The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.
A species of METHYLOCOCCUS which forms capsules and is capable of autotrophic carbon dioxide fixation. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.
A species of METHYLOSINUS which is capable of degrading trichloroethylene and other organic pollutants.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
A family of gram-negative methanotrophs in the order Rhizobiales, distantly related to the nitrogen-fixing and phototrophic bacteria.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
An order of anaerobic methanogens in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. There are two families: METHANOSARCINACEAE and Methanosaetaceae.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A family of anaerobic METHANOMICROBIALES whose cells are coccoid to straight or slightly curved rods. There are six genera.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A family of anaerobic METHANOSARCINALES whose cells are mesophilic or thermophilic and appear as irregular spheroid bodies or sheathed rods. These methanogens are found in any anaerobic environment including aquatic sediments, anaerobic sewage digesters and gastrointestinal tracts. There are four genera: METHANOSARCINA, Methanolobus, Methanothrix, and Methanococcoides.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
A sulfhydryl compound used to prevent urothelial toxicity by inactivating metabolites from ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, such as IFOSFAMIDE or CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE.
A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.
An order of anaerobic, highly specialized methanogens, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. Its organisms are nonmotile or motile, with cells occurring as coccoid bodies, pseudosarcina, or rods. Families include METHANOMICROBIACEAE, Methanocorpusculaceae, and Methanospirillaceae.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A family of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIALES. Cell membranes are composed mainly of polyisoprenoid hydrocarbons ether-linked to glycerol. Its organisms are found in anaerobic habitats throughout nature.
A genus of gram-negative rods which form exospores and are obligate methanotrophs.
Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
A family of aerobic gram-negative rods that are nitrogen fixers. They are highly viscous, and appear as a semitransparent slime in giant colonies.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.
A class of BRYOPHYTA which is best known for Sphagnum forming PEAT bogs.
A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, straight, curved, or branched rods which are motile by a single polar flagellum. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A synthetic disaccharide used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It has also been used in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p887)
A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A genus of anaerobic, rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIACEAE. Its organisms are nonmotile and use ammonia as the sole source of nitrogen. These methanogens are found in aquatic sediments, soil, sewage, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.
Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A genus of colorless, filamentous bacteria in the family THIOTRICHACEAE whose cells contain inclusions of sulfur granules. When found in decaying seaweed beds and polluted water, its presence signals environmental degradation.
Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.
Organic esters or salts of sulfonic acid derivatives containing an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical.

High-affinity methane oxidation by a soil enrichment culture containing a type II methanotroph. (1/1531)

Methanotrophic bacteria in an organic soil were enriched on gaseous mixing ratios of <275 parts per million of volume (ppmv) of methane (CH4). After 4 years of growth and periodic dilution (>10(20) times the initial soil inoculum), a mixed culture was obtained which displayed an apparent half-saturation constant [Km(app)] for CH4 of 56 to 186 nM (40 to 132 ppmv). This value was the same as that measured in the soil itself and about 1 order of magnitude lower than reported values for pure cultures of methane oxidizers. However, the Km(app) increased when the culture was transferred to higher mixing ratios of CH4 (1,000 ppmv, or 1%). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the enrichment grown on <275 ppmv of CH4 revealed a single gene product of pmoA, which codes for a subunit of particulate methane monooxygenase. This suggested that only one methanotroph species was present. This organism was isolated from a sample of the enrichment culture grown on 1% CH4 and phylogenetically positioned based on its 16S rRNA, pmoA, and mxaF gene sequences as a type II strain of the Methylocystis/Methylosinus group. A coculture of this strain with a Variovorax sp., when grown on <275 ppmv of CH4, had a Km(app) (129 to 188 nM) similar to that of the initial enrichment culture. The data suggest that the affinity of methanotrophic bacteria for CH4 varies with growth conditions and that the oxidation of atmospheric CH4 observed in this soil is carried out by type II methanotrophic bacteria which are similar to characterized species.  (+info)

Immobilization patterns and dynamics of acetate-utilizing methanogens immobilized in sterile granular sludge in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors. (2/1531)

Sterile granular sludge was inoculated with either Methanosarcina mazeii S-6, Methanosaeta concilii GP-6, or both species in acetate-fed upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors to investigate the immobilization patterns and dynamics of aceticlastic methanogens in granular sludge. After several months of reactor operation, the methanogens were immobilized, either separately or together. The fastest immobilization was observed in the reactor containing M. mazeii S-6. The highest effluent concentration of acetate was observed in the reactor with only M. mazeii S-6 immobilized, while the lowest effluent concentration of acetate was observed in the reactor where both types of methanogens were immobilized together. No changes were observed in the kinetic parameters (Ks and mumax) of immobilized M. concilii GP-6 or M. mazeii S-6 compared with suspended cultures, indicating that immobilization does not affect the growth kinetics of these methanogens. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using polyclonal antibodies against either M. concilii GP-6 or M. mazeii S-6 showed significant variations in the two methanogenic populations in the different reactors. Polyclonal antibodies were further used to study the spatial distribution of the two methanogens. M. concilii GP-6 was immobilized only on existing support material without any specific pattern. M. mazeii S-6, however, showed a different immobilization pattern: large clumps were formed when the concentration of acetate was high, but where the acetate concentration was low this strain was immobilized on support material as single cells or small clumps. The data clearly show that the two aceticlastic methanogens immobilize differently in UASB systems, depending on the conditions found throughout the UASB reactor.  (+info)

Anaerobic degradation of phthalate isomers by methanogenic consortia. (3/1531)

Three methanogenic enrichment cultures, grown on ortho-phthalate, iso-phthalate, or terephthalate were obtained from digested sewage sludge or methanogenic granular sludge. Cultures grown on one of the phthalate isomers were not capable of degrading the other phthalate isomers. All three cultures had the ability to degrade benzoate. Maximum specific growth rates (microseconds max) and biomass yields (YXtotS) of the mixed cultures were determined by using both the phthalate isomers and benzoate as substrates. Comparable values for these parameters were found for all three cultures. Values for microseconds max and YXtotS were higher for growth on benzoate compared to the phthalate isomers. Based on measured and estimated values for the microbial yield of the methanogens in the mixed culture, specific yields for the phthalate and benzoate fermenting organisms were calculated. A kinetic model, involving three microbial species, was developed to predict intermediate acetate and hydrogen accumulation and the final production of methane. Values for the ratio of the concentrations of methanogenic organisms, versus the phthalate isomer and benzoate fermenting organisms, and apparent half-saturation constants (KS) for the methanogens were calculated. By using this combination of measured and estimated parameter values, a reasonable description of intermediate accumulation and methane formation was obtained, with the initial concentration of phthalate fermenting organisms being the only variable. The energetic efficiency for growth of the fermenting organisms on the phthalate isomers was calculated to be significantly smaller than for growth on benzoate.  (+info)

The role of benzoate in anaerobic degradation of terephthalate. (4/1531)

The effects of acetate, benzoate, and periods without substrate on the anaerobic degradation of terephthalate (1, 4-benzene-dicarboxylate) by a syntrophic methanogenic culture were studied. The culture had been enriched on terephthalate and was capable of benzoate degradation without a lag phase. When incubated with a mixture of benzoate and terephthalate, subsequent degradation with preference for benzoate was observed. Both benzoate and acetate inhibited the anaerobic degradation of terephthalate. The observed inhibition is partially irreversible, resulting in a decrease (or even a complete loss) of the terephthalate-degrading activity after complete degradation of benzoate or acetate. Irreversible inhibition was characteristic for terephthalate degradation only because the inhibition of benzoate degradation by acetate could well be described by reversible noncompetitive product inhibition. Terephthalate degradation was furthermore irreversibly inhibited by periods without substrate of only a few hours. The inhibition of terephthalate degradation due to periods without substrate could be overcome through incubation of the culture with a mixture of benzoate and terephthalate. In this case no influence of a period without substrate was observed. Based on these observations it is postulated that decarboxylation of terephthalate, resulting in the formation of benzoate, is strictly dependent on the concomitant fermentation of benzoate. In the presence of higher concentrations of benzoate, however, benzoate is the favored substrate over terephthalate, and the culture loses its ability to degrade terephthalate. In order to overcome the inhibition of terephthalate degradation by benzoate and acetate, a two-stage reactor system is suggested for the treatment of wastewater generated during terephthalic acid production.  (+info)

Nitrate removal in closed-system aquaculture by columnar denitrification. (5/1531)

The columnar denitrification method of nitrate-nitrogen removal from high-density, closed system, salmonid aquaculture was investigated and found to be feasible. However, adequate chemical monitoring was found to be necessary for the optimization and quality control of this method. When methanol-carbon was not balanced with inlet nitrate-nitrogen, the column effluent became unsatisfactory for closed-system fish culture due to the presence of excess amounts of nitrite, ammonia, sulfide, and dissolved organic carbon. Sulfide production was also influenced by column maturity and residence time. Methane-carbon was found to be unsatisfactory as an exogenous carbon source. Endogenous carbon could not support high removal efficiencies. Freshwater columns adpated readily to an artificial seawater with a salinity of 18% without observable inhibition. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the bacterial flora was mainly rod forms with the Peritricha (protozoa) dominating as the primary consumers. Denitrifying bacteria isolated from freshwater columns were tentatively identified as species of Pseudomonas and Alcaligenes. A pilot plant column was found to behave in a manner similar to the laboratory columns except that nitrite production was never observed.  (+info)

Potential effects of gas hydrate on human welfare. (6/1531)

For almost 30 years. serious interest has been directed toward natural gas hydrate, a crystalline solid composed of water and methane, as a potential (i) energy resource, (ii) factor in global climate change, and (iii) submarine geohazard. Although each of these issues can affect human welfare, only (iii) is considered to be of immediate importance. Assessments of gas hydrate as an energy resource have often been overly optimistic, based in part on its very high methane content and on its worldwide occurrence in continental margins. Although these attributes are attractive, geologic settings, reservoir properties, and phase-equilibria considerations diminish the energy resource potential of natural gas hydrate. The possible role of gas hydrate in global climate change has been often overstated. Although methane is a "greenhouse" gas in the atmosphere, much methane from dissociated gas hydrate may never reach the atmosphere, but rather may be converted to carbon dioxide and sequestered by the hydrosphere/biosphere before reaching the atmosphere. Thus, methane from gas hydrate may have little opportunity to affect global climate change. However, submarine geohazards (such as sediment instabilities and slope failures on local and regional scales, leading to debris flows, slumps, slides, and possible tsunamis) caused by gas-hydrate dissociation are of immediate and increasing importance as humankind moves to exploit seabed resources in ever-deepening waters of coastal oceans. The vulnerability of gas hydrate to temperature and sea level changes enhances the instability of deep-water oceanic sediments, and thus human activities and installations in this setting can be affected.  (+info)

Effects of nickel and cobalt on kinetics of methanol conversion by methanogenic sludge as assessed by on-line CH4 monitoring. (7/1531)

When metals were added in a pulse mode to methylotrophic-methanogenic biomass, three methane production rate phases were recognized. Increased concentrations of Ni and Co accelerated the initial exponential and final arithmetic increases in the methane production rate and reduced the temporary decrease in the rate. When Ni and Co were added continuously, the temporary decrease phase was eliminated and the exponential production rate increased. We hypothesize that the temporary decrease in the methane production rate and the final arithmetic increase in the methane production rate were due to micronutrient limitations and that the precipitation-dissolution kinetics of metal sulfides may play a key role in the biovailability of these compounds.  (+info)

Microbial oxidation of methane and methanol: isolation of methane-utilizing bacteria and characterization of a facultative methane-utilizing isolate. (8/1531)

A methane-utilizing organism capable of growth both on methane and on more complex organic substrates as a sole source of carbon and energy, has been isolated and studied in detail. Suspensions of methane-grown cells of this organism oxidized C-1 compounds (methane, methanol, formaldehyde, formate); hydrocarbons (ethane, propane); primary alcohols (ethanol, propanol); primary aldehydes (acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde); alkenes (ethylene, propylene); dimethylether; and organic acids (acetate, malate, succinate, isocitrate). Suspensions of methanol-or succinate-grown cells did not oxidize methane, ethane, propane, ethylene, propylene, or dimethylether, suggesting that the enzymatic systems required for oxidation of these substrates are induced only during growth on methane. Extracts of methane-grown cells contained a particulate reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent methane monooxygenase activity. Oxidation of methanol, formaldehyde, and primary alcohols was catalyzed by a phenazine methosulfate-linked, ammonium ion-requiring methanol dehydrogenase. Oxidation of primary aldehydes was catalyzed by a phenazine methosulfate-linked, ammonium ion-independent aldehyde dehydrogenase. Formate was oxidized by a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-specific formate dehydrogenase. Extracts of methane-grown, but not succinate-grown, cells contained the key enzymes of the serine pathway, hydroxypyruvate reductase and malate lyase, indicating that the enzymes of C-1 assimilation are induced only during growth on C-1 compounds. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was induced during growth on glucose. Extracts of methane-grown cells contained low levels of enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, including alpha-keto glutarate dehydrogenase, relative to the levels found during growth on succinate.  (+info)

