Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.
Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.
The methyl ester of methacrylic acid. It polymerizes easily to form POLYMETHYL METHACRYLATE. It is used as a bone cement.
A biocompatible, hydrophilic, inert gel that is permeable to tissue fluids. It is used as an embedding medium for microscopy, as a coating for implants and prostheses, for contact lenses, as microspheres in adsorption research, etc.
The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.
Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.
The reaction product of bisphenol A and glycidyl methacrylate that undergoes polymerization when exposed to ultraviolet light or mixed with a catalyst. It is used as a bond implant material and as the resin component of dental sealants and composite restorative materials.
Acrylates are a group of synthetic compounds based on acrylic acid, commonly used in various industrial and medical applications such as adhesives, coatings, and dental materials, known to cause allergic reactions and contact dermatitis in sensitive individuals.
Acrylic resins, also known as polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), are a type of synthetic resin formed from polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers, used in various medical applications such as dental restorations, orthopedic implants, and ophthalmic lenses due to their biocompatibility, durability, and transparency.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.
Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).
The part of a denture that overlies the soft tissue and supports the supplied teeth and is supported in turn by abutment teeth or the residual alveolar ridge. It is usually made of resins or metal or their combination.
A peroxide derivative that has been used topically for BURNS and as a dermatologic agent in the treatment of ACNE and POISON IVY DERMATITIS. It is used also as a bleach in the food industry.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Polymers where the main polymer chain comprises recurring amide groups. These compounds are generally formed from combinations of diamines, diacids, and amino acids and yield fibers, sheeting, or extruded forms used in textiles, gels, filters, sutures, contact lenses, and other biomaterials.
Substances that cause the adherence of two surfaces. They include glues (properly collagen-derived adhesives), mucilages, sticky pastes, gums, resins, or latex.
Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.
Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
Silicon polymers that contain alternate silicon and oxygen atoms in linear or cyclic molecular structures.
Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.
Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.
The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The properties and processes of materials that affect their behavior under force.
A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.
The technique of placing cells or tissue in a supporting medium so that thin sections can be cut using a microtome. The medium can be paraffin wax (PARAFFIN EMBEDDING) or plastics (PLASTIC EMBEDDING) such as epoxy resins.
Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The infiltrating of histological specimens with plastics, including acrylic resins, epoxy resins and polyethylene glycol, for support of the tissues in preparation for sectioning with a microtome.
Cements that act through infiltration and polymerization within the dentinal matrix and are used for dental restoration. They can be adhesive resins themselves, adhesion-promoting monomers, or polymerization initiators that act in concert with other agents to form a dentin-bonding system.
The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.
Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.
An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.
The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.
Chemical compound used to initiate polymerization of dental resins by the use of DENTAL CURING LIGHTS. It absorbs UV light and undergoes decomposition into free radicals that initiate polymerization process of the resins in the mix. Each photoinitiator has optimum emission spectrum and intensity for proper curing of dental materials.
The preparation and analysis of samples on miniaturized devices.
The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)
An inner coating, as of varnish or other protective substance, to cover the dental cavity wall. It is usually a resinous film-forming agent dissolved in a volatile solvent, or a suspension of calcium hydroxide in a solution of a synthetic resin. The lining seals the dentinal tubules and protects the pulp before a restoration is inserted. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).
Alicyclic hydrocarbons in which three or more of the carbon atoms in each molecule are united in a ring structure and each of the ring carbon atoms is joined to two hydrogen atoms or alkyl groups. The simplest members are cyclopropane (C3H6), cyclobutane (C4H8), cyclohexane (C6H12), and derivatives of these such as methylcyclohexane (C6H11CH3). (From Sax, et al., Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)
Material applied to the tissue side of a denture to provide a soft lining to the parts of a denture coming in contact with soft tissue. It cushions contact of the denture with the tissues.
The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.
Occlusal wear of the surfaces of restorations and surface wear of dentures.
'Polyvinyls' is a term that refers to a group of polymers synthesized from vinyl chloride, including polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC), which are widely used in various medical applications such as manufacturing of medical devices, tubing, packaging materials, and pharmaceutical containers due to their chemical resistance, durability, and versatility.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.
A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.
Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via exposure to light.
Inorganic compounds that contain fluorine as an integral part of the molecule.
Fluorocarbon polymers are synthetic, high-molecular-weight compounds consisting of carbon chains with fluorine atoms replacing hydrogen atoms, known for their chemical and thermal stability, as well as their resistance to water, oil, and heat, which make them useful in various medical applications such as biocompatible coatings, drug delivery systems, and implant materials.
Toluidines are a group of organic compounds consisting of various derivatives of toluene with an amine group (-NH2) attached to the benzene ring, which have been used in chemical synthesis and historical medical research but are not currently utilized as therapeutic agents due to their carcinogenic properties.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
The susceptibility of the DENTIN to dissolution.
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
Technique by which phase transitions of chemical reactions can be followed by observation of the heat absorbed or liberated.
Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)
The use of a treatment material (tissue conditioner) to re-establish tone and health to irritated oral soft tissue, usually applied to the edentulous alveolar ridge.
The degree of approximation or fit of filling material or dental prosthetic to the tooth surface. A close marginal adaptation and seal at the interface is important for successful dental restorations.
The absence of both hearing and vision.
Methods of preparing tissue for examination and study of the origin, structure, function, or pathology.
Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
Process by which unwanted microbial, plant or animal materials or organisms accumulate on man-made surfaces.
QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS containing three methyl groups, having the general formula of (CH3)3N+R.
Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.
Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commensal in the respiratory tract.
The temperature at which a substance changes from one state or conformation of matter to another.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Methods of preparing cells or tissues for examination and study of their origin, structure, function, or pathology. The methods include preservation, fixation, sectioning, staining, replica, or other technique to allow for viewing using a microscope.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.
Artificial implanted lenses.
Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.
Devices used to generate extra soft tissue in vivo to be used in surgical reconstructions. They exert stretching forces on the tissue and thus stimulate new growth and result in TISSUE EXPANSION. They are commonly inflatable reservoirs, usually made of silicone, which are implanted under the tissue and gradually inflated. Other tissue expanders exert stretching forces by attaching to outside of the body, for example, vacuum tissue expanders. Once the tissue has grown, the expander is removed and the expanded tissue is used to cover the area being reconstructed.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
Procedures carried out with regard to the teeth or tooth structures preparatory to specified dental therapeutic and surgical measures.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.
A solution used for irrigating the mouth in xerostomia and as a substitute for saliva.
Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
A fabricated tooth substituting for a natural tooth in a prosthesis. It is usually made of porcelain or plastic.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
Silicone polymers which consist of silicon atoms substituted with methyl groups and linked by oxygen atoms. They comprise a series of biocompatible materials used as liquids, gels or solids; as film for artificial membranes, gels for implants, and liquids for drug vehicles; and as antifoaming agents.
The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced mutations independently of the mechanism involved.
A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Preparation of TOOTH surfaces and DENTAL MATERIALS with etching agents, usually phosphoric acid, to roughen the surface to increase adhesion or osteointegration.
Manufacturing technology for making microscopic devices in the micrometer range (typically 1-100 micrometers), such as integrated circuits or MEMS. The process usually involves replication and parallel fabrication of hundreds or millions of identical structures using various thin film deposition techniques and carried out in environmentally-controlled clean rooms.
A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.
Substances used to clean dentures; they are usually alkaline peroxides or hypochlorites, may contain enzymes and release oxygen. Use also for sonic action cleaners.
Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 4 of the benzene ring structure.
Relating to the size of solids.
Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.
Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.
The thin noncellular outer covering of the CRYSTALLINE LENS composed mainly of COLLAGEN TYPE IV and GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS. It is secreted by the embryonic anterior and posterior epithelium. The embryonic posterior epithelium later disappears.
One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
Submicron-sized fibers with diameters typically between 50 and 500 nanometers. The very small dimension of these fibers can generate a high surface area to volume ratio, which makes them potential candidates for various biomedical and other applications.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A change of a substance from one form or state to another.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.

Combination therapy of fasudil hydrochloride and ozagrel sodium for cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. (1/1129)

Fasudil hydrochloride is a new type of intracellular calcium antagonist, different from the calcium entry blockers that are commonly employed for clinical use. Since September 1995, the combination of fasudil hydrochloride and ozagrel sodium, an inhibitor of thromboxane A2 synthesis, has been used to treat 60 patients at risk of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. The effectiveness of this combination therapy was investigated by comparison with the outcome of 57 patients previously treated with only ozagrel sodium. The combination therapy was significantly more effective (p < 0.01) in reducing the incidence of low density areas on computed tomography scans, and reduced, but not significantly, the occurrence of symptomatic vasospasm. The combination therapy of fasudil hydrochloride and ozagrel sodium has superior effectiveness over only ozagrel sodium in treating patients at risk of vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.  (+info)

Role of thromboxane A2 in healing of gastric ulcers in rats. (2/1129)

We investigated the role of thromboxane (TX) A2 in gastric ulcer healing in rats. Acetic acid ulcers were produced in male Donryu rats. TXA2 synthesis in the stomachs with ulcers was significantly elevated in ulcerated tissue, but not in intact tissue, compared with that in the gastric mucosa of normal rats. Indomethacin inhibited both TXA2 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis in ulcerated tissue, while NS-398 (selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor) reduced only PGE2 synthesis. OKY-046 (TXA2 synthase inhibitor) dose-relatedly inhibited only TXA2 synthesis. The maximal effect of OKY-046 (80% inhibition) was found at more than 30 mg/kg. When OKY-046 was administered for 14 days, the drug at more than 30 mg/kg significantly accelerated ulcer healing without affecting acid secretion. The maximal reduction of ulcerated area by OKY-046 was about 30%, compared with the area in the control. Histological studies revealed that regeneration of the mucosa was significantly promoted by OKY-046, but neither maturation of the ulcer base nor angiogenesis in the base were affected. OKY-046 and TXB2 had no effect on proliferation of cultured rat gastric epithelial cells, but U-46619 (TXA2 mimetic) dose-relatedly prevented the proliferation without reducing cell viability. These results indicate that the increased TXA2, probably derived from cyclooxygenase-1 in ulcerated tissue, exerts a weak inhibitory effect on ulcer healing in rats. The effect of TXA2 might be due partly to prevention of gastric epithelial cell proliferation at the ulcer margin.  (+info)

Role of cytochrome P-450 2E1 in methacrylonitrile metabolism and disposition. (3/1129)

Methacrylonitrile (MAN) is a widely used aliphatic nitrile and is structurally similar to the known rat carcinogen and suspected human carcinogen acrylonitrile (AN). There is evidence that AN is metabolized via the cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 2E1. Recently, we identified two biliary conjugates originating from the interaction of MAN and its epoxide with glutathione. Mercapturic acids formed via the degradation of the two conjugates were also identified in rat and mouse urine. Additionally, a significant portion of MAN was eliminated in the expired air as CO2 (formed via the epoxide pathway) and unchanged MAN. The objective of the present work was to determine whether CYP2E1 is involved in the oxidative metabolism of MAN as was suggested for AN. 2-14C-MAN was administered to CYP2E1-null or wild-type mice by gavage at 12 mg/kg. Although total urinary and fecal excretion of MAN-derived radioactivity was slightly different in CYP2E1-null versus wild-type mice, the ratio of mercapturic acids originating from the epoxide-glutathione versus MAN-glutathione conjugates were lower in urine of CYP2E1-null mice than in that of wild-type animals. Exhalation of MAN-derived organic volatiles (primarily parent MAN) was 12- and 42-fold greater in female and male CYP2E1-null mice than in wild-type mice, respectively. Additionally, exhalation of CO2 derived from metabolism of MAN via the CYP2E1 pathway was 3- to 5-fold greater in wild-type than in CYP2E1-null animals. Although these data indicate that CYP2E1 is the principal enzyme responsible for the oxidative metabolism of MAN, other cytochrome P-450 enzymes may be involved. Assessment of MAN metabolism in CYP2E1-null mice pretreated with 1-aminobenzotriazole (CYP inhibitor) resulted in a further decrease in oxidative metabolites of MAN. Comparison of the tissue concentrations of MAN-derived radioactivity in mouse tissues revealed that MAN-derived radioactivity is generally higher in wild-type > CYP2E1-null mice > CYP2E1-null mice pretreated with 1-aminobenzotriazole, suggesting a direct relationship between MAN oxidative metabolism and the half-life of MAN and/or its metabolites in various tissues. It is therefore concluded that MAN oxidative metabolites such as the epoxide intermediate have greater reactivity than parent MAN.  (+info)

Steric effects of N-acyl group in O-methacryloyl-N-acyl tyrosines on the adhesiveness of unetched human dentin. (4/1129)

We have prepared various O-methacryloyl-N-acyl tyrosines (MAATY) to reveal the relationship between molecular structure near carboxylic acid and adhesive strength of MAATY-HEMA type adhesive resin to unetched dentin. In this study, we attempted to change the steric hindrance effect without changing the HLB value, i.e., introducing an iso-acyl group instead of n-acyl group into MAATY. O-methacryloyl-N-ethylbutyryl tyrosine (MIHTY) showed significantly lower adhesive strength when compared with O-methacryloyl-N-hexanoyl tyrosine even though both MAATY have the same HLB value. The possible explanation of the significantly different adhesive strength was that the 2-ethylbutyryl group in MIHTY was bulky, resulting in inhibition of the hydrogen bonding of the carboxylic group. The HLB value is independent of the steric effect of molecular structure, and thus the steric factor should be taken into consideration for the explanation of different adhesive strengths within the adhesive monomers having the same HLB value but different molecular structures.  (+info)

Redox components of cytochrome bc-type enzymes in acidophilic prokaryotes. I. Characterization of the cytochrome bc1-type complex of the acidophilic ferrous ion-oxidizing bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. (5/1129)

The redox components of the cytochrome bc1 complex from the acidophilic chemolithotrophic organism Thiobacillus ferrooxidans were investigated by potentiometric and spectroscopic techniques. Optical redox titrations demonstrated the presence of two b-type hemes with differing redox midpoint potentials at pH 7.4 (-169 and + 20 mV for bL and bH, respectively). At pH 3.5, by contrast, both hemes appeared to titrate at about +20 mV. Antimycin A, 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide, and stigmatellin induced distinguishable shifts of the b hemes' alpha-bands, providing evidence for the binding of antimycin A and 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide near heme bH (located on the cytosolic side of the membrane) and of stigmatellin near heme bL (located on the periplasmic side of the membrane). The inhibitors stigmatellin, 5-(n-undecyl)-6-hydroxy-4,7-dioxobenzothiazole, and 2, 5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone affected the EPR spectrum of the Rieske iron-sulfur center in a way that differs from what has been observed for cytochrome bc1 or b6f complexes. The results obtained demonstrate that the T. ferrooxidans complex, although showing most of the features characteristic for bc1 complexes, contains unique properties that are most probably related to the chemolithotrophicity and/or acidophilicity of its parent organism. A speculative model for reverse electron transfer through the T. ferrooxidans complex is proposed.  (+info)

