A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.
Disorders related or resulting from use of amphetamines.
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
An N-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as MDMA or ecstasy.
Analogs or derivatives of AMPHETAMINE. Many are sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulators causing excitation, vasopressin, bronchodilation, and to varying degrees, anorexia, analepsis, nasal decongestion, and some smooth muscle relaxation.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
A phenethylamine that is an isomer of EPHEDRINE which has less central nervous system effects and usage is mainly for respiratory tract decongestion.
An amphetamine derivative that inhibits uptake of catecholamine neurotransmitters. It is a hallucinogen. It is less toxic than its methylated derivative but in sufficient doses may still destroy serotonergic neurons and has been used for that purpose experimentally.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.
An alkaloid that has actions similar to NICOTINE on nicotinic cholinergic receptors but is less potent. It has been proposed for a variety of therapeutic uses including in respiratory disorders, peripheral vascular disorders, insomnia, and smoking cessation.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Neurologic disorders caused by exposure to toxic substances through ingestion, injection, cutaneous application, or other method. This includes conditions caused by biologic, chemical, and pharmaceutical agents.
A family of vesicular amine transporter proteins that catalyze the transport and storage of CATECHOLAMINES and indolamines into SECRETORY VESICLES.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Activities performed to obtain licit or illicit substances.
Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.
Compounds with a five-membered heterocyclic ring with two nitrogens and a keto OXYGEN. Some are inhibitors of TNF-ALPHA production.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
A unicyclic, aminoketone antidepressant. The mechanism of its therapeutic actions is not well understood, but it does appear to block dopamine uptake. The hydrochloride is available as an aid to smoking cessation treatment.
Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.
The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.
Sexual attraction or relationship between males.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.
Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.
People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.
A drug formerly used as an antipsychotic and treatment of various movement disorders. Tetrabenazine blocks neurotransmitter uptake into adrenergic storage vesicles and has been used as a high affinity label for the vesicle transport system.
A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.
A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.
OXADIAZOLES bearing an oxygen at the 5-position. They are mesoionic, with delocalized positive and negative charges.
A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.
The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.
Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.
A body of stories, the origins of which may be unknown or forgotten, that serve to explain practices, beliefs, institutions or natural phenomena. Mythology includes legends and folk tales. It may refer to classical mythology or to a body of modern thought and modern life. (From Webster's 1st ed)
The sexual attraction or relationship between members of both the same and the opposite SEX.
A sympathomimetic that acts mainly by causing release of NOREPINEPHRINE but also has direct agonist activity at some adrenergic receptors. It is most commonly used as a nasal vasoconstrictor and an appetite depressant.
Amphetamine metabolite with sympathomimetic effects. It is sometimes called alpha-methyltyramine, which may also refer to the meta isomer, gepefrine.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
A selective, irreversible inhibitor of Type B monoamine oxidase. It is used in newly diagnosed patients with Parkinson's disease. It may slow progression of the clinical disease and delay the requirement for levodopa therapy. It also may be given with levodopa upon onset of disability. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p385) The compound without isomeric designation is Deprenyl.
Drugs designed to treat inflammation of the nasal passages, generally the result of an infection (more often than not the common cold) or an allergy related condition, e.g., hay fever. The inflammation involves swelling of the mucous membrane that lines the nasal passages and results in inordinate mucus production. The primary class of nasal decongestants are vasoconstrictor agents. (From PharmAssist, The Family Guide to Health and Medicine, 1993)
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.
Sexual activities of humans.

Highly sensitive quantitation of methamphetamine by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay using a new europium chelate as a label. (1/1448)

A simple and highly sensitive time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of methamphetamine (MA) using a new fluorescent europium chelate (BHHCT-Eu3+) as a label is described. Two variations of competitive immunoassay were attempted. In the first (one-step) assay, microtiter plates coated with anti-MA were used, and the new label was bound to a conjugate of bovine serum albumin and N-(4-aminobutyl)-MA (MA-BSA). In the second (two-step) assay, instead of the labeled MA-BSA, biotinylated MA-BSA and BHHCT-Eu3+-labeled streptavidin-BSA were used. The lowest measurable concentrations of MA for the one-step and the two-step methods were 1 ng/mL (25 pg/assay) and 1 pg/mL (25 fg/assay), respectively. These were 10 to 1000 times superior to the detection limits of MA in any other immunoassay. Intra-assay coefficient of variation was approximately 2-8% at eight different concentrations (n = 4). Analysis of 34 urine samples with the new method and conventional gas chromatography showed a good correlation (r = 0.954). The high detectability of the present assay also enabled segmental hair analysis with a few centimeters of a hair.  (+info)

Determination of pyrolysis products of smoked methamphetamine mixed with tobacco by tandem mass spectrometry. (2/1448)

This study examines the pyrolysis products of smoked methamphetamine mixed with tobacco that was trapped with a C8 adsorbent cartridge and then detected by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. According to the results, the mainstream smoke contains 2-methylpropyl-benzene, 2-chloropropyl-benzene, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one, 3-ethyl-phenol, methamphetamine, dimethylamphetamine, hydroquinone, 3-methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-methylcarbamate phenol, N-methyl-N-(2-phenylethyl)-acetamide, 4-(3-hydroxy-1-butenyl)-3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexene-1-one, propanoic acid, N-acetylmethamphetamine, phenyl ester, and furfurylmethylamphetamine. In addition, the compounds in sidestream smoke are 2-propenyl benzene, phenylacetone, methamphetamine, dimethylamphetamine, benzyl methyl ketoxime, 3,4-dihydro-2-naphthalenone, N-folmyamphetamine, N-acetylamphetamine, bibenzyl, N-folmylmethamphetamine, N-acetylmethamphetamine, N-propionymethamphetamine, and furfurylmethylamphetamine. Moreover, the presence of methamphetamine promotes the oxidation of the tobacco components.  (+info)

Toxicological findings in a fatal ingestion of methamphetamine. (3/1448)

This paper presents the case history of a fatality caused by the complications brought about by the presence of methamphetamine and ethanol. Drug concentrations are reported from samples obtained approximately 15 min after the subject was last observed to be chewing what was then believed to be gum, 3 h after the initial toxic symptoms were displayed, 6, 11, and 22 h later. The subjects conditions deteriorated over the course of this time, and he was declared dead 33 h after the initial display of toxic symptoms. The toxicological findings and concentration levels of the reported biological specimens concurred with the expected findings in a case of methamphetamine toxicity.  (+info)

Effects of stimulants of abuse on extrapyramidal and limbic neuropeptide Y systems. (4/1448)

Neuropeptide Y (NPY), an apparent neuromodulating neuropeptide, has been linked to dopamine systems and dopamine-related psychotic disorders. Because of this association, we determined and compared the effects of psychotomimetic drugs on extrapyramidal and limbic NPY systems. We observed that phencyclidine, methamphetamine (METH), (+)methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and cocaine, but not (-)MDMA, similarly reduced the striatal content of NPY-like immunoreactivity from 54% (phencyclidine) to 74% [(+) MDMA] of control. The effects of METH on NPY levels in the nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra were characterized in greater detail. We observed that METH decreased NPY levels in specific regions of the nucleus accumbens and the caudate, but had no effect on NPY in the globus pallidus or the substantia nigra. The dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390 blocked these effects of METH, suggesting that NPY levels throughout the nucleus accumbens and the caudate are regulated through D1 pathways. The D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride did not appear to alter the METH effect, but this was difficult to determine because eticlopride decreased NPY levels by itself. A single dose of METH was sufficient to lower NPY levels, in some, but not all, regions examined. The effects on NPY levels after multiple METH administrations were substantially greater and persisted up to 48 h after treatment; this suggests that synthesis of this neuropeptide may be suppressed even after the drug is gone. These findings suggest that NPY systems may contribute to the D1 receptor-mediated effects of the psychostimulants.  (+info)

