Central Nervous System Stimulants
Substance Abuse Detection
Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins
Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Drug and Narcotic Control
Highly sensitive quantitation of methamphetamine by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay using a new europium chelate as a label. (1/1448)A simple and highly sensitive time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of methamphetamine (MA) using a new fluorescent europium chelate (BHHCT-Eu3+) as a label is described. Two variations of competitive immunoassay were attempted. In the first (one-step) assay, microtiter plates coated with anti-MA were used, and the new label was bound to a conjugate of bovine serum albumin and N-(4-aminobutyl)-MA (MA-BSA). In the second (two-step) assay, instead of the labeled MA-BSA, biotinylated MA-BSA and BHHCT-Eu3+-labeled streptavidin-BSA were used. The lowest measurable concentrations of MA for the one-step and the two-step methods were 1 ng/mL (25 pg/assay) and 1 pg/mL (25 fg/assay), respectively. These were 10 to 1000 times superior to the detection limits of MA in any other immunoassay. Intra-assay coefficient of variation was approximately 2-8% at eight different concentrations (n = 4). Analysis of 34 urine samples with the new method and conventional gas chromatography showed a good correlation (r = 0.954). The high detectability of the present assay also enabled segmental hair analysis with a few centimeters of a hair. (+info)
Determination of pyrolysis products of smoked methamphetamine mixed with tobacco by tandem mass spectrometry. (2/1448)This study examines the pyrolysis products of smoked methamphetamine mixed with tobacco that was trapped with a C8 adsorbent cartridge and then detected by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. According to the results, the mainstream smoke contains 2-methylpropyl-benzene, 2-chloropropyl-benzene, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one, 3-ethyl-phenol, methamphetamine, dimethylamphetamine, hydroquinone, 3-methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-methylcarbamate phenol, N-methyl-N-(2-phenylethyl)-acetamide, 4-(3-hydroxy-1-butenyl)-3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexene-1-one, propanoic acid, N-acetylmethamphetamine, phenyl ester, and furfurylmethylamphetamine. In addition, the compounds in sidestream smoke are 2-propenyl benzene, phenylacetone, methamphetamine, dimethylamphetamine, benzyl methyl ketoxime, 3,4-dihydro-2-naphthalenone, N-folmyamphetamine, N-acetylamphetamine, bibenzyl, N-folmylmethamphetamine, N-acetylmethamphetamine, N-propionymethamphetamine, and furfurylmethylamphetamine. Moreover, the presence of methamphetamine promotes the oxidation of the tobacco components. (+info)
Toxicological findings in a fatal ingestion of methamphetamine. (3/1448)This paper presents the case history of a fatality caused by the complications brought about by the presence of methamphetamine and ethanol. Drug concentrations are reported from samples obtained approximately 15 min after the subject was last observed to be chewing what was then believed to be gum, 3 h after the initial toxic symptoms were displayed, 6, 11, and 22 h later. The subjects conditions deteriorated over the course of this time, and he was declared dead 33 h after the initial display of toxic symptoms. The toxicological findings and concentration levels of the reported biological specimens concurred with the expected findings in a case of methamphetamine toxicity. (+info)
Effects of stimulants of abuse on extrapyramidal and limbic neuropeptide Y systems. (4/1448)Neuropeptide Y (NPY), an apparent neuromodulating neuropeptide, has been linked to dopamine systems and dopamine-related psychotic disorders. Because of this association, we determined and compared the effects of psychotomimetic drugs on extrapyramidal and limbic NPY systems. We observed that phencyclidine, methamphetamine (METH), (+)methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and cocaine, but not (-)MDMA, similarly reduced the striatal content of NPY-like immunoreactivity from 54% (phencyclidine) to 74% [(+) MDMA] of control. The effects of METH on NPY levels in the nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra were characterized in greater detail. We observed that METH decreased NPY levels in specific regions of the nucleus accumbens and the caudate, but had no effect on NPY in the globus pallidus or the substantia nigra. The dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390 blocked these effects of METH, suggesting that NPY levels throughout the nucleus accumbens and the caudate are regulated through D1 pathways. The D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride did not appear to alter the METH effect, but this was difficult to determine because eticlopride decreased NPY levels by itself. A single dose of METH was sufficient to lower NPY levels, in some, but not all, regions examined. The effects on NPY levels after multiple METH administrations were substantially greater and persisted up to 48 h after treatment; this suggests that synthesis of this neuropeptide may be suppressed even after the drug is gone. These findings suggest that NPY systems may contribute to the D1 receptor-mediated effects of the psychostimulants. (+info)
N-oxygenation of amphetamine and methamphetamine by the human flavin-containing monooxygenase (form 3): role in bioactivation and detoxication. (5/1448)(+)- And (-)-amphetamine and methamphetamine were N-oxygenated by the cDNA expressed adult human flavin-containing monooxygenase form 3 (FMO3), their corresponding hydroxylamines. Two major polymorphic forms of human FMO3 were studied, and the results suggested preferential N-oxygenation by only one of the two enzymes. Chemically synthesized (+/-)-amphetamine hydroxylamine was also a substrate for the human FMO3 and it was converted to phenylpropanone oxime with a stereoselectivity ratio of trans/cis of 5:1. Human FMO3 also N-oxygenated methamphetamine to produce methamphetamine hydroxylamine. Methamphetamine hydroxylamine was also N-oxygenated by human FMO3, and the ultimate product observed was phenylpropanone. For amphetamine hydroxylamine, studies of the biochemical mechanism of product formation were consistent with the production of an N, N-dioxygenated intermediate that lead to phenylpropanone oxime. This was supported by the observation that alpha-deutero (+/-)-amphetamine hydroxylamine gave an inverse kinetic isotope effect on product formation in the presence of human FMO3. For methamphetamine, the data were consistent with a mechanism of human FMO3-mediated N,N-dioxygenation but the immediate product, a nitrone, rapidly hydrolyzed to phenylpropanone. The pharmacological activity of amphetamine hydroxylamine, phenylpropanone oxime, and methamphetamine hydroxylamine were examined for effects at the human dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transporters. Amphetamine hydroxylamine and methamphetamine hydroxylamine were apparent substrates for the human biogenic amine transporters but phenylpropanone oxime was not. Presumably, phenylpropanone oxime or nitrone formation from amphetamine and methamphetamine, respectively, represents a detoxication process. Because of the potential toxic nature of amphetamine hydroxylamine and methamphetamine hydroxylamine metabolites and the polymorphic nature of N-oxygenation, human FMO3-mediated metabolism of amphetamine or methamphetamine may have clinical consequences. (+info)