New biodegradable hydrogels based on a photocrosslinkable modified polyaspartamide: synthesis and characterization. (6/1129)

alpha,beta-Poly(N-2-hydroxyethyl)-DL-aspartamide (PHEA), a synthetic water-soluble biocompatible polymer, was derivatized with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), in order to introduce in its structure chemical residues having double bonds and ester groups. The obtained copolymer (PHG) contained 29 mol% of GMA residues. PHG aqueous solutions at various concentrations ranging from 30 to 70 mg/ml were exposed to a source of UV rays at lambda 254 nm in the presence or in the absence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS); the formation of compact gel phases was observed beginning from 50 mg/ml. The obtained networks were characterized by FT-IR spectrophotometry and swelling measurements which evidenced the high affinity of PHG hydrogels towards aqueous media at different pH values. In vitro chemical or enzymatic hydrolysis studies suggested that the prepared samples undergo a partial degradation both at pH 1 and pH 10 and after incubation with enzymes such as esterase, pepsin and alpha-chymotrypsin. Finally, the effect of irradiation time on the yield and the properties of these hydrogels was investigated and the sol fractions coming from irradiated samples, properly purified, were characterized by FT-IR and 1H-NMR analyses.  (+info)

Cytochrome c-dependent methacrylate reductase from Geobacter sulfurreducens AM-1. (7/1129)

Geobacter sulfurreducens AM-1 can use methacrylate as a terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration. In this paper, we report on the purification and properties of the periplasmic methacrylate reductase, and show that the enzyme is dependent on the presence of a periplasmic cytochrome c (apparent K(m) = 0.12 microM). The methacrylate reductase was found to be composed of only one polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 50 kDa and to contain, bound tightly but not covalently, 1 mol of FAD per mol. The N-terminal amino acid sequence showed sequence similarity to a periplasmic fumarate reductase from Shewanella putrefaciens. However, methacrylate reductase did not catalyze the reduction of fumarate. The periplasmic cytochrome c, which was also purified, had an apparent molecular mass of 30 kDa and contained approximately 4 mol of heme.mol(-1). Cells of G. sulfurreducens AM-1 grown on acetate and methacrylate as an energy source were found to contain all the enzymes required for the oxidation of acetate to CO(2) via the citric acid cycle.  (+info)

Human T lymphocyte priming in vitro by haptenated autologous dendritic cells. (8/1129)

Dendritic cells (DC), generated from adherent peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by culturing with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and IL-4, were used to study in vitro sensitization of naive, hapten-specific T cells and to analyse cross-reactivities to related compounds. DC were hapten-derivatized with nickel sulphate (Ni) or 2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate (HEMA), followed by tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced maturation, before autologous T cells and a cytokine cocktail of IL-1beta, IL-2 and IL-7 were added. After T cell priming for 7 days, wells were split and challenged for another 7 days with Ni or HEMA, and potentially cross-reactive haptens. Hapten-specificity of in vitro priming was demonstrated by proliferative responses to the haptens used for priming but not to the unrelated haptens. Highest priming efficiencies were obtained when both IL-4 and IL-12 were added to the cytokine supplement. Marked interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) release (up to 4 ng/ml) was found when IL-12 was included in the cultures, whereas IL-5 release (up to 500 pg/ml) was observed after addition of IL-4 alone, or in combination with IL-12. Nickel-primed T cells showed frequent cross-reactivities with other metals closely positioned in the periodic table, i.e. palladium and copper, whereas HEMA-primed T cells showed distinct cross-reactivities with selected methacrylate congeners. Similar cross-reactivities are known to occur in allergic patients. Thus, in vitro T cell priming provides a promising tool for studying factors regulating cytokine synthesis, and cross-reactivity patterns of hapten-specific T cells.  (+info)

Methacrylates are a group of chemical compounds that contain the methacrylate functional group, which is a vinyl group (CH2=CH-) with a carbonyl group (C=O) at the β-position. This structure gives them unique chemical and physical properties, such as low viscosity, high reactivity, and resistance to heat and chemicals.

In medical terms, methacrylates are used in various biomedical applications, such as dental restorative materials, bone cements, and drug delivery systems. For example, methacrylate-based resins are commonly used in dentistry for fillings, crowns, and bridges due to their excellent mechanical properties and adhesion to tooth structures.

However, there have been concerns about the potential toxicity of methacrylates, particularly their ability to release monomers that can cause allergic reactions, irritation, or even mutagenic effects in some individuals. Therefore, it is essential to use these materials with caution and follow proper handling and safety protocols.

Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is a type of synthetic resin that is widely used in the medical field due to its biocompatibility and versatility. It is a transparent, rigid, and lightweight material that can be easily molded into different shapes and forms. Here are some of the medical definitions of PMMA:

1. A biocompatible acrylic resin used in various medical applications such as bone cement, intraocular lenses, dental restorations, and drug delivery systems.
2. A type of synthetic material that is used as a bone cement to fix prosthetic joint replacements and vertebroplasty for the treatment of spinal fractures.
3. A transparent and shatter-resistant material used in the manufacture of medical devices such as intravenous (IV) fluid bags, dialyzer housings, and oxygenators.
4. A drug delivery system that can be used to administer drugs locally or systemically, such as intraocular sustained-release drug implants for the treatment of chronic eye diseases.
5. A component of dental restorations such as fillings, crowns, and bridges due to its excellent mechanical properties and esthetic qualities.

Overall, PMMA is a versatile and valuable material in the medical field, with numerous applications that take advantage of its unique properties.

Methyl Methacrylate (MMA) is not a medical term itself, but it is a chemical compound that is used in various medical applications. Therefore, I will provide you with a general definition and some of its medical uses.

Methyl methacrylate (C5H8O2) is an organic compound, specifically an ester of methacrylic acid and methanol. It is a colorless liquid at room temperature, with a characteristic sweet odor. MMA is primarily used in the production of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), a transparent thermoplastic often referred to as acrylic glass or plexiglass.

In the medical field, PMMA has several applications:

1. Intraocular lenses: PMMA is used to create artificial intraocular lenses (IOLs) that replace natural lenses during cataract surgery. These IOLs are biocompatible and provide excellent optical clarity.
2. Bone cement: MMA is mixed with a powdered polymer to form polymethyl methacrylate bone cement, which is used in orthopedic and trauma surgeries for fixation of prosthetic joint replacements, vertebroplasty, and kyphoplasty.
3. Dental applications: PMMA is used in the fabrication of dental crowns, bridges, and dentures due to its excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility.
4. Surgical implants: PMMA is also used in various surgical implants, such as cranial plates and reconstructive surgery, because of its transparency and ability to be molded into specific shapes.

Polyhydroxyethyl Methacrylate (PHEMA) is not a medical term itself, but a chemical compound that is used in various medical and biomedical applications. Therefore, I will provide you with a chemical definition of PHEMA:

Polyhydroxyethyl Methacrylate (PHEMA) is a type of synthetic hydrogel, which is a cross-linked polymer network with the ability to absorb and retain significant amounts of water or biological fluids. It is made by polymerizing the methacrylate monomer, hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), in the presence of a crosslinking agent. The resulting PHEMA material has excellent biocompatibility, making it suitable for various medical applications such as contact lenses, drug delivery systems, artificial cartilage, and wound dressings.

Methyl Methacrylates (MMA) are a family of synthetic materials that are commonly used in the medical field, particularly in orthopedic and dental applications. Medically, MMA is often used as a bone cement to fix prosthetic implants, such as artificial hips or knees, into place during surgeries.

Methyl methacrylates consist of a type of acrylic resin that hardens when mixed with a liquid catalyst. This property allows it to be easily molded and shaped before it sets, making it ideal for use in surgical procedures where precise positioning is required. Once hardened, MMA forms a strong, stable bond with the bone, helping to secure the implant in place.

It's important to note that while MMA is widely used in medical applications, there have been concerns about its safety in certain situations. For example, some studies have suggested that high levels of methyl methacrylate fumes released during the setting process may be harmful to both patients and surgical staff. Therefore, appropriate precautions should be taken when using MMA-based products in medical settings.

Polymethacrylic acids are not typically referred to as a medical term, but rather as a chemical one. They are a type of synthetic polymer made up of repeating units of methacrylic acid (MAA). These polymers have various applications in different industries, including the medical field.

In medicine, polymethacrylates are often used in the formulation of controlled-release drug delivery systems, such as beads or microspheres, due to their ability to swell and shrink in response to changes in pH or temperature. This property allows for the gradual release of drugs encapsulated within these polymers over an extended period.

Polymethacrylates are also used in dental applications, such as in the production of artificial teeth and dentures, due to their durability and resistance to wear. Additionally, they can be found in some surgical sealants and adhesives.

While polymethacrylic acids themselves may not have a specific medical definition, their various forms and applications in medical devices and drug delivery systems contribute significantly to the field of medicine.

Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate (BPAGM) is a type of chemical compound that belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glycidyl methacrylates. It is created by the reaction between bisphenol A and glycidyl methacrylate.

BPAGM is used in various industrial applications, including the production of coatings, adhesives, and resins. In the medical field, it has been used as a component in some dental materials, such as bonding agents and composite resins. However, due to concerns about its potential health effects, including its possible estrogenic activity and potential to cause reproductive toxicity, its use in dental materials has become more restricted in recent years.

It is important to note that exposure to BPAGM should be limited as much as possible, and appropriate safety measures should be taken when handling this chemical compound.

Acrylates are a group of chemical compounds that are derived from acrylic acid. They are commonly used in various industrial and commercial applications, including the production of plastics, resins, paints, and adhesives. In the medical field, acrylates are sometimes used in the formation of dental restorations, such as fillings and dentures, due to their strong bonding properties and durability.

However, it is important to note that some people may have allergic reactions or sensitivities to acrylates, which can cause skin irritation, allergic contact dermatitis, or other adverse effects. Therefore, medical professionals must use caution when working with these materials and ensure that patients are informed of any potential risks associated with their use.

Acrylic resins are a type of synthetic polymer made from methacrylate monomers. They are widely used in various industrial, commercial, and medical applications due to their unique properties such as transparency, durability, resistance to breakage, and ease of coloring or molding. In the medical field, acrylic resins are often used to make dental restorations like false teeth and fillings, medical devices like intraocular lenses, and surgical instruments. They can also be found in orthopedic implants, bone cement, and other medical-grade plastics. Acrylic resins are biocompatible, meaning they do not typically cause adverse reactions when in contact with living tissue. However, they may release small amounts of potentially toxic chemicals over time, so their long-term safety in certain applications is still a subject of ongoing research.

I'm happy to help! However, I must clarify that "materials testing" is not a medical term per se. It is a term used in various fields, including engineering and materials science, to describe the process of subjecting materials to different tests to evaluate their properties and performance under various conditions.

In the context of medical devices or implants, materials testing may refer to the evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of materials used in their construction. These tests can include assessments of strength, durability, biocompatibility, and other factors that are critical to ensuring the safety and efficacy of medical devices.

Medical device manufacturers must comply with regulatory standards for materials testing to ensure that their products meet specific requirements for performance, safety, and quality. These standards may vary depending on the type of device, its intended use, and the country or region in which it will be marketed and sold.

Dental materials are substances that are used in restorative dentistry, prosthodontics, endodontics, orthodontics, and preventive dentistry to restore or replace missing tooth structure, improve the function and esthetics of teeth, and protect the oral tissues from decay and disease. These materials can be classified into various categories based on their physical and chemical properties, including metals, ceramics, polymers, composites, cements, and alloys.

Some examples of dental materials include:

1. Amalgam: a metal alloy used for dental fillings that contains silver, tin, copper, and mercury. It is strong, durable, and resistant to wear but has been controversial due to concerns about the toxicity of mercury.
2. Composite: a tooth-colored restorative material made of a mixture of glass or ceramic particles and a bonding agent. It is used for fillings, veneers, and other esthetic dental treatments.
3. Glass ionomer cement: a type of cement used for dental restorations that releases fluoride ions and helps prevent tooth decay. It is often used for fillings in children's teeth or as a base under crowns and bridges.
4. Porcelain: a ceramic material used for dental crowns, veneers, and other esthetic restorations. It is strong, durable, and resistant to staining but can be brittle and prone to fracture.
5. Gold alloy: a metal alloy used for dental restorations that contains gold, copper, and other metals. It is highly biocompatible, corrosion-resistant, and malleable but can be expensive and less esthetic than other materials.
6. Acrylic resin: a type of polymer used for dental appliances such as dentures, night guards, and orthodontic retainers. It is lightweight, flexible, and easy to modify but can be less durable than other materials.

The choice of dental material depends on various factors, including the location and extent of the restoration, the patient's oral health status, their esthetic preferences, and their budget. Dental professionals must consider these factors carefully when selecting the appropriate dental material for each individual case.

Polymerization is not exclusively a medical term, but it is widely used in the field of medical sciences, particularly in areas such as biochemistry and materials science. In a broad sense, polymerization refers to the process by which small molecules, known as monomers, chemically react and join together to form larger, more complex structures called polymers.

In the context of medical definitions:

Polymerization is the chemical reaction where multiple repeating monomer units bind together covalently (through strong chemical bonds) to create a long, chain-like molecule known as a polymer. This process can occur naturally or be induced artificially through various methods, depending on the type of monomers and desired polymer properties.

In biochemistry, polymerization plays an essential role in forming important biological macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, proteins, and polysaccharides. These natural polymers are built from specific monomer units—nucleotides for nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), amino acids for proteins, and sugars for polysaccharides—that polymerize in a highly regulated manner to create the final functional structures.

In materials science, synthetic polymers are often created through polymerization for various medical applications, such as biocompatible materials, drug delivery systems, and medical devices. These synthetic polymers can be tailored to have specific properties, such as degradation rates, mechanical strength, or hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity, depending on the desired application.

Denture bases are the part of a dental prosthesis that rests on the oral tissues and supports the artificial teeth. They are typically made from polymers such as acrylic resin or polymer-ceramic composites, and are custom-fabricated to fit precisely onto the gums and underlying bone structure in the mouth. The denture base provides stability and retention for the prosthesis, allowing it to remain securely in place during eating, speaking, and other activities. It is important that denture bases fit well and are comfortable, as ill-fitting bases can cause irritation, sores, and difficulty with oral function.