N-oxygenation of amphetamine and methamphetamine by the human flavin-containing monooxygenase (form 3): role in bioactivation and detoxication. (5/1448)

(+)- And (-)-amphetamine and methamphetamine were N-oxygenated by the cDNA expressed adult human flavin-containing monooxygenase form 3 (FMO3), their corresponding hydroxylamines. Two major polymorphic forms of human FMO3 were studied, and the results suggested preferential N-oxygenation by only one of the two enzymes. Chemically synthesized (+/-)-amphetamine hydroxylamine was also a substrate for the human FMO3 and it was converted to phenylpropanone oxime with a stereoselectivity ratio of trans/cis of 5:1. Human FMO3 also N-oxygenated methamphetamine to produce methamphetamine hydroxylamine. Methamphetamine hydroxylamine was also N-oxygenated by human FMO3, and the ultimate product observed was phenylpropanone. For amphetamine hydroxylamine, studies of the biochemical mechanism of product formation were consistent with the production of an N, N-dioxygenated intermediate that lead to phenylpropanone oxime. This was supported by the observation that alpha-deutero (+/-)-amphetamine hydroxylamine gave an inverse kinetic isotope effect on product formation in the presence of human FMO3. For methamphetamine, the data were consistent with a mechanism of human FMO3-mediated N,N-dioxygenation but the immediate product, a nitrone, rapidly hydrolyzed to phenylpropanone. The pharmacological activity of amphetamine hydroxylamine, phenylpropanone oxime, and methamphetamine hydroxylamine were examined for effects at the human dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transporters. Amphetamine hydroxylamine and methamphetamine hydroxylamine were apparent substrates for the human biogenic amine transporters but phenylpropanone oxime was not. Presumably, phenylpropanone oxime or nitrone formation from amphetamine and methamphetamine, respectively, represents a detoxication process. Because of the potential toxic nature of amphetamine hydroxylamine and methamphetamine hydroxylamine metabolites and the polymorphic nature of N-oxygenation, human FMO3-mediated metabolism of amphetamine or methamphetamine may have clinical consequences.  (+info)

Behavioral, toxic, and neurochemical effects of sydnocarb, a novel psychomotor stimulant: comparisons with methamphetamine. (6/1448)

Sydnocarb (3-(beta-phenylisopropyl)-N-phenylcarbamoylsydnonimine) is a psychostimulant in clinical practice in Russia as a primary and adjunct therapy for a host of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and depression. It has been described as a stimulant with an addiction liability and toxicity less than that of amphetamines. The present study undertook to evaluate the psychomotor stimulant effects of sydnocarb in comparison to those of methamphetamine. Sydnocarb increased locomotor activity of mice with reduced potency (approximately 10-fold) and efficacy compared with methamphetamine. Sydnocarb blocked the locomotor depressant effects of haloperidol at doses that were inactive when given alone. The locomotor stimulant effects of both methamphetamine and sydnocarb were dose-dependently blocked by the dopamine D1 and D2 antagonists SCH 39166 and spiperone, respectively; blockade generally occurred at doses of the antagonists that did not depress locomotor activity when given alone. In mice trained to discriminate methamphetamine from saline, sydnocarb fully substituted for methamphetamine with a 9-fold lower potency. When substituted for methamphetamine under self-administration experiments in rats, 10-fold higher concentrations of sydnocarb maintained responding by its i.v. presentation. Sydnocarb engendered stereotypy in high doses with approximately a 2-fold lower potency than methamphetamine. However, sydnocarb was much less efficacious than methamphetamine in inducing stereotyped behavior. Both sydnocarb and methamphetamine increased dialysate levels of dopamine in mouse striatum; however, the potency and efficacy of sydnocarb was less than methamphetamine. The convulsive effects of cocaine were significantly enhanced by the coadministration of nontoxic doses of methamphetamine but not of sydnocarb. Taken together, the present findings indicate that sydnocarb has psychomotor stimulant effects that are shared by methamphetamine while demonstrating a reduced behavioral toxicity.  (+info)

Does nicotine modify the psychotoxic effect of methamphetamine? Assessment in terms of locomotor sensitization in mice. (7/1448)

In this study, effects of nicotine on locomotor sensitization to methamphetamine in mice were investigated to assess whether nicotine modified induction and expression of psychotoxic action of methamphetamine. Although nicotine (0.03-1 mg/kg s.c.) had no effect at first administration, 5-time nicotine administrations at 3-day intervals progressively developed a significant locomotor stimulant effect, and caused an enhanced sensitivity (cross-sensitization) to methamphetamine (2 mg/kg s.c.). Five-time administrations of methamphetamine (2 mg/kg) at 3-day intervals produced not only a locomotor sensitization to methamphetamine itself, but also a cross-sensitization to nicotine (0.1-1 mg/kg). Nicotine (0.03-1 mg/kg) did not affect the locomotor stimulant effect of methamphetamine (2 mg/kg) in the drug-naive mice. However, nicotine acted dose-dependently to reduce the progressive enhancement of the locomotor stimulant effect of methamphetamine during 5-time repeated administrations. Mice treated with coadministration of methamphetamine with nicotine (1 mg/kg) showed less sensitization to methamphetamine than mice treated with methamphetamine alone. In addition, nicotine (1 mg/kg) inhibited the locomotor stimulant effect of methamphetamine in mice sensitized to methamphetamine. These results suggest that methamphetamine and nicotine produce a symmetrical cross-sensitization, although nicotine may act to inhibit the induction and expression of locomotor sensitization to methamphetamine in mice.  (+info)

Synergistic interactions between ampakines and antipsychotic drugs. (8/1448)

Tests were made for interactions between antipsychotic drugs and compounds that enhance synaptic currents mediated by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid-type glutamate receptors ("ampakines"). Typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs decreased methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity in rats; the effects of near or even subthreshold doses of the antipsychotics were greatly enhanced by the ampakines. Interactions between the ampakine CX516 and low doses of different antipsychotics were generally additive and often synergistic. The ampakine did not exacerbate neuroleptic-induced catalepsy, indicating that the interaction between the different pharmacological classes was selective. These results suggest that positive modulators of cortical glutamatergic systems may be useful adjuncts in treating schizophrenia.  (+info)