NORMAN, OKLA. - A University of Oklahoma-led study shows that paddy rice (both area and plant growth) is significantly related to the spatial-temporal dynamics of atmospheric methane concentration in monsoon Asia, where 87% of paddy rice fields are situated in the world.. Methane is one of the major greenhouse gases. It has a lifetime of 12.4 years and its global warming potential is approximately 86 times higher than carbon dioxide over a 20-year period.. Rice paddy is a large source of methane emission; however, it has been a challenging task to attribute relative role of rice paddy in the spatial distribution, seasonal dynamics and interannual variation of atmospheric methane concentration as measured by spaceborne sensors, said Xiangming Xiao, a member of the Earth Observation and Modeling Facility at OU and a professor in the Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology who coordinated this interdisciplinary study.. Over the past few years, researchers at OU developed annual paddy rice ...
Anaerobic bacterial metabolism in the colon produces hydrogen, methane, volatile fatty acids and carbon dioxide. Hydrogen and methane are excreted in flatus and the expired breath. Investigations in this Thesis attempted to identify factors which may influence methane excretion in man and explain why all subjects do not excrete methane. The proportions of methane producing subjects in two healthy populations studied in Edinburgh were 33% and 70% respectively. Age and sex did not significantly alter methane excretion. Dietary intakes, faecal components and bowel function were found to be similar in methane producing and non-methane producing subjects. An association was found between the ingestion of the pentose fraction of non-cellulosic polysaccharides and the concentration of breath methane in methane producing subjects. This association may be the result of a steady metabolic state in the caecum. Ingestion of pentose monomers D(+) xylose and L(+) arabinose increased methane excretion, in ...
An interesting correlation between methane production rates and archaea cell density during anaerobic digestion with increasing organic loadingAn interesting correlation between methane production rates and archaea cell density during anaerobic digestion with increasing organic loading ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of triclosan, diclofenac, and nonylphenol on mesophilic and thermophilic methanogenic activity and on the methanogenic communities. AU - Symsaris, Evangelos C.. AU - Fotidis, Ioannis. AU - Stasinakis, Athanasios S.. AU - Angelidaki, Irini. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - In this study, a toxicity assay using a mesophilic wastewater treatment plant sludge-based (SI) and a thermophilic manure-based inoculum (MI), under different biomass concentrations was performed to define the effects of diclofenac (DCF), triclosan (TCS), and nonylphenol (NP) on anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Additionally, the influence of DCF, TCS, and NP on the relative abundance of the methanogenic populations was investigated. Results obtained demonstrated that, in terms of methane production, SI inoculum was more resistant to the toxicity effect of DCF, TCS, and NP, compared to the MI inoculum. The IC50 values were 546, 35, and 363mgL-1 for SI inoculum and 481, 32, and 74mgL-1 for MI inoculum for DCF, ...
Henkel, Susann; Schwenk, Tilmann; Hanebuth, Till J J; Strasser, Michael; Riedinger, Natascha; Formolo, Michael J; Arnold, Gail Lee; Tomasini, Juan; Krastel, Sebastian; Kasten, Sabine (2012): Sulfate and methane concentrations measured in pore water of sediment core GeoB13809-1 and GeoB13849-1. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Henkel, S et al. (2012): Pore water geochemistry as a tool for identifying and dating young mass-transport deposits. In: Yamada, Y et al. (eds.) Advances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research - Submarine Mass Movements and Their Consequences, 5th International Symposium, Springer, 31(1), 87-97,
Öfele and Wanzlick first pioneered the metalation of imidazol-2-ylidenes, better known as N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs), from imidazolium salts in 1968.1,2 Lappert and co-workers followed this work with the investigation of N-heterocyclic carbene complexes synthesized from electron-rich olefins.3,4 However, it was not until the isolation of the first free carbene by Arduengo, in 1991, that significant interest was given to the area.5 Since then the complexation chemistry of these new ligands has become a major area of research.6-10 This new class of ligand has shown to equal, if not exceed, phosphines in their ability to bind to a variety of metals. Complexes of N-heterocyclic carbenes with virtually every transition metal and many main group elements have been reported.1-10 N-Heterocyclic carbenes bind to both hard and soft metals making it a very versatile ligand system. NHCs bond to metals primarily through σ donation of the carbene lone pair to the metal. The bonding of the carbene was believed
Methane is a flammable gas that is the main component of natural gas. It is a highly potent greenhouse gas, and accounts for about 20% of greenhouse gas emissions. Methane is routinely flared in many industrial processes without harnessing any of its energy. The environmental impact and wasted energy potential make it highly desirable to find an economically feasible process to use this methane.One possibility is to convert methane into liquid fuels for transportation and energy generation. Current technologies to convert methane gas to liquid fuels (GTL) are complex, and the facilities are only economical at huge scales. Methane gas is very difficult to transport and store, so GTL plants must be located at the source of the methane, typically at large petroleum fields or refineries.Biological conversion of methane to liquid fuels is an attractive alternative to traditional GTL processes, as microbial oxidation of methane can produce liquid fuels (e.g. methanol) at ambient temperatures and ...
This paper examines the effect of particle sizes in substrates on methane production yields of wheat and rice straw biomass without any other applied pretreatment. Anaerobic digestion of three different mean particle size (MPS) substrate of 1.5 mm, 0.75 mm, and 0.30 mm of wheat and rice straw biomass was carried out at 37 oC mesophilic temperature. The observed result revealed that mean particle size of 0.30 mm, and 0.75 mm had increased methane production yield by 4.7%, and 38.7%, respectively, compared to 1.50 mm particle size of wheat straw. However, in case of rice straw substrates the methane production yield was found 7.9%, and 13.0% higher, respectively, for mean particle size of 0.30 mm, and 0.75 mm, compared to 1.50 mm particle size. Mean particle size of 0.75 mm had yielded highest biogas as well as methane yields in both cases of biomass, however, wheat straw resulted into considerably higher methane yield than rice straw.. ...
The Potential to Feed Nitrates to Reduce Enteric Methane Production in Ruminants. By R A Leng AO, D.Rur.Sc. Emeritus Professor UNE-Armidale. The issues in a nut shell 1. Globally ruminants produce around 80x10 6 tonnes of methane Slideshow 1284979 by gigi
Methane is metabolized principally by methanotrophs and methanogens in the global carbon cycle. Methanotrophs consume methane as the only source of carbon, while methanogens produce methane as a metabolic byproduct. Methylotrophs, which are microorganisms that can obtain energy for growth by oxidizing one-carbon compounds, such as methanol and methane, are situated between methanotrophs and methanogens. Methanogens can obtain energy for growth by converting a limited number of substrates to methane under anaerobic conditions. Three types of methanogenic pathways are known: CO2 to methane [MD:M00567], methanol to methane [MD:M00356], and acetate to methane [MD:M00357]. Methanogens use 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (CoM; coenzyme M) as the terminal methyl carrier in methanogenesis and have four enzymes for CoM biosynthesis [MD:M00358]. Coenzyme B-Coenzyme M heterodisulfide reductase (Hdr), requiring for the final reaction steps of methanogenic pathway, is divided into two types: cytoplasmic HdrABC in ...
Please take a moment to fill out a short, 5 minute evaluation of the Global Methane Forum. Your feedback will help determine how GMI plans its future meetings.. The Global Methane Initiative (GMI) and the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) were pleased to welcome more than 500 attendees from 62 countries to Washington, DC for the Global Methane Forum and CCAC Working Group meetings. Methane experts and policy-makers from around the world gathered to discuss options for methane reduction and abatement activities.. This unique opportunity granted access to:. ...
Methane is metabolized principally by methanotrophs and methanogens in the global carbon cycle. Methanotrophs consume methane as the only source of carbon, while methanogens produce methane as a metabolic byproduct. Methylotrophs, which are microorganisms that can obtain energy for growth by oxidizing one-carbon compounds, such as methanol and methane, are situated between methanotrophs and methanogens. Methanogens can obtain energy for growth by converting a limited number of substrates to methane under anaerobic conditions. Three types of methanogenic pathways are known: CO2 to methane [MD:M00567], methanol to methane [MD:M00356], and acetate to methane [MD:M00357]. Methanogens use 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (CoM; coenzyme M) as the terminal methyl carrier in methanogenesis and have four enzymes for CoM biosynthesis [MD:M00358]. Coenzyme B-Coenzyme M heterodisulfide reductase (Hdr), requiring for the final reaction steps of methanogenic pathway, is divided into two types: cytoplasmic HdrABC in ...
Communications Sterically Flexible Carbene Ligands An N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligand with Flexible Steric Bulk Allows Suzuki Cross-Coupling of Sterically Hindered Aryl Chlorides at Room Temperature ** Gereon Altenhoff, Richard Goddard, Christian W. Lehmann, and Frank Glorius* However, despite considerable efforts, the coupling of aryl chlorides to give biaryl compounds with more than one ortho substituent at room temperature has not been realized to date.[7] To overcome this problem, an electron-rich ligand is required that is small enough to accept sterically hindered substrates yet sufficiently bulky to support monoligation and promote reductive elimination. We rationalized that these stringent requirements could be met by new NHC 1, which exhibits flexible steric bulk. Imidazolium salt 4 (Scheme 1) and the corresponding NHC 1 derived thereof are expected to exist in the form of three different conformers a, b and c. Conformation a should allow the coordinated Pd0 to undergo oxidative addition, ...
A map of Porter Ranch methane levels (Image: Rob Jackson, Nathan Phillips, and Bob Ackley). Its been three months since Southern California Gas Co. first reported a massive leak in its Aliso Canyon gas field, on the edge of Los Angeles, and the faulty well is still pouring methane into the air. If you look at the map above, of Porter Ranch, the neighborhood where thousands of people have been displaced, and of methane levels measured in the area, you can roughly guess where the leak is.. This map was created by Rob Jackson, a scientist at the Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment, and his colleagues Nathan Phillips, a professor at Boston University, and Bob Ackley. Recently, they took a tool they use regularly in their research-a very accurate laser-based methane detector-and spent a weekend sampling methane in Porter Ranch. The red line shows the path they drove around the neighborhood, and its height indicates the amount of methane measured.. As Jackson writes, in a post on Medium, ...
The Pd-catalysed asymmetric intramolecular α-arylation of amideenolates containing heteroatom substituents gives chiral 3-alkoxy or 3-aminooxindoles in high yield and with enantioselectivities up to 97% ee when a new chiral N-heterocyclic carbene ligand is used.
On Earth, marine anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM) can be driven by the microbial reduction of sulfate, iron, and manganese. Here, we have further characterized marine sediment incubations to determine if the mineral dependent methane oxidation involves similar microorganisms to those found for sulfate-dependent methane oxidation. Through FISH and FISH-SIMS analyses using 13C and 15N labeled substrates, we find that the most active cells during manganese dependent AOM are primarily mixed and mixed-cluster aggregates of archaea and bacteria. Overall, our control experiment using sulfate showed two active bacterial clusters, two active shell aggregates, one active mixed aggregate, and an active archaeal sarcina, the last of which appeared to take up methane in the absence of a closely-associated bacterial partner. A single example of a shell aggregate appeared to be active in the manganese incubation, along with three mixed aggregates and an archaeal sarcina. These results suggest that the microorganisms
July 20, 2018) On Tuesday, July 17th, ARPA-E held its final MONITOR Annual Meeting in Fort Collins, CO. The MONITOR programs mission was to help fund innovative technologies to cost-effectively and accurately locate and measure methane emissions associated with natural gas production. As one of the MONITOR projects, the Methane Team was invited to share the progress made on their upcoming guidance document. Around 80 people in the natural gas community attended, creating a perfect opportunity for the Methane Team to engage with prospective users! The Methane Team Co-lead Tim Taylor (CDPHE) gave a presentation overviewing ITRC and the Methanes soon-to-be-released guidance document. Later, Tim and ITRC Director Patty Reyes participated in a poster session to interact one-on-one with other MONITOR projects. Both sessions generated an immense amount of interest in the Methane Teams guidance document that will be released this September! The Methane Teams work could not have been accomplished ...
J.U.M. - 109L - Heated Non Methane/ Methane/ Total Hydrocarbon FID Analyzer by J.U.M. Engineering GmbH. The J.U.M 109L is a heated FID analyzer to continuously and simultaneously measure the Methane concentration, the Total Hydrocarbon concentration ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Different Abilities of Eight Mixed Cultures of Methane-oxidizing Bacteria to Degrade TCE. AU - Broholm, Kim. AU - Christensen, Thomas Højlund. AU - Jensen, Bjørn K.. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - The ability of eight mixed cultures of methane-oxidizing bacteria to degrade trichloroethylene (TCE) was examined in laboratory batch experiments. This is one of the first reported works studying TCE degradation by mixed cultures of methane-oxidizing bacteria at 10°C, a common temperature for soils and groundwaters. Only three of the eight mixed cultures were able to degrade TCE, or to degrade TCE fast enough to result in a significant removal of TCE within the experimental time, when the cultures used methane as growth substrate. The same three mixed cultures were able to degrade TCE when they oxidized methanol, but only for a limited time period of about 5 days. Several explanations for the discontinued degradation of TCE are given. An experiment carried out to re-activate the ...
Effects of feeding different forages on emission of methane in cattle and goats. The objective of this study was to investigate the volumes of methane emission from cattle and goats by feeding Bermuda hay and Alfalfa hay under the condition of closed confinements. Open Path CH4 Analyzer was used to detect methane emissions from these animals. Eight Taiwan yellow cattle and twenty four Taiwan black goats with the same age and body weights were subjected to the trial. Animals were divided into two groups fed with 100% Bermuda hay or the combination of 50% Bermuda and 50% Alfalfa hay. Cattle that received Bermuda hay produced more methane per kg of body weight than those received Bermuda and Alfalfa hay (0.9484 ppb v.s 0.5768 ppb). The similar tendency was found in the goats (7.7405 ppb v.s 7.0782 ppb). Evidences showed that ruminants fed with legume produced resulted in less methane emissions. Meanwhile, goats produced more methane than that of cattle both fed with Bermuda and Alfalfa hay. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Catalytic reaction of methane with carbon dioxide over supported palladium. AU - Erdöhelyi, A.. AU - Cserényi, J.. AU - Papp, E.. AU - Solymosi, F.. PY - 1994/2/3. Y1 - 1994/2/3. N2 - The reforming of methane with carbon dioxide has been investigated at 673-773 K on supported palladium catalysts in a fixed-bed continuous-flow reactor. In addition, the dissociation of carbon dioxide and methane, and the reactivity of the surface carbon formed have also been examined. The dissociation of carbon dioxide, detected by infrared spectroscopy, occurred at the lowest temperature, 373 K, on Pd/TiO2. It was greatly promoted by the presence of methane. The decomposition of methane at the temperature of the CH4 + CO2 reaction (ca. 773 K) proceeded initially at a high rate yielding hydrogen and small amounts of ethane and ethene. The deposition of surface carbon was also observed, which was hydrogenated only above 720 K. The reaction between carbon dioxide and methane occurred rapidly above ...
With its capacity for anaerobic methane oxidation and denitrification, the bacterium Methylomirabilis oxyfera plays an important role in natural ecosystems. Its unique physiology can be exploited for more sustainable wastewater treatment technologies. However, operational stability of full-scale bioreactors can experience setbacks due to, for example, bacteriophage blooms. By shaping microbial communities through mortality, horizontal gene transfer, and metabolic reprogramming, bacteriophages are important players in most ecosystems. Here, we analyzed an infected Methylomirabilis sp. bioreactor enrichment culture using (advanced) electron microscopy, viral metagenomics and bioinformatics. Electron micrographs revealed four different viral morphotypes, one of which was observed to infect Methylomirabilis cells. The infected cells contained densely packed ~55 nm icosahedral bacteriophage particles with a putative internal membrane. Various stages of virion assembly were observed. Moreover, during ...
In this paper, we investigate similarities of effects of soil environmental drivers on year-round daily soil fluxes of nitrous oxide and methane for three distinct semi-natural or natural ecosystems: temperate spruce forest, Germany; tropical rain forest, Queensland, Australia; and ungrazed semi-arid steppe, Inner Mongolia, China. Annual cumulative fluxes of nitrous oxide and methane varied markedly among ecosystems, with nitrous oxide fluxes being highest for the tropical forest site (tropical forest: 0.96 kgNha−1 yr−1; temperate forest: 0.67 kgNha−1 yr−1; steppe: 0.22 kgNha−1 yr−1), while rates of soil methane uptake were approximately equal for the temperate forest (−3.45 kgC ha−1 yr−1) and the steppe (−3.39 kgC ha−1 yr−1), but lower for the tropical forest site (−2.38 kgC ha−1 yr−1). In order to allow for cross-site comparison of effects of changes in soil moisture and soil temperature on fluxes of methane and nitrous oxide, we used a normalization approach. ...