Behavioral, toxic, and neurochemical effects of sydnocarb, a novel psychomotor stimulant: comparisons with methamphetamine. (6/1448)Sydnocarb (3-(beta-phenylisopropyl)-N-phenylcarbamoylsydnonimine) is a psychostimulant in clinical practice in Russia as a primary and adjunct therapy for a host of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and depression. It has been described as a stimulant with an addiction liability and toxicity less than that of amphetamines. The present study undertook to evaluate the psychomotor stimulant effects of sydnocarb in comparison to those of methamphetamine. Sydnocarb increased locomotor activity of mice with reduced potency (approximately 10-fold) and efficacy compared with methamphetamine. Sydnocarb blocked the locomotor depressant effects of haloperidol at doses that were inactive when given alone. The locomotor stimulant effects of both methamphetamine and sydnocarb were dose-dependently blocked by the dopamine D1 and D2 antagonists SCH 39166 and spiperone, respectively; blockade generally occurred at doses of the antagonists that did not depress locomotor activity when given alone. In mice trained to discriminate methamphetamine from saline, sydnocarb fully substituted for methamphetamine with a 9-fold lower potency. When substituted for methamphetamine under self-administration experiments in rats, 10-fold higher concentrations of sydnocarb maintained responding by its i.v. presentation. Sydnocarb engendered stereotypy in high doses with approximately a 2-fold lower potency than methamphetamine. However, sydnocarb was much less efficacious than methamphetamine in inducing stereotyped behavior. Both sydnocarb and methamphetamine increased dialysate levels of dopamine in mouse striatum; however, the potency and efficacy of sydnocarb was less than methamphetamine. The convulsive effects of cocaine were significantly enhanced by the coadministration of nontoxic doses of methamphetamine but not of sydnocarb. Taken together, the present findings indicate that sydnocarb has psychomotor stimulant effects that are shared by methamphetamine while demonstrating a reduced behavioral toxicity. (+info)
Does nicotine modify the psychotoxic effect of methamphetamine? Assessment in terms of locomotor sensitization in mice. (7/1448)In this study, effects of nicotine on locomotor sensitization to methamphetamine in mice were investigated to assess whether nicotine modified induction and expression of psychotoxic action of methamphetamine. Although nicotine (0.03-1 mg/kg s.c.) had no effect at first administration, 5-time nicotine administrations at 3-day intervals progressively developed a significant locomotor stimulant effect, and caused an enhanced sensitivity (cross-sensitization) to methamphetamine (2 mg/kg s.c.). Five-time administrations of methamphetamine (2 mg/kg) at 3-day intervals produced not only a locomotor sensitization to methamphetamine itself, but also a cross-sensitization to nicotine (0.1-1 mg/kg). Nicotine (0.03-1 mg/kg) did not affect the locomotor stimulant effect of methamphetamine (2 mg/kg) in the drug-naive mice. However, nicotine acted dose-dependently to reduce the progressive enhancement of the locomotor stimulant effect of methamphetamine during 5-time repeated administrations. Mice treated with coadministration of methamphetamine with nicotine (1 mg/kg) showed less sensitization to methamphetamine than mice treated with methamphetamine alone. In addition, nicotine (1 mg/kg) inhibited the locomotor stimulant effect of methamphetamine in mice sensitized to methamphetamine. These results suggest that methamphetamine and nicotine produce a symmetrical cross-sensitization, although nicotine may act to inhibit the induction and expression of locomotor sensitization to methamphetamine in mice. (+info)
Synergistic interactions between ampakines and antipsychotic drugs. (8/1448)Tests were made for interactions between antipsychotic drugs and compounds that enhance synaptic currents mediated by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid-type glutamate receptors ("ampakines"). Typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs decreased methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity in rats; the effects of near or even subthreshold doses of the antipsychotics were greatly enhanced by the ampakines. Interactions between the ampakine CX516 and low doses of different antipsychotics were generally additive and often synergistic. The ampakine did not exacerbate neuroleptic-induced catalepsy, indicating that the interaction between the different pharmacological classes was selective. These results suggest that positive modulators of cortical glutamatergic systems may be useful adjuncts in treating schizophrenia. (+info)
Methamphetamine is a highly addictive stimulant drug that affects the central nervous system. It is a synthetic form of amphetamine and is often referred to as "meth" or "crystal meth." Methamphetamine is typically produced in illegal labs and is sold as a white, odorless, bitter-tasting powder that can be snorted, smoked, injected, or taken orally. In the medical field, methamphetamine is not used as a legitimate medication. However, it has been prescribed in the past as a decongestant and to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, due to its highly addictive nature and potential for severe side effects, methamphetamine is now only used in very limited circumstances under medical supervision. Methamphetamine use can lead to a range of physical and mental health problems, including addiction, paranoia, hallucinations, aggression, and cardiovascular problems. Long-term use can also cause damage to the brain, liver, and kidneys. Treatment for methamphetamine addiction typically involves a combination of behavioral therapy, medication-assisted treatment, and support groups.
