843.9. ...
Methanol 19.7 6.47 : 1 0.155 : 1 3.045 Nitromethane 11.63 1.7 : 1 0.588 : 1 6.841 ...
Commercial fuel cells operate on reformed natural gas, hydrogen or methanol. Ethanol is an attractive alternative due to its ... These include bittering agents such as denatonium benzoate and toxins such as methanol, naphtha, and pyridine. Products of this ... Ethanol may be administered as an antidote to ethylene glycol poisoning and methanol poisoning. Ethanol, often in high ... ISBN 978-0-85404-182-4. "Methanol". PubChem. PubChem. Retrieved 2 September 2020. Haynes, William M., ed. (2011). CRC Handbook ...
"How is Methanol Produced". METHANOL INSTITUTE. Retrieved 2020-06-29. Anzelmo, Bryce; Wilcox, Jennifer; Liguori, Simona. " ... MTBE is manufactured via the chemical reaction of methanol and isobutylene. Methanol is primarily derived from natural gas, ... Its performance as an additive is similar to MTBE, but due to the higher price of ethanol compared to methanol, it is more ... The resulting gases then further react in the presence of a catalyst to form methanol. Isobutylene can be produced through a ...
One example is the suffix -ol used to name alcohols, such as methanol. Its origin is the rebracketing of al•cohol as alcoh•ol. ... "methanol". Online Etymology Dictionary. Harper, Douglas. "genome". Online Etymology Dictionary. "orange n.1 and adj.1". Oxford ...
"Methanol". Symptoms of Methanol Poisoning. Canada Safety Council. 2005. Archived from the original on 20 February 2007. ... Methanol is commonly found in methylated spirits, denatured ethyl alcohol, to avoid paying taxes on selling ethanol intended ... A well-known example is methanol, which is only mildly toxic and minimally intoxicating, and breaks down into the substances ...
From left to right: 1. water, 2. methanol, 3. ethanol, 4. acetonitrile, 5. dimethylformamide, 6. acetone, 7. ethyl acetate, 8. ...
methanol ingestion. *ethylene glycol ingestion[9]. *isopropyl alcohol ingestion. *propylene glycol toxicity (as with ...
Methanol decomposition[edit]. The second way to produce hydrogen from methanol is by methanol decomposition: CH3OH(l) → CO + 2H ... Methanol production[edit]. Production of methanol is an important industry today and methanol is one of the largest volume ... The most important reaction based on methanol is the decomposition of methanol to yield carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Methanol ... Some of the large chemical processes that use catalysis today are the production of methanol and ammonia. Both methanol and ...
Bamford, Robert (2008). Methanol Press Speedway Yearbook 2008. Methanol Press. ISBN 978-0-9553103-5-5. Bamford, Robert (1 March ...
Despite these issues, methanol is considered a viable alternative fuel as it contains high levels of hydrogen. "Methanol (M85 ... M85 is a fuel blending 85% methanol and 15% petrol. M85 is similar to E85, but cannot be used in vehicles designed for E85. ...
... methanol, syngas) or value added chemicals; nitrogen fixation; methanol synthesis; liquid fuels synthesis from lighter ...
Methanol Press Speedway Yearbook 2008. Methanol Press. ISBN 978-0-9553103-5-5. "Doyle:I'm no Zorro". Bournemouth Daily Echo. ...
Methanol Press Speedway Yearbook 2008. Methanol Press. ISBN 978-0-9553103-5-5. (pl) Official website (pl) RKM Rybnik Website - ...
ISBN 0-948882-81-6 Bamford, Robert (2008). Methanol Press Speedway Yearbook 2008. Methanol Press. ISBN 978-0-9553103-5-5. " ...
Methanol is also used in Monster Truck racing. Safety in automotive fuels[edit]. Pure methanol has been used in open wheel auto ... The Methanol Institute, the methanol trade industry organization, posts reports and presentations on methanol. Director Gregory ... Main article: Methanol Toxicity. Methanol occurs naturally in the human body and in some fruits, but is poisonous in high ... Methanol is far more difficult to ignite than gasoline and burns about 60% slower. A methanol fire releases energy at around 20 ...
Methanol (such as found in windshield washer fluid)[1][2]. Diagnostic method. Blood acidosis, increased osmol gap, methanol ... Methanol toxicity is poisoning from methanol.[1] Symptoms may include a decreased level of consciousness, poor coordination, ... Methanol has a high toxicity in humans. As little as 10 mL of pure methanol when drunk is metabolized into formic acid, which ... Methanol is toxic by two mechanisms. First, methanol (whether it enters the body by ingestion, inhalation, or absorption ...
... is a alkyl alcohol (CHEBI:50584) methanol (CHEBI:17790) is a one-carbon compound (CHEBI:64708) methanol ... methanol (CHEBI:17790) has role amphiprotic solvent (CHEBI:48360) methanol (CHEBI:17790) has role fuel (CHEBI:33292) methanol ( ... methanol (CHEBI:17790) has role Escherichia coli metabolite (CHEBI:76971) methanol (CHEBI:17790) has role Mycoplasma genitalium ... methanol (CHEBI:17790) is a volatile organic compound (CHEBI:134179) methanol (CHEBI:17790) is conjugate acid of methoxide ( ...
Methanol is a monohydric alcohol [2]. It melts at -97.8°C and boils at 67°C. It reacts with certain acids to form methyl esters ... methanol, methyl alcohol [1], or wood alcohol, CH3OH, a colorless, flammable liquid that is miscible with water in all ... Methanol Environmental Encyclopedia COPYRIGHT 2003 The Gale Group Inc.. Methanol. Methanol is an organic compound with the ... Methanol Macmillan Encyclopedia of Energy COPYRIGHT 2001 The Gale Group Inc.. METHANOL. Robert Boyle, an Irish chemist noted ...
Published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization, and produced within the framework of the Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of ...
Methanol is a toxic alcohol that is used industrially as a solvent, pesticide, and alternative fuel source. It also occurs ... Most methanol poisonings occur as a result of drinking beverages contaminated with methanol or from drinking methanol- ... Food: Methanol may be used to contaminate food.. *Outdoor Air: Methanol can be released into outdoor air as a liquid spray ( ... Methanol may cause birth defects of the central nervous system in humans. Chronic poisoning from repeated exposure to methanol ...
IPCS INCHEM Healthy and Safety Guide 105: Methanolexternal icon. *IPCS INCHEM Environmental Health Criteria 196: Methanol ... Emergency Response Safety and Health Database (ERSH-DB) Systemic Agent: Methanol-ERSH-DB search results for methanol. ... NTP-CERHR Monograph (Reproductive Hazards): Methanolexternal icon. *New Jersey Hazardous Substance Fact Sheets: Methyl Alcohol ... Useful search terms for methyl alcohol include "methanol," "carbinol," "columbian spirits," "pyroligneous spirits," "wood ...
The preignition behavior of neat methanol in the four-stroke, naturally aspirated, watercooled, spark ignition engine is ... Methanol Preignition Temperature Behavior 912414. The preignition behavior of neat methanol in the four-stroke, naturally ... These experimental results are quantitatively compared to a methanol preignition model available in the literature. The range ... Citation: Haight, W. and Malte, P., "Methanol Preignition Temperature Behavior," SAE Technical Paper 912414, 1991, https://doi. ...
... running it on 100 percent methanol, get at least 24 miles per ... ... Methanol Wins By Robert Zubrin * About Robert Zubrin * Follow ... In response, I had the car tested for emissions with 100 percent methanol (M100), 60 percent methanol (M60), and ordinary ... running it on 100 percent methanol, get at least 24 miles per gallon on the highway. Since methanol averages less than half the ... Methanol contains about half the energy content of gasoline, but its high octane allows it to be burned more efficiently, and ...
... Curt Fischer Wed, 18 Jan 2017 19:35:53 -0800 ... methanol = Chem.MolFromSmiles(CO)* *water = Chem.MolFromSmiles(O)* *# SVG rendering seems to make small molecules like ... water and methanol completely invisible* *IPythonConsole.ipython_useSVG=True* *Draw.MolsToGridImage([water, methanol])* *# With ... but SVG rendering in Jupyter notebooks seems to make small molecules like methanol and water completely invisible. The same ...
The main sources of methanol in the body include fruits, vegetables, and diet drinks that contain aspartame. ... Methanol is a substance that can occur naturally in small amounts in the body. ... Methanol is a substance that can occur naturally in small amounts in the body. The main sources of methanol in the body include ... Methanol is very poisonous if you eat or drink it in toxic amounts as little as 1 teaspoon (5 milliliters). Methanol poisoning ...
This article discusses poisoning from an overdose of methanol. ... Methanol is a nondrinking type of alcohol used for industrial ... Intake of methanol affects multiple organs. Organ damage may be permanent. How well the person does depends on how much poison ... Methanol is extremely poisonous. As little as 2 tablespoons (30 milliliters) can be deadly to a child. About 2 to 8 ounces (60 ... Methanol is a nondrinking type of alcohol used for industrial and automotive purposes. This article discusses poisoning from an ...