Currently there are no medications approved for the treatment of methamphetamine addiction. Bupropion is an antidepressant that is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of depression and for cigarette smoking cessation but is not approved by the FDA for the treatment of methamphetamine addiction. Preliminary research studies suggest that bupropion may help people receiving treatment for methamphetamine addiction to reduce or to stop their methamphetamine use. But results of these studies also suggest that bupropion may help certain groups of patients more than others, such as men versus women and light versus heavy methamphetamine users, although the reasons for this difference are not known. One possibility is that a persons genetic make up may influence whether or not they respond to treatment with bupropion for methamphetamine addiction.. The purpose of the study is to determine if bupropion is can help people reduce or stop their methamphetamine use and to ...
(Prenatal Methamphetamine Exposure) Although research on the medical and developmental effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure is still in its early stages, our experience with almost 20 years of research on the chemically related drug, cocaine, has not identified a recognizable condition, syndrome or disorder that should be termed crack baby nor found the degree of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of chronic methamphetamine exposure on heart function in uninfected and retrovirus-infected mice. AU - Yu, Qianli. AU - Montes, Sergio. AU - Larson, Douglas F. AU - Watson, Ronald R. PY - 2002/7/12. Y1 - 2002/7/12. N2 - Methamphetamine (MA) increases catecholamine levels, which have detrimental effects on heart function through vasoconstriction, myocardial hypertrophy, and fibrosis. Murine retrovirus infection induces dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The present study investigated the cardiovascular effects of chronic MA treatment on uninfected and retrovirus-infected mice. C57BL/6 mice were studied after 12 weeks treatment. The four study groups were (group I) uninfected, MA placebo; (group II) infected, MA placebo; (group III) uninfected, MA treatment; and (group IV) infected and MA treatment. MA injections were given i.p. once a day for 5 days/week with a increasing dose from 15 mg/kg to 40 mg/kg. Left ventricular mechanics were measured in situ a using Millar conductance ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of system Xc− in methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mice. AU - Dang, Duy Khanh. AU - Shin, Eun Joo. AU - Tran, Hai Quyen. AU - Kim, Dae Joong. AU - Jeong, Ji Hoon. AU - Jang, Choon Gon. AU - Nah, Seung Yeol. AU - Sato, Hideyo. AU - Nabeshima, Toshitaka. AU - Yoneda, Yukio. AU - Kim, Hyoung Chun. PY - 2017/9. Y1 - 2017/9. N2 - The cystine/glutamate antiporter (system Xc−, Sxc) transports cystine into cell in exchange for glutamate. Since xCT is a specific subunit of Sxc, we employed xCT knockout mice and investigated whether this antiporter affected methamphetamine (MA)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. MA treatment significantly increased striatal oxidative burdens in wild type mice. xCT inhibitor [i.e., S-4-carboxy-phenylglycine (CPG), sulfasalazine] or an xCT knockout significantly protected against these oxidative burdens. MA-induced increases in Iba-1 expression and Iba-1-labeled microglial immunoreactivity (Iba-1-IR) were significantly ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Higher cortical and lower subcortical metabolism in detoxified methamphetamine abusers. AU - Volkow, N. D.. AU - Chang, L.. AU - Wang, G. J.. AU - Fowler, J. S.. AU - Franceschi, D.. AU - Sedler, M. J.. AU - Gatley, S. J.. AU - Hitzemann, R.. AU - Ding, Y. S.. AU - Wong, C.. AU - Logan, J.. PY - 2001/3/21. Y1 - 2001/3/21. N2 - Objective: Methamphetamine has raised concerns because it may be neurotoxic to the human brain. Although prior work has focused primarily on the effects of methamphetamine on dopamine cells, there is evidence that other neuronal types are affected. The authors measured regional brain glucose metabolism, which serves as a marker of brain function, to assess if there is evidence of functional changes in methamphetamine abusers in regions other than those innervated by dopamine cells. Method: Fifteen detoxified methamphetamine abusers and 21 comparison subjects underwent positron emission tomography following administration of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose. Results: ...
Prenatal methamphetamine exposure (PME) is the exposure of a fetus to methamphetamine when a woman uses the drug during her pregnancy. Methamphetamine (MA) has shown increasing popularity in the past two decades among women of childbearing age. Methamphetamine is second only to cannabis as the most widely used illegal drug, which may be because it is relatively cheap and easy to manufacture. Yet, to this date, the effects of PME on the developing fetus have not been well characterized and even less is known regarding the effects on development in childhood. Although few studies have established a pattern of MA use in pregnant users, it is important that researchers seek to determine this pattern to examine a possible dose-response relationship between MA use and neonatal outcomes. The recent increase in MA use in the United States, particularly in the South and Midwest, highlights the need for a better understanding of the short-term and long-term effects of MA use during pregnancy upon newborns ...
Memory is a complex of systems by which an organism registers, stores and retrieves exposure to an event or experience. Literature purports that methamphetamine users and dependents have been found to exhibits signs of memory impairment. The aim of the research was to establish the possible existence of significant differences in memory in current methamphetamine users, recovering methamphetamine users, and a matched drug naïve control group. Cognitive functioning was assessed via a neurocognitive test battery that examined the memory of 14 current methamphetamine users, 17 recovering methamphetamine addicts, and 18 drug naïve control participants who were matched according to the demographic variables of age, gender and educational status. The results indicated that recovering methamphetamine users experienced the greatest impairment in memory in comparison to both the control group and current users of methamphetamine. The current users of methamphetamine also experienced some impairment in memory
TY - JOUR. T1 - Methamphetamine self-administration causes persistent striatal dopaminergic alterations and mitigates the deficits caused by a subsequent methamphetamine exposure. AU - McFadden, Lisa M.. AU - Hadlock, Greg C.. AU - Allen, Scott C.. AU - Vieira-Brock, Paula L.. AU - Stout, Kristen A.. AU - Ellis, Jonathan D.. AU - Hoonakker, Amanda J.. AU - Andrenyak, David M.. AU - Nielsen, Shannon M.. AU - Wilkins, Diana G.. AU - Hanson, Glen R.. AU - Fleckenstein, Annette E.. PY - 2012/2/1. Y1 - 2012/2/1. N2 - Preclinical studies have demonstrated that repeated methamphetamine (METH) injections (referred to herein as a binge treatment) cause persistent dopaminergic deficits. A few studies have also examined the persistent neurochemical impact of METH self-administration in rats, but with variable results. These latter studies are important because: 1) they have relevance to the study of METH abuse; and 2) the effects of noncontingent METH treatment do not necessarily predict effects of ...
Methamphetamine is a stimulant commonly abused in many parts of the United States. Most methamphetamine users are white men 18 to 25 years of age, but the highest usage rates have been found in native Hawaiians, persons of more than one race, Native Americans, and men who have sex with men. Methamphetamine use produces a rapid, pleasurable rush followed by euphoria, heightened attention, and increased energy. Possible adverse effects include myocardial infarction, stroke, seizures, rhabdomyolysis, cardiomyopathy, psychosis, and death. Chronic methamphetamine use is associated with neurologic and psychiatric symptoms and changes in physical appearance. High-risk sexual activity and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus are also associated with methamphetamine use. Use of methamphetamine in women who are pregnant can cause placental abruption, intrauterine growth retardation, and preterm birth, and there can be adverse consequences in children exposed to the drug. Treatment of methamphetamine