Amphetamine-related disorders refer to a group of conditions that result from the use of amphetamines, a class of drugs that stimulate the central nervous system. These disorders can include both physical and psychological symptoms and can range from mild to severe. The most common amphetamine-related disorders include: 1. Amphetamine use disorder: This is a condition characterized by a pattern of compulsive use of amphetamines, despite negative consequences. It can be diagnosed as mild, moderate, or severe. 2. Amphetamine intoxication: This is a condition that occurs when someone takes too much amphetamine, leading to symptoms such as agitation, confusion, hallucinations, and rapid heart rate. 3. Amphetamine withdrawal: This is a condition that occurs when someone stops using amphetamines after a period of regular use. Symptoms can include fatigue, depression, anxiety, and cravings. 4. Amphetamine-induced psychosis: This is a condition that occurs when someone takes amphetamines and experiences symptoms of psychosis, such as hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized thinking. Amphetamine-related disorders can have serious consequences for a person's physical and mental health, as well as their social and occupational functioning. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and support from family and friends.
Amphetamine is a central nervous system stimulant that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. It is also sometimes used to treat obesity and to treat or prevent depression. Amphetamine works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, which can help to improve focus, attention, and energy levels. It is available in both prescription and over-the-counter forms, and it is usually taken orally. Side effects of amphetamine can include increased heart rate, difficulty sleeping, and nervousness or agitation. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking amphetamine and to avoid using it in excess or for longer than recommended.
N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA) is a synthetic psychoactive drug that is primarily used as a recreational drug and as a tool in psychotherapy, particularly in a therapeutic context known as MDMA-assisted therapy. MDMA is a derivative of amphetamine and has stimulant, empathogenic, and psychedelic effects. It is also known by the street names ecstasy, X, and E. In the medical field, MDMA is being studied for its potential therapeutic benefits in the treatment of conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression. However, it is important to note that the use of MDMA as a recreational drug is illegal in many countries and can have serious negative consequences on physical and mental health.
Amphetamines are a class of psychoactive drugs that stimulate the central nervous system. They are commonly used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy, and as a performance-enhancing drug. Amphetamines can also be used recreationally for their euphoric and stimulant effects. In the medical field, amphetamines are typically prescribed in the form of tablets or capsules, and may be taken orally or intranasally. The most commonly prescribed amphetamines for ADHD are Adderall and Ritalin, which contain a combination of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine. Other amphetamines used in medicine include methylphenidate (Ritalin) and pemoline (Cylert). Amphetamines can have a range of side effects, including increased heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature, as well as dry mouth, loss of appetite, and insomnia. Long-term use of amphetamines can also lead to dependence, addiction, and other health problems, such as cardiovascular disease and psychosis.
Pseudoephedrine is a medication that is commonly used to treat nasal congestion and other symptoms of the common cold and allergies. It is a sympathomimetic drug that works by narrowing the blood vessels in the nasal passages, which helps to reduce swelling and congestion. Pseudoephedrine is also sometimes used to treat other conditions, such as bronchitis and sinusitis. In the medical field, pseudoephedrine is available in a variety of forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquids. It is usually taken orally, although it can also be administered intravenously in some cases. Pseudoephedrine is generally considered to be safe and effective when used as directed, but it can cause side effects in some people, such as dizziness, nausea, and insomnia. It is important to follow the instructions on the label and to talk to a healthcare provider before taking pseudoephedrine if you have any medical conditions or are taking any other medications.
3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA) is a synthetic psychoactive drug that is primarily used as a recreational drug and is also sometimes used in psychotherapy. It is a stimulant and psychedelic drug that produces feelings of euphoria, increased energy, and heightened sensory perception. MDMA is also known by the street names ecstasy, X, and E. It is illegal to possess, sell, or use MDMA without a prescription in most countries. In the medical field, MDMA is being studied for its potential therapeutic effects, particularly in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health conditions.
Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins (DATs) are a group of proteins that are responsible for regulating the levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter, in the brain. These proteins are located on the surface of neurons and are involved in the reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft back into the neuron. This process is important for maintaining the proper balance of dopamine in the brain and for regulating mood, motivation, and reward. Dysfunction of DATs has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and addiction.
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in the brain's reward and pleasure centers. It is also involved in regulating movement, motivation, and emotional responses. In the medical field, dopamine is often used to treat conditions such as Parkinson's disease, which is characterized by a lack of dopamine in the brain. It can also be used to treat high blood pressure, as well as to manage symptoms of depression and schizophrenia. Dopamine is typically administered through injections or intravenous infusions, although it can also be taken orally in some cases.
Substance-related disorders are a group of mental health conditions that are caused by the use of drugs or alcohol. These disorders can range from mild to severe and can have a significant impact on a person's life. Substance-related disorders are diagnosed when a person's use of drugs or alcohol causes problems in their daily life, such as problems at work or school, problems with relationships, or legal problems. Substance-related disorders can also lead to physical health problems, such as liver damage or heart disease. Treatment for substance-related disorders typically involves a combination of behavioral therapy and medication.
Lobeline is a naturally occurring alkaloid found in the plant Lobelia inflata, also known as Indian tobacco or pukeweed. It has been used in traditional medicine for its bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory effects, and has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in the treatment of respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the medical field, lobeline is sometimes used as a bronchodilator, which helps to relax and widen the airways in the lungs, making it easier to breathe. It is also sometimes used as an anti-inflammatory agent to reduce inflammation in the airways and lungs. However, it is important to note that lobeline is not currently approved for use as a medical treatment by regulatory agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Its use in medicine is limited and primarily involves research studies and clinical trials.
Neurotoxicity syndromes are a group of disorders that result from exposure to toxic substances that affect the nervous system. These substances can include heavy metals, pesticides, solvents, and other chemicals. Symptoms of neurotoxicity syndromes can vary widely depending on the specific substance and the level of exposure, but may include headaches, dizziness, memory loss, difficulty concentrating, tremors, seizures, and even coma or death in severe cases. Treatment for neurotoxicity syndromes typically involves removing the toxic substance from the body and providing supportive care to manage symptoms. In some cases, medications may be used to help reduce inflammation or prevent further damage to the nervous system.
Vesicular monoamine transport proteins (VMATs) are a family of proteins that play a critical role in the transport of monoamine neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, into synaptic vesicles in neurons. These vesicles are small sacs that store neurotransmitters and release them into the synaptic cleft when an action potential reaches the presynaptic terminal. VMATs are responsible for loading these neurotransmitters into the vesicles, which is a critical step in the process of neurotransmitter release. There are two main types of VMATs: VMAT1 and VMAT2. VMAT1 is primarily found in the brain and is involved in the transport of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine into presynaptic terminals. VMAT2 is found in the brain and peripheral tissues, and is primarily involved in the transport of dopamine and norepinephrine into presynaptic terminals. Disruptions in the function of VMATs have been implicated in a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and schizophrenia. For example, mutations in the VMAT2 gene have been associated with an increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease. Additionally, drugs that block VMATs, such as cocaine and amphetamines, can cause a range of side effects, including psychosis and addiction.
Psychoses, Substance-Induced are a group of mental disorders that are caused by the use of certain substances, such as drugs or alcohol. These disorders can include hallucinations, delusions, and other symptoms that are similar to those seen in schizophrenia. They are often reversible when the substance use is stopped, but can also be long-lasting or even permanent if the substance use continues.
Ephedrine is a stimulant drug that is derived from the Ephedra plant. It is commonly used in over-the-counter medications to treat symptoms of allergies, colds, and flu. Ephedrine works by constricting blood vessels in the nasal passages, reducing inflammation, and opening airways, which can help to relieve congestion and other respiratory symptoms. In addition to its use in over-the-counter medications, ephedrine is also used in some prescription medications to treat asthma and other respiratory conditions. It is also sometimes used as a recreational drug, particularly in combination with other stimulants such as amphetamines. Ephedrine is a Schedule IV controlled substance in the United States, meaning that it has a low potential for abuse and dependence, but it can still be misused if not used as directed. It is important to follow the instructions on the label and to talk to a healthcare provider before using ephedrine or any other medication.
Pyrazolones are a class of organic compounds that contain a pyrazole ring with one or more hydroxyl groups attached to it. They are commonly used in the medical field as anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs. One of the most well-known pyrazolones is phenylbutazone, which was introduced in the 1950s and was widely used as an anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and other inflammatory conditions. However, phenylbutazone was later found to have serious side effects, including liver damage and aplastic anemia, and its use has been largely discontinued. Other pyrazolones that are still used in medicine include (etoricoxib), which is used to treat arthritis and other inflammatory conditions, and (), which is used to treat allergies and other respiratory conditions.