Benzoyl peroxide is a medication used in the treatment of acne. It is available in various forms, including creams, gels, and washes. Benzoyl peroxide works by reducing the amount of bacteria on the skin and helping to unclog pores. It is typically applied to the affected area once or twice a day.

Benzoyl peroxide can cause side effects such as dryness, redness, and irritation of the skin. It is important to follow the directions for use carefully and start with a lower concentration if you are new to using this medication. If you experience severe or persistent side effects, it is recommended that you speak with a healthcare provider.

It is also important to note that benzoyl peroxide can bleach clothing and hair, so it is best to apply it carefully and allow it to fully absorb into the skin before dressing or coming into contact with fabrics.

In the context of medical definitions, polymers are large molecules composed of repeating subunits called monomers. These long chains of monomers can have various structures and properties, depending on the type of monomer units and how they are linked together. In medicine, polymers are used in a wide range of applications, including drug delivery systems, medical devices, and tissue engineering scaffolds. Some examples of polymers used in medicine include polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and biodegradable polymers such as polylactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL).

"Wettability" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a term that is more commonly used in the fields of chemistry, physics, and materials science to describe how well a liquid spreads on a solid surface. In other words, it refers to the ability of a liquid to maintain contact with a solid surface, which can have implications for various medical applications such as the design of medical devices or the study of biological surfaces. However, it is not a term that would typically be used in a clinical medical context.

Surface properties in the context of medical science refer to the characteristics and features of the outermost layer or surface of a biological material or structure, such as cells, tissues, organs, or medical devices. These properties can include physical attributes like roughness, smoothness, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, and electrical conductivity, as well as chemical properties like charge, reactivity, and composition.

In the field of biomaterials science, understanding surface properties is crucial for designing medical implants, devices, and drug delivery systems that can interact safely and effectively with biological tissues and fluids. Surface modifications, such as coatings or chemical treatments, can be used to alter surface properties and enhance biocompatibility, improve lubricity, reduce fouling, or promote specific cellular responses like adhesion, proliferation, or differentiation.

Similarly, in the field of cell biology, understanding surface properties is essential for studying cell-cell interactions, cell signaling, and cell behavior. Cells can sense and respond to changes in their environment, including variations in surface properties, which can influence cell shape, motility, and function. Therefore, characterizing and manipulating surface properties can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of cellular processes and offer new strategies for developing therapies and treatments for various diseases.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Nylons" is a common term for a type of synthetic fiber often used in clothing, hosiery, and other textile applications. It is not a medical term or concept. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to try and help clarify!

Adhesives are substances that are used to bind two surfaces together. They can be composed of a variety of materials, including natural substances like tree sap or animal glue, or synthetic substances like cyanoacrylates (super glues) or epoxies. Adhesives can be classified based on their chemical composition, how they cure (set), and their properties such as strength, flexibility, and resistance to environmental factors. In a medical context, adhesives may be used in a variety of applications, such as wound closure, securing medical devices, or attaching bandages or dressings. It's important to choose the right type of adhesive for each application to ensure proper adhesion, safety, and effectiveness.

Composite resins, also known as dental composites or filling materials, are a type of restorative material used in dentistry to restore the function, integrity, and morphology of missing tooth structure. They are called composite resins because they are composed of a combination of materials, including a resin matrix (usually made of bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate or urethane dimethacrylate) and filler particles (commonly made of silica, quartz, or glass).

The composite resins are widely used in modern dentistry due to their excellent esthetic properties, ease of handling, and ability to bond directly to tooth structure. They can be used for a variety of restorative procedures, including direct and indirect fillings, veneers, inlays, onlays, and crowns.

Composite resins are available in various shades and opacities, allowing dentists to match the color and translucency of natural teeth closely. They also have good wear resistance, strength, and durability, making them a popular choice for both anterior and posterior restorations. However, composite resins may be prone to staining over time and may require more frequent replacement compared to other types of restorative materials.

Synthetic resins are artificially produced substances that have properties similar to natural resins. They are typically created through polymerization, a process in which small molecules called monomers chemically bind together to form larger, more complex structures known as polymers.

Synthetic resins can be classified into several categories based on their chemical composition and properties, including:

1. Thermosetting resins: These resins undergo a chemical reaction when heated, resulting in a rigid and infusible material that cannot be melted or reformed once it has cured. Examples include epoxy, phenolic, and unsaturated polyester resins.

2. Thermoplastic resins: These resins can be repeatedly softened and hardened by heating and cooling without undergoing any significant chemical changes. Examples include polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene.

3. Elastomeric resins: These resins have the ability to stretch and return to their original shape when released, making them ideal for use in applications that require flexibility and durability. Examples include natural rubber, silicone rubber, and polyurethane.

Synthetic resins are widely used in various industries, including construction, automotive, electronics, and healthcare. In the medical field, they may be used to create dental restorations, medical devices, and drug delivery systems, among other applications.

Biocompatible materials are non-toxic and non-reacting substances that can be used in medical devices, tissue engineering, and drug delivery systems without causing harm or adverse reactions to living tissues or organs. These materials are designed to mimic the properties of natural tissues and are able to integrate with biological systems without being rejected by the body's immune system.

Biocompatible materials can be made from a variety of substances, including metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. The specific properties of these materials, such as their mechanical strength, flexibility, and biodegradability, are carefully selected to meet the requirements of their intended medical application.

Examples of biocompatible materials include titanium used in dental implants and joint replacements, polyethylene used in artificial hips, and hydrogels used in contact lenses and drug delivery systems. The use of biocompatible materials has revolutionized modern medicine by enabling the development of advanced medical technologies that can improve patient outcomes and quality of life.

Siloxanes are a group of synthetic compounds that contain repeating units of silicon-oxygen-silicon (Si-O-Si) bonds, often combined with organic groups such as methyl or ethyl groups. They are widely used in various industrial and consumer products due to their unique properties, including thermal stability, low surface tension, and resistance to water and heat.

In medical terms, siloxanes have been studied for their potential use in medical devices and therapies. For example, some siloxane-based materials have been developed for use as coatings on medical implants, such as catheters and stents, due to their ability to reduce friction and prevent bacterial adhesion.

However, it's worth noting that exposure to high levels of certain types of siloxanes has been linked to potential health effects, including respiratory irritation and reproductive toxicity. Therefore, appropriate safety measures should be taken when handling these compounds in a medical or industrial setting.

Silanes are a group of chemical compounds that contain silicon and hydrogen. The general formula for silanes is Si_xH_(2x+2), where x is a positive integer. Silanes are named after their parent compound, silane (SiH4), which contains one silicon atom and four hydrogen atoms.

Silanes are colorless and highly flammable gases at room temperature. They are typically prepared by the reaction of metal silicides with acids or by the reduction of halogenated silanes. Silanes have a variety of industrial applications, including as intermediates in the production of silicon-based materials such as semiconductors and polymers.

In medical contexts, silanes are not typically used directly. However, some silane-containing compounds have been investigated for their potential therapeutic uses. For example, some organosilanes have been shown to have antimicrobial properties and may be useful as disinfectants or in the development of medical devices. Other silane-containing materials have been studied for their potential use in drug delivery systems or as imaging agents in diagnostic procedures.

It is important to note that some silanes can be hazardous if not handled properly, and they should only be used by trained professionals in a controlled environment. Exposure to silanes can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and prolonged exposure can lead to more serious health effects.

Dental cements are materials used in dentistry to bond or seal restorative dental materials, such as crowns, fillings, and orthodontic appliances, to natural tooth structures. They can be made from various materials including glass ionomers, resin-modified glass ionomers, zinc oxide eugenol, polycarboxylate, and composite resins. The choice of cement depends on the specific clinical situation and the properties required, such as strength, durability, biocompatibility, and esthetics.

In the context of medicine, particularly in physical therapy and rehabilitation, "pliability" refers to the quality or state of being flexible or supple. It describes the ability of tissues, such as muscles or fascia (connective tissue), to stretch, deform, and adapt to forces applied upon them without resistance or injury. Improving pliability can help enhance range of motion, reduce muscle stiffness, promote circulation, and alleviate pain. Techniques like soft tissue mobilization, myofascial release, and stretching are often used to increase pliability in clinical settings.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "mechanical phenomena" is not a standard medical term. The term "mechanical phenomenon" is more commonly used in the fields of physics and engineering to refer to events or processes that involve physical forces and movements, such as the movement of a lever or the flow of a fluid due to pressure differences.

If you have any questions about a specific medical concept or condition, I would be happy to try to help you with that instead!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyurethanes" are not a medical term. They are a type of polymer that is used in a variety of industrial and consumer products, including foam cushions, insulation, and packaging materials. Polyurethanes are created through a chemical reaction between diisocyanates and polyols. While they have many applications in the medical field, such as in the production of medical devices and equipment, they are not a medical term themselves.

Tissue embedding is a process in histology (the study of the microscopic structure of tissues) where biological tissue samples are encased in a supporting medium, typically paraffin wax or plastic resins, to maintain their shape and structural integrity during sectioning. This allows for thin slices of the embedded tissue to be cut using a microtome, mounted on slides, and then stained for further examination under a microscope. The embedding process ensures that the tissue remains intact and does not tear or compress during sectioning, providing clear and consistent samples for analysis.

Hydrogels are defined in the medical and biomedical fields as cross-linked, hydrophilic polymer networks that have the ability to swell and retain a significant amount of water or biological fluids while maintaining their structure. They can be synthesized from natural, synthetic, or hybrid polymers.

Hydrogels are known for their biocompatibility, high water content, and soft consistency, which resemble natural tissues, making them suitable for various medical applications such as contact lenses, drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, wound dressing, and biosensors. The physical and chemical properties of hydrogels can be tailored to specific uses by adjusting the polymer composition, cross-linking density, and network structure.

Plastic embedding is a histological technique used in the preparation of tissue samples for microscopic examination. In this process, thin sections of tissue are impregnated and hardened with a plastic resin, which replaces the water in the tissue and provides support and stability during cutting and mounting. This method is particularly useful for tissues that are difficult to embed using traditional paraffin embedding techniques, such as those that contain fat or are very delicate. The plastic-embedded tissue sections can be cut very thinly (typically 1-2 microns) and provide excellent preservation of ultrastructural details, making them ideal for high-resolution microscopy and immunohistochemical studies.

Dentin-bonding agents are substances used in dentistry to create a strong and durable bond between the dental restoration material (such as composite resin, glass ionomer cement, or crowns) and the dentin surface of a tooth. Dentin is the hard tissue that lies beneath the enamel and consists of microscopic tubules filled with fluid.

The primary function of dentin-bonding agents is to improve the adhesion of restorative materials to the tooth structure, enhancing the retention and durability of dental fillings, crowns, veneers, and other types of restorations. These agents typically contain one or more types of bonding resins, such as hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride (4-META), and/or phosphoric acid ester monomers.

The application process for dentin-bonding agents usually involves several steps, including:

1. Etching the dentin surface with a mild acid to remove the smear layer and expose the collagen network within the dentin tubules.
2. Applying a primer that penetrates into the etched dentin and promotes the infiltration of bonding resins into the dentinal tubules.
3. Applying an adhesive, which is typically a mixture of hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers, to form a stable bond between the tooth structure and the restoration material.
4. Light-curing the adhesive to polymerize the resin and create a strong mechanical bond with the dentin surface.

Dentin-bonding agents have significantly improved the clinical success of various dental restorations by enhancing their retention, reducing microleakage, and minimizing postoperative sensitivity. However, they may still be susceptible to degradation over time due to factors such as moisture contamination, enzymatic degradation, or hydrolysis, which can lead to the failure of dental restorations. Therefore, continuous advancements in dentin-bonding technology are essential for improving the long-term success and durability of dental restorations.

Dental stress analysis is a method used in dentistry to evaluate the amount and distribution of forces that act upon teeth and surrounding structures during biting, chewing, or other functional movements. This analysis helps dental professionals identify areas of excessive stress or strain that may lead to dental problems such as tooth fracture, mobility, or periodontal (gum) disease. By identifying these areas, dentists can develop treatment plans to reduce the risk of dental issues and improve overall oral health.

Dental stress analysis typically involves the use of specialized equipment, such as strain gauges, T-scan occlusal analysis systems, or finite element analysis software, to measure and analyze the forces that act upon teeth during various functional movements. The results of the analysis can help dentists determine the best course of treatment, which may include adjusting the bite, restoring damaged teeth with crowns or fillings, or fabricating custom-made oral appliances to redistribute the forces evenly across the dental arch.

Overall, dental stress analysis is an important tool in modern dentistry that helps dental professionals diagnose and treat dental problems related to occlusal (bite) forces, ensuring optimal oral health and function for their patients.

A dental technician is a healthcare professional who designs, fabricates, and repairs custom-made dental devices, such as dentures, crowns, bridges, orthodontic appliances, and implant restorations. They work closely with dentists and other oral health professionals to meet the individual needs of each patient. Dental technicians typically have an associate's degree or certificate in dental technology and may be certified by a professional organization. Their work requires a strong understanding of dental materials, fabrication techniques, and the latest advances in dental technology.

Dental bonding is a cosmetic dental procedure in which a tooth-colored resin material (a type of plastic) is applied and hardened with a special light, which ultimately "bonds" the material to the tooth to improve its appearance. According to the American Dental Association (ADA), dental bonding can be used for various purposes, including:

1. Repairing chipped or cracked teeth
2. Improving the appearance of discolored teeth
3. Closing spaces between teeth
4. Protecting a portion of the tooth's root that has been exposed due to gum recession
5. Changing the shape and size of teeth

Dental bonding is generally a quick and painless procedure, often requiring little to no anesthesia. The surface of the tooth is roughened and conditioned to help the resin adhere properly. Then, the resin material is applied, molded, and smoothed to the desired shape. A special light is used to harden the material, which typically takes only a few minutes. Finally, the bonded material is trimmed, shaped, and polished to match the surrounding teeth.

While dental bonding can be an effective solution for minor cosmetic concerns, it may not be as durable or long-lasting as other dental restoration options like veneers or crowns. The lifespan of a dental bonding procedure typically ranges from 3 to 10 years, depending on factors such as oral habits, location of the bonded tooth, and proper care. Regular dental checkups and good oral hygiene practices can help extend the life of dental bonding.

In the context of medical terminology, "hardness" is not a term that has a specific or standardized definition. It may be used in various ways to describe the firmness or consistency of a tissue, such as the hardness of an artery or tumor, but it does not have a single authoritative medical definition.

In some cases, healthcare professionals may use subjective terms like "hard," "firm," or "soft" to describe their tactile perception during a physical examination. For example, they might describe the hardness of an enlarged liver or spleen by comparing it to the feel of their knuckles when gently pressed against the abdomen.