Martian methane releases are rare, episodic, and often debated, but scientists have discovered evidence of a methane emission in June 2013, which constitutes the first confirmation of a methane release on Mars.. Planetary Science Institute Senior Scientist Dorothy Z. Oehler is an author on two new papers on methane detections in the Martian atmosphere. The first is Methane spikes, background seasonality and non-detections on Mars: A geological perspective that appears in Planetary Space and Science. Giuseppe Etiope, of the National Institute for Geophysics and Volcanology in Italy, is lead author. The second is Independent confirmation of a methane spike on Mars and a source region east of Gale Crater appearing in Nature Geoscience, on which Marco Giuranna, of the National Institute for Astrophysics in Italy, is lead author ...
Although the effects of elevated ozone on aboveground carbon (C) assimilation are well understood, its effects on soil C fluxes are less certain. Mesocosms taken from a lowland raised bog in northern England were exposed in open-top chambers for 2 years to ambient air or ambient air plus ozone elevated for 8 h day−1 by an average of 49 ppb in summer and 10 ppb in winter. The effects of elevated ozone on methane emission and ecosystem dark respiration were measured throughout this period, along with soil and plant variables. Methane emissions were significantly reduced, by about 25%, by elevated ozone during midsummer periods of both years, but no significant effect of ozone was found during the winter periods. Dark ecosystem respiration was not significantly affected by elevated ozone. There was no evidence that effects of elevated ozone on methane emissions were mediated through changes in aboveground plant biomass or soil water dissolved organic C concentrations. Our results imply that the ...
You are spot on Methane and ethane are excluded, but the only organic compounds come from the natural gas which has methane and ethane (note no mention of propane in the regs). Nat gas has methane and ethane and Bloom is crying that the nat gas has even more ethane than anticipated die to shale gas. This means the remaining organics are methane and some ethane but mostly methane and their VOCs are actually methane and ethane. The fuel cell does not complete the reaction of CH4 to CO2 and H2O and some CH4 will always remain. This is their VOC emissions plus the little ethane that is not converted. Actualy since the pipeline gas is richer in ethane than Bloom anticipated the VOCs may have quite a bit of ethane as well. Bloom data is pretty fake so why would they not fake this as well ...
Forests have long been seen as important sinks, or storage sites, for greenhouse gases. But scientists recently discovered that tree trunks emit methane, a powerful greenhouse gas at least 25 times more potent than carbon dioxide in the short-term.. The discovery comes from researchers at the University of Delaware, who measured methane output from soils, individual trees, and decomposing woody biomass lying on a forest floor in northeast Maryland over a 10-month period. Using a mobile greenhouse gas analyzer, the University of Delaware researchers found that while forest soils suck up and store methane, tree trunks actually release the gas. They also found that different tree species release it at different rates. One theory they posed was that internal rotting or infection inside the tree trunk could cause the methane leaks. The findings were published recently in the journal Ecosystems. When people develop ecosystem to global-scale methane budgets, theres always a chunk in which it is ...
Abstract - Reductions of methane, black carbon and tropospheric ozone could halve warming during the 2030s, while a fairly aggressive strategy to reduce carbon dioxide would do little over the next 20-30 years. Concerning methane, governments must act quickly to take advantage of this opportunity. Production of unconventional natural gas, such as shale gas, has increased significantly and with conventional sources could meet current consumption levels for over 240 years. However, the benefit of methane as a transitional fuel from coal to renewables is questionable due to methane leakage during production. Also, rising temperatures are releasing methane from melting permafrost, but governments are not required to report these emissions. Thus, countries are farther from meeting their targets and the global community is farther from reaching the goal of limiting warming to 2°C above pre-industrial levels than emissions data suggest. This article establishes an agenda for fuller accounting of ...
The surface distribution of CH4, photoproduction capacity of seawater for CO, and CH4 and CO microbial oxidation rates and turnover times were determined for the surface waters of the southeastern Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Paria as affected by the Orinoco River. Measurements were made during the spring (low river flow) and the fall (high river flow) in order to determine the influence of Orinoco River discharge on these parameters. Methane concentrations were generally lower in the fall than in the spring. Low CH4 oxidation rates and similar surface distributions were observed during both seasons. Methane oxidation in the river plume was significantly higher in the fall. Potential CO photoproduction and CO oxidation rates were generally higher during the fall. Possible effects of the Orinoco River on potential CO photoproduction capacity were observed as far as Puerto Rico. Turnover times for CH4 were in the order of years, whereas CO turnover times were in the order of hours. The Orinoco River ...
Researchers say 7,000 methane gas bubbles making the ground wobble in Siberia could explode soon. The gas bubbles like come from melting permafrost.
DENVER (AP) - Over-regulating methane emissions could discourage the use of environment-friendly natural gas, an energy industry representative told the Environmental Protection Agency on Wednesday.. However, a former Colorado air quality official countered that such controls would be a cost-effective way to fight climate change.. [Native Advertisement] The EPA heard radically different views as it opened public hearings in Denver on its proposal to slash allowable methane emissions from oil and gas production. Sessions were also scheduled in Dallas on Wednesday and in Pittsburgh on Sept. 29.. The proposed rules are aimed at cutting the emissions by 40 to 45 percent by 2025 compared with 2012 levels.. Methane is a key component of natural gas and a powerful greenhouse gas that traps heat in the upper atmosphere.. The EPA estimates the new rule would cost industry from $320 million to $420 million annually by 2025 but would reduce health care costs and have other benefits totaling about $460 ...
The Curiosity rover recently detected a background of 0.7 ppb and spikes of 7 ppb of methane on Mars. This in situ measurement reorients our understanding of the Martian environment and its potential for life, as the current theories do not entail any geological source or sink of methane that varies sub-annually. In particular, the 10-fold elevation during the southern winter indicates episodic sources of methane that are yet to be discovered. Here we suggest a near-surface reservoir could explain this variability. Using the temperature and humidity measurements from the rover, we find that perchlorate salts in the regolith deliquesce to form liquid solutions, and deliquescence progresses to deeper subsurface in the season of the methane spikes. We therefore formulate the following three testable hypotheses. The first scenario is that the regolith in Gale Crater adsorbs methane when dry and releases this methane to the atmosphere upon deliquescence. The adsorption energy needs to be 36 kJ/mol to ...
Looking for online definition of Triphenyl methane in the Medical Dictionary? Triphenyl methane explanation free. What is Triphenyl methane? Meaning of Triphenyl methane medical term. What does Triphenyl methane mean?
Methanotrophs are organisms that require methane as a source of carbon and energy for their metabolism. They are gram-negative bacteria that are capable in utilizing methane as a carbon energy source and able to grow both aerobically or anaerobically which only need single-carbon compound to live on. These prokaryotes occur mostly in soils, rice paddles, mud, landfills, and other places where methane is available. They can grow aerobically or anaerobically. In aerobic conditions, they use oxygen and methane to produce formaldehyde. They then incorporate it into organic compounds through ribulose monophosphate pathway or by serine pathway. An example of methanotroph is a gammaproteobacterium that utilize RuMP pathway in assimilating carbon. Such bacteria are referred to as type I methanotrophs. Type II methanotrophs are those from alphaproteobacteria that utilize the serine pathway of carbon assimilation. They have a system of internal membranes where methane oxidation occurs.1 Methanotrophs are ...
Methanotrophs (sometimes called methanophiles) are prokaryotes that metabolize methane as their only source of carbon and energy. They can grow aerobically or anaerobically and require single-carbon compounds to survive. These Methanotrophs are currently being modified to absorb methane from the atmosphere, because methane released into the atmosphere contributes to greenhouse gasses, which heat up the earth and cause global warming. Under aerobic conditions, they combine oxygen and methane to form formaldehyde, which is then incorporated into organic compounds via the serine pathway or the ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) pathway. Type I methanotrophs are part of the Gammaproteobacteria and they use the RuMP pathway to assimilate carbon. Type II methanotrophs are part of the Alphaproteobacteria and utilize the Serine pathway of carbon assimilation. They also characteristically have a system of internal membranes within which methane oxidation occurs. Methanotrophs occur mostly in soils, and are ...
This post was updated on February 10th.. A new study from the U.S. Department of Energy adds to the large and growing body of research on the problem of methane emissions from the oil and gas industry. Methane is both the main component of natural gas and a powerful climate pollutant - which is why regulators, scientists, and industry all have a vested interest in developing a more complete understanding of how much methane is emitted and from which sources.. Researchers with the Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) used a life cycle model to integrate data from several of EDFs methane studies, and estimated that 7.3 million metric tons of methane were emitted along the natural gas supply chain in 2012. This value is about 10% higher than the corresponding estimate in the 2016 EPA Greenhouse Gas Inventory (GHGI), although the difference was not statistically significant (the NETL confidence interval ranged from -20% to +30% of the central estimate).. The NETL ...
When fugitive methane gas was detected close to a multi-unit apartment complex, the owner needed environmental consulting services to investigate an orphan natural gas well adjacent to the building. The well was previously discovered and plugged during construction of the apartment complex 12 years prior. However, during a routine service line inspection, natural gas was detected in the area adjacent to the vault containing the natural gas well. The fugitive methane was due to multiple malfunctions, including a leaking water well. The owner evacuated the building as a precautionary measure.. They then contracted with RETTEW to evaluate site conditions and perform emergency repairs within 24 hours. These repairs included installing a sump pump and a blower unit to actively draw and vent methane from the vault. Subsequent investigations included aquifer characterizations, isotopic methane sampling, pilot testing, feasibility analysis, and design and construction of remedial options. RETTEW ...
article{8170967, abstract = {The reaction of [Cp*RuCl](4) (1, Cp* = eta(5)-C5Me5) with the carbene ligand 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (IMes) affords a coordinatively unsaturated Cp*Ru(IMes)Cl (3) complex in 86% isolated yield. Solution calorimetric results in this system provide information concerning the electron donor properties of the carbene ligand, which are very similar to those of PCy3. Structural information from single-crystal X-ray studies for complex 3 allows the determination of steric parameters associated with this ligand. The thermochemical information is used to predict the magnitude of the enthalpic driving force behind substitution reactions involving RuCl2(=C(H)Ph)(PCy3)(2) (1) and the carbene ligand, IMes, affording the RuCl2(=C(H)Ph)(PCy3)(IMes) (6) complex in high yield. A similar mixed carbene/phosphine ruthenium complex, RuCl2(=C(H)Ph)(PPh3)(IMes), can also be isolated from RuCl2(=C(H)Ph)(PPh3)(2) and the IMes ligand. A single-crystal X-ray ...
The identification and quantification of methane emissions from natural gas production has become increasingly important owing to the increase in the natural gas component of the energy sector. An instrumented aircraft platform was used to identify large sources of methane and quantify emission rates in southwestern PA in June 2012. A large regional flux, 2.0-14 g CH4 s-1 km-2, was quantified for a ?2,800-km2 area, which did not differ statistically from a bottom-up inventory, 2.3-4.6 g CH4 s-1 km-2. Large emissions averaging 34 g CH 4/s per well were observed from seven well pads determined to be in the drilling phase, 2 to 3 orders of magnitude greater than US Environmental Protection Agency estimates for this operational phase. The emissions from these well pads, representing ?1% of the total number of wells, account for 4-30% of the observed regional flux. More work is needed to determine all of the sources of methane emissions from natural gas production, to ascertain why these emissions ...
A diverse library of cationic silver complexes bearing bis(N-heterocyclic carbene) ligands have been prepared which exhibit cytotoxicity comparable to cisplatin against the adenocarcinomas MCF7 and DLD1. Bidentate ligands show enhanced cytotoxicity over monodentate and macrocyclic ligands.. ...
This is HUGE ….. In the wake of these startling announcements, wide-ranging discussions have erupted across the Internet concerning the source of this new methane. Probably the most authoritative and fact-based of these is currently taking place on a weblog known by the whimsical title, Mainly Martian. Another cogent analysis is voiced by the Mars Societys Bob Zubrin. As one would expect, viewpoints on this surprising development differ vociferously - mainly, as to whether the new methane measurements are geological or biological.. Fortunately, the scientific test for biological methane in this case is elemental: careful measurement of the ratio of carbon isotopes bound with hydrogen, in the methane molecules detected in the Martian atmosphere.. For a variety of reasons, biologically fixed carbon has a preference for the lighter isotope - Carbon 12 - over the heavier version also found in nature, Carbon 13. Methane produced by non-biologically processes - such as volcanically ...
If AOM Archaea oxidize methane by reverse methanogenesis, coenzyme F430 likely catalyzes the first step. Culture studies of methanogenic Archaea that can carry out trace oxidation of methane provide supporting evidence for a reversed methanogenesis biochemical pathway. The methanogen Methanosarcina acetovorines was shown to oxidize trace amounts of methane to CO2 (Moran et al., 2006) as documented by observations that 13C-labeled methane became incorporated into CO2. Studies of Methanothermobacter marburgensis in pure culture demonstrated the last step in methanogenesis is also the first step in methane oxidation (Scheller et al., 2010) by the incorporation of 13C-labeled methane into methyl-coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethanesulfonate) catalyzed by coenzyme F430. Genetic evidence from environmental samples provides additional support for reverse methanogenesis during AOM. Hallam et al., (2004) found genes that code for the enzymes used in methanogenesis, including for the last step, in ANME-1 and ...
Due to their climate and health impacts, methane emissions have drawn increasing scrutiny from the public, environmental and health groups, and global policymakers. Unfortunately, a dearth of accurate emissions disclosure, conflicting policy stances and variable operational quality of methane management by the industry interfere with investors efforts to gain clarity on climate risks within their portfolios. Without better reporting, investors are unable to discern which operators are prepared for a shifting energy future and which are not, creating an uncertain investment landscape. Understanding the performance of companies on these complex issues can be difficult given the interrelated nature of asks. Additionally, the lack of a goal framework hinders the investors ability to assess a companys progress on methane management and conduct a comparison with other companies. This document aims to tackle these problems by providing guidance to investors in structuring engagements with companies ...
Arctic lakes are a significant source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4), but the role that methane oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs) play in limiting the overall CH4 flux is poorly understood. Here, we used stable isotope probing (SIP) techniques to identify the metabolically active aerobic methanotrophs in upper sediments (0-1 cm) from an arctic lake in northern Alaska sampled during ice-free summer conditions. The highest CH4 oxidation potential was observed in the upper sediment (0-1 cm depth) with 1.59 μmol g wet weight-1 day-1 compared with the deeper sediment samples (1-3 cm, 3-5 cm and 5-10 cm), which exhibited CH4 oxidation potentials below 0.4 μmol g wet weight-1 day-1. Both type I and type II methanotrophs were directly detected in the upper sediment total communities using targeted primer sets based on 16S rRNA genes. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and functional genes (pmoA and mxaF) in the 13C-DNA from the upper...
The paper itself is a marvel of weak extrapolation:. Link to excerpt of curent Current Biology issue, showing the full article:. Could methane produced by sauropod dinosaurs. have helped drive Mesozoic climate warmth?. David M. Wilkinson1,*, Euan G. Nisbet2, and Graeme D. Ruxton3. Mesozoic sauropods, like many modern herbivores, are likely to have. hosted microbial methanogenic symbionts for the fermentative. digestion of their plant food [1]. Today methane from livestock is a. significant component of the global methane budget [2]. Sauropod. methane emission would probably also have been considerable. Here,. we use a simple quantitative approach to estimate the magnitude of such. methane production and show that the production of the greenhouse. gas methane by sauropods could have been an important factor in warm. Mesozoic climates. Sauropod dinosaurs include the largest terrestrial animals known. and exhibit a ...