Prompt medical care is key to avoiding complications secondary to methanol intoxication. Supportive therapy is aimed at ... encoded search term (How is methanol toxicity treated?) and How is methanol toxicity treated? What to Read Next on Medscape ... Indications for this procedure include (1) greater than 30mL of methanol ingested, (2) serum methanol level greater than 20 mg/ ... Antidote therapy, often using ethanol or fomepizole, is directed towards delaying methanol metabolism until the methanol is ...
... methanol, have occupied an important position in the chemical industry for many years: the former as a feedstock, the latter as ... Methanol, formed as a breakdown product of plant material, is also ubiquitous and has also encouraged the growth of prokaryotes ... Methane and its oxidation product, methanol, have occupied an important position in the chemical industry for many years: the ... The Physiology and Biochemistry of Aerobic Methanol-Utilizing Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria ...
The mechanism by which methanol causes blindness is as follows :- There is a enzyme (an alcohol dehydrogenase) in the eye which ... over 90 methanol plants have the capacity to produce over 11 billion gallons of methanol annually. The global methanol industry ... Methanol is much less flammable than gasoline and results in less severe fires when it does ignite. Methanol is a high-octane ... Methanol is present in many cooked vegetables, and the artificial sweetener in diet soft drinks breaks down into methanol ...
View our selection of methanol products available in a variety of grades and percentages for use in antifreeze, as a solvent or ... Although methanol was used for embalming by ancient Egyptians, pure methanol was isolated by Robert Boyle in 1661 and its ... Although similar to ethanol (drinking alcohol) in appearance and odor, methanol is toxic to the nervous system. Methanol that ... Methanol containers should not be left open to the air and closed containers should be stored in dry, cool, and well-ventilated ...
Methanol engines evaluated included those with higher compression and th ... Possible fuel efficiency improvements of light-duty methanol engines are reviewed in comparison to gasoline engines. This ... Potential of Light-Duty Methanol Vehicles 891667. Possible fuel efficiency improvements of light-duty methanol engines are ... Methanol engines evaluated included those with higher compression and those using lean-burn, stratified charge. Higher ...
About METHANOL: Methyl Alcohol is an aliphatic alcohol.. Function(s): Denaturant; Fragrance Ingredient; Solvent ...
Table 1: Theory data for adsorption of methanol on graphene. Included is the adsorption energy , the distance of the methanol O ... for the various methanol-graphene systems that we consider. Also shown for each calculation is the coverage of methanol on ... We also find that the methanol-graphene distance, here measured as the distance to O in methanol, , slightly increases with ... Thus, the methanol-methanol interactions are important as they contribute to a large fraction of the adsorption energy, but the ...
The adsorption of a single methanol molecule and small methanol clusters on graphene is studied at various coverages. ... Methanol Adsorption on Graphene. Elsebeth Schröder Microtechnology and Nanoscience (MC2), Chalmers University of Technology, ... Adsorption in clusters or at high coverages (less than a monolayer) is found to be preferable, with the methanol C-O axis ... The adsorption energies calculated with vdW-DF are compared with previous DFT-D and MP2-based calculations for single methanol ...
This chapter provides the diffusion coefficient of methanol in water at different concentrations measured using Taylor ... Winkelmann J. (2018) Diffusion coefficient of methanol in water. In: Lechner M.D. (eds) Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and ... This chapter provides the diffusion coefficient of methanol in water at different concentrations measured using Taylor ...
Most alcoholic drinks contain a small amount of methanol. (Image: Jupiterimages/Comstock/Getty Images). Methanol is one of the ... All wine has a small amount of methanol in it, and commercial wineries are required by federal law to test their products ... If the litmus paper turns blue, there is a potentially dangerous level of methanol in the wine and it should be discarded. ... Its likely that a number of bottles of wine came from the same batch and they are also contaminated with excess methanol. ...
Numerous countries have reported methanol poisoning outbreaks, including India, Norway, Turkey, and Uganda, the World Health ... About Methanol Poisoning. Methanol is a widely available chemical, used as a solvent and a fuel, but is also found in trace, ... Methanol becomes toxic when the it metabolizes to formaldehyde and formic acid in the body. When these build up in the blood, ... While methanol poisoning could happen anywhere, it would be unlikely in the U.S. since the perpetrators would have to bypass ...
Methanol definition is - a light volatile flammable poisonous liquid alcohol CH3OH used especially as a solvent, antifreeze, or ... Comments on methanol. What made you want to look up methanol? Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, ... Post the Definition of methanol to Facebook Share the Definition of methanol on Twitter ... Examples of methanol in a Sentence. Recent Examples on the Web. Despite this latest development, whether or not alcohol laced ...
Also, there are provided a reformer, a reforming apparatus, and a tuel cell system employing these methanol catalysts Since a ... The auto-thermal reforming process can be stably accelerated in the methanol reforming reaction using these catalysts. ... another methanol reforming catalyst comprises a catalytic component I containing Cu oxide and Zn oxide, a catalytic component ... A methanol reforming catalyst that generates a reformed gas containing hydrogen by reforming methanol under the presence of ...
Secret military projects, powerful collisions at the LHC, future international physics projects, and lots of new data from around the universe will be featured in talks at this years spring meeting of The American Physical Society (APS), the largest professional society of physicists in the world. This year, APS is joining with the American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT), the worlds largest society of physics teachers, for a joint meeting from February 13-17, 2010 at the Marriott Wardman Park Hotel in Washington, D.C.. ...
Methanol digestion and dangers may turn you away from aspartame forever. Learn about methanol digestion and dangers at ... more innocuous products that contain methanol. Methanol is found naturally in fruit juice and distilled spirits such as whiskey ... Methanol can be distilled from fermented wood, so you may know it as wood alcohol. Its an ingredient in commercial products ... Methanol is one of a host of alcohols normally produced during the fermentation of carbon-based compounds. An alcohol is ...
Companion volume to: Environmental health criteria 196, Methanol. DC.HQ. 31 p. ... 1997)‎. Methanol : health and safety guide. World Health Organization. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/41944 ...
One of the major advantages of DMFCs is that they use methanol as a fuel. Methanol has a high energy density and can store ... Global Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) Market 2014-2018. News provided by ... has announced the addition of the Global Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) Market 2014-2018report to their offering. ...
Methanol Jobs on Rigzone.com. Technical Manager, Project Engineer Online Process Analysis (m/w/d), Aussergewöhnliche Ingenieure ... Maintains, through professional contacts, association activities, literature review, etc., knowledge of methanol production ...