Biogenic monoamines are a group of neurotransmitters that are synthesized from amino acids in the brain and other tissues. They include dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and histamine. These neurotransmitters play important roles in regulating mood, motivation, attention, and other cognitive and emotional processes. Imbalances in the levels of biogenic monoamines have been implicated in a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia.
Cocaine is a powerful stimulant drug that is derived from the leaves of the coca plant. It is a highly addictive substance that is illegal in many countries, including the United States. Cocaine is typically used as a recreational drug, but it can also be used for medical purposes, such as to treat certain medical conditions. In the medical field, cocaine is sometimes used as a local anesthetic to numb the skin and other tissues during surgery or other medical procedures. It is also sometimes used to treat certain medical conditions, such as glaucoma, because it can constrict blood vessels and reduce pressure in the eye. However, cocaine is also highly addictive and can cause a range of serious health problems, including heart attack, stroke, and respiratory failure. It is also associated with a high risk of addiction and can lead to a range of social and psychological problems. As a result, the use of cocaine for medical purposes is generally limited and is only done under the supervision of a qualified medical professional.
Bupropion is a medication that is used to treat depression, smoking cessation, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor, which means that it blocks the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain, leading to increased levels of these neurotransmitters. This increase in neurotransmitter levels is thought to improve mood and reduce cravings in depression and smoking cessation, and to improve focus and attention in ADHD. Bupropion is available in both immediate-release and extended-release forms, and is typically taken orally. It may cause side effects such as dry mouth, headache, and insomnia.
Tetrabenazine is a medication that is used to treat Huntington's disease, a genetic disorder that affects movement and causes uncontrolled movements of the body. It works by reducing the amount of dopamine in the brain, which helps to reduce the severity of the symptoms of Huntington's disease. Tetrabenazine is also used to treat chorea, a movement disorder that causes involuntary movements, and tardive dyskinesia, a movement disorder that can occur as a side effect of certain medications. It is usually taken orally in tablet form and is usually prescribed by a neurologist or psychiatrist.
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) is a metabolite of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in various brain functions such as movement, motivation, and reward. DOPAC is produced when dopamine is broken down by the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO) in the brain and other tissues. In the medical field, DOPAC is often measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or blood as a biomarker of dopamine metabolism. Abnormal levels of DOPAC can be associated with various neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, schizophrenia, and depression. Additionally, DOPAC has been studied as a potential therapeutic target for these conditions, as modulating dopamine metabolism may help to improve symptoms and slow disease progression.
I'm sorry, but I couldn't find any information on "Sydnones" in the medical field. It's possible that you may have misspelled the term or that it is not a commonly used term in medicine. Can you please provide more context or information about where you heard or saw this term?
Methylphenidate is a medication that is primarily used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, which can help to improve focus, attention, and alertness. Methylphenidate is available in both immediate-release and extended-release forms, and it is usually taken orally. It can also be used to treat other conditions, such as obesity and sleep disorders, but it is not approved for these uses by the FDA. Methylphenidate can have side effects, including decreased appetite, difficulty sleeping, and increased heart rate, and it should be used only under the supervision of a healthcare provider.
Dextroamphetamine is a medication that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. It is a central nervous system stimulant that works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, which can help to improve focus, attention, and alertness. It is available in both immediate-release and extended-release forms, and is typically taken orally. Dextroamphetamine can cause side effects such as increased heart rate, difficulty sleeping, and loss of appetite, and should be used with caution in people with certain medical conditions, such as heart disease or high blood pressure.
Phenylpropanolamine is a sympathomimetic amine that was previously used as a decongestant and appetite suppressant in over-the-counter cold and flu remedies, as well as in weight loss supplements. However, it was voluntarily removed from the market in the United States in 2000 due to concerns about its potential to cause serious cardiovascular side effects, including stroke and high blood pressure. In some countries, it is still available by prescription for the treatment of certain conditions, such as nasal congestion and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
p-Hydroxyamphetamine (p-MA) is a psychoactive drug that is structurally related to amphetamine. It is a derivative of amphetamine that has been modified by the addition of a hydroxyl group (-OH) at the para position (the fourth carbon atom) of the phenyl ring. p-MA is a stimulant drug that can produce feelings of euphoria, increased energy, and alertness. It is also known to have hallucinogenic properties and can cause changes in perception, mood, and consciousness. In the medical field, p-MA is not currently used as a medication. It is a controlled substance and is illegal to possess, manufacture, or distribute without a prescription. The use of p-MA can have serious health consequences, including addiction, cardiovascular problems, and mental health issues.
Selegiline is a medication that is used to treat Parkinson's disease and other conditions related to dopamine deficiency. It is a type of drug called a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), which means that it blocks the activity of an enzyme in the brain that breaks down dopamine and other neurotransmitters. By inhibiting this enzyme, selegiline helps to increase the levels of dopamine in the brain, which can improve symptoms of Parkinson's disease such as tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with movement. Selegiline is usually taken in combination with other medications, such as levodopa, to treat Parkinson's disease. It can also be used to treat depression, although it is not as effective as other antidepressants.