UK researchers seeking to cut back on greenhouse gases have found a deliciously potent weapon for fighting agricultural methane emissions: curry. It turns out two spices customarily used to season curry dishes -- coriander and turmeric -- have an antibiotic effect in the stomachs of sheep and cows, killing methane-producing bacteria there. By spicing up animal feeds, farmers could reduce methane emissions from farms by up to 40 percent.
The fifth most abundant gas in the atmosphere is carbon dioxide. The volume of this gas has increased by over 35% in the last three hundred years (see Figure 7a-1). This increase is primarily due to human induced burning from fossil fuels, deforestation, and other forms of land-use change. Carbon dioxide is an important greenhouse gas. The human-caused increase in its concentration in the atmosphere has strengthened the greenhouse effect and has definitely contributed to global warming over the last 100 years. Carbon dioxide is also naturally exchanged between the atmosphere and life through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration.. Methane is a very strong greenhouse gas. Since 1750, methane concentrations in the atmosphere have increased by more than 150%. The primary sources for the additional methane added to the atmosphere (in order of importance) are: rice cultivation; domestic grazing animals; termites; landfills; coal mining; and, oil and gas extraction. Anaerobic conditions ...
By combining fractional amounts of an assumed standard Arctic methane fountain/torch/plume with a global warming potential of 1000 (which equals a 16 oC temperature rise (4 - 20 oC) over one year - 2010 - 2011) with the mean global temperature curve (from IPCC 2007 - gradient data) it was possible to closely match the 5 visually and mathematically determined best estimates of the global extinction gradients shown in Figure 6 (a to e). Because the thermal radiant flux from the earth into space is a function of its area (Lide and Fredrickse, 1995) we can roughly determine how many years it will take for the methane to spread globally by getting the ratio of the determined fraction of the mean global temperature curve to the fraction of the Arctic methane fountain/torch/plume curve, as the latter is assumed to represent only one year of methane emissions. In addition as the earths surface area is some 5.1*10^8 square kilometres (Lide and Fredrickse, 1995) a rough estimate of the average area of ...
EPA has upwardly revised methane emissions from oil and gas production 27 percent, doing so just in time to justify costly new regulations on industry. The new data comes after EPAs previous Greenhouse Gas Inventories consistently showed methane emissions plummeting as natural gas production soars. A close look at the new methods used to revise data for the 2016 GHGI are as flawed as the timing of their release is suspicious.
We herein report that a copper-ion-exchanged erionite zeolite (Cu-ERI) exhibited a methanol yield as high as 147 μmol/g-zeolite, equaling 0.224 μmol/μmol-Cu, in the direct oxidation of methane to methanol. Moreover, this high methanol yield was achieved using an isothermal chemical looping with both oxygen activation and reaction with methane carried out at 300 °C, in contrast to the conventional stepwise protocol where activation is performed at high temperature (450 °C and above) and the methane reaction at lower temperature (typically 200 °C). Under isobaric condition (1 bar), the Cu-ERI still gave a high yield of 80 μmol/g-zeolite after a single aqueous extraction of the methanol. Such improvements indicate that high yields can be obtained over Cu-ERI in the direct conversion of methane to methanol by a chemical looping without any temperature or pressure swing.. ...
Some of these methane emissions come from cow flatulence, exhaling and belching - other livestock animals release methane as well.Cows emit a massive amount of methane through belching, with a lesser amount through flatulence, according to How Stuff Works. Statistics vary regarding how much methane the average dairy cow expels. Some experts say 100 liters to 200 liters a day… while others say its up to 500 liters… a day. In any case, thats a lot of methane, an amount comparable to the pollution produced by a car in a day.Of all domestic animal types, beef and dairy cattle were by far the largest emitters of [methane], according to an EPA analysis charting greenhouse gas emissions in 2012. Cows and other animals produce methane through digestion, which ferments the food of animals.During digestion, microbes resident in an animals digestive system ferment food consumed by the animal, the EPA notes. This microbial fermentation process, referred to as enteric fermentation, produces ...
Keiths update: Press conference statement: \How much methane did we see? So far we have no definitive detection of methane. We have no detection of methane but we will keep looking in the month ahead.\\n\nNASAS Curiosity Rover Provides Clues to Changes in Martian Atmosphere\n\n\Methane is clearly not an abundant gas at the Gale Crater site, if it is there at all. At this point in the mission were just excited to be searching for it,\ said SAM TLS lead Chris Webster of NASAs Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, Calif. \While we determine upper limits on low values, atmospheric variability in the Martian atmosphere could yet hold surprises for us.\\n\ ...
Methane formed in the ruminant fore-stomach (reticulo-rumen) is a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions for countries that are reliant on ruminant-based agriculture. Methane is an end product of plant digestion in the reticulo-rumen, and is formed by methanogens belonging to the Euryarchaeota subgroup of the Archaea. Molecular surveys of ruminants have shown that small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences affiliated with species of the genus Methanobrevibacter predominate in most rumen microbiomes, on average making up almost two thirds of the rumen archaea [1]. Sequences are mainly associated with M. gottschalkii (33.6%) and M. ruminantium (27.3%), but also with M. wolinii (0.1%), M. smithii (0.1%) and other Methanobrevibacter spp. (0.5%). Development of mitigation strategies to reduce methane emissions from farmed animals is currently the subject of both scientific and environmental interest. Methanogens are producers of ruminant methane, therefore methane abatement strategies can ...
Back then we figured that since that eastern Siberian area was one of the shallowest areas of the arctic, it had warmed enough during a period of unusual atmospheric circulation that fall to thaw the extensive amounts of frozen methane hydrates known to be locked up by high pressure and cold temperatures on the ocean floor, and they were melting and rising to the surface. In this case it appears that a branch of the warm gulf stream current is causing enough warming to destabilize the frozen methane on the ocean floor in the areas between Norway and Svalbard and points east. This is similar to a scenario that was warned about in a study in the journal Nature in October ...
The rise in methane levels is attributed to both natural and manmade sources. natural sources include decomposition of organic matter in wetlands, anaerobic respiration in water bodies. manmade sources include livestock production, decomposition of wastes in landfills, production, transportation and consumption of natural gas. The rapid rise is mainly due to increase in livestock production because of the growing demand for meat and natural gas industrial processes because of the growing demand for natural gas worldwide.. ...
Methane William Malisoff, Gustav Egloff J. Phys. Chem., 1918, 22 (8), pp 529-575 A Calendar of Doubts and Faiths, 1930 ... Malisoff, William (1917). "Methane". The Journal of Physical Chemistry. 22 (8): 529-575. doi:10.1021/j150188a001. Malisoff, ...
... he found methane at Lake Maggiore, and by 1778 he managed to isolate methane. He devised experiments such as the ignition of ... He researched and discovered methane after reading a paper by Benjamin Franklin of the United States on "flammable air". In ... and pioneer of electricity and power who is credited as the inventor of the electric battery and the discoverer of methane. He ... Methane. BookRags. Retrieved 26 January 2012. Williams, Jeffrey Huw (2014). Defining and Measuring Nature: The Make of All ...
Methane". Canadian Journal of Physics. 45 (2): 237-254. doi:10.1139/p67-025. Hall, P. L.; Ross, D. K. (1981). "Incoherent ...
"Methane". 10 July 2018. Weast, R. C., Editor-in Chief, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 48th Edition, 1967-68, Cleveland: The ...
Methane has a global warming potential (GWP) 23 times that of CO2; when combusted, each molecule of methane is converted to one ... Methane. A recent study has claimed that plants are a significant source of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, raising the ... Some offset projects consist of the combustion or containment of methane generated by farm animals (by use of an anaerobic ... These project types include renewable energy, methane abatement, energy efficiency, reforestation and fuel switching (i.e. to ...
Methane is a potent greenhouse gas and the methane emissions from thermokarst lakes have the potential to initiate a positive ... Broken picture links: An aerial photo ..., UAF researcher Katey Walter lights a pocket of methane ... Methane bubbles ..., ... In 2007 a 32-meter (105-foot) high tower was erected in the park that constantly monitors the levels of methane, carbon dioxide ... The grazers thus help keep permafrost intact, thereby lessening the amount of methane released by the tundra. 2004-2011 In the ...
Coalbed methane or coal seam methane is natural gas within the structure of coal. Special production techniques to remove this ... Coalbed methane knowledge has advanced rapidly. So has the development of water-free natural gas from coal in the Horseshoe ... coalbed methane; and since January 2000, frontier gas and liquids from Nova Scotia's Sable Offshore Energy Project. Other ...
Other sources of methane, the principal component of natural gas, include landfill gas, biogas, and methane hydrate. When ... Similarly, some landfills that also discharge methane gases have been set up to capture the methane and generate electricity. ... Anthropogenic and Natural Radiative Forcing "Global Methane Emissions and Mitigation Opportunities" (PDF). Global Methane ... of all methane emissions and for most of the resulting increase in atmospheric methane. Natural gas is intentionally released ...
Methane, CH4. In addition to the proper rotations of order 2 and 3 there are three mutually perpendicular S4 axes which pass ...
SS Methane Progress, LNG carrier for Methane tanker Finance Co, launched 19 September 1963, completed 26 May 1964. HMS Fearless ... "Methane Progress". The Yard. Retrieved 11 March 2017. "Weybank". The Yard. Retrieved 11 March 2017. "Hazelbank". The Yard. ...
Shimanouchi, T. (1972). "Methane, trifluoroiodo-". 6 (3): 993-1102. Retrieved 2017-09-06. Ramfjord, Birgit ( ...
8a Methane; 8 Methane dimer; 9a Ethene; 9 Ethene dimer; 10 Benzene/methane; 11a Benzene; 11 Benzene dimer; 12a Pyrazine; 12 ...
"Methane production". FAO, Agriculture Department. Retrieved 29 August 2006. Methane from algae - Oilgae - Oil from Algae. ... Methane fermentation of microalgae. In Anaerobic digestion, edited by D. A. Stafford, B. I. Wheatley and D. E. Hughes. London, ... Methane, the main constituent of natural gas can be produced from algae in various methods, namely gasification, pyrolysis and ... Macroalgae has high methane production rate compared to plant biomass. Biogas production from macroalgae is more technically ...
... (April 13, 2007). "Methane Matters". World Climate Report. Retrieved 2007-05-03. There is no doubt that ... the same mass of methane would warm the earth 23 times more than the same mass of CO 2. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link ...
"Methane hydrates". Retrieved 17 January 2017. America's Climate Choices: Panel on Advancing the Science ... if one includes all sources of carbon-based energy such as methane hydrates on the sea floor, which are vastly greater than all ...
A methane "burp". In permafrosts and continental shelves methane produced by bacteria gets trapped in "cages" of water ... This methane is very rich in 12C because it has been produced by organisms. Clathrates may dissociate (break up) suddenly if ... Such dissociations release the 12C-rich methane and thus reduce the ratio of 13C to 12C as this carbon is gradually ... Some carbon reservoirs are very isotopically light: for instance, biogenic methane, produced by bacterial decomposition, has a ...
I. Methane-t4". (1970) "Gaseous Carbonium Ions from the Decay of Tritiated Molecules". (1973) "Gas-phase reaction of tert-butyl ... I. Methane-t4". Journal of the American Chemical Society, volume 88, issue 13, pages 2903-2907. doi:10.1021/ja00965a004 Fulvio ...
"Global Methane Initiative - Finland". Global Methane Initiative. Energy Statistics 2007: Table 2.4.1 Consumption of Hard Coal ... Methane and liquefied petroleum gas have no fuel tax. Commercial aviation have no fuel tax. Private aviation has no fuel tax. ... One cow emits 850 liters methane a day. 16,000 cows produce 50GWh gas which equal 5000 cars use. Climate panel demand 1⁄4 ... Approximately 60% of Finland's anthropogenic methane emissions-3.17 MMTCO2e-come from agriculture (manure management), ...
... which is near the triple point of methane and allows there to be gaseous methane in the atmosphere and liquid methane on the ... This suggests that methane must be somehow replenished by a reservoir on or within Titan itself. Most of the methane on Titan ... Methane is transported through the cold trap at the tropopause. Therefore the circulation of methane in the atmosphere ... Since methane condenses out of Titan's atmosphere at high altitudes, its abundance increases below the tropopause at an ...
Carbonates and sulfates are subsequently reduced by hydrogen and form methane and hydrogen sulfide. The hydrogen, methane, and ... "Methane and hydrogen formation from rocks - Energy sources for life". Retrieved 6 November 2011. Sleep, N.H.; A. Meibom, Th. ... The presence of traces of methane in the atmosphere of Mars has been hypothesized to be a possible evidence for life on Mars if ... "The methane mystery". European Space Agency. Retrieved 22 April 2019. R. Glein, Christopher; Baross, John A.; Waite, Hunter (16 ...
... and this methane is released to the atmosphere. The rumen is the major site of methane production in ruminants. Methane is a ... Methane production by meat animals, principally ruminants, is estimated 15-20% global production of methane, unless the animals ... 1988 "Biogeochemical Aspects of Atmospheric Methane" Yavitt, J. B. 1992. Methane, biogeochemical cycle. pp. 197-207 in ... Methane is produced by a type of archaea, called methanogens, as described above within the rumen, ...
Methane has a greater global warming impact than carbon dioxide, as its radiative force is 120, 86 and 34 times that of carbon ... In Canada, the oil and gas industry is thought to be the largest source of greenhouse gas and methane emissions, and ... "ICF Methane Cost Curve Report". Environmental Defense Fund. March 2014. Retrieved 2018-03-17. Atherton, Emmaline; Risk, David; ... Boothroyd, I.M.; Almond, S.; Qassim, S.M.; Worrall, F.; Davies, R.J. (March 2016). "Fugitive emissions of methane from ...
I. Methane-t4". Journal of the American Chemical Society, volume 88, issue 13, pages 2903-2907. doi:10.1021/ja00965a004 Fulvio ... For example, decay of tritiated methane, CH 3T (R = R′ = R″ = H) produces the carbenium ion H 3C+ in a tetrahedral conformation ... In particular [HeH]+ (or [HeT]+) will protonate methane CH 4 to the carbonium ion [CH 5]+ (or [CH 4T]+). Other structures that ...
Vogels, G. D.; Keltjens, J. T.; Van Der Drift, C. (1988). "Biochemistry of methane production". In Zehnder A.J.B. (ed.). ... Ferry, J.G. (1992). "Methane from acetate". Journal of Bacteriology. 174 (17): 5489-5495. PMC 206491. ... of acetic acid to respectively produce CO2 and methane gas. Space-filling model of the acetate anion resonance hybrid of the ... ATP Acetic acid can also undergo a dismutation reaction to produce methane and carbon dioxide: CH3COO− + H+ → CH4 + CO2 ΔG° = − ...
... coalbed methane; and 9. nearshore sand deposits that can be used in coastal restoration projects. In case of the Tuscaloosa ...
Fermentative bacteria play an essential role in the production of methane in habitats ranging from the rumens of cattle to ... Then consortia of microbes convert the carbon dioxide and acetate to methane. Acetogenic bacteria oxidize the acids, obtaining ... Finally, methanogens (in the domain Archea) convert acetate to methane. Fermentation reacts NADH with an endogenous, organic ... Ferry, J G (September 1992). "Methane from acetate". Journal of Bacteriology. 174 (17): 5489-5495. doi:10.1128/jb.174.17.5489- ...
... methane - A Mild and Efficient Reagent for the Methylation of Carboxylic Acids and Alcohols in Natural Products". Chemical ... methane". Organic Syntheses.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link); Collective Volume, 8, p. 612 Armin Presser & Antje ...
"Brazil" (PDF). Global Methane Initiative. Retrieved 2012-05-22. Glauser, et al. 2005 Zancan 2002 Silva, Izquierdo, et al.: 2010 ... Mining also releases coalmine methane, a greenhouse gas twenty times more powerful than carbon dioxide. Coal mining activity ...
In 2017, Methane Momma, a short film directed by Alain Rimbert, featured Van Peebles and his narration of poetic work with ... "Methane Momma (2016)". "From The Vaults - Photos: Melvin Van Peebles Records For Heliocentrics". Now-Again Records ...
Coalbed methane (CBM or coal-bed methane),[1] coalbed gas, coal seam gas (CSG[1]), or coal-mine methane (CMM)[2] is a form of ... methane escaping from coal during mining amounts to 10 percent of total methane emissions. Recovery of coal mine methane in ... Methane[edit]. As with all carbon based fossil fuels, burning coalbed methane releases carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere ... Coalbed methane grew out of venting methane from coal seams. Some coal beds have long been known to be "gassy," and as a safety ...
Methane in groundwater before, during, and after hydraulic fracturing of the Marcellus Shale E. Barth-Naftilan, J. Sohng, and J ... Role of atmospheric oxidation in recent methane growth Matthew Rigby, Stephen A. Montzka, Ronald G. Prinn, James W. C. White, ... Enhanced CO2 uptake at a shallow Arctic Ocean seep field overwhelms the positive warming potential of emitted methane John W. ... Impact of an historic underground gas well blowout on the current methane chemistry in a shallow groundwater system Gilian ...
... or encourage capturing methane to use as an energy source. ... that either monitor or prevent potentially harmful methane ... Methane as Fuel/Energy. Methane is released during the breakdown of solid waste and can be captured and converted into energy. ... Generally, state policies aim to monitor or prevent potentially harmful methane emissions, or encourage capturing methane to ... Coalbed methane is a form of natural gas that is found within coal and can present safety risks during underground mining; ...