  • In the U.S., methanol fuel has received less attention than ethanol fuel as an alternative to petroleum -based fuels. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, ethanol is less toxic and has higher energy density , although methanol is less expensive to produce sustainably and is a less expensive way to reduce the carbon footprint . (wikipedia.org)
  • However, for optimizing engine performance, fuel availability, toxicity and political advantage, a blend of ethanol, methanol and petroleum is likely to be preferable to using any of these individual substances alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both methanol and ethanol burn at lower temperatures than gasoline, and both are less volatile, making engine starting in cold weather more difficult. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methanol, like ethanol, contains soluble and insoluble contaminants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The initial symptoms of methanol exposure are usually less severe than the symptoms from the ingestion of a similar quantity of ethanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethanol is sometimes denatured (adulterated), and made poisonous, by the addition of methanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, methanol (whether it enters the body by ingestion , inhalation , or absorption through the skin) can be fatal due to its CNS depressant properties in the same manner as ethanol poisoning . (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of its poisonous properties, methanol is also used as a denaturant for ethanol. (encyclopedia.com)
  • However, some people accidentally drink methanol, or drink it on purpose as a substitute for grain alcohol (ethanol). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Antidote therapy, often using ethanol or fomepizole, is directed towards delaying methanol metabolism until the methanol is eliminated from the patient's system either naturally or via dialysis. (medscape.com)
  • Like methanol, ethanol is metabolized by ADH, but the enzyme's affinity for ethanol is 10-20 times higher than it is for methanol. (medscape.com)
  • Pohanka M. Toxicology and the biological role of methanol and ethanol: Current view. (medscape.com)
  • As the methanol is water soluble it's eventually excreted by the body, helped no doubt by the diuretic effect of ethanol. (everything2.com)
  • Although similar to ethanol (drinking alcohol) in appearance and odor, methanol is toxic to the nervous system. (fishersci.com)
  • Methanol is a traditional denaturant for ethanol and used as a solvent, antifreeze ingredient, and windshield washer fluid. (fishersci.com)
  • Methanol is much sweeter than ethanol, and even a small amount adds flavor to these beverages. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The same set of enzymes digest both methanol and ethanol. (howstuffworks.com)
  • But the small difference in the structures of the ethanol and methanol molecules means that the intermediate steps of the same process turn methanol into compounds that are far more dangerous than methanol itself! (howstuffworks.com)
  • Process for production of ethanol at high efficiency, selectivity and conversion rate by the homologation reaction of methanol and carbon monoxide and hydrogen using a catalyst system containing alkali metal atom, cobalt atom, iodine atom and, optionally, ruthenium atom and an organic tertiary amino. (google.com.au)
  • Process for production of ethanol at high efficiency, selectivity and conversion rate by the homologation reaction of methanol and carbon monoxide and hydrogen using a catalyst system containing alkali metal atom, cobalt atom, iodine atom and, optionally, ruthenium atom and an organic tertiary amino compound. (google.com.au)
  • It is well known that one can produce methanol directly from synthesis gas and that methanol can be further reacted by hydroformylation, homologation and carbonylation reactions to produce acetaldehyde, ethanol and acetic acid or its methyl ester, respectively. (google.com.au)
  • No. 4,133,966, filed by Wayne R. Pretzer et al and issued Jan. 9, 1979, discloses the process for the homologation of methanol to ethanol using a catalyst system containing cobalt acetylacetonate, a trivalent phosphorus or trivalent arsenic or trivalent antimony organic ligand, an iodine compound and a ruthenium compound. (google.com.au)
  • No. 4,253,987, filed by Rocco A. Fiato and issued on Nov. 11, 1980 and Mar. 3, 1981, respectively, there are disclosed processes and catalysts for the production of ethanol by the homologation reaction of methanol and synthesis gas using a system containing cobalt atom, ruthenium atom, iodine atom and a phosphine ligand. (google.com.au)
  • No. 4,239,925, filed by Wayne R. Pretzer et al and issued on Dec. 16, 1980, disclose a process for selectively producing ethanol using a system containing a specifically defined cobalt tricarbonyl complex, an iodine compound, and a ruthenium compound in the methanol homologation reaction. (google.com.au)
  • Within the scope of an agreement signed in November 2017 (earlier post), Eni and FCA have developed "A20", a new fuel with a low level of emissions due to its 15% methanol and 5% bio-ethanol alcohol content. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The flexible-fuel vehicles currently being manufactured by General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler can run on any combination of ethanol, methanol and/or gasoline. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Methanol was, at one time, a very promising alternative transportation fuel but has has been eclipsed by support for ethanol - mostly outside of California from corn-producing states - and compressed natural gas - supported by natural gas utility companies. (factbites.com)
  • Because of its poisonous properties , methanol is frequently used as a denaturant additive for ethanol manufactured for industrial uses- this addition of a poison economically exempts industrial ethanol from the rather significant 'liquor' taxes that would otherwise be levied as it is the essence of all potable alcoholic beverages. (factbites.com)
  • [16] Methanol is however far more toxic than ethanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note that many people (including me) used to feel that tomatoes and other veggies had ethanol in them as well, which interacted with the methanol to help make it less dangerous. (bellaonline.com)
  • new research has shown that the amount of ethanol in a tomato is extremely tiny - at the level of 1/20th to 1/80th the amount of methanol. (bellaonline.com)
  • The FDA says it has "seen a sharp increase in hand sanitizer products that are labeled to contain ethanol (also known as ethyl alcohol) but that have tested positive for methanol contamination. (usatoday.com)
  • First, methanol can be fatal due to effects on the central nervous system, acting as a central nervous system depressant in the same manner as ethanol poisoning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of its toxic properties, methanol is frequently used as a denaturant additive for ethanol manufactured for industrial uses. (wikipedia.org)
  • This addition of methanol exempts industrial ethanol (commonly known as "denatured alcohol" or "methylated spirit") from liquor excise taxation in the US and some other countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration found a number of hand sanitizer products being sold that were labeled as containing ethanol but tested positive for methanol contamination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the toxic effects of methanol when absorbed through the skin or ingested, in contrast to the relatively safer ethanol, the FDA ordered recalls of such hand sanitizer products containing methanol, and issued an import alert to stop these products from illegally entering the U.S. market. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mr Davies says they use industrial ethanol, methanol and even insect repellant. (news.com.au)
  • Methanol (CH3OH) is less expensive to produce sustainably than ethanol fuel, although it is generally more toxic and has lower energy density. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like ethanol, the type of alcohol that is normally found in spirits, methanol is toxic to the body, and on a molecular level, it only differs from drinking alcohol by one carbon and two hydrogen atoms. (livescience.com)
  • The chemical depresses the central nervous system in the same way as ethanol, so in large quantities, it can kill someone in the same way as ordinary alcohol poisoning , but according to the National Institutes of Health, even 2 to 8 ounces of methanol can be fatal to an adult. (livescience.com)
  • This is because alcohol dehydrogenase, the same enzyme that breaks down ethanol, converts methanol into formaldehyde. (livescience.com)
  • Because of its toxicity, methanol is sometimes added to ethanol products with industrial uses, such as solvents, to rule out their potential as beverages. (livescience.com)
  • Unfortunately, during the 1990s, the methanol advocates who had led the program all retired, leaving the flex fuel cause to be picked up by the ethanol industry, as flex fuel cars can also use that fuel as well. (the-american-interest.com)
  • While all are at risk for methanol poisoning, young children who accidently ingest these products and adolescents and adults who drink these products as an alcohol (ethanol) substitute, are most at risk. (rttnews.com)
  • Methanol fuel could one day become a viable alternative for city folk just as ethanol fuel has already proved its value for country folk. (motherearthnews.com)
  • A test can be done to measure the amount of methanol in your blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most alcoholic drinks contain a small amount of methanol. (ehow.com)
  • All wine has a small amount of methanol in it, and commercial wineries are required by federal law to test their products before they're sent to stores. (ehow.com)
  • Many smaller personal wineries or wine hobbyists aren't as diligent in their testing, so if you're not sure about the amount of methanol in the wine you're about to drink, you can test the level yourself. (ehow.com)
  • A typical glass of wine contains a small amount of methanol, from 0.0041 to 0.02 percent by volume. (howstuffworks.com)
  • As a result, the atmosphere contains a small amount of methanol vapor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reactor-regenerator system is the core of the whole plant, filled with a large amount of methanol and olefin mixture. (aiche.org)
  • Naturally, methanol is produced in the anaerobic metabolism of several types of bacteria, therefore there is a small amount of methanol vapor in the atmosphere. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • Historically, methanol was first produced by destructive distillation ( pyrolysis ) of wood, resulting in its common English name of wood alcohol . (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] Methanol is converted to formaldehyde via alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and formaldehyde is converted to formic acid (formate) via aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). (wikipedia.org)