Methamphetamine in Bangladesh
Methamphetamine and Native Americans
Methamphetamine use in Australia
Legal status of methamphetamine
Methamphetamine in the United States
Illinois Methamphetamine Precursor Control Act
Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005
Comprehensive Methamphetamine Control Act of 1996
Recreational drug use
Risk factors of schizophrenia
Capital punishment in Singapore
2023 in Kerala
Illegal drug trade
List of dopaminergic drugs
Median lethal dose
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder management
List of drugs by year of discovery
List of Japanese inventions and discoveries
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Hepatitis associated with illicit use of intravenous methamphetamine.
Intent to Distribute Methamphetamine5
- Dundon pleaded guilty to Possession with Intent to Distribute Methamphetamine. (justice.gov)
- DAVENPORT, Iowa (KWQC) - A Muscatine man was sentenced Sept. 6, to 168 months, or 14 years, in prison for conspiracy to manufacture, distribute, and possess with intent to distribute methamphetamine. (kwqc.com)
- A 23-year-old Nebraska man was sentenced to 17 1/2 years in federal prison for distribution of methamphetamine, possession with intent to distribute methamphetamine and conspiracy to distribute and possess with intent to distribute methamphetamine. (dea.gov)
- A Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Omaha Division investigation led to the arrest of 23 year old Jesse Neri who was sentenced August 25, to 17 and-a-half years in federal prison for distribution of methamphetamine, possession with intent to distribute methamphetamine and conspiracy to distribute and possess with intent to distribute methamphetamine. (dea.gov)
- On February 10, 2022, a federal jury in the District of Nebraska found Oswaldo Neri guilty of conspiracy to distribute and possess with intent to distribute methamphetamine and possession with intent to distribute methamphetamine. (dea.gov)
- Methamphetamine can produce euphoria and stimulant effects like those from other stimulants such as cocaine . (medscape.com)
- The smokable form of methamphetamine ("ice") produces an immediate euphoria similar to that of crack cocaine, but the effects may last much longer. (medscape.com)
- Here we studied the role of central amygdala (CeA), ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), brain regions implicated in incubation of cocaine and heroin craving, in incubation of methamphetamine craving. (nature.com)
- Together with previous studies, results indicate that the CeA has a critical role in incubation of both drug and non-drug reward craving and demonstrate an unexpected dissociation in mechanisms of incubation of methamphetamine vs cocaine craving. (nature.com)
- Based on previous findings with heroin and cocaine, in the present study we assessed the roles of central and basolateral amygdala (CeA and BLA, respectively), ventral and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC and dmPFC, respectively), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in incubation of methamphetamine craving. (nature.com)
- Taking even small amounts of methamphetamine can result in many of the same health effects as those of other stimulants, such as cocaine or amphetamines. (nih.gov)
- Interviewed employees did not report any exposure incidents or symptoms that could be related to handling cocaine, methamphetamine, or opioids at work in the previous three months. (cdc.gov)
- Work practices and conditions such as fume hood average face velocities not meeting guidelines, working with unknown powders without engineering controls or local exhaust ventilation, and dry sweeping floors and dry wiping laboratory surfaces, may contribute to unintentional employee exposures to cocaine, fentanyl, heroin, and methamphetamine. (cdc.gov)
- Danial J.Carpenter , age 30, Delavan, was arrested on two counts of Delivery of Methamphetamine, possession of Methamphetamine waste, Manufacture of Methamphetamine and possession of Methamphetamine paraphernalia charges. (cbs58.com)
- Also arrested and confined in the Walworth County Jail was Jennifer Volp from Delavan on possession of Methamphetamine waste, manufacturing Methamphetamine, and possession of Methamphetamine paraphernalia charges. (cbs58.com)
- Paul Schmitt will have charges forwarded to the District Attorney's Office for Manufacturing methamphetamine, possession of methamphetamine paraphernalia, and possession of THC charges. (cbs58.com)
- Moon has been charged with Possession of Methamphetamine, Possession of a Schedule IV Drug, Possession of Schedule IV Drug with Intent to Sell, Possession of Marijuana, Possession of Marijuana with Intent to Sell, Possession of Tools for the Commission of a Crime and Possession of a Firearm during the Commission of a Crime. (mmamania.com)
- During the traffic stop, Gomes was found to be in possession of approximately three pounds of methamphetamine. (kwqc.com)
- Our client was allegedly in possession of methamphetamine and this charge was his third strike. (chesleylawyers.com)
- Methamphetamine - meth for short - is a very addictive stimulant drug. (medlineplus.gov)
- What Is Methamphetamine (Meth)? (medlineplus.gov)
- Anhydrous ammonia is also a key ingredient for illicit methamphetamine (meth) production in makeshift laboratories. (cdc.gov)
- Methamphetamine abuse has soared in recent years, with the NIH estimating that meth overdose deaths nearly tripled between 2015 and 2019. (senate.gov)
- Once known as the meth capital of the United States, San Diego has a long history in working to combat methamphetamine production and addiction. (senate.gov)
- An article appeared on March 3, 2013 in the Denver Post , as well as the Boulder Daily Camera, regarding Colorado methamphetamine houses, (also referred to as just meth), and the potential financial pitfalls to uninformed buyers. (homebuyerscolorado.org)