... everything you need for studying or teaching Methane. ... Immediately download the Methane summary, chapter-by-chapter ... Methane Overview Methane (METH-ane) is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, flammable gas that is less dense then air. It is the ... Methane The hydrocarbon methane (CH4) is the major component of natural gas (around 90 percent) that is found in oil and gas ... Methane Oxidizing and Producing Bacteria Methane is a chemical compound that consists of a carbon atom to which are bound four ...
biomass burning in the tropics, and about the global methane budget, which. offers an excellent first line of attack on the ...
Methane is a potent greenhouse gas. When it is released into the atmosphere it has a much higher global warming impact than CO2 ... Methane emissions. Methane is a potent greenhouse gas. When it is released into the atmosphere it has a much higher global ... Tackling methane emissions. Efforts to address climate change therefore require the industry to reduce both deliberate and ... Read about how Shell is tackling methane emissions here. European Union policy recommendations. In May 2020, Shell - alongside ...
An undersea methane explosion may have driven the most rapid warming episode of the past 90 million years ... METHANE FEVER. An undersea methane explosion may have driven the most rapid warming episode of the past 90 million years ...
There Is Definitely Methane on Mars, Scientists Say. But Is It a Sign of Life?. 04/01/2019 2:00:52 PM PDT · by BenLurkin · 50 ... Methane sensors put on planes, trucks in oil production zone (NM,TX). 10/04/2019 11:15:11 AM PDT · by CedarDave · 19 replies ... Cause of mysterious methane spikes on Mars still unknown. 08/14/2019 7:11:55 AM PDT · by BenLurkin · 26 replies Fox News ^ , 08 ... Methane warming exaggerated by 400% (Attention: AOC). 04/03/2019 10:02:21 AM PDT · by Rocky · 29 replies Whats Up With That ^ ...
Media in category "Methane control". The following 12 files are in this category, out of 12 total. ... Pages in category "Methane control". This category contains only the following page. ... CSIRO ScienceImage 1898 Testing Sheep for Methane Production.jpg 945 × 630; 910 KB. ... Retrieved from "" ...
Current: Methane in Well Water. Methane in Well Water. Methane is a colorless, odorless gas that can dissolve in water. Safety ... is the main concern with high levels of methane because it is a fire and explosive hazard. Below are some resource materials ...
Methane and its oxidation product, methanol, have occupied an important position in the chemical industry for many years: the ... Methane, a renewable energy source that will always be with us, is actually a difficult molecule to activate; so any ... Methane and its oxidation product, methanol, have occupied an important position in the chemical industry for many years: the ... More recently, the role played by methane as a potent "greenhouse" gas has aroused considerable attention from ...
Methane 230 works / 17 ebooks Clear this selection Search for books with subject Methane. Sort by: # of Editions , Most Recent ... Environmental aspects of Methane, Gas producers, Landfill gases, Motor fuels, Congresses, Natural gas, Biomass energy, Farm ... manure in methane production, Manure gases, Pollution, Coal, Law and legislation, Air, Biogas ...
Show the 3-D molecular shapes of water, ammonia, and methane. *Show the 3-D molecular geometries of water, ammonia, and methane ... The students should also know how to draw the three dimensional structures of the water, methane, and ammonia molecules. ... Label the important and major characteristics of water, ammonia, and methane. Dont forget to talk about their polarities as ... Show the 2-dimensional (using just bonds and electron dots) structures of water, ammonia, and methane. * ...
Mining Publication: Coal Dust and Methane. Keywords: CDEM Coal dust Methane Methane control Rock dusting ... Methane Detection and Monitoring. *Modeling and Prediction of Ventilation Methane Emissions of U.S. Longwall Mines Using ... Also, the use of infrared sensors for monitoring methane underground is examined and a series of tests performed to evaluate ...
Mining Contract: Remote Methane Sensors. Keywords: Coal mining Methane Methane control Methane monitors ... Methane Emission Rate Studies in a Northern West Virginia Mine. *Predicting Methane Emissions from Longer Longwall Faces by ... Prediction of Longwall Methane Emissions and the Associated Consequences of Increasing Longwall Face Lengths: A Case Study in ... The output from the methane monitor is readable on a laboratory quality voltmeter. The voltage output is proportional to the ...
But methane from the Arctic tundra could be most damaging of all ... Methane from cows,rubbish tips and rice fields is warming the ... IT IS hard to measure the methane in a cows farts. But Dieter Ehhalt has made an estimate. It is hardly an easy task to count ... But methane is also a greenhouse gas, second in importance to carbon dioxide. Like carbon dioxide, it traps infrared radiation ... Together, they suggest that the worlds cattle emit into the atmosphere approaching 100 million tonnes of methane each year, ...
Part 8.-Methane, ethane, propane, n-butane and 2-methylpropane, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 1, 1972, 68, 2224-2229. [all data ... Vogt G.J., Entropy and heat capacity of methane; spin-species conversion, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1976, 8, 1011-1031. [all data] ... Rossini, F.D., The heats of combustion of methane and carbon monoxide, J. Res. NBS, 1931, 6, 37-49. [all data] ... Halford J.O., Standard heat capacities of gaseous methanol, ethanol, methane and ethane at 279 K by thermal conductivity, J. ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Methane Sea. 2013. Wood, steel, rope, and tape. 78 x 40 x 55 (198.1 x 101.6 x 139.7 cm). Gift of Agnes Gund. 247.2014. © Terry ... Methane Sea "_had to do with [their] different relationships to the sea and to ships." Carver was born a slave and Klein was ... Methane Sea was featured in the last exhibition of Adkinss work organized during his lifetime, Nenuphar, which explored ...
Methane-flooded canyons on Titan. 19/09/2016 8676 views 172 likes 365411 ID ... The river, in the moons north polar region, flows into Ligeia Mare, a methane-rich sea that appears as a dark patch on the ... This suggests they have been sculpted by liquid methane, flowing into the main Vid Flumina river, that has persistently eroded ... The study is the first direct evidence of deeply entrenched, methane-flooded channels on Titan. Finding out how they formed ...
... indicating how methane cycles between the atmosphere and the surface of the moon. ... Defogging Titans methane mystery. Defogging Titans methane mystery. New data suggests that the hydrocarbon cycles from the ...
Thanks to innovation and industry actions, U.S. methane emissions rates in the largest producing regions have declined 70 ... Reducing methane emissions is a priority for our industry to address the risks of climate change. ... Tackling Methane Emissions. Reducing methane emissions is a priority for our industry to address the risks of climate change. ... Industry Efforts to Reduce Methane Emissions According to the EPA, from 1990 to 2018, methane emissions associated with natural ...
Ferdinand Oberle (left) and Cordell Johnson pilot the USGS methane-detection system during initial test flights on top of ... Photo by second drone equipped with video camera but no methane sensor. ...
EPA vastly underestimating U.S. oil, gas system methane leaks: study. U.S. oil and gas drilling and related operations give off ... Methane emissions from coal mining in China have continued to rise despite tough legislation and ambitious government targets, ... Scientists have discovered dunes on Pluto made of frozen grains of methane. The pale gray-and-white ridges were revealed by ... The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency on Wednesday halted methane emission standards for oil and gas companies in its latest ...
... By S. Fred Singer. Contrary to persistent claims by environmentalists, Methane is not an important ... Details of methane impacts. While the climate effects of methane have been vastly overestimated by the IPCC, the detailed ... Details of methane impacts. While the climate effects of methane have been vastly overestimated by the IPCC, the detailed ... Little need for methane control. So there are good reasons to doubt that methane, although (technically) a greenhouse gas, has ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Bacteria have dispatched with most of the methane released during the Gulf of Mexico oil spill-in just four months, a new study ... The Gulf spills methane release may rival the amount of methane regularly released via deep-ocean hydrothermal vents, oil ... Now that the spills methane is mostly cleaned up, the fate of methane-munching bacteria is another intriguing question the ... Without these bacteria, methane could be released to the atmosphere-and if the release is large enough, it could influence ...
... hydrogen and methane, are fuels that will likely be in adequate supply when crude oil sourced liquid fuels are scarce. These ... Comparison of Ultimate Fuels - Hydrogen and Methane 871167. The gaseous fuels, hydrogen and methane, are fuels that will likely ... Hydrogen gives 6 3% improved efficiency and Methane 39% in city driving and Methane gives slightly improved power but Hydrogen ... The storage of Methane in compressed or liquid form and Hydrogen in metal hydrides are compared. The overall efficiency of ...
... methane is around 30 times more potent as a heat-trapping gas. Given its importance, Canadian company GHGSat have worked in ... collaboration with the Sentinel-5P team at SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research to investigate hotspots of methane ... Methane concentrations over the Permian Basin. Their work has led to several new hotspots being discovered in 2020, for ... Tropomi methane measurements over a coal mine in the Shanxi province, China. The spatial distribution of Sentinel-5P ...
... indicating there may be more methane being released fr... ... team of geologists recently found hundreds of plumes of methane ... Methane Maps Step One for Energy Prospectors. A team of geologists recently found hundreds of plumes of methane gas-a potent ... making this the first time increased methane leaks can be attributed to global warming. Icelike methane hydrate is trapped in ... Popular Mechanics: Methane Hydrates -- Energy Source of the Future? * Is Fracking Safe? The Top 10 Controversial Claims About ...
  • Methane (Ch4) Methane is an invisible, odorless, and combustible gas present in trace concentrations in the atmosphere. (
  • Together, they suggest that the world's cattle emit into the atmosphere approaching 100 million tonnes of methane each year, enough to warm up the planet. (
  • Methane, on the other hand, has a lifetime of about 8 years, long enough to be well mixed in the atmosphere. (
  • Without these bacteria, methane could be released to the atmosphere-and if the release is large enough, it could influence global temperatures. (
  • While carbon dioxide is more abundant in the atmosphere and therefore more commonly associated with global warming, methane is around 30 times more potent as a heat-trapping gas. (
  • The majority of methane currently released from ocean seabeds is dissolved in the seawater before it reaches the atmosphere, preventing the greenhouse gas from reaching the atmosphere, but intensifying the water's acidification. (
  • They say the methane is likely escaping into the atmosphere. (
  • Usually, microbes consume undersea methane before it reaches the atmosphere. (
  • Reducing methane in the atmosphere would make a big difference in greenhouse warming in the short term, and it is a key part of President Barack Obama's climate plans. (
  • In the past few years, it has dazzled us with its methane lakes, dense atmosphere, and potential for hosting life. (
  • As a result of Cassini's many flybys, scientists learned a great deal about Titan's methane lakes, nitrogen-rich atmosphere, and surface features. (
  • Scientists have identified thousands of sites in the Arctic where methane that has been stored for many millennia is bubbling into the atmosphere. (
  • Methane is a much more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide, though it does not last as long in the atmosphere. (
  • Methane is 20 times more effective at trapping heat in the atmosphere than CO2, though not as long-lived. (
  • The chemical signature of methane released from fracking is found in the atmosphere, pointing to shale gas operations as the culprit. (
  • Scientists have measured big increases in the amount of methane, the powerful global warming gas , entering the atmosphere over the last decade. (
  • This big methane increase matters because methane heats up the climate over 80 times more than an equivalent amount of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the first 20 years after it is released into the atmosphere, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (
  • The study took previous data on the chemical composition of methane in the atmosphere and applied a series of equations to parse out how much of this lighter form of methane could be attributed to shale gas. (
  • While the study isn't a "smoking gun," it has found a link between recent increases in methane in the atmosphere and shale gas production. (
  • The amount of methane added to the atmosphere in the past decade also corresponds to studies that show fracking operations leak, vent, or flare between 2 and 6 percent of the gas produced, Howarth said. (
  • Large amounts of methane are produced in marine sediments but are then consumed before contacting aerobic waters or the atmosphere. (
  • Methane is like the radical wing of the carbon cycle, in today's atmosphere a stronger greenhouse gas per molecule than CO 2 , and an atmospheric concentration that can change more quickly than CO 2 can. (
  • There has been a lot of press coverage of a new paper in Science this week called " Extensive methane venting to the atmosphere from sediments of the East Siberian Arctic Shelf ", which comes on the heels of a handful of interrelated methane papers in the last year or so. (
  • The observation in 2005 was elevated concentrations of methane in ocean waters on the Siberian shelf, presumably driven by outgassing from the sediments and driving excess methane to the atmosphere. (
  • The new data enable the methane flux from this region to the atmosphere to be quantified, and they find that this region rivals the methane flux from the whole rest of the ocean. (
  • Methane is a transient gas in the atmosphere, so it ought to plateau if the emission flux is steady, but the shape of the concentration curve suggested some sudden decrease in the emission rate, stemming from the collapse of economic activity in the former Soviet bloc, or by drying of wetlands, or any of several other proposed and unresolved explanations. (
  • Most of the methane in the atmosphere comes from wetlands, natural and artificial associated with rice agriculture. (
  • Methane is a transient gas in the atmosphere, while CO 2 essentially accumulates in the atmosphere / ocean carbon cycle, so in the end the climate forcing from the accumulating CO 2 that methane oxidizes into may be as important as the transient concentration of methane itself. (
  • Recent Russian expeditions discovered water columns with methane bubbling, emitting directly into the atmosphere on a scale never witnessed before. (
  • Most of the seeps newly-discovered on the northern US Atlantic margin emit methane at such profound depths that it will not reach the atmosphere directly. (
  • Summary of the locations where gas hydrate occurs beneath the seafloor, in permafrost areas, and beneath some ice sheets, along with the processes (shown in red) that destroy methane (sinks) in the sediments, ocean, and atmosphere. (
  • Planetary Science Institute Senior Scientist Dorothy Z. Oehler is an author on two new papers on methane detections in the Martian atmosphere. (
  • Because methane is generally at very low concentrations in the Martian atmosphere, the results also emphasize that methane spikes or pulses on Mars are likely to be detected only occasionally - when rovers, landers or orbiters happen to be at the right place at the right time," Oehler said. (
  • Nevertheless, reports of methane spikes and pulses in the Martian atmosphere have been intensely debated, and, until the Giuranna et al. (
  • paper reports a firm detection of 15.5 ± 2.5 parts per billion by volume of methane in the Martian atmosphere above Gale Crater on June 16, 2013, by the PFS onboard the Mars Express orbiter, one day after the in-situ observation of a methane spike by the Curiosity rover. (
  • The quantity of methane gas on Mars cannot be caused in such quantities by chemical processes of disintegrating meteors entering the atmosphere. (
  • We're more motivated than ever to keep measuring and put our brains together to figure out how methane behaves in the Martian atmosphere. (
  • Methane is released from sediment along much of the cross-section, but over the next few hundred years, methane released from gas hydrates, in particular, is likely to reach the atmosphere only from Zone 2, the shallow Arctic shelf. (
  • The millions of abandoned oil and gas wells across the USA could release a significant quantity of methane into the atmosphere, a study suggests. (
  • One study found that millions of abandoned oil and gas wells across the USA could release a significant quantity of methane into the atmosphere but are not included in total emission counts. (
  • The Environmental Protection Agency said the oil and gas industry is the largest source of methane in the atmosphere in the USA, followed by livestock emissions and landfills. (
  • Unlike carbon dioxide, which accumulates and lingers in the atmosphere for hundreds of years, methane tends to degrade in a decade or so, according to David Archer, a climate scientist at the University of Chicago. (
  • Because of their complex digestive system, cows can release between 132 and 264 gallons of methane into the atmosphere a day. (
  • The volume of the giant holes is the result of that destabilisation, with the volatile and light methane gas released into the atmosphere. (
  • The Mars Science Laboratory Rover has been using its spectrometer to look for levels of methane in the martian atmosphere, but thus far has found nothing. (
  • Michael Mumma and his team from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center reported in the journal Science that they had seen plumes of methane in the martian atmosphere back in 2003. (
  • Given the instrument's sensitivity, CBS News reports , the level of methane in the atmosphere during Curiosity's tests could be no more than a scant 1.3 part per billion. (
  • And interestingly, Titan's methane is a lot like water: it forms clouds in the atmosphere and falls in showers of raindrops, occasionally producing storms. (
  • Methane is less prevalent in the atmosphere than fellow greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), but it presents more difficult challenges for researchers attempting to study it. (
  • John Eiler, the Robert P. Sharp Professor of Geology and Professor of Geochemistry, answers five critical questions about methane in our atmosphere. (