  • methanol, methyl alcohol , or wood alcohol, CH 3 OH, a colorless, flammable liquid that is miscible with water in all proportions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Methanol is a monohydric alcohol . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Methanol is often called wood alcohol because it was once produced chiefly as a byproduct of the destructive distillation of wood. (encyclopedia.com)
  • methanol ( methyl alcohol , CH 3 OH ) Colourless, poisonous, flammable liquid, the simplest of the alcohols . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Methanol is a toxic alcohol that is used industrially as a solvent, pesticide, and alternative fuel source. (cdc.gov)
  • The characteristic pungent (alcohol) odor of methanol does not provide sufficient warning of low levels of exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Methanol is a type of alcohol that is sometimes used for industrial and automotive purposes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Methanol is sometimes called "wood alcohol. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Methanol (CH 3 OH)is an alcohol compound. (everything2.com)
  • Methanol is the simplest alcohol because it has only 1 carbon atom. (everything2.com)
  • Methanol is the simplest alcohol: a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group. (fishersci.com)
  • Methanol-Tainted Alcohol: Could It Happen Here? (webmd.com)
  • When these build up in the blood , the drinker may become drowsy and unsteady -- but may assume those are just the effects of the alcohol, not the excess methanol. (webmd.com)
  • The site alerts readers to incidents such as the Costa Rica methanol poisonings as well as to what Canlar says is much more likely to happen in the U.S.: fraudulent practices such as bars and restaurants diluting alcohol or switching an order to an inferior brand. (webmd.com)
  • Despite this latest development, whether or not alcohol laced with methanol was behind these mysterious and devastating deaths in the Dominican Republic still remains to be seen. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Methanol (CH 3 OH) is the simplest alcohol with a chain consisting of a carbon atom with three hydrogen atoms attached. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Methanol can be distilled from fermented wood, so you may know it as wood alcohol . (howstuffworks.com)
  • Methanol, also known as wood alcohol, is a common and toxic organic solvent that can cause metabolic acidosis, neurologic sequelae, and even death, when ingested. (thestar.com.my)
  • Methanol , the alcohol with the simplest chemical structure, works as a gasoline replacement, as a feedstock for making MTBE ( methyl tertiary butyl ether) fuels , and as a source for making biodiesel . (factbites.com)
  • Methanol , also known as wood alcohol , can be used as an alternative fuel in flexible fuel vehicles that run on M85 (a blend of 85% methanol and 15% gasoline ). (factbites.com)
  • Methanol ( methyl alcohol ), often referred to as " wood alcohol " is a clean-burning liquid alternative transportation fuel . (factbites.com)
  • Methanol is required with a supercharged engine in a Top Alcohol Dragster and, until the end of the 2005 season, all vehicles in the Indianapolis 500 had to run methanol . (factbites.com)
  • Methanol , also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula C H 3 O H (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group , often abbreviated MeOH). (wikipedia.org)
  • Methanol acquired the name wood alcohol because it was once produced chiefly by the destructive distillation of wood . (wikipedia.org)
  • Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, is a prime component of aspartame and nutrasweet. (bellaonline.com)
  • Methanol is a natural alcohol, and when ingested in large amounts it can cause blindness and death. (bellaonline.com)
  • Since the summer of 2020, when buying hand sanitizers began in earnest when people were especially worried about catching COVID-19 by touching contaminated surfaces, the FDA has referred to methanol, aka wood alcohol, as possibly "toxic" when rubbed into the skin. (yahoo.com)
  • The FDA added that while anyone who uses the hand sanitizers containing methanol is at risk, "young children who accidentally ingest these products and adolescents and adults who drink these products as an alcohol substitute are most at risk for methanol poisoning. (yahoo.com)
  • Children who accidentally ingest hand sanitizer and young people who drink hand sanitizer as an alcohol substitute are at an increased risk for methanol poisoning, the FDA said. (usatoday.com)
  • Methanol is an alcohol that's often used in laboratory experiments. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol amongst other names, is a chemical and the simplest alcohol, with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH). (wikipedia.org)
  • Outbreaks of methanol poisoning have occurred primarily due to contamination of drinking alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methanol means a fuel that contains at least 50 percent methanol (methyl alcohol, (CH3OH)) by volume. (cornell.edu)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has warned that a Mexican-made hand sanitizer gel is dangerous because it contains large amounts of poisonous methanol, or wood alcohol. (latimes.com)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has issued a warning about a Mexican-made hand sanitizer gel that it said is dangerous because it contains large amounts of poisonous methanol, or wood alcohol. (latimes.com)
  • The FDA said one of the brands contained 81% methanol and no ethyl alcohol, which is the drinkable kind. (latimes.com)
  • Methanol is a poisonous cousin of the ethyl alcohol that occurs in liquor and cannot be smelled or tasted. (latimes.com)
  • Twenty-two deaths in the Czech Republic and bans on Czech alcohol in neighboring countries are the result of an outbreak of bootleg liquor tainted with methanol, a close chemical cousin of potable alcohol that can be fatal in only a few ounces. (livescience.com)
  • The Czech Republic has also taken measures to protect its citizens from the methanol-laced booze that has been passed off under legitimate-looking labels there, prohibiting the sale of all spirits containing more than 20 percent alcohol on Friday. (livescience.com)
  • Methanol, the chemical at the heart of the Czech liquor's menace, is a commonly synthesized alcohol found in antifreeze and windshield wiper fluid. (livescience.com)
  • Methanol, also known as wood alcohol or methyl alcohol, is produced as a byproduct of the destructive distillation of wood. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • Methanol, Absolute, Reagent, ACS, is also called methyl alcohol or 'wood alcohol' it was one of the by products of distillation of wood. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • Methanol is known as the simplest alcohol. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • Methanol is the simplest alcohol, with chemical formula CH 3 OH. (the-american-interest.com)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration or FDA has warned about the growing number of hand sanitizers containing methanol or wood alcohol, that could be toxic when absorbed through the skin or ingested, and can be life-threatening. (rttnews.com)
  • Methanol is a type of alcohol used to create fuel, solvents and antifreeze. (ktar.com)
  • A team of scientists, led by Boy Lankhaar at Chalmers University of Technology, has solved an important puzzle in astrochemistry: how to measure magnetic fields in space using methanol, the simplest form of alcohol. (innovations-report.com)
  • Methanol is type of alcohol used in the manufacture and production of products such as antifreeze, some paints, resin, perfume and some types of fuel. (ehow.co.uk)
  • If you are distilling alcohol at home you can test your homemade liquor for methanol to prevent the consumption of this toxic alcohol, which can cause blindness or death. (ehow.co.uk)
  • If you detect an acrid smell, methanol is present in the alcohol. (ehow.co.uk)
  • https://www.ehow.co.uk/how_8714279_test-alcohol-methanol.html. (ehow.co.uk)
  • How to Test If Alcohol Has Methanol" last modified May 13, 2017. (ehow.co.uk)
  • There's another form of fluid energy-methanol-which not only does, under certain circumstances, cost less than either grain alcohol or gasoline, but also can be manufactured from virtually any source of biomass, including wood wastes and garbage! (motherearthnews.com)
  • Unfortunately, methanol fuel (or wood alcohol, as it's sometimes referred to) doesn't easily lend itself to small-scale production. (motherearthnews.com)
  • The California entrepreneur's venture revolves around what he calls "Methanol X," a blend of pure methyl alcohol and several other volatiles. (motherearthnews.com)
  • We remain extremely concerned about the potential serious risks of alcohol-based hand sanitizers containing methanol," FDA Commissioner Stephen M. Hahn said in a statement . (elpasotimes.com)
  • Methanol is an alcohol that is most often used to create fuel, solvents and antifreeze, and can be poisonous if it is ingested, inhaled or absorbed through skin, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention explains. (ktvu.com)
  • [1] When methanol is broken down by the body it results in formaldehyde , formic acid , and formate which cause much of the toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Large amounts of methanol are also used in the creation of formaldehyde which is used as an antiseptic , disinfectant , and preservative for biological materials. (everything2.com)
  • Available in a variety of grades and percentages, methanol is also used as a reagent in the synthesis of chemicals such as acetic acid or formaldehyde. (fishersci.com)
  • Methanol is highly versatile and a critical component of olefins, formaldehyde, and hundreds of other chemicals. (fishersci.com)
  • About 40 percent of the methanol produced worldwide is used to make formaldehyde, which is ultimately used in plastics, plywood, paints, explosives, textiles, and many other products. (fishersci.com)
  • Methanol becomes toxic when the it metabolizes to formaldehyde and formic acid in the body. (webmd.com)
  • In the first enzymatic reaction, methanol is broken down into formaldehyde . (howstuffworks.com)
  • About 40 percent of methanol is converted to formaldehyde , which in turn is used for products such as plastics , paints , explosives , and textiles . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Methanol breaks downs to produce formaldehyde and formic acid, which are responsible for many of the toxic effects. (factbites.com)
  • Methanol is an important industrial material and it is used in the manufacture of formaldehyde , as a solvent in the paint and varnish industry, and as an anti-freeze. (factbites.com)
  • If a person fasts, then any methanol they ingest gets turned into formaldehyde - so that of course methanol wouldn't be detected. (bellaonline.com)
  • This is because heating aspartame over 86F turns the methanol into formaldehyde. (bellaonline.com)
  • So either you ingest the methanol and your body turns it into formaldehyde, or you heat up the aspartame (in your coffee or in cooking) and it turns into formaldehyde before you even consume it. (bellaonline.com)