However, in other contexts, healthcare professionals may use more objective measures of tissue stiffness or elasticity, such as palpation durometry or shear wave elastography, which provide quantitative assessments of tissue hardness. These techniques can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring conditions that affect the mechanical properties of tissues, such as liver fibrosis or cancer.

Therefore, while "hardness" may be a term used in medical contexts to describe certain physical characteristics of tissues, it does not have a single, universally accepted definition.

Photoinitiators in dental materials are substances that initiate polymerization reactions when exposed to light. They are a critical component of dental resin-based composites and other light-cured materials, as they enable the material to harden and set rapidly upon exposure to a dental curing light.

The most commonly used photoinitiator in dental materials is camphorquinone (CQ), which absorbs light in the blue region of the visible spectrum (around 468 nm) and generates free radicals that initiate the polymerization reaction. However, due to its yellowish color and limited depth of cure, alternative photoinitiators or co-initiator systems have been developed, such as phenylpropanedione (PPD), Lucirin TPO-L, and Ivocerin.

These photoinitiators are chosen for their ability to absorb light at specific wavelengths that correspond to the emission spectrum of dental curing lights, their efficiency in generating free radicals, and their low toxicity profile. The use of photoinitiators in dental materials has significantly improved the physical properties, handling characteristics, and clinical performance of these materials.

I could not find a specific medical definition for "Microchip Analytical Procedures" as it is a broad term that can refer to various analytical techniques using microchips or microfluidic devices in different scientific fields, including medicine and biology. However, I can provide some general information about microchip-based analytical procedures in the medical field.

Microchip analytical procedures typically involve the use of microfluidic devices, also known as "lab-on-a-chip" technologies, to perform rapid, automated analysis of biological samples. These microchips contain miniaturized networks of channels and chambers through which fluids can be transported and manipulated for various analytical purposes.

Some examples of medical applications of microchip analytical procedures include:

1. Molecular diagnostics: Microchips can be used to perform nucleic acid amplification (e.g., PCR) or detection assays for the identification of specific genetic sequences, such as those associated with infectious diseases or genetic disorders.
2. Protein analysis: Microchip-based immunoassays can be used to detect and quantify proteins in biological samples, which is important for diagnosing various medical conditions and monitoring disease progression.
3. Cell analysis: Microfluidic devices can be used to manipulate and analyze individual cells or populations of cells, enabling researchers to study cell behavior, function, and interactions in a high-throughput manner.
4. Drug discovery and development: Microchip analytical procedures can be used to screen and optimize drug candidates, as well as to evaluate their safety and efficacy in preclinical studies.
5. Point-of-care testing: The miniaturized and portable nature of microchips makes them suitable for use in point-of-care settings, enabling rapid and accurate diagnosis of medical conditions in resource-limited settings or in remote locations.

Overall, microchip analytical procedures offer several advantages over traditional analytical techniques, including faster analysis times, lower sample volumes, higher sensitivity and specificity, and reduced costs. These features make them valuable tools for various applications in the medical field.

Dentin is the hard, calcified tissue that lies beneath the enamel and cementum of a tooth. It forms the majority of the tooth's structure and is composed primarily of mineral salts (hydroxyapatite), collagenous proteins, and water. Dentin has a tubular structure, with microscopic channels called dentinal tubules that radiate outward from the pulp chamber (the center of the tooth containing nerves and blood vessels) to the exterior of the tooth. These tubules contain fluid and nerve endings that are responsible for the tooth's sensitivity to various stimuli such as temperature changes, pressure, or decay. Dentin plays a crucial role in protecting the dental pulp while also providing support and structure to the overlying enamel and cementum.

Resin cements are dental materials used to bond or cement restorations, such as crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances, to natural teeth or implants. They are called "resin" cements because they are made of a type of synthetic resin material that can be cured or hardened through the use of a chemical reaction or exposure to light.

Resin cements typically consist of three components: a base, a catalyst, and a filler. The base and catalyst are mixed together to create a putty-like consistency, which is then applied to the restoration or tooth surface. Once the cement is in place, it is exposed to light or allowed to chemically cure, which causes it to harden and form a strong bond between the restoration and the tooth.

Resin cements are known for their excellent adhesive properties, as well as their ability to withstand the forces of biting and chewing. They can also be color-matched to natural teeth, making them an aesthetically pleasing option for dental restorations. However, they may not be suitable for all patients or situations, and it is important for dental professionals to carefully consider the specific needs and conditions of each patient when choosing a cement material.

A dental cavity lining, also known as a dental restoration or filling, refers to the material used to fill and seal a tooth after decay has been removed. The purpose of the lining is to restore the function, integrity, and morphology of the tooth, while preventing further decay and infection. Common materials used for dental cavity linings include:

1. Amalgam: A mixture of metals, such as silver, tin, copper, and mercury, amalgam fillings are strong, durable, and resistant to wear. They are often used for posterior teeth that undergo heavy chewing forces. However, due to their dark color, they may be less aesthetically pleasing compared to other materials.
2. Composite resin: A tooth-colored material made of a mixture of plastic and glass particles, composite resins provide a more natural appearance and are often used for anterior teeth or cosmetic restorations. They bond directly to the tooth structure, which can help reinforce the remaining tooth structure. However, they may be less durable than amalgam fillings and may wear down or discolor over time.
3. Glass ionomer: A tooth-colored material made of acrylic and a type of glass, glass ionomers release fluoride, which can help protect the tooth from further decay. They are often used for fillings near the gum line, for cementing crowns or orthodontic appliances, or as a base layer under other restorative materials. Glass ionomers are less durable than composite resins and amalgam fillings and may not withstand heavy chewing forces as well.
4. Gold: A precious metal used for dental restorations, gold is highly durable, non-reactive, and resistant to corrosion. It can be used for inlays, onlays, or crowns and provides excellent longevity. However, due to its high cost and less desirable aesthetics, it is not as commonly used as other materials.
5. Porcelain: A ceramic material that can be matched to the color of natural teeth, porcelain is often used for inlays, onlays, crowns, or veneers. It provides excellent aesthetics and durability but may be more brittle than other materials and requires a skilled dental technician for fabrication.

Ultimately, the choice of restorative material depends on several factors, including the location and extent of the decay, the patient's oral health status, aesthetic preferences, and budget. Dentists will consider these factors when recommending the most appropriate material for a specific situation.

Thermogravimetry (TG) is a technique used in materials science and analytical chemistry to measure the mass of a substance as a function of temperature while it is subjected to a controlled heating or cooling rate in a carefully controlled atmosphere. The sample is placed in a pan which is suspended from a balance and heated at a constant rate. As the temperature increases, various components of the sample may decompose, lose water, or evolve gases, resulting in a decrease in mass, which is recorded by the balance.

TG can be used to determine the weight loss due to decomposition, desorption, or volatilization, and to calculate the amount of various components present in a sample. It is often used in conjunction with other techniques such as differential thermal analysis (DTA) or differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to provide additional information about the thermal behavior of materials.

In summary, thermogravimetry is a method for measuring the mass changes of a material as it is heated or cooled, which can be used to analyze its composition and thermal stability.

Cycloparaffins, also known as naphthenes or cycloalkanes, are a type of hydrocarbon molecule that contain one or more closed rings of carbon atoms. These rings can be saturated, meaning that they contain only single bonds between the carbon atoms, and may also contain one or more alkyl substituents.

The term "cycloparaffin" is used in the context of organic chemistry and petroleum refining to describe a specific class of hydrocarbons. In medical terminology, cycloparaffins are not typically referenced directly, but they may be relevant in certain contexts, such as in discussions of industrial chemicals or environmental exposures.

Cycloparaffins can be found in various sources, including crude oil and natural gas, and they are often used as feedstocks in the production of various chemicals and materials. They are also found in some foods, such as vegetable oils and animal fats, and may be present in trace amounts in some medications or medical devices.

While cycloparaffins themselves are not typically considered to have direct medical relevance, exposure to certain types of cycloparaffins or their derivatives may be associated with various health effects, depending on the level and duration of exposure. For example, some cycloparaffin-derived chemicals have been linked to respiratory irritation, skin and eye irritation, and potential developmental toxicity. However, it is important to note that these effects are typically associated with high levels of exposure in occupational or industrial settings, rather than with normal environmental or dietary exposures.

Compressive strength is a measure of the maximum compressive load that a material or structure can withstand before failure or deformation. It is typically expressed in units of pressure, such as pounds per square inch (psi) or megapascals (MPa). Compressive strength is an important property in the design and analysis of structures and materials, as it helps to ensure their safety and durability under compressive loads.

In medical terminology, compressive strength may refer to the ability of biological tissues, such as bone or cartilage, to withstand compressive forces without deforming or failing. For example, osteoporosis is a condition characterized by reduced bone density and compressive strength, which can increase the risk of fractures in affected individuals. Similarly, degenerative changes in articular cartilage can lead to decreased compressive strength and joint pain or stiffness.

Denture liners are soft, flexible materials that are used to reline or temporarily repair the fitting surface of a denture. They are intended to improve the comfort and fit of the denture by filling in any spaces or irregularities between the denture and the gum tissue. Denture liners are typically made from materials such as silicone, polyphosphazine, or acrylic and can be added to the denture by a dental professional in the dental office. They may need to be replaced or re-adjusted periodically to maintain a proper fit.

Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) is not typically considered a medical definition, but it is a term used in physical and analytical chemistry. However, I can provide a definition for you:

Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) is a technique used to study the electronic structure of atoms, molecules, and solids by irradiating them with photons (usually from a laser or a synchrotron light source) and measuring the kinetic energy of the ejected electrons. The technique provides information about the energy levels of the electrons in the sample, which can be used to determine its chemical composition, bonding, and electronic structure. PES is a valuable tool in surface science, materials research, and environmental analysis.

Dental restoration wear refers to the progressive loss of structure and function of a dental restoration, such as a filling or crown, due to wear and tear over time. This can be caused by factors such as chewing, grinding, or clenching of teeth, as well as chemical dissolution from acidic foods and drinks. The wear can lead to changes in the shape and fit of the restoration, which may result in discomfort, sensitivity, or even failure of the restoration. Regular dental check-ups are important for monitoring dental restorations and addressing any issues related to wear before they become more serious.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyvinyls" is not a medical term. It is a chemical term that refers to polymers made from vinyl chloride, which is used in the production of various plastics and resins. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those!

Tensile strength is a material property that measures the maximum amount of tensile (pulling) stress that a material can withstand before failure, such as breaking or fracturing. It is usually measured in units of force per unit area, such as pounds per square inch (psi) or pascals (Pa). In the context of medical devices or biomaterials, tensile strength may be used to describe the mechanical properties of materials used in implants, surgical tools, or other medical equipment. High tensile strength is often desirable in these applications to ensure that the material can withstand the stresses and forces it will encounter during use.

The Elastic Modulus, also known as Young's modulus, is a measure of the stiffness of a material. It is defined as the ratio of stress (force per unit area) to strain (partial deformation or change in length per unit length) in the elastic range of deformation of a material. In other words, it measures how much a material will deform (change in length or size) when subjected to a given amount of force. A higher elastic modulus indicates that a material is stiffer and less likely to deform, while a lower elastic modulus indicates that a material is more flexible and will deform more easily. The elastic modulus is typically expressed in units of Pascals (Pa) or Gigapascals (GPa).

A hydrogel is a biomaterial that is composed of a three-dimensional network of crosslinked polymers, which are able to absorb and retain a significant amount of water or biological fluids while maintaining their structure. Hydrogels are similar to natural tissues in their water content, making them suitable for various medical applications such as contact lenses, wound dressings, drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine.

Hydrogels can be synthesized from a variety of materials, including synthetic polymers like polyethylene glycol (PEG) or natural polymers like collagen, hyaluronic acid, or chitosan. The properties of hydrogels, such as their mechanical strength, degradation rate, and biocompatibility, can be tailored to specific applications by adjusting the type and degree of crosslinking, the molecular weight of the polymers, and the addition of functional groups or drugs.

Hydrogels have shown great potential in medical research and clinical practice due to their ability to mimic the natural environment of cells and tissues, provide sustained drug release, and promote tissue regeneration.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polystyrenes" is not a medical term. Polystyrene is a type of synthetic aromatic hydrocarbon polymer that is used in a variety of commercial and industrial products, such as packaging materials, insulation, and disposable cutlery. It's important to note that some polystyrene products may contain potentially harmful chemicals, such as styrene, which can leach out into food or drink, posing potential health risks. However, the medical community primarily deals with the health effects of exposure to these chemicals rather than defining the material itself.

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a type of electron microscopy that uses a focused beam of electrons to scan the surface of a sample and produce a high-resolution image. In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of a specimen, and secondary electrons are emitted from the sample due to interactions between the electrons and the atoms in the sample. These secondary electrons are then detected by a detector and used to create an image of the sample's surface topography. SEM can provide detailed images of the surface of a wide range of materials, including metals, polymers, ceramics, and biological samples. It is commonly used in materials science, biology, and electronics for the examination and analysis of surfaces at the micro- and nanoscale.

Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are a family of synthetic, water-soluble polymers with a wide range of molecular weights. They are commonly used in the medical field as excipients in pharmaceutical formulations due to their ability to improve drug solubility, stability, and bioavailability. PEGs can also be used as laxatives to treat constipation or as bowel cleansing agents prior to colonoscopy examinations. Additionally, some PEG-conjugated drugs have been developed for use in targeted cancer therapies.

In a medical context, PEGs are often referred to by their average molecular weight, such as PEG 300, PEG 400, PEG 1500, and so on. Higher molecular weight PEGs tend to be more viscous and have longer-lasting effects in the body.

It's worth noting that while PEGs are generally considered safe for use in medical applications, some people may experience allergic reactions or hypersensitivity to these compounds. Prolonged exposure to high molecular weight PEGs has also been linked to potential adverse effects, such as decreased fertility and developmental toxicity in animal studies. However, more research is needed to fully understand the long-term safety of PEGs in humans.

Acrylamides are a type of chemical that can form in some foods during high-temperature cooking processes, such as frying, roasting, and baking. They are created when certain amino acids (asparagine) and sugars in the food react together at temperatures above 120°C (248°F). This reaction is known as the Maillard reaction.

Acrylamides have been classified as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), based on studies in animals. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health risks associated with acrylamide exposure from food.

Public health organizations recommend limiting acrylamide intake by following some cooking practices such as:

* Avoiding overcooking or burning foods
* Soaking potatoes (which are high in asparagine) in water before frying to reduce the formation of acrylamides
* Choosing raw, unprocessed, or minimally processed foods when possible.