  • Understanding the sources of methane helps researchers develop a deeper knowledge of the processes that generate methane, in addition to helping to pin down methane sources in the atmosphere and track subsurface sources of combustible natural gas. (
  • Global warming is causing Siberian lakes to bubble methane, a greenhouse gas, into the atmosphere at an alarming rate, scientists say. (
  • Because methane in the atmosphere warms the planet, the Russian pools are intensifying the climate change that boosted their belching in the first place. (
  • Gas Hydrates are currently estimated to contribute about 5 Tg (Tg = 1012 grammes) of methane (3.5 Tg carbon) per year to the atmosphere (IPCC, 2007). (
  • Additional research will be required to constrain the methane flux from gas hydrates that reaches the atmosphere. (
  • Because methane is mostly well-mixed in the atmosphere, emissions from the Arctic or from the US must be seen within the context of the global sources of methane to the atmosphere. (
  • Methane is a short-lived gas in the atmosphere, so to make it rise, the emission flux has to continually increase. (
  • The bubbles mostly dissolve in the water column, but when the methane flux gets really high the bubbles rise faster and reach the atmosphere better. (
  • When methane dissolves in the water column, some of it escapes to the atmosphere by evaporation before it gets oxidized to CO 2 . (
  • Melting sea ice will also increase methane escape to the atmosphere by gas exchange. (
  • There is too much methane in Titan's atmosphere for it to be millions of years old. (
  • The ultraviolet light is expected to split the methane gas (CH 4 ), in the atmosphere, into various fragments, called radicals (CH 2 , CH, H, CH 3 ). (
  • The first definitive detection of methane in the atmosphere of Mars indicates the planet is alive in the sense that it still has geologic activity powered by heat from its interior, according to a team of NASA and university scientists. (
  • Visualization of a methane plume found in Mars' atmosphere during the northern summer season. (
  • A new study published in the journal Elementa describes how, when not properly plugged, these wells can contaminate groundwater and emit methane as well as harmful chemicals into the atmosphere that endanger the economy and public health in communities where they are found. (
  • Methane in the Martian atmosphere and organic chemicals in the red planet's soil are the latest tantalizing findings of NASA's Mars Curiosity rover as it hunts for clues about the possibility of extraterrestrial life, scientists said on Tuesday. (
  • NASA scientists said Curiosity found periodic bursts of methane, a gas that on Earth is strongly tied to life, in the atmosphere around its landing site in the red planet's Gale Crater. (
  • NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California issued a press release saying the rover measured "a tenfold spike" in methane in the atmosphere around it, and detected other organic molecules in a sample collected by a robotic drill. (
  • When methane reaches the surface and the atmosphere, it is known as atmospheric methane. (
  • Methane has a boiling point of −161.5 °C at a pressure of one atmosphere. (
  • Methane is a potent greenhouse gas. (
  • More recently, the role played by methane as a potent "greenhouse" gas has aroused considerable attention from environmentalists and clima- tologists alike. (
  • The global ocean seafloor contains the largest reservoir of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, and there is evidence that releases of methane from this reservoir have modulated climate in the history of the planet,' said study co-author John Kessler , a chemical oceanographer at Texas A&M University. (
  • A team of geologists recently found hundreds of plumes of methane gas-a potent greenhouse gas and potential energy source-in the Arctic Ocean, indicating there may be more methane being released from deep in the ocean than expected. (
  • complicated influence on our climate just got more threatening: they could make methane a more potent greenhouse gas than previously realized, say climate modellers. (
  • The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and treaties such as the Kyoto Protocol assume methane to be, tonne-for-tonne, 25 times more potent than carbon dioxide at warming the planet. (
  • Methane is a greenhouse gas that is estimated to be 84 times more potent than carbon dioxide, and much of it comes from oil and gas drilling operations, including fracking . (
  • Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, and the oil and gas industry is the largest source of emissions in this country. (
  • Methane is a more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide, but it also decays much quicker. (
  • Most deposits are below the sea floor off the continental shelf or under permafrost, and the Associated Press writes that shallow pockets of methane hydrate release a potent greenhouse gas that would exacerbate climate change. (
  • Two studies out this week focus on unintentional emissions of methane - a potent greenhouse gas - into the air. (
  • Methane is a greenhouse gas 30 times more potent than carbon dioxide at trapping atmospheric heat and thus is a prime contributor to global warming. (
  • The Trump administration on Thursday will roll back regulations aimed at reducing emissions of the potent greenhouse gas methane from oil and gas operations, its latest move to unwind environmental rules ahead of November's presidential election. (
  • Methane monooxygenases are nature's primary biological mechanism for suppressing atmospheric levels of methane, a potent greenhouse gas. (
  • An end product of biological decomposition, methane is a potent greenhouse gas. (
  • According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the global warming potential of methane (CH4) is 34 times stronger than carbon dioxide (CO2) over a 100-year time scale and 86 times more potent than CO2 over 20 years when climate carbon feedbacks are included. (
  • While sheep and other ruminants don't seem to mind about manners, there is concern over these burps containing methane, a potent greenhouse gas. (
  • Rice is the nutritious staple crop for more than half of the world's people, but growing rice produces methane, a greenhouse gas more than 30 times as potent as carbon dioxide. (
  • The Gulf spill's methane release may rival the amount of methane regularly released via deep-ocean hydrothermal vents, oil seeps, and the breakdown of methane-rich gas hydrates in ocean sediments. (
  • If you wait until you need it, and then you have 20 years of research to do, that's not a good plan," Ray Boswell, technology manager for methane hydrates within the DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory, remarked. (
  • Any exploration activities designed to extract methane hydrates run the risk of unintended consequences, of unleashing the monster," he said. (
  • For some background on methane hydrates we can refer you here . (
  • In the end, as the permafrost protective layer melts, like it's actually doing, the methane hydrates in shallow waters become unstable and release methane gas. (
  • This discovery is documented in an August 2014 Nature Geoscience paper entitled, "Widespread methane leakage from the seafloor on the northern US Atlantic margin", by A. Skarke (MS State), C. Ruppel (USGS Gas Hydrates Project) , M. Kodis (Brown University), D. Brothers (USGS), and E. Lobecker (NOAA contract scientist), DOI: 10.1038/NGEO2232. (
  • Gas hydrates formed from methane remain stable in permafrost, but release great amounts of methane when warmed. (
  • Emission rates for gas hydrates are highly speculative, however, and may overestimate the atmospheric methane contribution by not fully accounting for methane consumed by microbes in the sediment and water column. (
  • Will Methane Hydrates Fuel Another Gas Boom? (
  • Energy-hungry Japan extracts natural gas from deep-sea methane hydrates, but it's not clear whether the "flammable ice" makes economic and environmental sense. (
  • In a move to get closer to developing its own domestic fossil fuel, Japan is extracting natural gas from an offshore deposit of methane hydrates. (
  • Methane hydrates-frozen deposits of the main ingredient in natural gas found in ocean sediments and near permafrost-are thought to be abundant. (
  • But it's still not clear that methane hydrates can be tapped economically and in an environmentally safe manner. (
  • Releasing the methane trapped in the lattice-like structures of gas hydrates requires lowering the pressure or increasing the temperature. (
  • The difference in pressure between the underground deposit and the well causes the methane to break free, says Ray Boswell, the methane hydrates technology manager at the National Energy Technology Laboratory. (
  • Icelike methane hydrate is trapped in the seabed, but the gas is released as the sediment thaws. (
  • TOKYO, Dec 2 (Reuters) - Japan has discovered methane hydrate lying over a large area in the Sea of Japan in northwestern Japan, in addition to previously discovered areas in the Pacific Ocean, the trade ministry said. (
  • The government plans to spend the next three years trying to determine the nation's reserves of methane hydrate - a frozen gas known as "flammable ice" - as part of its goal to achieve commercial production within six years. (
  • A geological survey in June and July confirmed 225 "gas chimney" structures off Joetsu and Noto Peninsula, which likely contain methane hydrate, the ministry said. (
  • In March, Japan succeeded in producing 120,000 cubic meters of gas over six days from a test tapping of methane hydrate in the Pacific Ocean off Aichi Prefecture in central Japan. (
  • Since 2001, Japan, which imports nearly all of its energy needs, has invested several hundred million dollars in developing technology to tap methane hydrate reserves that are estimated to be equal to about 11 years of its gas consumption. (
  • The U.S. Department of Energy and industry partners over two winters drilled into a reservoir of methane hydrate, which looks like ice but burns like a candle if a match warms its molecules. (
  • The U.S. Energy Department describes methane hydrate as a lattice of ice that traps methane molecules but does not bind them chemically. (
  • The gas migrates upward, under high pressure and low temperature, and can combine with water to form methane hydrate. (
  • The world has a lot of methane hydrate, though not all of it is accessible. (
  • A Minerals Management Service study in 2008 estimated methane hydrate resources in the northern Gulf of Mexico at 21,000 trillion cubic feet, or 100 times current U.S. reserves of natural gas. (
  • The combined energy content of methane hydrate may exceed all other known fossil fuels, according to the DOE. (
  • Researchers in a laboratory injected carbon dioxide into methane hydrate, and CO2 molecules swapped places with methane molecules- freeing the methane to be harvested but preserving the ice. (
  • Here we describe studies of sediments related to a decomposing methane hydrate. (
  • The bubbles are rising from a line on the sea floor that corresponds to the boundary of methane hydrate stability, a boundary that would retreat in a warming water column. (
  • Bulk Density (Electron Density)=1.04 gm/cc note: Specific Gravity of Methane hydrate-I =0.92 gm/cc. (
  • U=PE Methane hydrate-I x r Electron Density= 0.33 barns/cc. (
  • Methane hydrate-I ! (
  • Methane hydrate-II ! (
  • Methane hydrate-H ! (
  • 04.XX.00 Methane hydrate-I ! (
  • 04.XX.00 Methane hydrate-H ! (
  • Part of Japan's methane hydrate research in the years ahead will involve gathering data on how drilling affects the surrounding environment. (
  • But drilling in a methane hydrate formation can actually be less risky than other forms of gas drilling, Boswell says. (
  • Gas contained in coal bed methane is mainly methane and trace quantities of ethane , nitrogen , carbon dioxide and few other gases. (
  • Methane Oxidizing and Producing Bacteria Methane is a chemical compound that consists of a carbon atom to which are bound four hydrogen atoms. (
  • But methane is also a greenhouse gas, second in importance to carbon dioxide. (
  • Carbon dioxide is generally produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, while fossil fuel production is one of the largest sources of methane emissions. (
  • According to the World Meteorological Organisation's State of the Global Climate report last year, current carbon dioxide and methane concentrations represent respectively 150% and 250% of pre-industrial levels, before 1750. (
  • Drew Shindell, at NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, and colleagues ran a range of computerized models to show that methane's global warming potential is greater when combined with aerosols -- atmospheric particles such as dust, sea salt, sulphates and black carbon. (
  • Shindell also thinks climate policy-makers need to pay much more attention to restricting short-lived pollutants, such as methane, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aerosols. (
  • Methane is a simple molecule consisting of just one carbon atom bound to four hydrogen atoms. (
  • The prototype spectrometer, the Thermo IRMS 253 Ultra, is equipped to analyze samples in a way that measures the abundances of several rare versions, or isotopologues, of the methane molecule, including two "clumped isotope" species: 13CH3D, which has both a carbon-13 atom and a deuterium atom, and 12CH2D2, which includes two deuterium atoms. (
  • According to an Environmental Defense Fund report released last year , "The 20-year climate impact of methane escaping from oil and gas operations worldwide is equal to the carbon dioxide emissions from 40 percent of total global coal combustion. (
  • But the researchers on the new Arctic project, led by Katey Walter Anthony from the University of Alaska at Fairbanks (UAF), were able to identify long-stored gas by the ratio of different isotopes of carbon in the methane molecules. (
  • Previous studies show that shale gas generally has less carbon-13 relative to carbon-12 (denoting the weight of the carbon atom at the center of the methane molecule) than does methane from conventional natural gas and other fossil fuels such as coal, Howarth said. (
  • Methane is the key constituent of natural gas and has 25 times the impact on global warming than carbon dioxide, according to the EPA. (
  • Specifically, lipid biomarkers that are commonly characteristic of archaea are so strongly depleted in carbon-13 that methane must be the carbon source, rather than the metabolic product, for the organisms that have produced them. (
  • The concentration held steady in 2008, meaning at least that interannual variability is important in the methane cycle, and making it hard to say if the long-term average emission rate is rising in a way that would be consistent with a new carbon feedback. (
  • Instead, the methane dissolves in the water column, where it may remain for some time or be oxidized to carbon dioxide through microbial action. (
  • By contrast, methane concentrations have begun to track the rapid-growth trajectory many carbon-intensive industries took throughout the 21st century. (
  • Speeding the development of methane-capture projects in leading oil- and gas-producing regions to recover wasted economic value while simultaneously reducing carbon emissions. (
  • On the flip side, when methane is burned it yields water vapor and carbon dioxide - also a greenhouse gas, but one with considerably less heat-trapping capacity, so the environmental impact of the methane is diminished. (
  • What we have missed in models of greenhouse warming is the vast disparity between the heavy carbon dioxide and the sheer lightness and solubility of methane. (
  • Composting advocates worry that outfitting more landfills with "methane wells," possibly with the aid of carbon offsets created through a climate bill, will detract from those efforts. (
  • The oil and gas sector is the largest U.S. industrial emitter of methane, which is the second-biggest driver of climate change after carbon dioxide. (
  • Methane (CH4) is more than 20 times as powerful in terms of causing global warming as the main greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO2). (
  • A methane molecule is made up of one carbon atom surrounded by four hydrogen atoms. (
  • A given molecule of methane, then, can have any one of the three isotopes of carbon and various combinations of isotopes of hydrogen-giving various molecules of methane different weights. (
  • With isotopic fingerprints of methane, Eiler can determine the origin of a given sample, for example by comparing the ratio of carbon-13 to carbon-12 in parts per thousand, a figure known as the δ 13 C, pronounced "delta thirteen C." The lower the number, the more carbon-12-and, therefore, the lighter the sample. (
  • Rotting organic matter in wetlands or beneath lakes can give rise to methane, which is a much more powerful greenhouse gas than the usual culprit, carbon dioxide. (
  • Eventually, a larger space telescope could use the same kind of technique to search smaller, Earth-like worlds for methane and other chemical signs of life, such as water, oxygen and carbon dioxide. (
  • Methane is an essential component of the global carbon cycle and one of the most powerful greenhouse gases, yet it is also a promising alternative source of carbon for the biological production of value-added chemicals. (
  • Anyone with a chemistry background knows that methane cannot be broken down to ethane because methane only has one carbon while ethane has two. (
  • Policymakers around the world increasingly recognize that along with carbon dioxide, cutting emissions of methane is critical for reaching the temperature goal of the Paris Agreement . (
  • Methane (CH 4 ) is, after carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), the most important contributor to the anthropogenically enhanced greenhouse effect. (
  • Although it is short-lived, methane has more than 20 times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide. (
  • Igor Semiletov of the Russian Academy of Sciences tells the UK's Independent that the plumes of methane, a gas 20 times as harmful as carbon dioxide, have shocked scientists who have been studying the region for decades. (
  • In this test, done in conjunction with JOGMEC and ConocoPhilips, carbon dioxide was injected into a sandy deposit and exchanged with the methane. (
  • The carbon dioxide also plays a role in "liberating" the methane, but understanding how efficiently and how quickly the reaction occurs needs further study, Boswell says. (
  • Methane (US: /ˈmɛθeɪn/ or UK: /ˈmiːθeɪn/) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula CH4 (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen). (
  • Partial oxidation of methane to methanol is challenging because the reaction typically progresses all the way to carbon dioxide and water even with an insufficient supply of oxygen. (
  • Five states-Alabama, California, Connecticut, Colorado and Kentucky-have taken precautions and limited the amount of methane gas allowed in a mine and developed procedures for cases of elevated levels and leakage. (