  • Methanol is primarily converted to formaldehyde, which is widely used in many areas, especially polymers. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process is somewhat slow, which explains why the symptoms of methanol poisoning can sometimes take hours or days to manifest, but formaldehyde, once present, is processed very swiftly into formic acid, a chemical found in ant stings. (livescience.com)
  • Acetic acid (CH3COOH) and formaldehyde (HCHO) can be obtained by processing methanol and is also used for petrol bending (petroleum derived liquid). (ipl.org)
  • By application, formaldehyde accounted for the dominant share of 29.6% in the global methanol market in 2015, followed by acetic acid. (openpr.com)
  • Bloomberg News, The Mercury News , "Tanker attacks raise fears of Persian Gulf unrest," 13 June 2019 Finally, the hydrogen and carbon dioxide that are collected need to get combined into methanol . (merriam-webster.com)
  • A methanol reforming catalyst that generates a reformed gas containing hydrogen by reforming methanol under the presence of oxygen and steam, comprises a catalytic component I containing Cu oxide and Zn oxide, and a catalytic component II containing metal oxide and one of Pt and Pd Also, another methanol. (google.com)
  • Scientists at ETH Zürich and oil and gas company Total have developed a new catalyst that efficiently converts CO2 and hydrogen directly into methanol. (greencarcongress.com)
  • In 1923, the German chemist Matthias Pier, working for BASF developed a means to convert synthesis gas (a mixture of carbon oxides and hydrogen ) into methanol. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • High speed racing vehicles have used methanol for fuel for many years, but a more recent development is the potential for fuel-cell powered vehicles which use a methanol reforming unit to generate hydrogen from methanol . (factbites.com)
  • In the future, methanol could possibly be the fuel of choice for providing the hydrogen necessary to power fuel cell vehicles. (factbites.com)
  • Ford Motor Co. and DaimlerChrysler AG believe methanol is the proper interim step -- it is easier and cleaner to convert to hydrogen and can be generated from biomass, reducing the use of fossil fuels. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • So automakers are trying to use gasoline or methanol, which would be reformed into hydrogen on board. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • A non-negligible formation of interstellar methanol by the previously proposed mechanism via radiative association of CH 3 + and H 2 O and subsequent dissociative recombination of the resulting CH 3 OH 2 + ion to yield methanol and hydrogen atoms is therefore very unlikely. (diva-portal.org)
  • The crystal structure confirms the absolute configuration of nine stereocenters determined previously for the acetyl-ated compound metacridamide A. In the crystal, the methanol- d 4 mol-ecule is positioned close to the O atom in the carbonyl group of the peptide bond, forming an O-H⋯O hydrogen bond. (iucr.org)
  • It is the catalytic industrial process directly from carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen that produces modern methanol. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • At their most basic, fuel cells are devices that convert the chemical energy of a fuel -- such as hydrogen, gasoline or methanol -- and air into electricity . (howstuffworks.com)
  • In liquid form, methanol (CH3OH) reacts with water (H2O) to create CO2, hydrogen ions and electrons. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The process uses catalysts to promote the formation of methanol which is a liquid fuel… a great way to utilize hydrogen which in itself is a silly direction to take as a fuel. (alternative-energy-news.info)
  • The new process uses d N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) as an organocatalyst, then adds hydrosilicane - a combination of silica and hydrogen - and water to make methanol, according to a study published in the journal Angewandte Chemie International Edition . (greentechmedia.com)
  • The cooperation between PSI and Methanol Casale includes the development of an innovative high pressure model of soot-free, partial oxidation burners and reactors for the production of syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) from natural gas. (psi.ch)
  • The production of the fuel is accomplished by breaking a hydrocarbon feedstock down into carbon monoxide and hydrogen (using a destructive distillation process), then forcing the gases to react in the presence of a catalyst-and under elevated temperatures and pressures-to form liquid methanol. (motherearthnews.com)
  • As little as 10 mL of pure methanol when drunk is metabolized into formic acid , which can cause permanent blindness by destruction of the optic nerve . (wikipedia.org)
  • 15 mL is potentially fatal, [1] although the median lethal dose is typically 100 mL (3.4 fl oz) (i.e. 1-2 mL/kg body weight of pure methanol [8] ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although methanol was used for embalming by ancient Egyptians, pure methanol was isolated by Robert Boyle in 1661 and its composition determined by Jean-Baptiste Dumas and Eugene Peligot in 1834. (fishersci.com)
  • If it can be successfully implemented at an industrial scale, the entire production process - from syngas production to pure methanol - will no longer release any carbon dioxide emissions. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Pure methanol, however, was first isolated in 1661 by Robert Boyle , who called it spirit of box , because he produced it via the distillation of boxwood. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Ingesting as little as 10 mL (0.34 US fl oz) of pure methanol can cause permanent blindness by destruction of the optic nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The median lethal dose is 100 mL (3.4 US fl oz), i.e., 1-2 mL/kg body weight of pure methanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3] Because of the inexpensive raw materials used in its manufacture, pure methanol can cost less than its grain-based country cousin. (motherearthnews.com)
  • It's an ingredient in commercial products like antifreeze, glass cleaner, and paint thinners, but many people regularly drink other, more innocuous products that contain methanol. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Three hand sanitizers many have used nationally in the fight against COVID-19 contamination have been recalled because they contain methanol, according to the U.S. Food & Drug Administration. (yahoo.com)
  • These three sanitizers, used and marketed to help decrease bacteria on the skin when conventional soap and water is not handy, were recalled on May 11 and 12, 2021, because they have been found to contain methanol. (yahoo.com)
  • The Food and Drug Administration has added to its list of hand sanitizers to avoid because they may contain methanol, a toxic substance when absorbed through skin or ingested. (usatoday.com)
  • In June, the FDA warned consumers not to use nine kinds of hand sanitizers because they may contain methanol, and added to the list in early July . (usatoday.com)
  • The FDA is advising consumers not to use the following hand sanitizers because tests found them to contain methanol or that they were "purportedly made at the same facility as products in which FDA has tested and confirmed methanol contamination. (usatoday.com)
  • According to the release, some callers reported ingesting homemade hand sanitizer looking to receive intoxicating effects, but hand sanitizer normally doesn't contain methanol unless it's made incorrectly. (ktar.com)
  • The Food and Drug Administration's list of hand sanitizers to avoid because they may contain methanol continues to grow. (elpasotimes.com)
  • As of Saturday, the FDA's "do-not-use list of dangerous hand sanitizer products" now includes 101 varieties of hand sanitizer that should be avoided - some that have already been recalled and other products being recommended for recalls - as they may contain methanol, a potentially fatal ingredient. (elpasotimes.com)
  • I offered to bet up to ten people $10,000 each that I could take my 2007 Chevy Cobalt, which is not a flex-fuel car, and, running it on 100 percent methanol, get at least 24 miles per gallon on the highway. (nationalreview.com)
  • ad#First, I ran the car on 100 percent methanol. (nationalreview.com)
  • In response, I had the car tested for emissions with 100 percent methanol (M100), 60 percent methanol (M60), and ordinary gasoline (i.e. (nationalreview.com)
  • Most windshield wiper fluid s are fifty percent methanol. (everything2.com)
  • M85 is commonly used as an alternative motor fuel mixture consisting of 85 percent methanol and 15 percent gasoline. (pei.org)
  • An equilibrium mixture of methanol, dimethyl ether and water is produced which has 25 percent methanol. (ipl.org)
  • Methanol is used as a solvent for varnishes and lacquers, as an antifreeze, and as a gasoline extender in the production of gasohol . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Motor neuron disease and optic neuropathy after acute exposure to a methanol-containing solvent mixture. (medscape.com)
  • Methanol (CH 3 OH) is the simplest of the alcohols, and it is used, for example, as a solvent, an alternative fuel, and as a source for producing other chemicals. (hindawi.com)
  • In experiments where molecules are adsorbed on graphite, methanol is often used as a solvent for the larger molecules at target, and thus the adsorption properties of methanol affect the adsorption of the other molecule. (hindawi.com)
  • Gaining access to detailed adsorption data for methanol on graphite, such as positions and energetics like those provided here, is thus valuable both directly and as input data for larger simulations of molecules on graphite embedded in the (methanol) solvent. (hindawi.com)
  • Methanol is a widely available chemical, used as a solvent and a fuel, but is also found in trace, nontoxic amounts in fruit juices, according to the World Health Organization. (webmd.com)
  • Methanol is used as a solvent , fuel , and antifreeze. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Methanol is used industrially as a solvent, pesticide and alternative fuel source, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (usatoday.com)
  • This low tendency toward acid-base interactions is one of the reasons why methanol is so commonly used as a solvent. (reference.com)
  • This test is done to see if you have a toxic level of methanol in your body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If the litmus paper turns blue, there is a potentially dangerous level of methanol in the wine and it should be discarded. (ehow.com)
  • As a result, there is a low level of methanol vapor in the atmosphere. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The average level of methanol in a human body has found to be between .6mg/l and 1mg/l depending on the person. (bellaonline.com)
  • BASF has introduced a product for the production of methanol on the basis of renewable raw materials according to the biomass balance approach. (greencarcongress.com)
  • China presently accounts for nearly half the global production of methanol and its capacity is only set to increase in the coming years. (openpr.com)