This study is part of an effort to develop treatments for methamphetamine abuse. Varenicline is a drug that changes levels of certain brain chemicals that may also be useful in helping people to stop using methamphetamine. Our goal is to determine the safety and effects of varenicline (1 and 2 mg, daily, vs. a placebo) when it is used before experimental administration of methamphetamine, on a number of physical and psychological measures; specifically blood pressure, heart rate, and how you feel after taking methamphetamine. The secondary purpose is to determine the effects of treatment with varenicline (1 and 2 mg daily), compared to treatment with placebo, on the reinforcing effects of methamphetamine by measuring methamphetamine self-administration in methamphetamine-dependent human volunteers ...
Context: Methamphetamine is associated with psychotic phenomena, but it is not clear to what extent this relationship is due to premorbid psychosis among people who use the drug. Objective: To determine the change in the probability of psychotic symptoms occurring during periods of methamphetamine use. Design: Longitudinal prospective cohort study. A fixedeffects analysis of longitudinal panel data, consisting of 4 noncontiguous 1-month observation periods, was used to examine the relationship between changes in methamphetamine use and the risk of experiencing psychotic symptoms within individuals over time. Setting: Sydney and Brisbane, Australia. Participants: A total of 278 participants 16 years of age or older who met DSM-IV criteria for methamphetamine dependence on entry to the study but who did not meet DSM-IV criteria for lifetime schizophrenia or mania. Main Outcome Measures: Clinically significant psychotic symptoms in the past month, defined as a score of 4 or more on any of the Brief ...
This ease in the manufacture of methamphetamine has led to the mushrooming of clandestine laboratories for the manufacture of methamphetamine. Estimates in 2006 put the number of such clandestine laboratories manufacturing illegal methamphetamine in the United States of America was more than 6,435, based on the number of laboratory incidents. Most of these laboratories are located in California or in Mexico (OVERVIEW OF METH).According to the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA), in the recent past, there has been an increase in methamphetamine abuse and the problems associated with it in the United States of America. This is reflected in the four-fold increase in the number of people seeking treatment for methamphetamine abuse over the last decade, and the fifty percent increase in emergency calls owing to methamphetamine abuse, over a seven-year period from 1995 to 2002 (Volkow, 2006).Addiction to drugs is a disease of the brain that involves genetic, psychological and social factors. Xu ...
Crystal Meth Treatment in Burnsville, MN. Find phone numbers, addresses and information about Crystal Meth Treatment in Burnsville.
Methamphetamine can increase the release and even block the reuptake of the brain chemical dopamine. This leads to higher levels of dopamine in the brain which is common for drug abusers. Dopamine is responsible for reward, experience of pleasure, motivation and motor function. Since methamphetamine has the ability to release dopamine quickly in the brain, the reward sections of the brain experience an intense euphoria or a rush once the drug has been smoked, snorted, or injected into the body.. Using methamphetamine for a long period of time can significantly change how the brain is able to function. These functions can include reduced motor skills and impaired verbal learning. In other studies conducted, it also shows that chronic methamphetamine abusers have severe structural and even functional changes in the brain; in the memory and emotion areas. This is why many of the abusers of the drug have problems with emotional and cognitive situations.. Using methamphetamine for an extended period ...
Purchase Cheap Methamphetamine (Crystal Meth) For Sale Without A Prescription. , Methamphetamine) you may experience long-term effects such as: dizziness or lightheadedness; headache; blurred vision; fatigue; low energy; heartburn; nausea; vomiting; muscle aches; dizziness and nausea; vomiting, diarrhea, muscle pain or muscle cramps; headache; sleepiness and difficulty concentrating; tingling in your left arm or legs; increased sensitivity to light and heat; trouble sleeping; dizziness and shortness of breath; muscle weakness. Some symptoms of abuse with Methamphetamine are not completely eliminated after the next dose takes effect. , Methamphetamine) and stop using Methamphetamine for a minimum of 6 months. It is illegal to sell or give Methamphetamine online without medical clearance. However, you can buy Methamphetamine online with legal credit cards online, so you dont need to worry about paying a fee.
During the 1950s, methamphetamine use became associated with the Beat Generation. People associated with the Beat Generation were said to use methamphetamine recreationally. Methamphetamine was readily, legally available during this time period. Luminaries of the Beat Generation like author Jack Kerouac and poet W.H. Auden were said to use methamphetamine and other stimulants. In addition to use recreationally among the Beat Generation community, methamphetamine was used to treat depression and as a diet aid. Methamphetamine became widely used among college students, athletes, and truck drivers as a perceived means of enhancing their stamina and alertness.. During this area, addiction to methamphetamine became more commonplace. By 1959, methamphetamine was on the radar of regulatory authorities and others. ...
If you take methamphetamine, you should understand its potential for dependence and addiction. Learn the signs and symptoms and how to treat it.
Study Purpose: The purpose of the study was to provide information about markets, distribution, and use of methamphetamine in New York City, both inside and outside of the MSM (men who have sex with men)/gay community. The study had four specific aims. (1) Pilot a research design using mixed qualitative/quantitative data collection methods in New York City methamphetamine markets with participants recruited using Respondent Driven Sampling. (2) Document, describe, and analyze the demographics and methamphetamine abuse behaviors of a sample of methamphetamine market participants. (3) Document, describe, and analyze the social networks of New York City methamphetamine market participants as users, buyers, and sellers of methamphetamine. (4) Document, describe, and analyze the market behaviors of New York City methamphetamine market participants as users, buyers, and sellers of methamphetamine. Study Design: Researchers piloted a version of Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) to recruit different ...
Methamphetamine use has increased substantially in the United States since the 1990s. Few studies have examined the healthcare service needs of women who use methamphetamine. This study describes unmet medical needs in a community-based sample of women who use methamphetamine in San Francisco, CA. Women who use methamphetamine were recruited in San Francisco and participated in a computer-assisted survey (N = 298 HIV-negative women).
Many people that struggle with Methamphetamine Abuse care for nothing but their high, so their unaware of the deadly Methamphetamine Abuse Symptoms.
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Methamphetamine exists as two enantiomers. The S(+) form, which is also called d methamphetamine, is an ingredient in a few legitimate pharmaceutical products available only by prescription, and can be illicitly synthesized from (-) ephedrine or (+) pseudoephedrine. The S(+) or d form of methamphetamine is generally considered a drug of abuse. On the other hand, the R(-) form, which is also called l-desoxyephedrine or l methamphetamine, is the active ingredient in Vicks inhalers, is a metabolite of the anti-Parkinson drug Selegiline, and is not a drug of abuse. When a specimen gives a confirmed positive result for methamphetamine, this test can be ordered. This test separates the enantiomers and will provide percentage-based information to help determine the source of methamphetamine in the specimen. Note that this test does not provide quantitations; it only provides the percentage(s) of each methamphetamine found in the urine. The urine should be previously tested for methamphetamine and ...
Importance Methamphetamine use is increasingly prevalent and associated with HIV transmission. A previous phase 2a study of mirtazapine demonstrated reductions in methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviors among men who have sex with men.. Objective To determine the efficacy of mirtazapine for treatment of methamphetamine use disorder and reduction in HIV risk behaviors.. Design, Setting, and Participants This double-blind randomized clinical trial of mirtazapine vs placebo took place from August 2013 to September 2017 in an outpatient research clinic in San Francisco, California. Participants were community-recruited adults who were sexually active; cisgender men, transgender men, and transgender women who (1) had sex with men, (2) had methamphetamine use disorder, and (3) were actively using methamphetamine were eligible. Participants were randomized to receive the study drug or placebo for 24 weeks, with 12 more weeks of follow-up. Data analysis took place from February to June ...