- Methamphetamine is a highly addictive psychostimulant drug that is chemically related to amphetamine. (medscape.com)
- A few decades ago, stimulants similar to methamphetamine were broadly used for weight loss but the drug became more restricted in use after its abuse and addictive potential were realized. (narconon.org)
- Methamphetamine is a highly addictive drug with some of the harshest physical effects of any drug. (narconon.org)
- Methamphetamine is a powerful, highly addictive stimulant that affects the central nervous system. (nih.gov)
- and Addiction Treatment & Recovery - Methamphetamine . (medscape.com)
- Methamphetamine addiction has primarily affected persons who are White and rural inhabitants of Western and Midwest states. (netce.com)
- The new law will address this issue head-on by requiring the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) to develop, implement and make public a national plan to prevent methamphetamine addiction and overdoses from becoming a crisis. (senate.gov)
- "Communities across Utah and the United States are facing the challenges created by increased Methamphetamine abuse and addiction, which has only been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic," said Representative Curtis. (senate.gov)
- The quantities of methamphetamine seized worldwide grew fivefold over 2010-2020. (medscape.com)
- Methamphetamine seizures were 72% of all amphetamine-type substances seized over the period 2016-2020. (medscape.com)
- The Methamphetamine Response Act passed the Senate in November 2020, but did not pass the House before the end of the congressional session. (senate.gov)
- Frederick County Sheriff Chuck Jenkins reported, "The quantities of fentanyl and crystal methamphetamine seized, believed to have come from Mexico, were by far the largest quantities seized in the local Frederick/Washington County region. (hidta.org)
- In a subsequent search warrant of Gomes's vehicle seized during the traffic stop, law enforcement recovered approximately 16 pounds of methamphetamine from the vehicle. (kwqc.com)
- Last fiscal year, Border Patrol agents at the San Diego Sector intercepted 1,797 pounds of methamphetamine. (sanclementetimes.com)
- Both brothers were arrested, and investigators seized six additional pounds of methamphetamine from Oswaldo Neri's bedroom closet, as well as additional evidence of distribution. (dea.gov)
- In severe overdoses, termination of methamphetamine-induced seizure activity and arrhythmias are of immediate importance. (medscape.com)
- Methamphetamine is available in powder and crystalline forms. (medscape.com)
- International research and intelligence showed global drug supply networks originating in Asia have broadened their reach in the last decade and are now trafficking more pure crystalline forms of methamphetamine, Professor Boden says. (otago.ac.nz)
- Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) such as "ecstasy" and methamphetamine now rank as Africa's second most widely abused drug type. (who.int)
- DRYDEN - NEWS - In a significant development for law enforcement in the City of Dryden, a routine traffic stop has led to an arrest and the seizure of suspected methamphetamine, following the execution of an outstanding warrant. (netnewsledger.com)
- The acute health consequences to children exposed to hazardous substances used in illicit methamphetamine production, 1996--2001. (cdc.gov)
- Methamphetamine is a strong stimulant drug that is available in prescription form and in an illicit form sold on the street. (narconon.org)
- Hepatitis associated with illicit use of intravenous methamphetamine. (cdc.gov)
- That used the property or a portion of it to use and/or manufacture methamphetamine. (homebuyerscolorado.org)
- A recent National Institutes of Health study found that methamphetamine-related overdose deaths nearly tripled between 2015 and 2019. (senate.gov)
- On January 4 and 5, 2021, an undercover officer and a known Mexico-based methamphetamine supplier negotiated the sale and purchase of one pound of methamphetamine. (dea.gov)
- Repeated psychostimulant drug treatment , including methamphetamine , in rodents readily produces behavioral sensitization, which reflects altered brain function caused by repeated drug exposure. (bvsalud.org)
- Crystal methamphetamine is a form of the drug that looks like glass fragments or shiny, bluish-white rocks. (nih.gov)
- Widely regarded as one of the best 135-pound mixed martial arts (MMA) fighters just several years ago, Bowles is now apparently mixed up with drugs, specifically methamphetamine, according to the Jackson County Sheriff's Office (via Sherdog.com ). (mmamania.com)
- Cue-induced methamphetamine seeking progressively increases after withdrawal but mechanisms underlying this 'incubation of methamphetamine craving' are unknown. (nature.com)
- Methamphetamine increases the amount of the natural chemical dopamine in the brain. (nih.gov)
- Methamphetamine use can also alter judgment and decision-making leading to risky behaviors, such as unprotected sex, which also increases risk for infection. (nih.gov)
- Repeated methamphetamine treatment increases spine density in the nucleus accumbens of serotonin transporter knockout mice. (bvsalud.org)
- Cindy Huynh '19 (left) and Mollie Marshall '19 used an Ohio Wesleyan Theory-to-Practice Grant to research on the effects of prenatal alcohol and methamphetamine exposure on infants in New Zealand. (owu.edu)
- Huynh and Marshall traveled to New Zealand over the summer to conduct research on the effects of prenatal alcohol and methamphetamine exposure on infants. (owu.edu)
- Are there health effects from exposure to secondhand methamphetamine smoke? (nih.gov)