Medical definitions of water generally describe it as a colorless, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for all forms of life. It is a universal solvent, making it an excellent medium for transporting nutrients and waste products within the body. Water constitutes about 50-70% of an individual's body weight, depending on factors such as age, sex, and muscle mass.

In medical terms, water has several important functions in the human body:

1. Regulation of body temperature through perspiration and respiration.
2. Acting as a lubricant for joints and tissues.
3. Facilitating digestion by helping to break down food particles.
4. Transporting nutrients, oxygen, and waste products throughout the body.
5. Helping to maintain healthy skin and mucous membranes.
6. Assisting in the regulation of various bodily functions, such as blood pressure and heart rate.

Dehydration can occur when an individual does not consume enough water or loses too much fluid due to illness, exercise, or other factors. This can lead to a variety of symptoms, including dry mouth, fatigue, dizziness, and confusion. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening if left untreated.

Light-curing of dental adhesives refers to the process of using a special type of light to polymerize and harden the adhesive material used in dentistry. The light is typically a blue spectrum light, with a wavelength of approximately 460-490 nanometers, which activates a photoinitiator within the adhesive. This initiates a polymerization reaction that causes the adhesive to solidify and form a strong bond between the tooth surface and the dental restoration material, such as a filling or a crown.

The light-curing process is an important step in many dental procedures as it helps ensure the durability and longevity of the restoration. The intensity and duration of the light exposure are critical factors that can affect the degree of cure and overall strength of the bond. Therefore, it is essential to follow the manufacturer's instructions carefully when using dental adhesives and light-curing equipment.

Fluorine compounds are chemical substances that contain fluorine, the most electronegative and reactive of all elements, as an integral part of their molecular structure. Fluorine is a member of the halogen group in the periodic table and readily forms compounds with many other elements.

Fluoride is the most common form of fluorine compound found in nature, existing as an ion (F-) in minerals such as fluorspar (calcium fluoride, CaF2) and cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride, Na3AlF6). Fluoride ions can replace hydroxyl ions (OH-) in the crystal structure of tooth enamel, making it more resistant to acid attack by bacteria, which is why fluoride is often added to drinking water and dental products.

Other examples of fluorine compounds include chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrofluoric acid (HF), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and uranium hexafluoride (UF6). Fluorine compounds have a wide range of applications, including use as refrigerants, solvents, pharmaceuticals, and materials for the semiconductor industry. However, some fluorine compounds can be highly toxic or reactive, so they must be handled with care.

Fluorocarbon polymers are a type of synthetic polymeric material that contain carbon-fluorine bonds. These materials are known for their chemical inertness, high stability, and resistance to heat, chemicals, and water. They are often used in various medical applications such as in the coating of medical devices, implants, and drug delivery systems due to their biocompatibility and non-reactive properties.

Fluorocarbon polymers can be classified into two main categories: perfluoropolymers and fluoropolymers. Perfluoropolymers contain only carbon and fluorine atoms, while fluoropolymers contain other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, or nitrogen in addition to carbon and fluorine.

Examples of fluorocarbon polymers used in medical applications include polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), and ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). These materials have a wide range of properties that make them useful in various medical applications, such as low coefficient of friction, high electrical resistance, and excellent chemical resistance.

Toluidines are a group of organic compounds that consist of a benzene ring with two methyl groups and an amine group. They are derivatives of toluene, hence the name. There are three isomers of toluidines, depending on the position of the amino group: ortho-toluidine, meta-toluidine, and para-toluidine.

In a medical context, toluidines may be used as chemical reagents for diagnostic tests or in research. For example, they have been used in histology to stain tissues for microscopic examination. However, exposure to toluidines has been associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, so appropriate safety precautions should be taken when handling these chemicals.

Adsorption is a process in which atoms, ions, or molecules from a gas, liquid, or dissolved solid accumulate on the surface of a material. This occurs because the particles in the adsorbate (the substance being adsorbed) have forces that attract them to the surface of the adsorbent (the material that the adsorbate is adhering to).

In medical terms, adsorption can refer to the use of materials with adsorptive properties to remove harmful substances from the body. For example, activated charcoal is sometimes used in the treatment of poisoning because it can adsorb a variety of toxic substances and prevent them from being absorbed into the bloodstream.

It's important to note that adsorption is different from absorption, which refers to the process by which a substance is taken up and distributed throughout a material or tissue.

Dentin solubility refers to the degree or extent to which dentin, a hard tissue that makes up the majority of a tooth's structure, can be dissolved or eroded by acidic substances. Dentin is primarily made up of mineral content (hydroxyapatite), organic material, and water. When exposed to acidic environments, such as those caused by bacterial acids produced during dental caries (tooth decay), the hydroxyapatite in dentin can dissolve, leading to loss of tooth structure and potential weakening of the tooth. Understanding dentin solubility is important for developing strategies to prevent or treat dental caries and other conditions that affect the integrity of teeth.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Glass" is not a medical term. Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has various uses in everyday life, including medical devices and equipment. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, please provide them, and I'll be happy to help.

Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) is a technique used in thermoanalysis to study the physical and chemical changes that occur in a material as it is heated or cooled. It measures the difference in temperature between a sample and a reference material, both of which are subjected to the same temperature program.

In DTA, the sample and reference material are placed in separate but identical holders, and the temperature of the reference material is kept constant while the temperature of the sample is increased or decreased at a controlled rate. As the sample undergoes physical or chemical changes, such as phase transitions or chemical reactions, it absorbs or releases heat, causing its temperature to change relative to the reference material.

The DTA curve plots the temperature difference between the sample and the reference material against time or temperature. The resulting curve provides information about the thermal behavior of the sample, including any endothermic or exothermic reactions that occur as it is heated or cooled. Endothermic reactions, which require heat input, are indicated by a negative deflection in the DTA curve, while exothermic reactions, which release heat, are indicated by a positive deflection.

DTA is widely used in materials science, chemistry, and physics to study the thermal properties of materials, including their phase transitions, melting points, crystallization behavior, and chemical stability. It can also be used to identify unknown materials or to characterize the purity of a sample.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "nanocomposites" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a term used in materials science and engineering to refer to a type of composite material where at least one of the phases has dimensions in the nanoscale (typically less than 100 nanometers). Nanocomposites can have unique properties that make them useful for various applications, including biomedical applications such as drug delivery systems or tissue engineering scaffolds. However, the term itself is not a medical definition.

Dental marginal adaptation refers to the way in which a dental restoration, such as a filling or crown, fits precisely and accurately along the margin or edge where it meets the tooth structure. The term "marginal" describes the border between the restoration and the tooth. Ideally, this junction should be tight and smooth, without any gaps or spaces that could allow for the accumulation of bacteria, food debris, or dental plaque.

Achieving good marginal adaptation is crucial to ensure the longevity and success of a dental restoration. When the margin is well-adapted, it helps prevent microleakage, secondary tooth decay, and sensitivity. It also contributes to the overall seal and integrity of the restoration, minimizing the risk of recurrent caries or other complications.

The process of achieving optimal marginal adaptation involves careful preparation of the tooth structure, precise impression-taking techniques, and meticulous fabrication of the dental restoration. The use of high-quality materials and modern technologies, such as digital impressions and CAD/CAM systems, can further enhance the accuracy and predictability of the marginal adaptation.

'Deaf-blind disorders' is a term used to describe conditions that result in significant hearing and vision loss. This combination of sensory impairments can have a profound impact on an individual's ability to communicate, access information, and navigate their environment. It's important to note that the term 'deaf-blind' encompasses a wide range of severity and types of hearing and vision loss, and may be present from birth or acquired later in life due to factors such as illness, injury, or aging.

There is no single medical definition for deaf-blind disorders, but the term is often used to refer to individuals who have a significant combined visual and auditory impairment, defined as:

1. A visual acuity of less than 20/200 in the better eye with best correction, or a field restriction in both eyes to such an extent that the widest diameter of the visual field subtends an angle no greater than 20 degrees.
2. A hearing loss of 55 decibels or greater in the better ear, which is severe enough to require the use of amplification devices (such as hearing aids) or cochlear implants.

Deaf-blind disorders can be categorized into two main types: congenital and acquired. Congenital deaf-blindness refers to individuals who are born with both significant vision and hearing loss, often due to genetic factors, prenatal infections, or birth defects. Acquired deaf-blindness occurs when an individual develops significant vision and hearing loss later in life due to illness, injury, or aging.

Examples of conditions that can lead to deaf-blind disorders include:

* Usher syndrome: A genetic disorder that causes both hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa, a degenerative eye condition leading to vision loss.
* CHARGE syndrome: A rare genetic disorder that can cause hearing loss, vision loss, and other developmental issues.
* Cerebral palsy: A neurological disorder that can result in both visual and auditory impairments due to brain damage during fetal development or birth.
* Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and presbycusis: Both are common age-related conditions that can lead to vision and hearing loss, respectively.
* Infections such as meningitis, encephalitis, or cytomegalovirus (CMV) can cause both vision and hearing loss if they affect the brain or nervous system.
* Traumatic injuries, such as those caused by accidents or violence, can result in deaf-blindness if they damage the eyes, ears, or brain.

Deaf-blind individuals often face significant challenges in communication, mobility, and access to information. Specialized services, assistive technology, and support from professionals trained in deaf-blindness are crucial for helping these individuals lead fulfilling lives and reach their full potential.

Histological techniques are a set of laboratory methods and procedures used to study the microscopic structure of tissues, also known as histology. These techniques include:

1. Tissue fixation: The process of preserving tissue specimens to maintain their structural integrity and prevent decomposition. This is typically done using formaldehyde or other chemical fixatives.
2. Tissue processing: The preparation of fixed tissues for embedding by removing water, fat, and other substances that can interfere with sectioning and staining. This is usually accomplished through a series of dehydration, clearing, and infiltration steps.
3. Embedding: The placement of processed tissue specimens into a solid support medium, such as paraffin or plastic, to facilitate sectioning.
4. Sectioning: The cutting of thin slices (usually 4-6 microns thick) from embedded tissue blocks using a microtome.
5. Staining: The application of dyes or stains to tissue sections to highlight specific structures or components. This can be done through a variety of methods, including hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, immunohistochemistry, and special stains for specific cell types or molecules.
6. Mounting: The placement of stained tissue sections onto glass slides and covering them with a mounting medium to protect the tissue from damage and improve microscopic visualization.
7. Microscopy: The examination of stained tissue sections using a light or electron microscope to observe and analyze their structure and composition.

These techniques are essential for the diagnosis and study of various diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and infections. They allow pathologists and researchers to visualize and understand the cellular and molecular changes that occur in tissues during disease processes.

Experimental implants refer to medical devices that are not yet approved by regulatory authorities for general use in medical practice. These are typically being tested in clinical trials to evaluate their safety and efficacy. The purpose of experimental implants is to determine whether they can be used as a viable treatment option for various medical conditions. They may include, but are not limited to, devices such as artificial joints, heart valves, or spinal cord stimulators that are still in the developmental or testing stage. Participation in clinical trials involving experimental implants is voluntary and usually requires informed consent from the patient.

'Adhesiveness' is a term used in medicine and biology to describe the ability of two surfaces to stick or adhere to each other. In medical terms, it often refers to the property of tissues or cells to adhere to one another, as in the case of scar tissue formation where healing tissue adheres to adjacent structures.

In the context of microbiology, adhesiveness can refer to the ability of bacteria or other microorganisms to attach themselves to surfaces, such as medical devices or human tissues, which can lead to infection and other health problems. Adhesives used in medical devices, such as bandages or wound dressings, also have adhesiveness properties that allow them to stick to the skin or other surfaces.

Overall, adhesiveness is an important property in many areas of medicine and biology, with implications for wound healing, infection control, and the design and function of medical devices.

Biofouling is the accumulation of microorganisms, algae, plants, and animals on wet surfaces, such as the hulls of ships, pier pilings, and buoys. This growth can have negative impacts on the performance and efficiency of equipment and infrastructure, leading to increased maintenance costs and potential environmental damage. In the medical field, biofouling can also refer to the undesirable accumulation of microorganisms or biomolecules on medical devices, which can lead to infection or device failure.

Trimethylammonium compounds are organic substances that contain a quaternary ammonium cation (N(CH3)4+). This ion is composed of a nitrogen atom surrounded by four methyl groups, and it carries a positive charge. These compounds are widely used in various applications, including as antimicrobial agents, surfactants, and chemical intermediates. In the medical field, they can be found in some medications, such as certain types of anticholinergics and muscle relaxants. It is important to note that these compounds should be handled with care, as they can be irritating to the skin and mucous membranes.

Microfluidic analytical techniques refer to the use of microfluidics, which is the manipulation of fluids in channels with dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers, for analytical measurements and applications. These techniques involve the integration of various functional components such as pumps, valves, mixers, and detectors onto a single chip or platform to perform chemical, biochemical, or biological analyses.

Microfluidic analytical techniques offer several advantages over traditional analytical methods, including reduced sample and reagent consumption, faster analysis times, increased sensitivity and throughput, and improved automation and portability. Examples of microfluidic analytical techniques include lab-on-a-chip devices, digital microfluidics, bead-based assays, and micro total analysis systems (μTAS). These techniques have found applications in various fields such as diagnostics, drug discovery, environmental monitoring, and food safety.

Bone cements are medical-grade materials used in orthopedic and trauma surgery to fill gaps between bone surfaces and implants, such as artificial joints or screws. They serve to mechanically stabilize the implant and provide a smooth, load-bearing surface. The two most common types of bone cement are:

1. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement: This is a two-component system consisting of powdered PMMA and liquid methyl methacrylate monomer. When mixed together, they form a dough-like consistency that hardens upon exposure to air. PMMA cement has been widely used for decades in joint replacement surgeries, such as hip or knee replacements.
2. Calcium phosphate (CP) cement: This is a two-component system consisting of a powdered CP compound and an aqueous solution. When mixed together, they form a paste that hardens through a chemical reaction at body temperature. CP cement has lower mechanical strength compared to PMMA but demonstrates better biocompatibility, bioactivity, and the ability to resorb over time.

Both types of bone cements have advantages and disadvantages, and their use depends on the specific surgical indication and patient factors.

Streptococcus mitis is a species of gram-positive, beta-hemolytic streptococci that are part of the viridans group streptococci (VGS). It is a normal commensal of the human oral cavity, upper respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract. However, it can occasionally cause invasive infections such as bacteremia, endocarditis, and meningitis, particularly in immunocompromised individuals or those with underlying medical conditions. S. mitis is also known to be a significant contributor to dental caries. It is often misidentified as Streptococcus sanguinis due to their similar phenotypic characteristics. Accurate identification of this organism is important because of its potential to cause invasive disease and its resistance to some antibiotics.