Recent studies and research shows that People who use methamphetamine are almost five times more likely to have a stroke caused by a bleed in the brain, many of which are fatal. We can add stroke to the list of terrible and devastating things that methamphetamine does, says Damian Zuloaga, of the University at Albany, New York.. Beyond the signature tooth decay known as meth mouth, methamphetamine also increases heart rate and blood pressure, and can trigger heart attacks. The drug can lead to psychosis, and has been linked to anxiety disorders, depression, and problems with movement similar to those seen in Parkinsons disease.. A handful of studies have also linked methamphetamine use to strokes. To explore further, Julia Lappin and her colleagues at the Australian National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre in Sydney sifted through published research on the topic.. The team specifically looked for research into people under the age of 45 - a group less likely to be affected by age-related ...
In June 1994, the law enforcement community was starkly reminded of the violence that surrounds methamphetamine trafficking and the changing nature of the methamphetamine trade that is spreading across the United States. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Special Agent Richard Fass, acting in an undercover capacity, was attempting to make a purchase of methamphetamine in a Glendale, Arizona, strip-mall when he was ambushed, shot, and killed by four methamphetamine traffickers whose sole intent was to rob him. This incident ended in violence and tragedy, as do so many of the cases involving methamphetamine. Law enforcement officers are not the only ones to suffer from the violence and danger associated with methamphetamine innocent victims all too often are brought into the fray. Over the past year, two separate methamphetamine-related tragedies have captured the publics attention. First, during the summer in New Mexico, a father, while high on methamphetamine, beheaded his 14-year-old son. ...
The Methamphetamine Treatment Project is collaborative effort between community and state to address the growing incidence of Methamphetamine use and abuse among youth in the state of South Dakota. The project is comprised of four phases, (1) stabilization, (2) intensive treatment, (3) structured living, and (4) community placement. Each phase will build on the proceeding phase. Most treatment programs do not adequately address the special needs of the Methamphetamine dependent adolescent client.
TY - BOOK. T1 - Methamphetamine addiction. T2 - Biological foundations, psychological factors, and social consequences. AU - Halkitis, Perry. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. M3 - Book. BT - Methamphetamine addiction. PB - APA Publications. CY - Washington, DC. ER - ...
The article describes a study done by eight professors from UCLA where they observed methamphetamine users dental health. The article provides statistics from the study about the prevalence of gum disease and cavities in methamphetamine users.
Objective: To investigate whether methamphetamine use is associated with sexual risk behavior among adolescents. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 1,561 male and female high school students in Cape Town (mean age 14.9 years) was conducted using items from the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) HIV Risk Scale. Results: Nine percent of the students had tried methamphetamine and 30% of male and 17% of female students reported sexual debut. Multinomial logistic regression analyses showed that methamphetamine use in the past year was significantly associated with being in a higher HIV/STI risk category (RRR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.10-4.03, p & 0.05). Conclusions: Methamphetamine use, coupled with a high HIV prevalence in South Africa, raises serious cause for concern about the potential for methamphetamine to further exacerbate the prevalence and spread of HIV in Cape Town. © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.. ...
Mexican criminal groups have replaced traditional Asian criminal groups as the primary transporters of methamphetamine. Mexican criminal groups are the primary transporters of Mexico-produced methamphetamine as well as methamphetamine produced in California. Law enforcement officials report that Mexican criminal groups transport methamphetamine into Hawaii from the West Coast, primarily California. Mexican criminal groups transport both powdered and crystal methamphetamine. Some powdered methamphetamine is converted to crystal methamphetamine in Mexico and on the West Coast for transportation to Hawaii.. Traditional Asian transporters of crystal methamphetamine--primarily Korean, Japanese, Filipino, and Vietnamese criminal groups--also transport the drug into Hawaii, but to a lesser extent than during the mid-1980s to early 1990s. In the early 1990s law enforcement authorities in Hawaii dismantled several large Asian, primarily Korean, criminal groups that dominated the transportation of crystal ...
There is clear medical evidence that methamphetamine, and particularly crystal methamphetamine (ice) is a very harmful drug at the individual, community and societal levels.Methamphetamine is not a recreational, soft or party drug and should never be referred to as such. Every effort must be made to avoid normalising methamphetamine use or minimising its harmful effects.Acute methamphetamine psychosis is one of the most damaging health consequences of methamphetamine use.
Within the past week, the Kern County Sheriffs Office Major Violators Unit concluded a Methamphetamine- to-Ice conversion narcotics lab investigation. The investigation led to a search warrant being served on Saturday, June 4th, at an auto-body repair business located near the intersection of Chamberlain and California Avenue, in Bakersfield. The search warrant resulted in the seizure of approximately four gallons of Methamphetamine solution and several pounds of Methamphetamine. The four gallons of Methamphetamine solution is estimated to contain/produce approximately 32 to 33 pounds of Methamphetamine. The estimated street value of the seized Methamphetamine is approximately 1.8 million dollars. Jose Cachu, age 44, of Lamont, and Jose Salinas, age 40, of Bakersfield, were both arrested at the business where the conversion lab was located. Both suspects were booked into the Kern County Jail for possession for sales, and manufacturing Methamphetamine. The investigation was a multi-agency ...
The prevalence of methamphetamine abuse during pregnancy in women seeking treatment tripled from 1994 to 2006, rising to 24% of all pregnant women admitted to federally funded treatment centers, according to the researchers. Eze and colleagues defined early adversity as the sum of multiple binary indicators, including self-reported maternal postnatal substance abuse, an annual household income less than $10,000, reported sexual or physical abuse by a caregiver, a maternal score on the Brief Symptom Inventory, maternal depression above average for the Beck Depression Inventory, quality of living environment below average on the HOME Inventory, community violence above average on the Lifestyle Interview, and social position below average for the Index of Social Position.. The researchers began recruiting for the Infant Development, Environment, and Lifestyle (IDEAL) longitudinal study in 2002. They enrolled 412 mother and infant pairs at four sites and identified participants as ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Amphetamine and Methamphetamine Increase NMDAR-GluN2B Synaptic Currents in Midbrain Dopamine Neurons. AU - Li, Ming Hua. AU - Underhill, Suzanne M.. AU - Reed, Cheryl. AU - Phillips, Tamara J.. AU - Amara, Susan G.. AU - Ingram, Susan L.. PY - 2017/6/1. Y1 - 2017/6/1. N2 - The psychostimulants amphetamine (AMPH) and methamphetamine (MA) are widely abused illicit drugs. Here we show that both psychostimulants acutely increase NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated synaptic currents and decrease AMPA receptor (AMPAR)/NMDAR ratios in midbrain dopamine neurons. The potentiation depends on the transport of AMPH into the cell by the dopamine transporter. NMDAR-GluN2B receptor inhibitors, ifenprodil, RO 25-6981, and RO 04-5595, inhibit the potentiation without affecting basal-evoked NMDA currents, indicating that NMDAR-GluN2B receptors are activated by AMPH. A selective peptide inhibitor of AMPH-dependent trafficking of the neuronal excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3) blocks ...