  • Scientists at the Singapore-based Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (IBN) are striving to make the mass production of methanol more cost-effective. (alternative-energy-news.info)
  • Methanol is toxic by two mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the industrial setting, inhalation of high concentrations of methanol vapor and absorption of methanol through the skin are as effective as the oral route in producing toxic effects. (cdc.gov)
  • Methanol is very poisonous if you eat or drink it in toxic amounts as little as 1 teaspoon (5 milliliters). (medlineplus.gov)
  • This enzyme also works on other alcohols, and with methanol gives methanal, a very toxic compound . (everything2.com)
  • Although it is toxic , the human body can handle low concentrations of methanol with no ill effects. (everything2.com)
  • Emissions from methanol cars are low in reactive hydrocarbons (which form smog ) and in toxic compounds. (everything2.com)
  • All alcohols are toxic to some degree, but the dark side of methanol lies in the metabolites produced during its breakdown in the body. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Methanol is not an acceptable active ingredient for hand sanitizers and must not be used due to its toxic effects," the FDA said, noting its investigation of methanol in certain hand sanitizers is ongoing. (usatoday.com)
  • The FDA said the methanol "can be toxic when absorbed through the skin or ingested" and recommended consumers dispose of nine brands of gel sanitizers made by Eskbiochem SA de CV. (latimes.com)
  • Methanol is toxic and could be fatal as little as 3 tablespoons were consumed. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Methanol is a toxic substance when absorbed through skin or ingested. (elpasotimes.com)
  • However, the FDA has found that the 59 hand sanitizers have tested positive for methanol contamination. (ktvu.com)
  • BASF researchers have developed a process to produce methanol without any greenhouse gas emissions. (greencarcongress.com)
  • One of the first visible successes in this area has been achieved by a project team which has applied to patent a process to produce methanol without any greenhouse gas emissions. (basf.com)
  • However, the ready availability of shale-derived feedstock has since boosted U.S.'s ability to produce methanol once again. (openpr.com)
  • At this time, the most economical way to produce methanol is from natural gas, as the world is currently awash with it, so much so that hundreds of billions of cubic feet of it are being flared globally every year . (the-american-interest.com)
  • The molecular formula for methanol can be written as CH3OH. (reference.com)
  • Using measurements of methanol (CH3OH) in space to investigate magnetic fields was suggested many decades ago. (innovations-report.com)
  • Biomethanol" may be produced by gasification of organic materials to synthesis gas followed by conventional methanol synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The subsequent process steps - methanol synthesis and distillation - can be carried out nearly unchanged. (basf.com)
  • Ingenuity was required to address the merging and processing of the waste gas streams that arise during methanol synthesis and distillation and which cannot be avoided even with optimal process management. (basf.com)
  • To ensure that the carbon contained in the carbon dioxide is not lost and that it can be used again for methanol synthesis, the captured carbon dioxide is fed back into the beginning of the process. (basf.com)
  • We are optimistic that our climate-friendly approach will better adapt methanol synthesis to the requirements of the 21st century," said project manager Dr. Maximilian Vicari from BASF's Intermediates division. (basf.com)
  • Aspects of the new CO2 emission-free methanol synthesis process were tested in a pilot plant at BASF's subsidiary hte GmbH in Heidelberg, Germany. (basf.com)
  • CML103 - Term paper Methanol Synthesis Industrial process/chemical synthesized: Today in industries, generally the basis for the manufacture of methanol is synthesis gas (normally called as syn gas). (ipl.org)
  • Syn gas preparation, Methanol synthesis and, Methanol purification that contain the reactions given below a. (ipl.org)
  • The company is a leader in the development of methanol synthesis - reactors and in the design of methanol plants. (psi.ch)
  • As little as 10 grams of methanol can cause blindness. (everything2.com)
  • The cells that make up the optic nerve are exquisitely sensitive to formic acid, which is why blindness is so closely associated with methanol poisoning. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Methanol in the eyes in particular turns into formate and can damage the eyes - hence the risk of blindness. (bellaonline.com)
  • According to the FDA, "Substantial methanol exposure can result in coma, seizures, permanent blindness, permanent damage to the central nervous system, or death. (yahoo.com)
  • Most recently, the FDA said it has been notified of "adults and children ingesting hand sanitizer products contaminated with methanol that has led to recent adverse events including blindness, hospitalizations and death. (rttnews.com)
  • Methanol can contaminate illicit alcohols, resulting in blindness and organ failure. (ktar.com)
  • A 2017 study from the Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine reports that methanol can cause blindness, nervous system and/or gastrointestinal issues or death with prolonged exposure. (ktvu.com)
  • The auto-thermal reforming process can be stably accelerated in the methanol reforming reaction using these catalysts. (google.com)
  • Also, there are provided a reformer, a reforming apparatus, and a tuel cell system employing these methanol catalysts Since a heater Or a reducing apparatus can be omitted in these apparatuses, etc., sizes of these apparatuses, etc. become small and thus these apparatuses, etc. are suitable for the installing into the mobile body. (google.com)
  • This process used a zinc chromate catalyst , and required extremely vigorous conditions-pressures ranging from 30-100 MPa (300-1000 atm), and temperatures of about 400° C . Modern methanol production has been made more efficient through use of catalysts (commonly copper ) capable of operating at lower pressures. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Using special catalysts, this can then be turned into crude methanol, which can be further processed after purification. (basf.com)
  • Methanol toxicity is poisoning from methanol . (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] Toxicity to methanol has been described as early as 1856. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methanol has a high toxicity in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • How is methanol toxicity treated? (medscape.com)
  • Gupta N, Sonambekar AA, Daksh SK, Tomar L. A rare presentation of methanol toxicity. (medscape.com)
  • Methanol also serves as an energy supplier and can be used as a raw material for chemical conversion into other fuels or fuel additives. (basf.com)
  • However it is made, replacing petroleum fuels with methanol would improve air quality, as internal combustion engines burn much cleaner on methanol than gasoline, emitting sharply reduced amounts of carbon monoxide, NOx, hydrocarbons, and particulates. (the-american-interest.com)
  • Iceland-based Carbon Recycling International is seeking to turn carbon dioxide into methanol and thence into other fuels, taking advantage of Iceland's abundant geothermal energy resources to power the energy-intensive process. (greentechmedia.com)
  • Small amounts of methanol are found in normal, healthy human individuals, concluded by one study which found a mean of 4.5 ppm in the exhaled breath of subjects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small amounts of methanol are present in normal, healthy human individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FDA recommends that any customer who has been exposed to any of the listed products and is experiencing symptoms of methanol poisoning should seek immediate treatment. (ktvu.com)
  • Earlier attempts to measure the magnetic properties of methanol in laboratory conditions have met with problems. (innovations-report.com)
  • Instead, it turned out to be very complicated because we had to compute the properties of methanol in great detail", says Ad van der Avoird. (innovations-report.com)
  • The conversion of methanol to olefins on acidic zeolites takes place through a complex network of chemical reactions. (berkeley.edu)
  • The percent conversion of methanol is denoted by Xme and the Y terms represent percent yields. (berkeley.edu)
  • Field of the Invention This invention relates to the conversion of methanol and dimethyl ether to obtain a reaction product containing olefins. (google.com)
  • If successful, Coskata's technology will enable the rapid microbial conversion of methanol to fuel with high carbon and energy efficiency. (energy.gov)
  • Late last week, the FDA said it had contacted Eskbiochem "to recommend the company remove its hand sanitizer products from the market due to the risks associated with methanol poisoning," but the firm hadn't done so. (latimes.com)
  • Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory, Tufts University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have shown that mononuclear rhodium species, anchored on a zeolite or titanium dioxide support suspended in aqueous solution, can catalyze the direct conversion of methane to methanol and acetic acid using oxygen and carbon monoxide under mild conditions. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Today, methanol is mainly produced industrially by hydrogenation of carbon monoxide . (wikipedia.org)
  • The authors of the Op-Ed supporting the Kalama methanol refinery rightly state that we need sustainable development to help protect our environment. (seattletimes.com)
  • LONGVIEW, Wash. (AP) - Federal and state regulators are weighing the first major permits requested for the proposed $1.8 billion methanol manufacturing plant at the Port of Kalama. (q13fox.com)
  • On November 13, a report written by the company proposing the world's largest fracked-gas-to-methanol refinery was released by the Port of Kalama and Cowlitz County, WA. (kboo.fm)
  • As a young person, I believe that we need to keep the world's largest fracked gas-to-methanol refinery from being built in our wonderful Washington in Kalama along the Columbia River. (heraldnet.com)
  • That said, it also found that making methanol at the plant would be more efficient than making it from coal or some other sources - an argument that the project's backers, including the Port of Kalama, have emphasized. (opb.org)
  • A new environmental analysis by the Washington Department of Ecology found additional sources of greenhouse gas emissions from the $2 billion methanol project proposed on the Lower Columbia River in Kalama, Washington. (opb.org)
  • The proposed methanol plant in Kalama, Washington, hit a new roadblock after Washington regulators said the environmental review did not adequately assess its greenhouse gas emissions. (opb.org)