Transition temperature is a term used in the field of biophysics and physical chemistry, particularly in relation to the structure and properties of lipids and proteins. It does not have a specific application in general medicine or clinical practice. However, in the context of biophysics, transition temperature refers to the critical temperature at which a lipid bilayer or a protein molecule changes its phase or conformation.

For example, in the case of lipid bilayers, the transition temperature (Tm) is the temperature at which the membrane transitions from a gel phase to a liquid crystalline phase. In the gel phase, the lipid acyl chains are tightly packed and relatively immobile, while in the liquid crystalline phase, they are more disordered and can move more freely.

In the case of proteins, the transition temperature can refer to the temperature at which a protein undergoes a conformational change that affects its function or stability. For example, some proteins may denature or unfold at high temperatures, leading to a loss of function.

Overall, the transition temperature is an important concept in understanding how biological membranes and proteins respond to changes in temperature and other environmental factors.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

Histocytoлогиcal preparation techniques are methods used to prepare tissue samples for examination under a microscope in order to study the structure and function of cells, specifically histiocytes. These techniques involve fixing, processing, embedding, sectioning, and staining the tissue samples to preserve their cellular details and enhance the visibility of various cellular components.

The process typically begins with fixing the tissue sample in a fixative solution, such as formalin or alcohol, to preserve its structure and prevent decomposition. The fixed tissue is then dehydrated using a series of increasing concentrations of ethanol and cleared with a clearing agent, such as xylene, to remove the ethanol and make the tissue more transparent.

Next, the tissue is infiltrated with a liquid embedding material, such as paraffin or plastic, and solidified into a block. The block is then cut into thin sections using a microtome, and the sections are mounted onto glass slides.

Finally, the sections are stained with various dyes to highlight different cellular components, such as the nucleus, cytoplasm, or specific organelles. Common staining techniques used in histocytoлогиcal preparation include hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and special stains for specific cell types or structures.

These techniques allow pathologists to examine the tissue sample at a microscopic level, identify any abnormalities or diseases, and make an accurate diagnosis.

Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a type of infrared spectroscopy that uses the Fourier transform mathematical technique to convert the raw data obtained from an interferometer into a more interpretable spectrum. This technique allows for the simultaneous collection of a wide range of wavelengths, resulting in increased sensitivity and speed compared to traditional dispersive infrared spectroscopy.

FTIR spectroscopy measures the absorption or transmission of infrared radiation by a sample as a function of frequency, providing information about the vibrational modes of the molecules present in the sample. This can be used for identification and quantification of chemical compounds, analysis of molecular structure, and investigation of chemical interactions and reactions.

In summary, FTIR spectroscopy is a powerful analytical technique that uses infrared radiation to study the vibrational properties of molecules, with increased sensitivity and speed due to the use of Fourier transform mathematical techniques and an interferometer.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Silver" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol Ag and atomic number 47. Silver is a soft, white, lustrous transition metal that occurs in its pure, free form (native silver) as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite.

In the medical field, silver compounds have been used for their antimicrobial properties. For example, silver sulfadiazine is a common topical cream used to prevent or treat wound infections. Colloidal silver, a suspension of silver particles in a liquid, has also been promoted as a dietary supplement and alternative treatment for various conditions, but its effectiveness and safety are not well-established.

Intraocular lenses (IOLs) are artificial lens implants that are placed inside the eye during ophthalmic surgery, such as cataract removal. These lenses are designed to replace the natural lens of the eye that has become clouded or damaged, thereby restoring vision impairment caused by cataracts or other conditions.

There are several types of intraocular lenses available, including monofocal, multifocal, toric, and accommodative lenses. Monofocal IOLs provide clear vision at a single fixed distance, while multifocal IOLs offer clear vision at multiple distances. Toric IOLs are designed to correct astigmatism, and accommodative IOLs can change shape and position within the eye to allow for a range of vision.

The selection of the appropriate type of intraocular lens depends on various factors, including the patient's individual visual needs, lifestyle, and ocular health. The implantation procedure is typically performed on an outpatient basis and involves minimal discomfort or recovery time. Overall, intraocular lenses have become a safe and effective treatment option for patients with vision impairment due to cataracts or other eye conditions.

Gingiva is the medical term for the soft tissue that surrounds the teeth and forms the margin of the dental groove, also known as the gum. It extends from the mucogingival junction to the base of the cervical third of the tooth root. The gingiva plays a crucial role in protecting and supporting the teeth and maintaining oral health by providing a barrier against microbial invasion and mechanical injury.

Tissue expansion devices are medical implants used in plastic and reconstructive surgery to enable the body to grow new tissue. These devices consist of a silicone balloon that is inserted under the skin near the area where additional tissue is needed. Over time, the balloon is gradually filled with a sterile saline solution through an integrated valve system, causing the overlying skin to stretch and thicken.

The expansion process can take several weeks or months, depending on the desired amount of tissue growth. Once enough new tissue has been generated, the expander is removed, and the expanded skin is used to reconstruct the defect or deficiency in the adjacent area. Tissue expansion devices are commonly used for breast reconstruction after mastectomy, as well as for repairing burns, wounds, and other soft-tissue defects.

In the context of medical terminology, "porosity" is not a term that is frequently used to describe human tissues or organs. However, in dermatology and cosmetics, porosity refers to the ability of the skin to absorb and retain moisture or topical treatments.

A skin with high porosity has larger pores and can absorb more products, while a skin with low porosity has smaller pores and may have difficulty absorbing products. It is important to note that this definition of porosity is not a medical one but is instead used in the beauty industry.

Tooth preparation is a term used in dentistry to refer to the process of altering the tooth structure to receive a dental restoration, such as a filling, crown, or veneer. This procedure involves removing decayed or damaged portions of the tooth and shaping the remaining tooth structure to provide a stable foundation for the restoration. The preparation may also include reducing the size of the tooth to make room for the restoration and creating a smooth, uniform surface to ensure a proper fit and seal. The ultimate goal of tooth preparation is to restore the function, health, and aesthetics of the damaged tooth while preserving as much of the natural tooth structure as possible.

Boron compounds refer to chemical substances that contain the element boron (symbol: B) combined with one or more other elements. Boron is a naturally occurring, non-metallic element found in various minerals and ores. It is relatively rare, making up only about 0.001% of the Earth's crust by weight.

Boron compounds can take many forms, including salts, acids, and complex molecules. Some common boron compounds include:

* Boric acid (H3BO3) - a weak acid used as an antiseptic, preservative, and insecticide
* Sodium borate (Na2B4O7·10H2O) - also known as borax, a mineral used in detergents, cosmetics, and enamel glazes
* Boron carbide (B4C) - an extremely hard material used in abrasives, ceramics, and nuclear reactors
* Boron nitride (BN) - a compound with properties similar to graphite, used as a lubricant and heat shield

Boron compounds have a variety of uses in medicine, including as antiseptics, anti-inflammatory agents, and drugs for the treatment of cancer. For example, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental form of radiation therapy that uses boron-containing compounds to selectively target and destroy cancer cells.

It's important to note that some boron compounds can be toxic or harmful if ingested, inhaled, or otherwise exposed to the body in large quantities. Therefore, they should be handled with care and used only under the guidance of a trained medical professional.

Artificial saliva is a synthetic solution that mimics the chemical composition and properties of natural saliva. It is often used for patients with dry mouth (xerostomia) caused by conditions such as Sjögren's syndrome, radiation therapy, or certain medications that reduce saliva production. Artificial saliva may contain ingredients like carboxymethylcellulose, mucin, and electrolytes to provide lubrication, moisture, and pH buffering capacity similar to natural saliva. It can help alleviate symptoms associated with dry mouth, such as difficulty speaking, swallowing, and chewing, as well as protect oral tissues from irritation and infection.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyesters" is not a medical term. It is a term used in materials science and textile industry to describe a type of synthetic fiber made from polymers characterized by the presence of ester groups in their main chain. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those instead!

Prostheses: Artificial substitutes or replacements for missing body parts, such as limbs, eyes, or teeth. They are designed to restore the function, appearance, or mobility of the lost part. Prosthetic devices can be categorized into several types, including:

1. External prostheses: Devices that are attached to the outside of the body, like artificial arms, legs, hands, and feet. These may be further classified into:
a. Cosmetic or aesthetic prostheses: Primarily designed to improve the appearance of the affected area.
b. Functional prostheses: Designed to help restore the functionality and mobility of the lost limb.
2. Internal prostheses: Implanted artificial parts that replace missing internal organs, bones, or tissues, such as heart valves, hip joints, or intraocular lenses.

Implants: Medical devices or substances that are intentionally placed inside the body to replace or support a missing or damaged biological structure, deliver medication, monitor physiological functions, or enhance bodily functions. Examples of implants include:

1. Orthopedic implants: Devices used to replace or reinforce damaged bones, joints, or cartilage, such as knee or hip replacements.
2. Cardiovascular implants: Devices that help support or regulate heart function, like pacemakers, defibrillators, and artificial heart valves.
3. Dental implants: Artificial tooth roots that are placed into the jawbone to support dental prostheses, such as crowns, bridges, or dentures.
4. Neurological implants: Devices used to stimulate nerves, brain structures, or spinal cord tissues to treat various neurological conditions, like deep brain stimulators for Parkinson's disease or cochlear implants for hearing loss.
5. Ophthalmic implants: Artificial lenses that are placed inside the eye to replace a damaged or removed natural lens, such as intraocular lenses used in cataract surgery.

An artificial tooth, also known as a dental prosthesis or dental restoration, is a device made to replace a missing tooth or teeth. It can be removable, such as a denture, or fixed, such as a bridge or an implant-supported crown. The material used to make artificial teeth can vary and may include porcelain, resin, metal, or a combination of these materials. Its purpose is to restore function, aesthetics, and/or speech, and it is custom-made to fit the individual's mouth for comfort and effectiveness.

A drug carrier, also known as a drug delivery system or vector, is a vehicle that transports a pharmaceutical compound to a specific site in the body. The main purpose of using drug carriers is to improve the efficacy and safety of drugs by enhancing their solubility, stability, bioavailability, and targeted delivery, while minimizing unwanted side effects.

Drug carriers can be made up of various materials, including natural or synthetic polymers, lipids, inorganic nanoparticles, or even cells and viruses. They can encapsulate, adsorb, or conjugate drugs through different mechanisms, such as physical entrapment, electrostatic interaction, or covalent bonding.

Some common types of drug carriers include:

1. Liposomes: spherical vesicles composed of one or more lipid bilayers that can encapsulate hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs.
2. Polymeric nanoparticles: tiny particles made of biodegradable polymers that can protect drugs from degradation and enhance their accumulation in target tissues.
3. Dendrimers: highly branched macromolecules with a well-defined structure and size that can carry multiple drug molecules and facilitate their release.
4. Micelles: self-assembled structures formed by amphiphilic block copolymers that can solubilize hydrophobic drugs in water.
5. Inorganic nanoparticles: such as gold, silver, or iron oxide nanoparticles, that can be functionalized with drugs and targeting ligands for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
6. Cell-based carriers: living cells, such as red blood cells, stem cells, or immune cells, that can be loaded with drugs and used to deliver them to specific sites in the body.
7. Viral vectors: modified viruses that can infect cells and introduce genetic material encoding therapeutic proteins or RNA interference molecules.

The choice of drug carrier depends on various factors, such as the physicochemical properties of the drug, the route of administration, the target site, and the desired pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. Therefore, selecting an appropriate drug carrier is crucial for achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes and minimizing side effects.

Calcium phosphates are a group of minerals that are important components of bones and teeth. They are also found in some foods and are used in dietary supplements and medical applications. Chemically, calcium phosphates are salts of calcium and phosphoric acid, and they exist in various forms, including hydroxyapatite, which is the primary mineral component of bone tissue. Other forms of calcium phosphates include monocalcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate, and tricalcium phosphate, which are used as food additives and dietary supplements. Calcium phosphates are important for maintaining strong bones and teeth, and they also play a role in various physiological processes, such as nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction.

Dimethylpolysiloxanes are a type of silicone-based compound that are often used as lubricants, coatings, and fluid ingredients in various industrial and consumer products. In medical terms, they can be found in some pharmaceutical and medical device formulations as inactive ingredients. They are typically included as anti-foaming agents or to improve the texture and consistency of a product.

Dimethylpolysiloxanes are made up of long chains of silicon and oxygen atoms, with methyl groups (CH3) attached to the silicon atoms. This gives them unique properties such as low toxicity, thermal stability, and resistance to oxidation and water absorption. However, some people may have allergic reactions or sensitivities to dimethylpolysiloxanes, so they should be used with caution in medical applications.

Microfluidics is a multidisciplinary field that involves the study, manipulation, and control of fluids that are geometrically constrained to a small, typically sub-millimeter scale. It combines elements from physics, chemistry, biology, materials science, and engineering to design and fabricate microscale devices that can handle and analyze small volumes of fluids, often in the range of picoliters to microliters.

In medical contexts, microfluidics has numerous applications, including diagnostic testing, drug discovery, and personalized medicine. For example, microfluidic devices can be used to perform rapid and sensitive molecular assays for detecting pathogens or biomarkers in patient samples, as well as to screen drugs and evaluate their efficacy and toxicity in vitro.

Microfluidics also enables the development of organ-on-a-chip platforms that mimic the structure and function of human tissues and organs, allowing researchers to study disease mechanisms and test new therapies in a more physiologically relevant context than traditional cell culture models. Overall, microfluidics offers significant potential for improving healthcare outcomes by enabling faster, more accurate, and more cost-effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

Antimutagenic agents are substances that prevent or reduce the frequency of mutations in DNA, which can be caused by various factors such as radiation, chemicals, and free radicals. These agents work by preventing the formation of mutations or by repairing the damage already done to the DNA. They can be found naturally in foods, such as antioxidants, or they can be synthesized in a laboratory. Antimutagenic agents have potential use in cancer prevention and treatment, as well as in reducing the negative effects of environmental mutagens.

A dental restoration, permanent, is a type of dental treatment that involves the use of materials such as gold, silver amalgam, porcelain, or composite resin to repair and restore the function, form, and aesthetics of a damaged or decayed tooth. Unlike temporary restorations, which are meant to be replaced with a permanent solution, permanent restorations are designed to last for many years, if not a lifetime.

Examples of permanent dental restorations include:

1. Dental fillings: These are used to fill cavities caused by tooth decay. The decayed portion of the tooth is removed, and the resulting space is filled with a material such as amalgam, composite resin, or gold.
2. Inlays and onlays: These are similar to dental fillings but are made in a laboratory and then bonded to the tooth. They are used when there is not enough tooth structure left to support a filling.
3. Dental crowns: Also known as caps, these are used to cover and protect a tooth that has been damaged or weakened by decay, injury, or wear. The crown fits over the entire tooth, restoring its shape, size, and strength.
4. Dental bridges: These are used to replace one or more missing teeth. A bridge consists of one or more artificial teeth (pontics) that are held in place by crowns on either side.
5. Dental implants: These are used to replace missing teeth. An implant is a small titanium post that is surgically placed in the jawbone, where it functions as an anchor for a replacement tooth or bridge.