Methamphetamine meaning in Hindi : Get meaning and translation of Methamphetamine in Hindi language with grammar,antonyms,synonyms and sentence usages. Know answer of question : what is meaning of Methamphetamine in Hindi? Methamphetamine ka matalab hindi me kya hai (Methamphetamine का हिंदी में मतलब ). Methamphetamine meaning in Hindi (हिन्दी मे मीनिंग ) is मेथैंफ़ेटामीन.English definition of Methamphetamine : an amphetamine derivative (trade name Methedrine) used in the form of a crystalline hydrochloride; used as a stimulant to the nervous system and as an appetite suppressant
SACRAMENTO, Calif., Dec. 11 (News India USA) - A federal grand jury returned a three-count indictment today against Ausencio Alvarez Cortez, 41, of Stockton, and Angel Ismael Ramirez, 30, of Los Angeles, charging them jointly with conspiring to distribute methamphetamine and possession of methamphetamine with intent to distribute, and charging Cortez separately with distributing methamphetamine, U.S. Attorney McGregor W. Scott announced.. According to court documents, on Oct. 26, a confidential source bought 3 pounds of methamphetamine from Cortez. Following that purchase, on Nov. 12, the source met again with Cortez, who was accompanied by Ramirez, ostensibly to execute a transaction for 50 pounds of methamphetamine. When Cortez showed the source the requested methamphetamine, however, law enforcement officers converged on the scene, arresting Cortez and Ramirez, and seizing the 50 pounds of methamphetamine as well as a loaded semi-automatic handgun from the back seat of Cortezs pickup ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Body dissatisfaction and methamphetamine use among HIV-positive gay and bisexual men. T2 - A pilot study. AU - Theodore, Peter S.. AU - Achiro, Richard P.. AU - Duran, Ron E.F.. AU - Antoni, Michael H.. PY - 2011/10/24. Y1 - 2011/10/24. N2 - Methamphetamine use is strongly associated with risky sex and increased reports of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among gay and bisexual men (GBM) who attend dance/circuit parties. The psychological mechanisms underlying methamphetamine use in this subculture, however, remain unclear. These exploratory findings are from a 2004 dataset measuring body dissatisfaction and drug use among 42 HIV-positive GBM in South Florida who attended at least one bar/club/circuit party within 3 months of participating. A multivariate regression model revealed that body dissatisfaction accounted for a small but significant amount of variance in methamphetamine use. Treatment implications and recommendations for future research are ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of baclofen and gabapentin for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. AU - Heinzerling, Keith G.. AU - Shoptaw, Steven. AU - Peck, James A.. AU - Yang, Xiaowei. AU - Liu, Juanmei. AU - Roll, John. AU - Ling, Walter. PY - 2006/12/1. Y1 - 2006/12/1. N2 - Objective: To conduct a 16-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of two GABAergic medications, baclofen (20 mg tid) and gabapentin (800 mg tid), for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. Methods: Adults with methamphetamine dependence were randomized to one of three conditions for 16 weeks: baclofen (n = 25), gabapentin (n = 26) or placebo (n = 37). All participants attended clinic thrice weekly to receive study medication and psychosocial counseling, complete study assessments, and provide urine samples. Results: No statistically significant main effects for baclofen or gabapentin in reducing methamphetamine use were observed using a generalized estimating ...
Genetic factors play an important role in susceptibility to methamphetamine dependency. In this line, protein that interact with C-kinase-1 (PICK1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genes are linked to methamphetamine dependence (substance use disorder). Thus, in a case-control study, we investigated the association between polymorphisms of PICK1 and BDNF genes and methamphetamine dependence in an Iranian population. Total of 235 cases and 204 controls were recruited in a period between 2015 to 2018. The PICK1-rs713729, -rs2076369 and BDNF-rs6265 genotypes were determined via ARMS-PCR assay. Statistical analysis was performed, using SPSS 20.0, PHASE 2.1.1 program as well as SNP Analyzer 2.0. In the present study, two polymorphisms including PICK1-rs713729 (OR 1.38 (CI 1.08-1.52; P-value 0.004) in multiplicative and dominant models, and PICK1-rs2076369 (OR 1.31 (CI 1.10-1.56; P-value 0.002) in multiplicative, dominant and co-dominant models were associated with the risk of methamphetamine
Methamphetamine abuse in young adults has long-term deleterious effects on brain function that are associated with damage to monoaminergic neurons. Administration of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) protects dopamine neurons from the toxic effects of methamphetamine in animal models. Therefore, we hypothesized that a partial GDNF gene deletion would increase the susceptibility of mice to methamphetamine neurotoxicity during young adulthood and possibly increase age-related deterioration of behavior and dopamine function. Two weeks after a methamphetamine binge (4x10 mg/kg, i.p., at 2 h intervals), GDNF+/- mice had a significantly greater reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the medial striatum, a proportionally greater depletion of dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels in the striatum, and a greater increase in activated microglia in the substantia nigra than wild-type mice. At 12 months of age, methamphetamine-treated GDNF+/-mice exhibited ...
A new study funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) documents the high rates and unique patterns of dental decay and gum disease in people who use the illicit drug methamphetamine. The large study of 571 methamphetamine users found that 96 percent had experienced dental cavities and 58 percent had untreated tooth decay. Only 23 percent retained all of their natural teeth, compared to a tooth retention rate of 48 percent among the U.S. general population. The study was conducted by investigators at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).. The study found that adults reporting moderate or heavy methamphetamine use were twice as likely to have untreated dental cavities than were light users (less than 10 days of use over the past month). Older subjects (ages 30+), women, and current cigarette smokers were disproportionately affected by dental and periodontal disease. In addition, a significant percentage of participants (40 percent) indicated they were often self-conscious ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Linkage disequilibrium and association with methamphetamine dependence/psychosis of μ-opioid receptor gene polymorphisms. AU - Ide, S.. AU - Kobayashi, H.. AU - Ujike, H.. AU - Ozaki, N.. AU - Sekine, Y.. AU - Inada, T.. AU - Harano, M.. AU - Komiyama, T.. AU - Yamada, M.. AU - Iyo, M.. AU - Iwata, N.. AU - Tanaka, K.. AU - Shen, H.. AU - Iwahashi, K.. AU - Itokawa, M.. AU - Minami, M.. AU - Satoh, M.. AU - Ikeda, K.. AU - Sora, Ide. N1 - Funding Information: We are grateful to the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) as well as to the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) for support in part by Grants MHLW13-040, MHLW15-7, MHLW17-pharmaco-001, MEXT15025206 and MEXT15029204.. PY - 2006/5. Y1 - 2006/5. N2 - Several studies indicate that the μ-opioid receptor plays a role in addiction not only to opiate drugs but also to alcohol and non-opiate addictive drugs. Our studies aim to reveal the associations between gene ...
ALBUQUERQUE, N.M. - Gaspar Leal, 49, of Albuquerque, New Mexico was sentenced yesterday in federal court in Albuquerque to 30 years (360 months) in prison after juries found him guilty of conspiracy to distribute methamphetamine at two separate trials.. On July 12, 2016, a grand jury returned an indictment charging Leal and two others with conspiracy to distribute and distribution of 50 grams or more of methamphetamine on June 8, 2016. On Dec. 6, 2017, a jury returned a verdict finding Leal guilty of conspiracy and not guilty of distribution. Two co-defendants pleaded guilty in this case. Candace Tapia, 24, of Albuquerque received a sentence of 18 months in prison for distribution of methamphetamine and Bernadette Aurora Tapia, 51, of Albuquerque received a sentence of 21 months in prison for conspiracy to distribute methamphetamine.. On Dec. 20, 2017, a grand jury returned a separate indictment charging Leal with conspiracy to distribute 50 grams or more of methamphetamine between July 21, ...