  • NASA's Curiosity Mars rover recently found a surprising result: the largest amount of methane ever measured during the mission - about 21 parts per billion units by volume (ppbv). (
  • For example, the amount of methane produced by the decomposition of trash in a landfill depends on the type of material in the landfill and local environmental conditions. (
  • The team observed concentrations from March-April 2020, compared to the same period as last year in an effort to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 activities on methane emissions. (
  • An initial look at these data suggest a substantial increase in methane concentrations in 2020, compared to 2019. (
  • The spatial distribution of Sentinel-5P concentrations in 2020 and in 2019 both indicate local enhancements of methane concentrations in the Delaware and Midland portions of the basin. (
  • Valentine calculates that if 5,000 barrels a day were leaking then some 7,500 tons of methane would have entered the Gulf in 27 days, driving methane concentrations to three times normal levels in a 2,000-square-mile, one-kilometer-deep stretch of the Gulf. (
  • A membrane-based gas separation process for treating gas streams that contain methane in low concentrations. (
  • So, that's 2,000 meters (6,562 feet) of sediment that contains high concentrations of methane. (
  • Methane was not detected in other orbital passages, indicating the episodic nature of the methane release and the generally low concentrations of atmospheric methane, before and after that release. (
  • Miller et al (2013) combine measurements of methane concentrations in various locations through time with model reconstructions of wind fields, and "invert" the information to estimate how much methane was released to the air as it blew over the land. (
  • This dataset provides offline high-resolution imagery of methane concentrations. (
  • These claim that the "global warming potential" of a methane molecule is about 50 times that of CO2 -- and that climate forcing from growth of atmospheric methane is about 20% of CO2's. (
  • In addition, atmospheric methane levels are roughly 200 times less than those of CO2 - yielding a GH overestimate of about 20,000. (
  • I figured that it should increase at the rate of population growth and estimated that atmospheric methane levels should rise roughly 1% annually -- the first such prediction. (
  • The atmospheric methane concentration rose from the preanthropogenic until about the year 1993, at which point it rather abruptly plateaued. (
  • That paper also reports atmospheric circulation modelling and geological analyses that independently highlight a region approximately 500 kilometers east of Gale Crater as a likely subsurface provenance for the detected methane. (
  • After all, Mumma's team wrote then, "living systems produce more than 90 percent of Earth's atmospheric methane. (
  • Methane is particularly problematic," says Paul Wennberg , the R. Stanton Avery Professor of Atmospheric Chemistry and Environmental Science and Engineering at Caltech. (
  • Changes in the atmospheric concentration scale more-or-less with changes in the chronic emission flux, so unless these sources suddenly increase by an order of magnitude or more, they won't dominate the atmospheric concentration of methane, or its climate impact. (
  • Not really, because the one real hard fact that we know about atmospheric methane is that it's concentration isn't rising very quickly. (
  • The Earth's atmospheric methane concentration has increased by about 150% since 1750, and it accounts for 20% of the total radiative forcing from all of the long-lived and globally mixed greenhouse gases. (
  • A worker inspects an electric actuator, introduced to reduce methane emissions, at Shell Canada's Groundbirch natural gas project. (
  • It is important that the gas industry continues to monitor and reduce methane emissions. (
  • The regulator expects the new rules to reduce methane emissions by 340,000 to 400,000 short tons in 2025. (
  • Since antibiotics were banned, the hunt is on for new, safe, cheap ways to reduce methane production in ruminants. (
  • Almost any farming method that reduces or interrupts the period of flooding can reduce methane. (
  • The BLM rule comes as the oil and natural gas industry announced a voluntary partnership to reduce methane emissions at drilling sites nationwide. (
  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is proposing to roll back rules adopted in 2016 that require companies to identify and stop methane leaks from new and modified. (
  • In a recent paper in Geophysical Research Letters, the researchers attribute the seeps to the warming of northward-flowing currents, making this the first time increased methane leaks can be attributed to global warming. (
  • Researchers developed a new infrared imaging system that could one day offer low-cost, real-time detection of methane gas leaks. (
  • Howard Feldman, a spokesman for the American Petroleum Institute, said the lawsuit "makes no sense" since the EPA passed rules on oil and gas emissions earlier this year, and many companies have already started installing new equipment to limit methane leaks and other pollution. (
  • Many experts have noted that addressing the methane problem can even make financial sense for the industry, because by reducing leaks they end up with more product to sell. (
  • In the second study, researchers from the University of Texas found that leaks at a small group of wells - about 20% - cause most of the known methane emissions. (
  • WASHINGTON (July 3, 2017) - A federal court today struck down an Environmental Protection Agency attempt to suspend critical protections against leaks of methane and other dangerous air pollution from oil and gas operations. (
  • The groups argued that EPA is violating the Clean Air Act, and asked the court to block EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt's "stay" of federal standards that curb leaks of methane and other dangerous air pollutants from new oil and gas wells and other facilities. (
  • EPA's detection and repair program is crucial to identify and stop leaks, which can occur in very large volumes, of methane and other pollutants from the hundreds of valves, pumps, tanks and other equipment at oil and gas wells, as well as in the pipeline network that brings the gas to market. (
  • Direct federal regulation of methane emissions is essential to preventing leaks throughout the industry and protecting the environment. (
  • That is why we strongly believe that the best way to tackle this problem is through direct federal regulation, ensuring that everyone in the industry is doing everything they can to eliminate methane leaks. (
  • An estimated $330 million a year in methane is wasted through leaks or intentional releases on federal lands, enough to power about 5 million homes a year. (
  • Owing to the importance of monitoring methane, SRON's and GHGSat's research teams have been working since early-2019 to detect methane hotspots. (
  • A rule being published in the Federal Register delays the methane regulation until January 2019, saying the previous rule is overly burdensome to industry. (
  • JOGMEC estimates it can commercially extract methane from its offshore resources by 2019. (
  • The U.S. Department of Energy says there is more potential energy in methane trapped on the seafloor than in all the world's other fossil fuels combined. (
  • Scientists believe that immense quantities of methane are stored under Antarctica's seafloor. (
  • Analysis of 94,000 square kilometers of multibeam water column backscatter data collected by the NOAA Okeanos Explorer mostly seaward of the shelf-break on the northern US Atlantic margin reveals more than 570 gas plumes that correspond to seafloor methane seeps. (
  • Scientists are discovering that abundant quantities of methane gas are continually seeping from the seafloor throughout the oceans. (
  • Deep beneath the seafloor, methane is in a slushy, crystalline form. (
  • Naturally occurring methane is found both below ground and under the seafloor, and is formed by both geological and biological processes. (
  • The largest reservoir of methane is under the seafloor in the form of methane clathrates. (
  • Methane is a colorless, odorless gas that occurs in nature and is produced industrially by the manufacturing of coal and natural gas, the treatment of wastewater, decomposition of waste and through the digestive process of domestic livestock. (
  • Methane Overview Methane (METH-ane) is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, flammable gas that is less dense then air. (
  • Methane is a colorless, odorless gas that can dissolve in water. (
  • Methane is a colorless, odorless flammable gas that is the main constituent of natural gas. (
  • Also called marsh gas, methane is a colorless, odorless gas. (
  • At room temperature and standard pressure, methane is a colorless, odorless gas. (
  • Students will compare the shapes of the ammonia, methane, and water molecules. (
  • The students should also know how to draw the three dimensional structures of the water, methane, and ammonia molecules. (
  • However the light from the star may also be intense enough to crack up the methane molecules resulting in other types of compounds. (
  • One ethane could be split into two methane molecules, but not the other way around. (
  • Ethane could not be split into two methane molecules, because it hasn't enough hydrogen. (
  • Subsequent isotopic labelling indicated that 'M. oxyfera' bypassed the denitrification intermediate nitrous oxide by the conversion of two nitric oxide molecules to dinitrogen and oxygen, which was used to oxidize methane. (
  • The positions of the hydrogen atoms are not fixed in methane I, i.e. methane molecules may rotate freely. (
  • Safety is the main concern with high levels of methane because it is a fire and explosive hazard. (
  • By breeding sheep to produce lower levels of methane through a genetic program, New Zealand farmers aim to help tackle climate change, the Guardian reports . (
  • Methane Methane (CH4), the simplest of all organic compounds, is produced when organic matter is digested by bacteria in the absence of air, creating natural gas. (
  • They found a larger-than-expected presence of methane-eating bacteria, as well as low oxygen levels. (
  • Methane comes from buried organic matter after it's ingested by bacteria or heated and cooked. (
  • But the spices, working similarly to an antibiotic, kill much of the methane-producing bacteria while promoting types of bacteria that help improve digestion. (
  • The water blocks oxygen from penetrating the soil, creating ideal conditions for bacteria that emit methane. (
  • Anaerobic bacteria break down the organic matter in the waste, producing a mix of methane and other gases, known as bio-gas. (
  • Aerobic methane-consuming bacteria (methanotrophs) represent a potential biological platform for methane-based biocatalysis. (
  • Genomic studies indicate that a complete set of EMP pathway enzymes is encoded in the genomes of all sequenced methanotrophic bacteria harbouring the RuMP pathway for methane assimilation. (
  • Nitrite-driven anaerobic methane oxidation by oxygenic bacteria. (
  • One group of bacteria drive methane oxidation with nitrite as the oxidant in the absence of oxygen, giving rise to the so-called anaerobic oxidation of methane. (
  • An international team of scientists has found hundreds of methane gas plumes in the depths of the Arctic Ocean. (
  • They have also noted sudden spikes of methane, but the science team knows very little about how long these transient plumes last or why they are different from the seasonal patterns. (
  • The finding suggests that the earlier methane detection - the largest amount of the gas Curiosity has ever found - was one of the transient methane plumes that have been observed previously. (
  • The team used spectrometer instruments attached to several telescopes to detect plumes of methane that were emitted from specific sites during the warmer seasons - spring and summer. (
  • Methane and its oxidation product, methanol, have occupied an important position in the chemical industry for many years: the former as a feedstock, the latter as a primary chemical from which many products are produced. (
  • so any microorganism that can effect this may point the way to catalytic chemists looking for con- trollable methane oxidation. (
  • Banerjee R, Proshlyakov Y, Lipscomb JD, Proshlyakov DA (2015) Structure of the key species in the enzymatic oxidation of methane to methanol. (
  • Brusseau GA, Tsien H-C, Hanson RS, Wackett LP (1990) Optimization of trichloroethylene oxidation by methanotrophs and the use of a colorimetric assay to detect soluble methane mono-oxygenase activity. (
  • This work provides a detailed insight into how methanotrophs accumulate copper for the oxidation of methane. (
  • Oxidation of methane by a biological dicopper centre. (
  • Hakemian, A. S. & Rosenzweig, A. C. The biochemistry of methane oxidation. (
  • Though nothing conclusive can yet be determined, it is possible that the detected methane was either produced by geologic processes such as the oxidation of iron (serpentinization) or by microscopic Martian life below the planet's surface. (
  • The pathway was discovered after metagenomic sequencing of an enrichment culture that couples anaerobic oxidation of methane with the reduction of nitrite to dinitrogen. (
  • This apparently anaerobic, denitrifying bacterium encoded, transcribed and expressed the well-established aerobic pathway for methane oxidation, whereas it lacked known genes for dinitrogen production. (
  • There are seas, lakes and rivers filled with liquid hydrocarbons - mainly methane and some ethane - that etch the moon's surface, in much the same way water erodes Earth's. (
  • Scientists are keeping a close eye on all of Earth's methane sources. (
  • An abrupt release of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas, from ice sheets that extended to Earth's low latitudes some 635 million years ago caused a dramatic shift in climate, scientists funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) report in this week's issue of the journal Nature. (
  • Not all of Earth's methane was released millions of years ago. (
  • Efforts to address climate change therefore require the industry to reduce both deliberate and unintended methane emissions from production to the final consumer. (
  • Reducing methane emissions is a priority for our industry to address the risks of climate change. (
  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency on Wednesday halted methane emission standards for oil and gas companies in its latest move to unwind Obama administration climate change rules, amid reports that the United States will withdraw from a global climate change agreement. (
  • The basis for proposed control of methane is the usual shoddy climate science, as propagated in various UN-IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) reports. (
  • The regulations on methane are one part of the Obama administration's strategy to curb greenhouse gases and combat climate change. (
  • We aim to reduce climate-change causing methane impacts of the oil and gas industry by 5.6 billion metric tons of CO 2 equivalent emissions. (
  • WASHINGTON-The Trump administration is moving to erase Obama-era rules on methane emissions from the oil-and-gas business, saying the federal government overstepped its authority when it set limits on what scientists say is a significant contributor to climate change. (
  • According to the EPA, in 2018, methane accounted for about 10% of U.S. human-driven greenhouse gas emissions. (
  • U.S. oil and gas drilling and related operations give off much more of the powerful greenhouse gas methane than the federal government estimates, wasting about $20 billion in fuel a year, scientists said on Thursday. (
  • Scientists have discovered dunes on Pluto made of frozen grains of methane. (
  • For the first time, scientists have confirmed that methane leaking is from Antarctica's sea bed. (
  • Divers first noticed the methane seep in 2011, but scientists didn't start investigating until 2016, studying it in detail both onsite and in the laboratory. (
  • Scientists regard the methane release from permafrost regions and frozen underwater stores as a key indicator that global warming can no longer be stopped. (
  • But now a team of scientists led by Caltech geochemist John M. Eiler has developed a new technique that can, for the first time, determine the temperature at which a natural methane sample formed. (
  • In the coming years, scientists are eager to send another mission to Titan to follow up on Cassini and get a better look at its surface features, methane lakes, and other curious properties. (
  • Several teams of scientists trying to measure how much methane is actually being released have reported seeing vast bubbles coming up through the water - although analysing how much this matters is complicated by the absence of similar measurements from previous decades. (
  • There is quite a lot of suppression and non-discussion of issues that are difficult, and one of those is in fact methane,' he said, recalling a reluctance on the part of at least one senior scientists involved in the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment to discuss the impact that a methane release might have. (
  • Martian methane releases are rare, episodic, and often debated, but scientists have discovered evidence of a methane emission in June 2013, which constitutes the first confirmation of a methane release on Mars. (
  • Wennberg, who is also the director of The Ronald and Maxine Linde Center for Global Environmental Science, is working with colleagues across the Institute-scientists and engineers alike-to study methane and its effects on the globe and to pioneer tools and techniques needed to identify, track, and characterize the gas and its sources. (
  • "Global Warming Feedback Loop Caused by Methane, Scientists Say" [August 29, 2006]. (
  • That projection was echoed at an energy and environment conference three days later held by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), where earth scientists referred to the new era of the 'methane economy. (
  • So the estimates of methane being 20-70 times more effective per molecule than CO2 (as estimated by IPCC), or that methane forcing is 20% of CO2 forcing, as shown in various IPCC reports, makes absolutely no sense. (
  • EPA is apparently unaware that the generally believed greenhouse (GH) effectiveness of methane (when compared to a molecule of CO2) is too high by a factor of about 100. (
  • Determining this isotopic composition creates an ever-more granular description of a given methane molecule, says John Eiler , Caltech's Robert P. Sharp Professor of Geology and professor of geochemistry. (
  • Methane is a tetrahedral molecule with four equivalent C-H bonds. (
  • The Nature Geoscience paper provides new orbital evidence from the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) on Mars Express for a Martian methane degassing event in June of 2013. (
  • Martian methane created by lifeforms? (
  • Intermittently, both have melted the permafrost and released the dreaded methane. (
  • The permafrost has a thickness of 275-390m near the shore which leaves us with incredible amounts of methane when you consider how much dissolves in one cubic meter of water. (