Permanent dental restorations are custom-made for each patient and require careful planning and preparation. They are designed to blend in with the surrounding teeth and provide a natural-looking appearance. With proper care and maintenance, these restorations can last for many years and help preserve the health and function of the teeth and mouth.

Acid etching in dental terminology refers to a surface treatment technique used in dentistry, particularly for bonding procedures. This process involves the application of a mild acid (usually phosphoric or maleic acid) onto the enamel or dentin surface of a tooth. The acid etches the surface by selectively removing the minerals and creating microscopic irregularities or porosities.

This etched surface provides an increased surface area and better mechanical retention for bonding agents, resin composites, or dental cements. As a result, the bond between the tooth and the restorative material becomes stronger and more durable. Acid etching is widely used in various dental procedures such as direct and indirect tooth-colored restorations, veneers, crowns, bridges, and orthodontic attachments.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Microtechnology" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Microtechnology generally refers to the development and application of technologies on a microscopic or tiny scale. It is used in various fields including engineering, physics, electronics, and materials science.

In the context of medicine, microtechnologies can be used in the development of medical devices, diagnostic tools, drug delivery systems, and other healthcare applications. For example, microfabrication techniques are used to create microfluidic devices for lab-on-a-chip applications, which can perform complex biochemical analyses for disease diagnosis or drug screening.

However, it's important to note that the application of microtechnologies in medicine is constantly evolving, and new developments and techniques are being explored all the time.

Gelatin is not strictly a medical term, but it is often used in medical contexts. Medically, gelatin is recognized as a protein-rich substance that is derived from collagen, which is found in the skin, bones, and connective tissue of animals. It is commonly used in the production of various medical and pharmaceutical products such as capsules, wound dressings, and drug delivery systems due to its biocompatibility and ability to form gels.

In a broader sense, gelatin is a translucent, colorless, flavorless food ingredient that is derived from collagen through a process called hydrolysis. It is widely used in the food industry as a gelling agent, thickener, stabilizer, and texturizer in various foods such as candies, desserts, marshmallows, and yogurts.

It's worth noting that while gelatin has many uses, it may not be suitable for vegetarians or those with dietary restrictions since it is derived from animal products.

Nanoparticles are defined in the field of medicine as tiny particles that have at least one dimension between 1 to 100 nanometers (nm). They are increasingly being used in various medical applications such as drug delivery, diagnostics, and therapeutics. Due to their small size, nanoparticles can penetrate cells, tissues, and organs more efficiently than larger particles, making them ideal for targeted drug delivery and imaging.

Nanoparticles can be made from a variety of materials including metals, polymers, lipids, and dendrimers. The physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles, such as size, shape, charge, and surface chemistry, can greatly affect their behavior in biological systems and their potential medical applications.

It is important to note that the use of nanoparticles in medicine is still a relatively new field, and there are ongoing studies to better understand their safety and efficacy.

Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are a group of disinfectants and antiseptics that contain a nitrogen atom surrounded by four organic groups, resulting in a charged "quat" structure. They are widely used in healthcare settings due to their broad-spectrum activity against bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. QACs work by disrupting the cell membrane of microorganisms, leading to their death. Common examples include benzalkonium chloride and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. It is important to note that some microorganisms have developed resistance to QACs, and they may not be effective against all types of pathogens.

Biocompatible coated materials refer to surfaces or substances that are treated or engineered with a layer or film designed to interact safely and effectively with living tissues or biological systems, without causing harm or adverse reactions. The coating material is typically composed of biomaterials that can withstand the conditions of the specific application while promoting a positive response from the body.

The purpose of these coatings may vary depending on the medical device or application. For example, they might be used to enhance the lubricity and wear resistance of implantable devices, reduce the risk of infection, promote integration with surrounding tissues, control drug release, or prevent the formation of biofilms.

Biocompatible coated materials must undergo rigorous testing and evaluation to ensure their safety and efficacy in various clinical settings. This includes assessing potential cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, sensitization, hemocompatibility, carcinogenicity, and other factors that could impact the body's response to the material.

Examples of biocompatible coating materials include:

1. Hydrogels: Cross-linked networks of hydrophilic polymers that can be used for drug delivery, tissue engineering, or as lubricious coatings on medical devices.
2. Self-assembling monolayers (SAMs): Organosilane or thiol-based molecules that form a stable, well-ordered film on surfaces, which can be further functionalized to promote specific biological interactions.
3. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG): A biocompatible polymer often used as a coating material due to its ability to reduce protein adsorption and cell attachment, making it useful for preventing biofouling or thrombosis on medical devices.
4. Bioactive glass: A type of biomaterial composed of silica-based glasses that can stimulate bone growth and healing when used as a coating material in orthopedic or dental applications.
5. Drug-eluting coatings: Biocompatible polymers impregnated with therapeutic agents, designed to release the drug over time to promote healing, prevent infection, or inhibit restenosis in various medical devices.

Denture cleansers are specialized cleaning products designed to clean and maintain dentures, which are removable artificial teeth. These products typically contain active ingredients that help break down and remove dental plaque, tartar, stains, and odors that can accumulate on dentures over time. Denture cleansers come in various forms, including:

1. Denture cleaning tablets or powders: Users dissolve these products in water and soak their dentures in the solution to clean them.
2. Denture cleaning pastes or gels: These are applied directly to the dentures and then brushed off with a soft toothbrush.
3. Denture cleaning foams: These are sprayed onto the dentures and then rinsed off after a short period of time.

It is essential to follow the manufacturer's instructions when using denture cleansers, as some products may not be suitable for specific types of dentures or materials. Additionally, it is recommended to clean dentures daily with a soft toothbrush and warm water, even when using denture cleansers, to ensure optimal oral hygiene.

Biomimetic materials are synthetic or natural substances that mimic the chemical, physical, and biological properties of living systems or tissues. These materials are designed to interact with cells, tissues, and organs in ways that resemble the body's own structures and processes. They can be used in a variety of medical applications, including tissue engineering, drug delivery, and medical devices.

Biomimetic materials may be composed of polymers, ceramics, metals, or composites, and they can be designed to have specific properties such as mechanical strength, biocompatibility, and degradability. They may also incorporate bioactive molecules, such as growth factors or drugs, to promote healing or prevent infection.

The goal of using biomimetic materials is to create medical solutions that are more effective, safer, and more compatible with the body than traditional synthetic materials. By mimicking the body's own structures and processes, these materials can help to reduce inflammation, promote tissue regeneration, and improve overall patient outcomes.

Viscosity is a physical property of a fluid that describes its resistance to flow. In medical terms, viscosity is often discussed in relation to bodily fluids such as blood or synovial fluid (found in joints). The unit of measurement for viscosity is the poise, although it is more commonly expressed in millipascals-second (mPa.s) in SI units. Highly viscous fluids flow more slowly than less viscous fluids. Changes in the viscosity of bodily fluids can have significant implications for health and disease; for example, increased blood viscosity has been associated with cardiovascular diseases, while decreased synovial fluid viscosity can contribute to joint pain and inflammation in conditions like osteoarthritis.

Para-aminobenzoates are a group of compounds that contain a para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) molecule. PABA is an organic compound that is related to benzoic acid and aminobenzoic acid. It is not an essential nutrient for humans, but it does play a role in the metabolism of certain bacteria.

Para-aminobenzoates are often used as ingredients in sunscreens because PABA absorbs ultraviolet (UV) light and can help protect the skin from sun damage. However, para-aminobenzoates can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions in some people, so they have largely been replaced by other UV-absorbing compounds in modern sunscreens.

In addition to their use in sunscreens, para-aminobenzoates are also used in the treatment of various medical conditions. For example, they may be used as a topical agent to treat fungal infections or as a systemic therapy to treat rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory conditions.

It is important to note that para-aminobenzoates should not be confused with paracetamol (also known as acetaminophen), which is a commonly used pain reliever and fever reducer. While both compounds contain the word "para," they are chemically distinct and have different uses in medicine.

In the context of medical and health sciences, particle size generally refers to the diameter or dimension of particles, which can be in the form of solid particles, droplets, or aerosols. These particles may include airborne pollutants, pharmaceutical drugs, or medical devices such as nanoparticles used in drug delivery systems.

Particle size is an important factor to consider in various medical applications because it can affect the behavior and interactions of particles with biological systems. For example, smaller particle sizes can lead to greater absorption and distribution throughout the body, while larger particle sizes may be filtered out by the body's natural defense mechanisms. Therefore, understanding particle size and its implications is crucial for optimizing the safety and efficacy of medical treatments and interventions.

Chitosan is a complex carbohydrate that is derived from the exoskeletons of crustaceans, such as shrimp and crabs. It is made up of chains of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine and d-glucosamine units. Chitosan has been studied for its potential medical and health benefits, including its ability to lower cholesterol levels, promote weight loss, and help control blood sugar levels. It is also used in wound care products due to its antibacterial and absorbent properties. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits and establish recommended dosages and safety guidelines.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Stainless Steel" is not a medical term. It is a type of steel that contains at least 10.5% chromium content by mass, and usually contains nickel as well. The chromium forms a passive film that protects the metal from corrosion and staining. Stainless steel is widely used in various industries including medicine, for example, in medical equipment and surgical instruments due to its resistance to rust and corrosion.

Hydrophobic interactions: These are the interactions that occur between non-polar molecules or groups of atoms in an aqueous environment, leading to their association or aggregation. The term "hydrophobic" means "water-fearing" and describes the tendency of non-polar substances to repel water. When non-polar molecules or groups are placed in water, they tend to clump together to minimize contact with the polar water molecules. These interactions are primarily driven by the entropy increase of the system as a whole, rather than energy minimization. Hydrophobic interactions play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as protein folding, membrane formation, and molecular self-assembly.

Hydrophilic interactions: These are the interactions that occur between polar molecules or groups of atoms and water molecules. The term "hydrophilic" means "water-loving" and describes the attraction of polar substances to water. When polar molecules or groups are placed in water, they can form hydrogen bonds with the surrounding water molecules, which helps solvate them. Hydrophilic interactions contribute to the stability and functionality of various biological systems, such as protein structure, ion transport across membranes, and enzyme catalysis.

Dental alloys are materials made by combining two or more metals to be used in dental restorations, such as crowns, bridges, fillings, and orthodontic appliances. These alloys can be classified into three main categories based on their composition:

1. Precious Alloys: Predominantly composed of precious metals like gold, platinum, palladium, and silver. They are highly corrosion-resistant, biocompatible, and durable, making them suitable for long-term use in dental restorations. Common examples include high noble (gold) alloys and noble alloys.
2. Base Metal Alloys: Contain primarily non-precious metals like nickel, chromium, cobalt, and beryllium. They are more affordable than precious alloys but may cause allergic reactions or sensitivities in some patients. Common examples include nickel-chromium alloys and cobalt-chromium alloys.
3. Castable Glass Ionomer Alloys: A combination of glass ionomer cement (GIC) powder and metal liquid, which can be cast into various dental restorations. They have the advantage of being both strong and adhesive to tooth structure but may not be as durable as other alloy types.

Each type of dental alloy has its unique properties and applications, depending on the specific clinical situation and patient needs. Dental professionals consider factors like cost, biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and esthetics when selecting an appropriate alloy for a dental restoration.

The crystalline lens of the eye is covered by a transparent, elastic capsule known as the lens capsule. This capsule is made up of collagen and forms the continuous outer layer of the lens. It is highly resistant to both physical and chemical insults, which allows it to protect the lens fibers within. The lens capsule is important for maintaining the shape and transparency of the lens, which are essential for proper focusing of light onto the retina.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Glutaral" does not seem to be a recognized medical term or abbreviation in healthcare and biomedical sciences. It is possible that you may be looking for information on "glutaraldehyde," which is a disinfectant and sterilizing agent used in medical settings.

Glutaraldehyde is a chemical compound with the formula C5H8O2, and it's often used as a 2% solution. It's an effective agent against bacteria, viruses, and fungi, making it useful for sterilizing medical equipment. However, glutaraldehyde can cause respiratory issues and skin irritation in some individuals, so proper handling and use are essential to minimize exposure.

If you meant to ask about a different term or if this answer does not address your question, please provide more context or clarify your request, and I will be happy to help further.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

In medicine, elasticity refers to the ability of a tissue or organ to return to its original shape after being stretched or deformed. This property is due to the presence of elastic fibers in the extracellular matrix of the tissue, which can stretch and recoil like rubber bands.

Elasticity is an important characteristic of many tissues, particularly those that are subjected to repeated stretching or compression, such as blood vessels, lungs, and skin. For example, the elasticity of the lungs allows them to expand and contract during breathing, while the elasticity of blood vessels helps maintain normal blood pressure by allowing them to expand and constrict in response to changes in blood flow.

In addition to its role in normal physiology, elasticity is also an important factor in the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions. For example, decreased elasticity in the lungs can be a sign of lung disease, while increased elasticity in the skin can be a sign of aging or certain genetic disorders. Medical professionals may use techniques such as pulmonary function tests or skin biopsies to assess elasticity and help diagnose these conditions.

Shear strength is a property of a material that describes its ability to withstand forces that cause internal friction and sliding of one portion of the material relative to another. In the context of human tissues, shear strength is an important factor in understanding how tissues respond to various stresses and strains, such as those experienced during physical activities or injuries.

For example, in the case of bones, shear strength is a critical factor in determining their ability to resist fractures under different types of loading conditions. Similarly, in soft tissues like ligaments and tendons, shear strength plays a crucial role in maintaining the integrity of these structures during movement and preventing excessive deformation or injury.

It's worth noting that measuring the shear strength of human tissues can be challenging due to their complex structure and anisotropic properties. As such, researchers often use specialized techniques and equipment to quantify these properties under controlled conditions in the lab.

Silicon dioxide is not a medical term, but a chemical compound with the formula SiO2. It's commonly known as quartz or sand and is not something that would typically have a medical definition. However, in some cases, silicon dioxide can be used in pharmaceutical preparations as an excipient (an inactive substance that serves as a vehicle or medium for a drug) or as a food additive, often as an anti-caking agent.

In these contexts, it's important to note that silicon dioxide is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, exposure to very high levels of respirable silica dust, such as in certain industrial settings, can increase the risk of lung disease, including silicosis.