  • but problems happen when higher concentrations of methanol form during distillation processes done incorrectly, or when someone adds methanol to drinks illicitly, the WHO says. (webmd.com)
  • Methanol is derrived as a by-product of wood distillation. (factbites.com)
  • The naphtha, fraction of crude oil distillation, is used as a raw material in many older facilities for the manufacture of methanol . (factbites.com)
  • Intertek tests methanol and solutions containing methanol for purity, contamination, composition and other quality and chemical parameters. (intertek.com)
  • All of the hand sanitizers were manufactured in Mexico and have been flagged for 'risk of methanol contamination. (ktvu.com)
  • In general, at lower temperatures methanol reacts to form dimethyl ether (DME). (berkeley.edu)
  • Methanol and dimethyl ether are converted to a reaction product containing olefins. (google.com)
  • This article is about methanol used as a fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • In China, methanol is made for fuel from coal. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ citation needed ] Widespread production by this route has a proposed potential to offer methanol fuel at a low cost and with benefits to the environment (see Hagen, SABD & Olah references below). (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, methanol fuel has been produced using renewable energy and carbon dioxide as a feedstock. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the OPEC 1973 oil crisis , Reed and Lerner (1973) proposed methanol from coal as a proven fuel with well-established manufacturing technology and sufficient resources to replace gasoline. (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] Hagen (1976) reviewed prospects for synthesizing methanol from renewable resources and its use as a fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Director Gregory Dolan presented the 2008 global methanol fuel industry in China. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using methanol as a fuel in spark-ignition engines can offer an increased thermal efficiency and increased power output (as compared to gasoline) due to its high octane rating (114 [10] ) and high heat of vaporization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since methanol averages less than half the price of gasoline - and can readily be made from coal, natural gas, or any kind of biomass without exception - this would demonstrate superior transportation economy from a non-petroleum fuel that is producible from plentiful American resources. (nationalreview.com)
  • This required replacing the fuel-pump seal made of Viton, which is not methanol compatible, with one made of Buna-N, which is. (nationalreview.com)
  • When I first made the bet, many commentators thought that I would aim for high-efficiency performance with high-octane fuel by increasing the compression ratio of the engine (which is how race-car drivers using methanol have done it for the past half-century). (nationalreview.com)
  • It can be seen that when methanol is used, fuel-economy improvements of 40 percent can be achieved. (nationalreview.com)
  • Methanol is used in a number of consumer products, including paint strippers , duplicator fluid , model airplane fuel , and dry gas . (everything2.com)
  • Methanol is a high-octane fuel that offers excellent acceleration and vehicle power. (everything2.com)
  • Possible fuel efficiency improvements of light-duty methanol engines are reviewed in comparison to gasoline engines. (sae.org)
  • Fuel economy for the California dedicated methanol fleet is evaluated and compared to existing baseline gasoline fuel economy. (sae.org)
  • Average fuel economy for the methanol fuel-injected engines is 29.7 mpg on an equivalent energy basis compared to an adjusted EPA city fuel economy of 25.2 mpg. (sae.org)
  • Both comparisons indicate less gains with methanol than expected based on fuel properties and higher compression. (sae.org)
  • The concept of flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) being developed by many manufacturers may be the best transition strategy for introducing methanol, but not necessarily the best strategy to maximize methanol's air quality and energy security benefits. (sae.org)
  • Research and Markets ( http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/6s5j2j/global_direct ) has announced the addition of the 'Global Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) Market 2014-2018' report to their offering. (prnewswire.com)
  • One of the major advantages of DMFCs is that they use methanol as a fuel. (prnewswire.com)
  • Blue World Technologies has signed a strategic cooperation agreement with China-based new energy vehicle manufacturer AIWAYS, with the purpose of supplying the market with vehicles powered by methanol fuel cells for fast refueling and long range. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Blue World Technologies will use the Danish Power Systems technology in their methanol fuel cell systems. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The use of methanol as a motor fuel received attention during the oil crises of the 1970s due to its availability and low cost. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • However, there is still a great deal of interest in using methanol as a neat (unblended) fuel. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Methanol can be used to make methyl tertiary-butyl ether ( MTBE ), an oxygenate which is blended with gasoline to enhance octane and create cleaner burning fuel . (factbites.com)
  • Methanol is used on a limited basis to fuel internal combustion engines, mainly by virtue of the fact that it is not nearly as flammable as gasoline . (factbites.com)
  • Methanol has been considered as a fuel , mainly in combination with gasoline . (factbites.com)
  • Methanol is also a high-octane, clean-burning fuel that is a potentially important substitute for gasoline in automotive vehicles. (factbites.com)
  • DETROIT -- The world's automakers are choosing sides in the gasoline vs. methanol strategy for fuel cells. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • But a report by Oregon Public Broadcasting earlier this year revealed that the company behind the project had suggested to investors the methanol could be burned as fuel. (ap.org)
  • A mixed-reactant direct methanol redox fuel cell where all reactants (anolyte and catholyte mixed) are supplied to the cathode. (openclipart.org)
  • Methanol fuel is an alternative biofuel for internal combustion and other engines, either in combination with gasoline or independently. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methanol fuel is currently used by racing cars in many countries but has not seen widespread use otherwise. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toshiba employee Hiroko Mochida displays an MP3 player along with a prototype model of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). (howstuffworks.com)
  • however, Toshiba and other technology companies are looking into a slightly different form, one more suitable for MP3 players and other mobile devices -- Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC) . (howstuffworks.com)
  • It's unclear whether or not users would refill an empty methanol fuel cell or if they would use disposable cartridges. (howstuffworks.com)
  • And although these models haven't left the laboratory, Toshiba appears to be carefully honing its products: The company introduced a prototype of a small headphone and MP3 player combination that can run for about 10 hours using a methanol fuel cell. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Toshiba's future vision sees methanol fuel cells on our heads. (howstuffworks.com)
  • One of the drawbacks of methanol as a fuel is its corrosivity to some metals, including aluminum. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Concerns with methanol's corrosivity have been addressed by using methanol compatible materials, and fuel additives that serve as corrosion inhibitors. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Coskata is engineering methanol fermentation into an anaerobic microorganism to enable a low-cost biological approach for liquid fuel production. (energy.gov)
  • Open the transportation fuel market to methanol. (the-american-interest.com)
  • The answer is to open the transportation fuel market to methanol and its derivatives. (the-american-interest.com)
  • The state solved this problem by getting the Ford Motor company to develop the flex fuel car, which could run equally well on methanol or gasoline. (the-american-interest.com)
  • A standard Ford sedan modified to run on methanol fuel. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Needless to say, the use of methanol fuel would have some direct-and most likely beneficial-impact on our society. (motherearthnews.com)
  • The state Ecology Department determined that despite the company's insistence that its product would be used in plastics production - not burned for fuel - increasing the global supply would in fact lead to more methanol being burned for fuel. (opb.org)
  • Methanol is much less flammable than gasoline and results in less severe fires when it does ignite. (everything2.com)
  • Because it's flammable and poses health risks, it's important not to rinse methanol down the drain or combine it with other materials that may cause it to combust. (ehow.co.uk)
  • A federal agency last week urged museums and schools to stop using methanol and other flammable chemicals in their fire-based science demonstrations after a flash fire injured 13 people, most of them children, at a museum in Reno, Nev. (edweek.org)
  • Because methanol can ignite in the air at a relatively low temperature, using it in classrooms or labs with ignition sources "creates an unacceptable risk of flash fire," especially when large containers of flammable substances are nearby, the board said. (edweek.org)
  • Emergency Response Safety and Health Database (ERSH-DB) Systemic Agent: Methanol -ERSH-DB search results for methanol. (cdc.gov)
  • Most methanol poisonings occur as a result of drinking beverages contaminated with methanol or from drinking methanol-containing products. (cdc.gov)
  • Methanol and ethylene glycol acute poisonings - predictors of mortality. (medscape.com)
  • Methanol and ethylene glycol poisonings. (medscape.com)
  • The Australian Medical Association expressed renewed concerns in July over the number of methanol-related poisonings in Indonesia. (news.com.au)
  • Methanotrophic bacteria remove methane from the environment and convert it into methanol. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The plant would take natural gas from Canada and convert it into methanol, which would be shipped to China to make olefins - compounds used in everything from fabrics and contact lenses to iPhones and medical equipment. (opb.org)
  • [ citation needed ] Methanol may be made from hydrocarbon or renewable resources, in particular natural gas and biomass respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • These species, termed the "hydrocarbon pool," are occluded in the pores and catalyze the formation of olefins from methanol. (berkeley.edu)