  • The methane appears to be produced from the thawing of permafrost what should be a permanently frozen layer of earth due to global warming, says the study's lead author, Katey Walter of the University of Alaska Fairbanks's Institute of Arctic Biology. (
  • This stimulates the production of methane by microorganisms in permafrost soils, which also drives the change towards a warmer climate. (
  • Last week, Boswell and his colleagues presented data from a production test completed last spring where methane flowed for six weeks from a formation below permafrost in the North Slope of Alaska. (
  • Landfills are the third largest source of methane in the United States. (
  • Fourteen states have taken steps to monitor and prevent any potential threat to public health and safety from methane gas produced by landfills. (
  • LMOP is a voluntary program that works cooperatively with industry stakeholders and waste officials to reduce or avoid methane emissions from landfills. (
  • While the EPA estimates that the oil and gas industry is responsible for 37 percent of the nation's methane emissions, landfills are responsible for 16 percent, and livestock such as cattle and pigs contribute 21 percent. (
  • The process is suitable for upgrading methane from coal mines, landfills, and other sub-quality sources. (
  • Here's my take: While capturing methane from landfills is certainly worthwhile, evidence suggests that composting is far better. (
  • Methane emissions, by contrast, are more difficult to quantify, in part because they come from sources like leaky pipelines shipping natural gas, fermenting vegetable matter inside the stomachs of cattle, and decomposing trash in landfills. (
  • Unfortunately, methane is also the primary component of natural gas and a by-product of decomposition from such common sources as landfills, agricultural activities, and wastewater treatment. (
  • And locating the source of methane emissions on the planet will be a first step to future investigations aimed at understanding the origin and significance of the methane," Oehler said. (
  • It is exciting because microbial life is an important source of methane on Earth, but methane can also be created through interactions between rocks and water. (
  • Successful regulation of greenhouse gas emissions requires knowledge of current methane emission sources. (
  • That will cement in place the ice-free nature of the Arctic Ocean - it will release methane from offshore, and a lot of the methane on land as well. (
  • Coalbed methane is distinct from a typical sandstone or other conventional gas reservoir, as the methane is stored within the coal by a process called adsorption . (
  • Production of coalbed methane usually involves withdrawing water from the coal bed to lower the reservoir pressure and allow the methane to desorb from the coal. (
  • Uncovering the methane reservoir could potentially warm the Earth tens of degrees, he said, and the mechanism could be very rapid. (
  • Building on the progress industry has made in driving down emissions, API supports cost-effective policies and direct regulation that achieve methane emission reductions from new and existing sources across the supply chain. (
  • Gheit said many companies have already put in place methane mitigation technology in anticipation of regulation. (
  • The Interior Department said Thursday it is delaying an Obama-era regulation aimed at restricting harmful methane emissions from oil and gas production on federal lands. (
  • Interior's action delaying the methane regulation follows a defeat in Congress, when the Senate unexpectedly turned back a bid to overturn the rule in May. (
  • Among the issues this raises is whether the ice-free conditions will quicken release of methane currently trapped in the sea bed, especially in the shallow waters along the northern coast of Siberia, Canada and Alaska. (
  • The survey also confirmed shallow methane ice forming over a large area within one of the structures. (
  • There are lots of bubbles containing mostly methane coming up from the shallow sea floor in the East Siberian Arctic shelf. (
  • Coalbed methane is the natural gas that lies trapped in coal seams at shallow depths. (
  • Over the past 20 years, coalbed methane production has increased steadily due to its abundance and the relatively low cost of drilling at its shallow depths. (
  • A study in the journal PLOS ONE on Wednesday found that degrading plastics emit powerful greenhouse gases like methane and ethylene, and are a previously unaccounted-for source of these heat-trapping pollutants. (
  • Methane accounts for nearly 9% of all greenhouse gases emitted as a result of human activity in the USA. (
  • Well, David Valentine of the UC Santa Barbara writes in a Nature op-ed that were we to measure methane in the waters around the spill we'd know. (
  • Measure methane to quantify the oil spill. (
  • PMMA chambers used to measure methane and CO2 emissions in Storflaket peat bog near Abisko, northern Sweden. (
  • These measurements show that methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells can be significant," Kang and her co-authors wrote in the first study ever to measure methane from old wells. (
  • Some decades ago I predicted [Nature 1971] anthropogenic methane production and estimated values that are roughly in accord with modern ones. (
  • Note: Edited Toyota velocities to reflect relative radiative forcings of anthropogenic CO 2 and methane. (
  • Roughly three-quarters of methane emissions are anthropogenic and as such it is important to continue the record of satellite based measurements. (
  • This instrument spotted the cloud at an altitude of about 160 to 210 km (100 to 130 mi), far above the methane rain clouds of Titan's troposphere. (
  • Titan's lakes, by the way, aren't your usual bodies of water - instead, they're filled with liquid methane and ethane. (
  • The sun's UV radiation breaks down methane (CH 4 ), and the hydrogen would escape Titan's weak gravity. (
  • The US Department of Energy funded research into a number of unconventional gas sources, including coalbed methane. (
  • Soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) has more than 100 known substrates in addition to its natural substrate methane. (
  • Borodina E, Nichol T, Dumont MG, Smith TJ, Murrell JC (2007) Mutagenesis of the "leucine gate" to explore the basis of catalytic versatility in soluble methane monooxygenase. (
  • Callaghan AJ, Smith TJ, Slade SE, Dalton H (2002) Residues near the N-terminus of protein B control autocatalytic proteolysis and the activity of soluble methane monooxygenase. (
  • Chatwood LL, Müller J, Gross JD, Wagner G, Lippard SJ (2004) NMR Structure of the flavin domain from soluble methane monooxygenase reductase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). (
  • Colby J, Stirling DI, Dalton H (1977) The soluble methane monooxygenase of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath): its ability to oxygenate n-alkanes, n-alkenes, ethers, and alicyclic, aromatic and heterocyclic compounds. (
  • Methane comes from a number of different sources and is regulated by states in a variety of ways. (
  • Here is a look at the recent findings and the known sources of methane out today. (
  • Tracking methane to these various sources is not easy. (
  • It's not clear whether New York is also taking extra steps to limit methane emissions from other sources. (
  • Cows or wetlands have been fingered as possible sources, but new research points to methane emissions from fossil fuel production-mainly from shale gas operations in the United States and Canada-as the culprit. (
  • The ocean is small potatoes, and there is enough uncertainty in the methane budget to accommodate adjustments in the sources without too much overturning of apple carts. (
  • The differently colored circles denote different sources of methane. (
  • This schematic cross-section of a high-latitude ocean margin, broken into five distinct zones, contains four potential methane sources. (
  • Furthermore, methanotrophs and methane monooxygenases have enormous potential in bioremediation and for biotransformations producing bulk and fine chemicals, and in bioenergy, particularly considering increased methane availability from renewable sources and hydraulic fracturing of shale rock 5 , 6 . (
  • Methane can come from other sources, and not all organisms produce it. (
  • These sources are considered "messy" by researchers because numerous variables govern just how much methane they will release, and where. (
  • For example, isotopically light methane typically comes from decaying plant matter, while methane released from geological sources tends to be heavier. (
  • The US appears to be emitting 50-70% more methane than the EPA thought we were, based on "bottom up" accounting (adding up all the known sources). (
  • Since the methane concentration wasn't rising all that much, its sources, uncertain as they are, have been mostly balanced by sinks, also uncertain. (
  • Informed by EPA's emissions inventory and reporting data that pinpoints the primary sources of production-related methane emissions, the oil and natural gas industry established The Environmental Partnership in late 2017 to specifically target key emissions sources. (
  • Capturing and putting to use methane emissions bring parallel benefits: They help minimize overall methane emissions, and they offer potentially cost-effective energy sources for heating, cooking, and electricity generation-a particular concern in developing countries. (
  • Much less remarked upon, however, are the sizeable investments in unconventional gas sources, particularly coalbed methane, where natural gas is extracted from coal beds, and shale gas. (
  • He points out that cutting methane emissions often doesn't cost anything and can actually end up making money -- by collecting the gas to sell, or by saving emissions in making a process more efficient and cheaper. (
  • The Environmental Protection Agency proposed regulations on Tuesday aimed at cutting methane emissions from the oil and gas sector by 40 to 45 percent over the next decade from 2012 levels. (
  • The benefits of methane biotechnology include a self-sustainable component, as any biomass generated could be used as single cell protein or converted back to methane via anaerobic digestion. (
  • Coalbed methane grew out of venting methane from coal seams. (
  • The value for Methane emissions (% change from 1990) in Congo was -0.53 as of 2012. (
  • Overall, methane pollution in the USA has declined 11% since 1990, even as the federal government has pushed for a greater reliance on natural gas. (
  • While natural gas production increased more than 50 percent from 1990-2017, methane emissions from natural gas systems decreased 14 percent . (
  • Brazeau BJ, Wallar BJ, Lipscomb JD (2003) Effector proteins from P450cam and methane monooxygenase: lessons in tuning nature's powerful reagents. (
  • Chang S-L, Wallar BJ, Lipscomb JD, Mayo KH (1999) Solution structure of component B from methane monooxygenase derived through heteronuclear NMR and molecular modeling. (
  • Here we discover and characterize a novel copper storage protein (Csp1) from the methanotroph Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b that is exported from the cytosol, and stores copper for particulate methane monooxygenase. (
  • The enzyme methane monooxygenase produces methanol from methane, but cannot be used for industrial-scale reactions. (
  • The White House-EPA plan to control methane emissions is but the latest effort against our domestic energy industry and would simply raise costs to consumers. (
  • Generally, state policies aim to monitor or prevent potentially harmful methane emissions, or encourage capturing methane to use as an energy source. (
  • We have abundant coal reserves and as a result coalbed methane production is set to grow rapidly," says Che Changbo, a senior official at the Ministry of Land and Resources. (
  • Burrows KJ, Cornish A, Scott D, Higgins IJ (1984) Substrate specificities of the soluble and particulate methane mono-oxygenases of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. (
  • Unlike much natural gas from conventional reservoirs, coalbed methane contains very little heavier hydrocarbons such as propane or butane , and no natural-gas condensate . (
  • Coalbed methane as a natural-gas resource received a major push from the US federal government in the late 1970s. (
  • Methane The hydrocarbon methane (CH4) is the major component of natural gas (around 90 percent) that is found in oil and gas wells throughout the world. (
  • Natural gas consists mainly of methane. (
  • Thanks to innovation and industry actions, U.S. methane emissions rates in the largest producing regions have declined 70 percent in the past decade, even as America produces more affordable, reliable and cleaner natural gas. (
  • Launched in 2017, The Environmental Partnership represents more than 70% of total U.S. onshore natural gas and oil production, with companies large and small focused on driving innovation, sharing best practices across the industry and reducing methane emissions in every major U.S. basin. (
  • Methane (chemical formula CH4) is the main component of natural gas. (
  • The White House now plans to impose a new set of regulations on the oil and natural gas industries, targeting emissions of methane -- even as emissions plummet. (
  • Methane, the main component of natural gas, is typically found with oil. (
  • But the oil spill-essentially an unprecedented and accidental experiment-offers a piece of good news: The bacterial rapid-response system might be able to significantly curb the effects of even massive natural methane emissions. (
  • The joint analysis of GHGSat and Sentinel-5P regional methane data will continue to explore and quantify how COVID-19 is affecting emissions from the natural gas industry on a regional scale - all the way down to the level of industrial facilities. (
  • The issue with many natural gas deposits is that where you find them-where you go into the ground and drill for the methane-is not where the gas was created. (
  • Local sampling showed that some of these are releasing the ancient methane, perhaps from natural gas or coal deposits underneath the lakes, whereas others are emitting much younger gas, presumably formed through decay of plant material in the lakes. (
  • Indeed, the benefits of installing mitigation equipment stands to offset the costs because every particle of methane that escapes amounts to less natural gas that producers can sell, he said. (
  • A membrane separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. (
  • We have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. (
  • A second study found that only a few active natural gas wells produce the majority of known methane emissions. (
  • At the same time, Hunter has introduced one natural-gas-powered vehicle to the county fleet and intends to add others that can eventually be operated on the free methane as well. (
  • The oil and natural gas industry is laser-focused on reducing methane emissions from production for two very important reasons. (
  • Second, our members are in the business of providing natural gas, of which methane is the chief component, for clean electricity generation, to heat Americans' homes and to supply manufacturers and other businesses that have realized billions in cost savings as a result. (
  • Coalbed Methane: The Future of U.S. Natural Gas? (
  • Speaking to congressional staffers at a briefing on Sept. 20, Rebecca Watson, assistant secretary for land and minerals management at the Department of the Interior, said that coalbed methane is the best source of energy to meet U.S. natural gas demand over the next five to six years. (
  • As of 2000, coalbed methane accounted for 7 percent of the total U.S. natural gas production. (
  • Methane, the primary component of natural gas, is a leading contributor to global warming. (
  • Using aerial and ground-based surveys, the team identified about 150,000 methane seeps in Alaska and Greenland in lakes along the margins of ice cover. (
  • Map of the northern US Atlantic margin showing the locations of newly-discovered methane seeps mapped by researchers from Mississippi State University, the US Geological Survey, and other partners. (
  • The discovery of so much methane seepage on the northern US Atlantic passive margin was unexpected and may imply that thousands more seeps remain to be discovered on passive margins globally. (
  • Since the beginning of time, methane has also b. (
  • A number of state have passed laws that restrict methane emissions in order to reduce overall negative impacts. (
  • We're working to solve the methane emissions problem in the global oil and gas industry by bringing together industry, international finance, and entrepreneurs to recover $60 billion in lost economic opportunity and to reduce climate impacts by 5.6 billion metric tons of CO 2 equivalent emissions, or 8 percent of global greenhouse gasses. (
  • At a meeting in Westminster organised by the Arctic Methane Emergency Group (Ameg), Prof Salter told MPs that the situation in the Arctic was so serious that ships might take too long. (
  • Arctic Methane on the Move? (
  • Like the two thirds of an iceberg that remains below water, the massive amounts of methane stored under the Arctic can only be estimated with models. (
  • The scene in Arctic waters like the Kara and the Pechora Seas is ripe for a massive release of methane. (
  • In Nature Geoscience, Shakhova et al (2013) have published a substantial new study of the methane cycle on the Siberian continental margin of the Arctic Ocean. (
  • This paper will get a lot of attention, because it follows by a few months a paper from last summer, Whiteman et al (2013) , which claimed a strong (and expensive) potential impact from Arctic methane on near-term climate evolution. (
  • Estimates of methane emissions from the Arctic have risen, from land (Walter et al 2006) as well now as from the continental shelf off Siberia. (
  • Methane emissions from Arctic tundra increase when sea ice melts, according to a new study from Lund University in Sweden. (
  • The expectation is that with further sea ice decline, temperatures in the Arctic will continue to rise, and so will methane emissions from northern wetlands", says Frans-Jan Parmentier. (
  • That lighter form of methane released during fracking is a substantial component of the overall methane rise since 2008. (
  • A 2015 study estimated that North Texas' Barnett Shale region leaked 544,000 tons of methane a year using a conservative leakage rate of 1.5 percent. (
  • The authors found that all of the wells emitted some level of methane. (
  • Studies of the overall scope and impact of methane emissions have been widely disparate, said Bruce Huber, an associate professor at the University of Notre Dame who specializes in environmental and energy law. (
  • Deep sea oil drillers often encounter pockets of methane crystals as they dig into the earth. (
  • The "massive" increase in methane emissions occurred at the same time as the use of fracking for shale gas took off in the U.S., says Robert Howarth, an ecologist at Cornell University and author of the study published Aug 14 in the journal Biogeosciences . (