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Four of the counties have been through the SPF and have selected evidence-based programs to implement in their county. The counties are implementing Too Good for Drugs, Project Alertand Creating Lasting Family Connections. For all of these programs, the NOMs survey will be used to evaluate overall effectiveness of the intervention. These counties have also chosen to implement a media campaign in order to create a comprehensive prevention approach using multiple strategies. Oklahoma Methamphetamine Prevention Initiative v Results The Oklahoma Prevention of Methamphetamine Abuse Initiative began in October of 2006 and is funded through a grant by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention. This initiative addresses the growing problem of methamphetamine abuse and addiction in Oklahoma. The goals of the project are to: 1. Reduce the incidence and prevalence of methamphetamine abuse and addiction through conducting community-based prevention ...
Title: Role of Sigma Receptors in Methamphetamine-Induced Neurotoxicity. VOLUME: 9 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Nidhi Kaushal and Rae R. Matsumoto. Affiliation:Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA.. Keywords:Methamphetamine, sigma receptors, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, neurotoxicity, dopamine, glutamate, opamine, Hperthermia, Psychosis, Depression, Protein Kinase, Apoptic Death Cell, ER Stress, Excitotoxicity. Abstract: Methamphetamine (METH) is a widely abused substance world over. Currently, there is no effective pharma- cotherapy to treat its effects. This necessitates identification of potential novel therapeutic targets. METH interacts with sigma (σ) receptors at physiologically relevant micromolar concentrations. In addition, σ receptors are present in organs like the brain, heart, and lungs at which METH acts. Additionally, σ receptors have been implicated in various acute and subchronic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Methamphetamine and amphetamine concentrations in postmortem rabbit tissues. AU - Nagata, T.. AU - Kimura, K.. AU - Hara, K.. AU - Kudo, K.. PY - 1990/11. Y1 - 1990/11. N2 - The feasibility of detecting methamphetamine and its major metabolite, amphetamine, in postmortem tissues over a 2-year period was examined. It is important to determine if the abuse and toxic effects of drugs can be proved from evidence found in decayed, submerged, or stained tissue materials. The blood, urine, liver, skeletal muscle, skin and extremity bones from rabbits given methamphetamine intravenously were kept at room temperature, under 4 different conditions: sealed in a test tube, dried in the open air, submerged in tap water and stained on gauze. Methamphetamine was present in all the samples, with slight change in concentration in case of sealed and air dried tissues. Changes varied in bones kept in water. There were considerable decreases in methamphetamine in blood and urine stains. Despite long ...
Meth Arrest Release:. On the evening of 03-13-12, authorities from the Camden County Sheriffs Office and LANEG, were called to the 1100 block of Ginger Road in Lake Ozark on a possible methamphetamine lab. Upon arrival, an adult female ran from officers who pursued her into the residence. Inside the residence, authorities were overwhelmed with a chemical odor commonly associated with the manufacture of methamphetamine and their eyes began to water and burn. Authorities discovered chemicals used for manufacturing methamphetamine, paraphernalia and a methamphetamine lab. The adult female and her husband were taken into custody and are currently being held in the Camden County Adult Detention Center awaiting charges. The couples eleven year old daughter, also present in the home, was transported to Lake Regional for exposure to the methamphetamine lab.. ...
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Brief Description Methamphetamine is a stimulant drug usually used as a white, bitter-tasting powder or a pill. Crystal methamphetamine is a form of the drug that looks like glass fragments or shiny, bluish-white rocks. It is chemically similar to amphetamine [a drug used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy, a sleep disorder]. Read the DrugFacts Learn more: Research Report on Methamphetamine Health Effects of Methamphetamine
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Title: Progress in Understanding Basal Ganglia Dysfunction as a Common Target for Methamphetamine Abuse and HIV-1 Neurodegeneration. VOLUME: 5 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Shaji Theodore, Wayne A. Cass, Avindra Nath and William F. Maragos. Affiliation:Department of Neurology, Center for Neurodegeneration and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Alabama, Birmingham 1719, 6th Avenue South, CIRC 516, Birmingham, AL-35294, USA.. Keywords:Drug abuse, AIDS, glia, cytokines, dopamine, striatum, neurodegeneration. Abstract: HIV-1 infection with concurrent methamphetamine (MA) abuse results in exacerbated neurodegenerative changes and rapid progression of a form of sub-cortical dementia termed HIV-1 associated dementia (HAD). A notable feature of HAD is the involvement of the dopaminergic system manifested as parkinsonian like movement abnormalities. The HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein is very often used in experimental studies trying to understand neurotoxic consequences of HIV-1 ...
Methamphetamine, frequently referred to as meth, is a highly-addictive neurotoxic stimulant that is commonly referred to as the most dangerous medicine in the world, due to the broad accessibility, simplicity of usage, and capability to make the drug from ordinary home items. Frequently, methamphetamine comes in two forms, Crystal Meth as well as powdered meth, both create similar impacts on the customer.. Meth generates an incorrect sense of well-being as well as joy. It provides the customer a rush, as well as a boost in sensations of power, confidence, and also wakefulness. These effects typically last 6 to 8 hours, however can be sustained for upwards of twelve hours.. Methamphetamine is merely as well as cheaply used different household products in regarding 2 days- start to end up. The vital active ingredient in methamphetamine is pseudoephedrine or ephedrine, both which are found in a wide variety of non-prescription chilly treatments.. ...
Allen and Kiser considered the stereochemistry, mechanism and by-products which result from the conversion of ephedrine to methamphetamine [2]. In that process, ephedrine is converted to its chloro analog followed by catalytic reduction to methamphetamine, Fig. 1 (route I). In the present article, we discuss the conversion of ephedrine to methamphetamine via hydriodic acid reduction (route II). The chemistry involved in route II was advanced by information gathered from Allen and Kisers article.. Illustration of the commonality of these syntheses is seen in the following facts. Stereochemistry implicit in the first route I also applies with hydriodic acid/red phosphorus reduction. That is, only (-)ephedrine and (+)pseudoephedrine yield (+)methamphetamine. Furthermore, the intermediate in route I (chloroephedrine from ephedrine with thionyl chloride) is a halo analog, and such is the case in route II. Ephedrine reacted with HI initially creates iodoephedrine in situ. Finally, the by-products of ...
City-Centers urges everyone to visit MontanaMeth.org and/or http://www.notevenonce.com/ and to tell everyone you know to visit! Missouri Web Portal To Methamphetamine - GET EDUCATED NOW - GET YOUR CHILDREN EDUCATED! Methamphetamine is not just the a meth addicts problem, it is a Missouri and all of our problem! Methamphetamine is not just a problem in your state, it is a problem in the city where you live and in every city across America. Education is the only solution to the growing Methamphetamine problem in this country. GET EDUCATED NOW - GET YOUR CHILDREN EDUCATED!
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According to Cherokee County Sheriff Jeff Shaver, three suspects were arrested on U.S. Highway 411 just north of Centre on Tuesday, October 24, 2017, afternoon for trafficking methamphetamine. Sgt. Gene Knowles, assisted by Investigator Jeremy Stepps, stopped a vehicle for a traffic violation. The deputies located a large amount of methamphetamine and a handgun inside the vehicle and took three suspects into custody. Jacob C. Hill, 28, of New Hope and Keondrick I. Patterson, 20, of Huntsville were both charged with trafficking methamphetamine, unlawful possession of a controlled substance, and certain persons prohibited to possess a pistol. Katherine Antenor, 20, of Huntsville was charged with trafficking methamphetamine, unlawful possession of a controlled substance, and carrying a pistol without a permit. Deputies later learned two of the suspects are currently on bond from Madison County, Patterson for attempted murder and Hill for drug trafficking. Sheriff Shaver said the arrests were made ...