  • citation needed] Methanol (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group) may be made from hydrocarbon or renewable resources, in particular natural gas and biomass respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • A large proportion of methanol is used to make motor spirit, vinyl acetate, acetic anhydride these chemicals is used for the manufacture of adhesives, coating, photographic film, synthetic fiber, synthetic rubber and thermoplastic and mainly the methyl-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) which reduces "knock" and also the proportion of CO and hydrocarbon in the exhaust. (ipl.org)
  • Combine it with carbon and you have a hydrocarbon like methanol… thus a complete cycle. (alternative-energy-news.info)
  • The refinery is billed as a facility that would turn fracked natural gas from Canada into methanol for shipment to China to make plastics. (ap.org)
  • We've stopped projects like this methanol refinery before, and we can surely do it again. (heraldnet.com)
  • Lawmakers and citizens, let's take a public stance against this methanol refinery! (heraldnet.com)
  • The global methanol market is characterized by the strong presence of a handful of regional companies with an established customer base in various countries. (openpr.com)
  • From a geographical standpoint, Asia Pacific dominates the global methanol market and accounted for a share of just under 70.0% in 2015. (openpr.com)
  • Another factor that is sure to benefit the global methanol market is the recovery of the U.S. methanol industry. (openpr.com)
  • This report scope includes a holistic study of the current dynamics of the market, industry growth and restraints of the Global Methanol Market. (openpr.com)
  • Methanex has awarded KBR a reimbursable engineering, procurement and construction management (EPCM) contract to provide front-end engineering design (FEED) services for the proposed methanol plant. (engineeringnews.co.za)
  • The decision to approve a proposed methanol plant in southwest Washington is on hold, as the Washington Department of Ecology pushes for more information. (opb.org)
  • In this paper, we calculate by first-principles density functional theory (DFT) the adsorption energy of methanol on graphite at various degrees of coverage (less than one molecular monolayer) and we determine the distance from and the optimal angle of the methanol molecule C-O axis with the plane of graphene. (hindawi.com)
  • These data are then available as input to and/or for fine-tuning of molecular dynamics simulations of the methanol adsorption process. (hindawi.com)
  • X-ray structure of methanol dehydrogenase from Paracoccus denitrificans and molecular modeling of its interactions with cytochrome c-551i. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Winkelmann J. (2018) Diffusion coefficient of methanol in water. (springer.com)
  • Benjamin Storrow, Scientific American , "Carbon Capture Test Facility Opens in Wyoming," 17 May 2018 Vinegar's active ingredient, acetic acid, can be produced naturally through bacterial fermentation, as in apple cider vinegar, or industrially, via chemical reactions from such source materials as methanol . (merriam-webster.com)
  • This process is used to convert methanol to products such as olefins and gasoline. (berkeley.edu)
  • In the Methanol to Olefins (MTO) process, the methanol is then converted to olefins such as ethylene and propylene. (berkeley.edu)
  • Some of the olefins, methanol, and DME react further to yield heavier species. (berkeley.edu)
  • In addition, Coskata's technology could integrate with other technologies that activate methane to methanol. (energy.gov)
  • Analysis of the data yielded the result that formation of methanol or deuterated methanol accounted for only 3 and 6% of the total rate in CH 3 OH 2 + and CD 3 OD 2 + , respectively. (diva-portal.org)
  • The study was performed to examine the absorption of methanol after oral administration and the rate and the extent of methanol absorption during inhalation exposure in rats and mice. (europa.eu)
  • At exposure concentrations from 13.3 to 26.6 mg/L (corresponding to 10000 - 20000 ppm), the mean fractional respiratory absorption of methanol tended to be lower (approximately 70%) in rats, but not in mice. (europa.eu)
  • Jon Gambrell, Anchorage Daily News , "Oil tankers apparently attacked in Middle East amid Iran-US tensions," 13 June 2019 The ship had been transporting methanol from Saudi Arabia to Singapore. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Kyle Mizokami, Popular Mechanics , "Two Oil Tankers Attacked in the Middle East, U.S. Destroyer Rescues Crew," 13 June 2019 The Kokuka Courageous was carrying methanol , headed from the Saudi port of Al Jubail to Singapore. (merriam-webster.com)
  • David D. Kirkpatrick, New York Times , "Tankers Are Attacked in Mideast, and U.S. Says Video Shows Iran Was Involved," 13 June 2019 The tanker was carrying 25,000 tons of methanol from Saudi Arabia to Asia. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Megan Geuss, Ars Technica , "Creative thinking: Researchers propose solar methanol island using ocean CO₂," 6 June 2019 The researchers at the ITC are focused on turning carbon into products that can be used to make cement, methanol and building materials, among other things. (merriam-webster.com)
  • 2 CH2O + 2 H2O}}} Acetic acid can be produced from methanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methanol contains about half the energy content of gasoline, but its high octane allows it to be burned more efficiently, and thus obtain two-thirds of the mileage. (nationalreview.com)
  • A study conducted for the company suggested that if the plant is not built, methanol derived from coal would continue to supply the growing Chinese market, resulting in worse greenhouse gas emissions. (ap.org)
  • Kristen Boyles, an attorney for the plaintiffs with the environmental law firm Earthjustice, called the notion the plant would dramatically cut greenhouse gas emissions by replacing methanol generated from coal ludicrous. (ap.org)
  • This chapter provides the diffusion coefficient of methanol in water at different concentrations measured using Taylor dispersion technique, open ended capillary, NMR spin echo pulse gradient, NMR spin echo field gradient and diaphragm cell. (springer.com)
  • Mice exposed to methanol in air at concentrations of 3.3 - 13 mg/L (corresponding to 2500 to 10000 ppm) absorbed the substance rapidly. (europa.eu)
  • Blood methanol concentrations were approximately 500 - 3000 mg/L at 1 hour and 500 - 4000 mg/L at 6 hours exposure. (europa.eu)
  • Measured ventilation, fractional absorption, and systemic kinetic parameters were combinded in a semiphysiologic pharmacokinetic model that yielded accurate predictions of blood methanol concentrations during and after an 8 hours exposure. (europa.eu)
  • The comparison demonstrated that at similar methanol vapour concentrations, mice evidenced a two- to threefold higher blood methanol cencentration than rats, despite the fact that V(max) for methanol elimination in the mouse is twofold higher than that in the rat. (europa.eu)
  • SEATTLE (AP) - A federal lawsuit filed Tuesday aims to keep one of the world's biggest methanol refineries from being built along the Columbia River in Washington state. (ap.org)
  • The ruling was the latest setback for the project, which if built would be one of the world's largest methanol plants. (opb.org)
  • These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Methanol Poisoning. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Methanol is one of the many alcohols produced during the fermentation process and in larger doses, it can sicken, or in rare cases, kill the person consuming it. (ehow.com)
  • Methanol is one of a host of alcohols normally produced during the fermentation of carbon-based compounds. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Methanol can be absorbed into the body by inhalation, ingestion, skin contact, or eye contact. (cdc.gov)
  • Foods such as fresh fruits and vegetables, fruit juices, fermented beverages, and diet soft drinks containing aspartame are the primary sources of methanol in the human body. (cdc.gov)
  • The main sources of methanol in the body include fruits, vegetables, and diet drinks that contain aspartame. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Does aspartame produce enough methanol to harm people? (howstuffworks.com)
  • Most pro-aspartame sites compare the methanol volume with that found in tomato juice. (bellaonline.com)
  • Most industry-sponsored tests of aspartame didn't even start counting until 4mg/l, so a person could in essence have a 400% increase of methanol in their system without it being noticed at all. (bellaonline.com)
  • Of the three components of aspartame - phenylaline, aspartic acid and methanol, methanol is only 10% of the makeup. (bellaonline.com)
  • Find out for yourself if you are sensitive to methanol and aspartame. (bellaonline.com)
  • Catalytic mechanism of quinoprotein methanol dehydrogenase: A theoretical and x-ray crystallographic investigation. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Chemicals like 4-methylcyclohexane methanol are added to create a frothy, heavy consistency that enhances the process. (csmonitor.com)
  • These include Petroliam Nasional Berhad (PETRONAS), Reliance Industries Limited, AR-RAZI Saudi Methanol Company, RAMA Petrochemicals Ltd., Shenhua Ningxia Coal Industry Group Co. Ltd., and Gujarat Narmada Valley Fertilisers & Chemicals Limited. (openpr.com)
  • Treatment is aimed at preventing further metabolism of the methanol, but some victims seek help too late. (webmd.com)
  • Methanol is produced naturally in the anaerobic metabolism of many varieties of bacteria. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The metabolism of methanol, however, doesn't go off as smoothly. (livescience.com)
  • 2 . The methanol reforming catalyst as in claim 1 , further comprising. (google.com)
  • 4 . The methanol reforming catalyst as in any one of claims 1 - 3 , wherein the metal oxide is at least one selected from the group consisting of alumina, cerium oxide, zirconia, silica, titania, magnesia, zinc oxide, gallium oxide, and indium oxide. (google.com)
  • 5 . The methanol reforming catalyst as in any one of claims 1 - 3 , wherein the catalytic component II contains palladium, zinc oxide, cerium oxide, and zirconia. (google.com)
  • Methanol is mixed with a catalyst -- often sodium hydroxide -- and added to the oil. (factbites.com)
  • The preignition behavior of neat methanol in the four-stroke, naturally aspirated, watercooled, spark ignition engine is reported. (sae.org)
  • Methanol is a substance that can occur naturally in small amounts in the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Methanol is found naturally in fruit juice and distilled spirits such as whiskey, wine, and beer . (howstuffworks.com)
  • While it can be man-made, methanol is also naturally emitted by volcanic processes, plants, microbes, insects and decomposing biological waste like sewage. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Russia has an extensive program to make methanol from eucalyptus. (factbites.com)
  • The state Department of Ecology will decide whether to issue a permit for the company to build a natural gas pipeline to supply the necessary raw material to make methanol. (q13fox.com)