- Washington -President Joe Biden today signed into law the Methamphetamine Response Act , which Senators Dianne Feinstein (D-Calif.) and Chuck Grassley (R-Iowa) and Representatives Scott Peters (D-Calif.) and John Curtis (R-Utah) introduced to help address the rising abuse of methamphetamines. (senate.gov)
- Thus, medical, mental health, and other healthcare professionals working in a variety of settings with a variety of patient populations are likely to encounter patients who have used or are currently using methamphetamine. (netce.com)
- This course is designed for health and mental health professionals who are involved in the evaluation or treatment of persons who use methamphetamine. (netce.com)
- Those pushing methamphetamine on our streets should realize that there are serious consequences that can come from selling drugs. (dea.gov)
- 3 A recent study even suggests that people who once used methamphetamine have an increased the risk of developing Parkinson's disease, a disorder of the nerves that affects movement. (nih.gov)
- At the change of plea hearing, Dundon admitted that on April 17, 2022, she possessed 58.4 grams of pure methamphetamine and that she intended to deliver it to other individuals in exchange for payment. (justice.gov)
- Its researchers asked participants at ages 21, 25, 30 and 35 about their use of amphetamine/methamphetamine as well as involvement in violence, either as a victim or perpetrator. (otago.ac.nz)
- On the street, methamphetamine may be sold as a powder or in crystalized form. (narconon.org)
- Inadvertent absorption of methamphetamine may occur in "body packers", who swallow packages of the drug for transportation purposes, or "body stuffers", who insert bags of methamphetamine rectally or vaginally in an attempt to elude drug enforcement. (medscape.com)
- Maine Drug Enforcement agents confirmed it was consistent with the manufacturing of methamphetamine. (sunjournal.com)
- Methamphetamine laboratory identification and hazards fast facts. (cdc.gov)
- In studies of people who used methamphetamine over the long term, severe changes also affected areas of the brain involved with emotion and memory. (nih.gov)
- In addition, methamphetamine is easily synthesized from inexpensive and readily obtainable chemicals. (medscape.com)
- In this study, we report the spine density of medium spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens after repeated methamphetamine injection to examine morphological alterations in serotonin transporter knockout mice . (bvsalud.org)
- Golgi-COX staining clearly showed that the spine density of medium spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens increased following repeated methamphetamine treatment in both wild-type and serotonin transporter knockout mice . (bvsalud.org)
- New methods of manufacturing this drug were developed several years ago that permit methamphetamine to be "cooked" in a two-liter soda bottle, using just a small quantity of cold medicine. (narconon.org)
- "After working on this critical issue for the last few years, I'm pleased to see our Methamphetamine Response Act has been signed into law after receiving strong bipartisan support from Congress," said Senator Grassley. (senate.gov)
- In addition, urban-dwelling gay males are experiencing an alarming increase in methamphetamine abuse, resulting in rapid spread of HIV infection fueled by unsafe sexual practices. (netce.com)
- After a search of the immediate area Investigator's found a quantity of methamphetamine. (mmamania.com)
- A search of the trunk revealed two large black bags filled with 28 bundles of methamphetamine. (sanclementetimes.com)
- The locations searched in association with the search warrant yielded over 1lb of methamphetamine packaged for sales, replica firearms without orange colored tips, drug paraphernalia, narcotics packaging, multiple digital scales, and US currency. (marinsheriff.org)
- This methamphetamine is highly pure, potent, and low in price. (nih.gov)
- Recognizing the need for bi-partisan federal policy, the Methamphetamine Response Act designates this as an emerging drug threat. (senate.gov)
- In addition, continued methamphetamine use causes changes in the brain's dopamine system that are associated with reduced coordination and impaired verbal learning. (nih.gov)
- The study found those who used methamphetamine at least weekly were between two and five times more likely to be involved in violence, whether it be as a victim or as the perpetrator, than those who had not used it at all. (otago.ac.nz)
- In some cases, people take methamphetamine in a form of binging known as a "run," giving up food and sleep while continuing to take the drug every few hours for up to several days. (nih.gov)
- FARMINGTON - A Franklin County grand jury Wednesday indicted a local couple in a case involving operation of a methamphetamine lab and endangering the welfare of their three children. (sunjournal.com)
- Almost a third of middle-aged New Zealanders have tried methamphetamine at least once, according to a new University of Otago, Christchurch study looking at the link between using the drug and violence in the general population. (otago.ac.nz)
- Director of the Christchurch Health and Development Study Professor Joe Boden says this is the first time the use of methamphetamine and its links to violence have been studied in a longitudinal, or life course, research group. (otago.ac.nz)
- Keep reading to find out what organs or aspects of one's health take the worst beatings from methamphetamine. (narconon.org)
- They couldn't plead to the methamphetamine charge because at the time they had not been indicted. (sunjournal.com)
- Most cases of methamphetamine toxicity can be managed supportively. (medscape.com)
- Methamphetamine is structurally similar to amphetamine and to the neurotransmitter dopamine. (medscape.com)
- Investigators thereafter identified the Neri brothers as the persons who met with the undercover officer and delivered the methamphetamine. (dea.gov)