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Repeated administration of high doses of methamphetamine induces dopaminergic degeneration and reduction in locomotor activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of endogenous peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARr) in protecting against methamphetamine toxicity. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) encoding the Cre recombinase gene was injected into the left substantia nigra of loxP-PPARr or wild type mice. Animals were treated with high doses of methamphetamine 1-month after viral injection. Administration of AAV-Cre selectively removed PPARr in left nigra in loxP-PPARr mice but not in the wild type mice. The loxP-PPARr/AAV-Cre mice that received methamphetamine showed a significant reduction in rotarod time. In vivo voltammetry was used to examine dopamine release/clearance and at 2 months after methamphetamine injection. The peak of dopamine release induced by local application of KCl and the rate of dopamine clearance were significantly attenuated in the left ...
You let it sit for forty-five days without touching it. New York: Cambridge University Press; Our investigation into cold cook methods of producing methamphetamine emerged from an ethnographic study on suburban methamphetamine use.. Official decisions on policy and public health are influenced when facts are labelled as myths, which could result in adverse health repercussions for those affected by such decisions. However, one respondent who was recently introduced to methamphetamine in the suburbs described a noteworthy variation: Looks like little ice crystals…on a mop head. The meth cook extracts ingredients from those pills and to increase its strength combines the substance with chemicals such as battery acid, drain cleaner.. Because lab operators almost always illegally dump this waste in ways that damage the environment, national parks and other nature preserves and parks have been adversely affected. Dismantling the La Familia cartel, once the top meth producer, methamphtamine ...
Swallowed or snorted (also called bumping) methamphetamines give the user an intense high. Injections create a quick but strong, intense high, called a rush or a flash. Methamphetamines, like regular amphetamines, also take away appetite. It is a dangerous strategy sometimes used by people trying to lose weight quickly.. Methamphetamines give someone the ability to stay awake and do continuous activity with less need for sleep. They pump up a persons heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure. They also cause irregular heartbeats, sweating, headaches, blurred vision, dry mouth, hot flashes, and dizziness.. People who abuse methamphetamines feel high and full of energy. They think the drug will allow their bodies to keep going and going. But methamphetamines are very damaging to the body and brain, especially with repeated use. Long-term use of methamphetamines can cause brain damage that causes problems with memory and body movement, mood swings, and violent behavior.. When used in larger doses, ...
The article below may contain offensive and/or incorrect content.. Disulfiram (Antabuse), an acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and dopamine-beta hydroxylase inhibitor, has shown promise in preclinical and clinical studies as a pharmacotherapy for cocaine addiction. However, the extent to which disulfiram may alter the abuse-related behavioral effects of related psychostimulants, such as methamphetamine, is unknown. Here, the therapeutic potential of disulfiram was evaluated by examining its impact on the reinforcing and discriminative stimulus effects of d-methamphetamine in adult rhesus monkeys (N = 4 per group). In subjects trained to respond for injections of methamphetamine or food delivery, i.v. methamphetamine (.001 .032 mg/kg) maintained dose-related and stable levels of self-administration in all subjects. Pretreatment with disulfiram (5.6 mg/kg) produced a significant downward shift in the d-methamphetamine dose-response function; surprisingly, lower and higher pretreatment doses (3.0 mg/kg; ...
Buy anti-AMPHETAMINE/METHAMPHETAMINE antibody, Sheep AMPHETAMINE/METHAMPHETAMINE Polyclonal Antibody (MBS222181) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Primary Antibodies. Application: ELISA (EIA)
Currently, most methamphetamine in the United States is produced by transactional criminal organizations (TCOs) in Mexico. This methamphetamine is highly pure, potent, and low in price. The drug can be easily made in small clandestine laboratories, with relatively inexpensive over-the-counter ingredients such as pseudoephedrine, a common ingredient in cold medications. To curb this kind of production, the law requires pharmacies and other retail stores to keep a purchase record of products containing pseudoephedrine, and take steps to limit sales.. Methamphetamine production also involves a number of other very dangerous chemicals. Toxic effects from these chemicals can remain in the environment long after the lab has been shut down, causing a wide range of health problems for people living in the area. These chemicals can also result in deadly lab explosions and house fires.. ...
Stimulants (Methamphetamine, Amphetamine, MDMA, Cocaine). 3. 4%. Dissociatives (DXM, Ketamine, PCP). 4 ...
Stimulants (Methamphetamine, Amphetamine, MDMA, Cocaine). 3. 4%. Dissociatives (DXM, Ketamine, PCP). 4 ...
Stimulants (Methamphetamine, Amphetamine, MDMA, Cocaine). 3. 4%. Dissociatives (DXM, Ketamine, PCP). 4 ...
Drug of choice: methamphetamine. I have been subjected to some kind of treatment in which my family and friends were all ...
4 Chinese drug traffickers killed in Philippines methamphetamine bust Perhaps a good textbook how to deal with the Chinese Drug ...
In the final operation, five kilograms of methamphetamine were found on two Iranians. Police noted that methamphetamine is ... The biggest methamphetamine haul was seized during the fourth operation, in which three Iranians were captured with 21 ... several Japanese and Iranian drug smugglers were caught with a total of 350,000 methamphetamine tablets. ... and Organized Crime Bureau officials got information that the Japanese gangs were trying to smuggle methamphetamine they had ...
Methamphetamine-involved overdose deaths spike in US, learn about presentations. article Marc Anthony and lady friend Madu ...
Discuţii despre diverse orase din Rom nia, cum sunt ele, ce e bun şi ce nu e acolo, cum sunt oamenii, cu ce-şi umplu timpul. Discuţii despre minoritaţi şi problemele create. Mesaje si pl ngeri adresate celor in măsură să facă ceva... c ndva. ...
Difference Between Methamphetamine And Amphetamine. 0. silviabonna. 6530. Fri Feb 23, 2018 7:58 am. silviabonna ...
They also found methamphetamine on him. He was arrested but only for a few hours. His bail was set at $25K and he bonded out.. ...
Methamphetamine Synthesis Via HI/Red Phosphorous Reduction of Ephedrine. Harry F. Skinner. Forensic Science International, 48 ... So now we have a method to either amphetamine or methamphetamine depending which route you take. However the essential catalyst ... from which psychokitty contributes to the amphetamine contest where she introduces her way to Methamphetamine starting with ... also she discusses the acylation of the amine prior to reduction to the alcohol in order to obtain at the end methamphetamine. ...
The impact of ICE/Methamphetamine use can be significant and problematic. Join this forum to find support and conversations on ...
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Methamphetamine Addiction Medications. *Brainwave Biofeedback. ACTIVE FORUM TOPICS. *Party Problem Spreading In Apartment ...
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Week 3 and I am down to 8 mlgs from 9mlg. I actually had 5 hours of sleep last night! What a treat. I think that I was so exhausted from my previous lack of sleep that my body went on auto pilot. Here I am 1 night later and sleep has eluded me once again. Still having tremors and now I can add nausea and cramps to my ever growing list of symptoms. I am trying to take it day by day and hour by hour some times and praying that it will be easier as the weeks pass. I have learned that the more I fight it the worse it gets! Going to try and go back to sleep again. Thanks for reading JP. ...
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  • Drug of choice: methamphetamine. (addictionrecoveryguide.org)
  • In the first three operations, several Japanese and Iranian drug smugglers were caught with a total of 350,000 methamphetamine tablets. (fuckedgaijin.com)
  • The biggest methamphetamine haul was seized during the fourth operation, in which three Iranians were captured with 21 kilograms, or more than 500,000 tablets of the drug. (fuckedgaijin.com)

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