Aluminum oxide is a chemical compound with the formula Al2O3. It is also known as alumina and it is a white solid that is widely used in various industries due to its unique properties. Aluminum oxide is highly resistant to corrosion, has a high melting point, and is an electrical insulator.

In the medical field, aluminum oxide is used in a variety of applications such as:

1. Dental crowns and implants: Aluminum oxide is used in the production of dental crowns and implants due to its strength and durability.
2. Orthopedic implants: Aluminum oxide is used in some types of orthopedic implants, such as knee and hip replacements, because of its biocompatibility and resistance to wear.
3. Medical ceramics: Aluminum oxide is used in the production of medical ceramics, which are used in various medical devices such as pacemakers and hearing aids.
4. Pharmaceuticals: Aluminum oxide is used as an excipient in some pharmaceutical products, such as tablets and capsules, to improve their stability and shelf life.
5. Medical research: Aluminum oxide is used in medical research, for example, as a substrate material for growing cells or as a coating material for medical devices.

It's important to note that while aluminum oxide has many useful applications in the medical field, exposure to high levels of aluminum can be harmful to human health. Therefore, it is important to use aluminum oxide and other aluminum-containing materials safely and according to established guidelines.

Tissue scaffolds, also known as bioactive scaffolds or synthetic extracellular matrices, refer to three-dimensional structures that serve as templates for the growth and organization of cells in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. These scaffolds are designed to mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) found in biological tissues, providing a supportive environment for cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation, and migration.

Tissue scaffolds can be made from various materials, including naturally derived biopolymers (e.g., collagen, alginate, chitosan, hyaluronic acid), synthetic polymers (e.g., polycaprolactone, polylactic acid, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)), or a combination of both. The choice of material depends on the specific application and desired properties, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, mechanical strength, and porosity.

The primary functions of tissue scaffolds include:

1. Cell attachment: Providing surfaces for cells to adhere, spread, and form stable focal adhesions.
2. Mechanical support: Offering a structural framework that maintains the desired shape and mechanical properties of the engineered tissue.
3. Nutrient diffusion: Ensuring adequate transport of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products throughout the scaffold to support cell survival and function.
4. Guided tissue growth: Directing the organization and differentiation of cells through spatial cues and biochemical signals.
5. Biodegradation: Gradually degrading at a rate that matches tissue regeneration, allowing for the replacement of the scaffold with native ECM produced by the cells.

Tissue scaffolds have been used in various applications, such as wound healing, bone and cartilage repair, cardiovascular tissue engineering, and neural tissue regeneration. The design and fabrication of tissue scaffolds are critical aspects of tissue engineering, aiming to create functional substitutes for damaged or diseased tissues and organs.

Nanofibers are defined in the medical field as fibrous structures with extremely small diameters, typically measuring between 100 nanometers to 1 micrometer. They can be made from various materials such as polymers, ceramics, or composites and have a high surface area-to-volume ratio, which makes them useful in a variety of biomedical applications. These include tissue engineering, drug delivery, wound healing, and filtration. Nanofibers can be produced using different techniques such as electrospinning, self-assembly, and phase separation.

In medicine, "absorption" refers to the process by which substances, including nutrients, medications, or toxins, are taken up and assimilated into the body's tissues or bloodstream after they have been introduced into the body via various routes (such as oral, intravenous, or transdermal).

The absorption of a substance depends on several factors, including its chemical properties, the route of administration, and the presence of other substances that may affect its uptake. For example, some medications may be better absorbed when taken with food, while others may require an empty stomach for optimal absorption.

Once a substance is absorbed into the bloodstream, it can then be distributed to various tissues throughout the body, where it may exert its effects or be metabolized and eliminated by the body's detoxification systems. Understanding the process of absorption is crucial in developing effective medical treatments and determining appropriate dosages for medications.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that provides information about the biochemical composition of tissues, including their metabolic state. It is often used in conjunction with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to analyze various metabolites within body tissues, such as the brain, heart, liver, and muscles.

During MRS, a strong magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer are used to produce detailed images and data about the concentration of specific metabolites in the targeted tissue or organ. This technique can help detect abnormalities related to energy metabolism, neurotransmitter levels, pH balance, and other biochemical processes, which can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, including cancer, neurological disorders, and metabolic diseases.

There are different types of MRS, such as Proton (^1^H) MRS, Phosphorus-31 (^31^P) MRS, and Carbon-13 (^13^C) MRS, each focusing on specific elements or metabolites within the body. The choice of MRS technique depends on the clinical question being addressed and the type of information needed for diagnosis or monitoring purposes.

Equipment Failure Analysis is a process of identifying the cause of failure in medical equipment or devices. This involves a systematic examination and evaluation of the equipment, its components, and operational history to determine why it failed. The analysis may include physical inspection, chemical testing, and review of maintenance records, as well as assessment of design, manufacturing, and usage factors that may have contributed to the failure.

The goal of Equipment Failure Analysis is to identify the root cause of the failure, so that corrective actions can be taken to prevent similar failures in the future. This is important in medical settings to ensure patient safety and maintain the reliability and effectiveness of medical equipment.

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a thermoanalytical technique used to measure the difference in the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a sample and a reference as a function of temperature. It is commonly used to study phase transitions, such as melting, crystallization, and glass transition, as well as chemical reactions, in a wide range of materials, including polymers, pharmaceuticals, and biological samples.

In DSC, the sample and reference are placed in separate pans and heated at a constant rate. The heat flow required to maintain this heating rate is continuously measured for both the sample and the reference. As the temperature of the sample changes during a phase transition or chemical reaction, the heat flow required to maintain the same heating rate will change relative to the reference. This allows for the measurement of the enthalpy change (ΔH) associated with the transition or reaction.

Differential scanning calorimetry is a powerful tool in materials science and research as it can provide information about the thermal behavior, stability, and composition of materials. It can also be used to study the kinetics of reactions and phase transitions, making it useful for optimizing processing conditions and developing new materials.

Solubility is a fundamental concept in pharmaceutical sciences and medicine, which refers to the maximum amount of a substance (solute) that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent (usually water) at a specific temperature and pressure. Solubility is typically expressed as mass of solute per volume or mass of solvent (e.g., grams per liter, milligrams per milliliter). The process of dissolving a solute in a solvent results in a homogeneous solution where the solute particles are dispersed uniformly throughout the solvent.

Understanding the solubility of drugs is crucial for their formulation, administration, and therapeutic effectiveness. Drugs with low solubility may not dissolve sufficiently to produce the desired pharmacological effect, while those with high solubility might lead to rapid absorption and short duration of action. Therefore, optimizing drug solubility through various techniques like particle size reduction, salt formation, or solubilization is an essential aspect of drug development and delivery.

A phase transition in the context of medicine and physiology often refers to the transformation of a substance or matter from one state to another within the body, typically in relation to temperature or pressure changes. However, I couldn't find a widely accepted medical definition for "phase transition."

In physics and chemistry, a phase transition is a process where a thermodynamic system changes from one phase or state of matter to another, such as:

1. Solid to liquid (melting)
2. Liquid to gas (vaporization)
3. Gas to liquid (condensation)
4. Solid to gas (sublimation)
5. Changes between different crystalline structures of the same substance (polymorphic phase transitions)

While not a direct medical definition, these concepts are relevant in various biochemical and physiological processes, such as protein folding, cell membrane fluidity, and temperature regulation in the body.

Biosensing techniques refer to the methods and technologies used to detect and measure biological molecules or processes, typically through the use of a physical device or sensor. These techniques often involve the conversion of a biological response into an electrical signal that can be measured and analyzed. Examples of biosensing techniques include electrochemical biosensors, optical biosensors, and piezoelectric biosensors.

Electrochemical biosensors measure the electrical current or potential generated by a biochemical reaction at an electrode surface. This type of biosensor typically consists of a biological recognition element, such as an enzyme or antibody, that is immobilized on the electrode surface and interacts with the target analyte to produce an electrical signal.

Optical biosensors measure changes in light intensity or wavelength that occur when a biochemical reaction takes place. This type of biosensor can be based on various optical principles, such as absorbance, fluorescence, or surface plasmon resonance (SPR).

Piezoelectric biosensors measure changes in mass or frequency that occur when a biomolecule binds to the surface of a piezoelectric crystal. This type of biosensor is based on the principle that piezoelectric materials generate an electrical charge when subjected to mechanical stress, and this charge can be used to detect changes in mass or frequency that are proportional to the amount of biomolecule bound to the surface.

Biosensing techniques have a wide range of applications in fields such as medicine, environmental monitoring, food safety, and biodefense. They can be used to detect and measure a variety of biological molecules, including proteins, nucleic acids, hormones, and small molecules, as well as to monitor biological processes such as cell growth or metabolism.

Nanotechnology is not a medical term per se, but it is a field of study with potential applications in medicine. According to the National Nanotechnology Initiative, nanotechnology is defined as "the understanding and control of matter at the nanoscale, at dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications."

In the context of medicine, nanotechnology has the potential to revolutionize the way we diagnose, treat, and prevent diseases. Nanomedicine involves the use of nanoscale materials, devices, or systems for medical applications. These can include drug delivery systems that target specific cells or tissues, diagnostic tools that detect biomarkers at the molecular level, and tissue engineering strategies that promote regeneration and repair.

While nanotechnology holds great promise for medicine, it is still a relatively new field with many challenges to overcome, including issues related to safety, regulation, and scalability.

Titanium is not a medical term, but rather a chemical element (symbol Ti, atomic number 22) that is widely used in the medical field due to its unique properties. Medically, it is often referred to as a biocompatible material used in various medical applications such as:

1. Orthopedic implants: Titanium and its alloys are used for making joint replacements (hips, knees, shoulders), bone plates, screws, and rods due to their high strength-to-weight ratio, excellent corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility.
2. Dental implants: Titanium is also commonly used in dental applications like implants, crowns, and bridges because of its ability to osseointegrate, or fuse directly with bone tissue, providing a stable foundation for replacement teeth.
3. Cardiovascular devices: Titanium alloys are used in the construction of heart valves, pacemakers, and other cardiovascular implants due to their non-magnetic properties, which prevent interference with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans.
4. Medical instruments: Due to its resistance to corrosion and high strength, titanium is used in the manufacturing of various medical instruments such as surgical tools, needles, and catheters.

In summary, Titanium is a chemical element with unique properties that make it an ideal material for various medical applications, including orthopedic and dental implants, cardiovascular devices, and medical instruments.

Tissue engineering is a branch of biomedical engineering that combines the principles of engineering, materials science, and biological sciences to develop functional substitutes for damaged or diseased tissues and organs. It involves the creation of living, three-dimensional structures that can restore, maintain, or improve tissue function. This is typically accomplished through the use of cells, scaffolds (biodegradable matrices), and biologically active molecules. The goal of tissue engineering is to develop biological substitutes that can ultimately restore normal function and structure in damaged tissues or organs.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Cell survival refers to the ability of a cell to continue living and functioning normally, despite being exposed to potentially harmful conditions or treatments. This can include exposure to toxins, radiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, or other stressors that can damage cells or interfere with their normal processes.

In scientific research, measures of cell survival are often used to evaluate the effectiveness of various therapies or treatments. For example, researchers may expose cells to a particular drug or treatment and then measure the percentage of cells that survive to assess its potential therapeutic value. Similarly, in toxicology studies, measures of cell survival can help to determine the safety of various chemicals or substances.

It's important to note that cell survival is not the same as cell proliferation, which refers to the ability of cells to divide and multiply. While some treatments may promote cell survival, they may also inhibit cell proliferation, making them useful for treating diseases such as cancer. Conversely, other treatments may be designed to specifically target and kill cancer cells, even if it means sacrificing some healthy cells in the process.

Histochemistry is the branch of pathology that deals with the microscopic localization of cellular or tissue components using specific chemical reactions. It involves the application of chemical techniques to identify and locate specific biomolecules within tissues, cells, and subcellular structures. This is achieved through the use of various staining methods that react with specific antigens or enzymes in the sample, allowing for their visualization under a microscope. Histochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to identify different types of tissues, cells, and structures, as well as in research to study cellular and molecular processes in health and disease.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

Monomers Methyl methacrylate Ethyl methacrylate Butyl methacrylate Hydroxyethyl methacrylate Glycidyl methacrylate This article ... Methacrylates are derivatives of methacrylic acid. These derivatives are mainly used to make poly(methyl methacrylate) and ...
These derivatives include ethyl methacrylate (EMA), butyl methacrylate (BMA) and 2-ethyl hexyl methacrylate (2-EHMA). ... ISBN 978-0-683-30247-9. "Mpausa - Methacrylates & Why They Are Important". "Methyl methacrylate". NIOSH Pocket ... Methyl methacrylate is also used for the production of the co-polymer methyl methacrylate-butadiene-styrene (MBS), used as a ... 1994 data Intox Cheminfo data Methacrylate Producers Association (MPA) National Pollutant Inventory - Methyl methacrylate fact ...
"2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate_msds". ChemSrc: A Smart Chem-Search Engine. "GPS Safety Summary 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA ... Kinetic investigations of radical polymerizations of pure 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and 2, 3-dihydroxypropyl methacrylate and ... Cole, Madison B.; Sykes, Stephen M. (1974). "Glycol Methacrylate in Light Microscopy a Routine Method for Embedding and ... Hydroxyethylmethacrylate (also known as glycol methacrylate) is the organic compound with the chemical formula H2C\dC(CH3) ...
Methyl methacrylate Butyl methacrylate Bauer, Jr., William (2002). "Methacrylic Acid and Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia ... Ethyl methacrylate is the organic compound with the formula C2H5O2CC(CH3)=CH2. A colorless liquid, it is a common monomer for ... The acute toxicity of the related butyl methacrylate is the LD50 is 20 g/kg (oral, rat). Acrylate esters irritate the eyes and ... Ethyl methacrylate was first obtained by treating 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid with phosphorus pentachloride in an apparent ...
... (GMA) is an ester of methacrylic acid and glycidol. Containing both an epoxide and an acrylate groups, ... Glycidyl methacrylate is produced by several companies worldwide, including Dow Chemical. It is used to prepare a range of ... Acrylate polymer Acrylate Methacrylate Dow Chemical Marketing Page, retrieved November 2015 Teng, Chih-Chun; Ma, ... While typical home epoxies contain diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA), glycidyl methacrylate is instead used to provide ...
... s are a group of polymeric compounds used as food additives. The E numbers are E1205, E1206, and E1207, ... "Scientific Opinion on the safety of neutral methacrylate copolymer for the proposed uses as a food additive". EFSA Journal. 8 ( ... "Scientific Opinion on the safety of anionic methacrylate copolymer for the proposed uses as a food additive". EFSA Journal. 8 ( ... "Scientific Opinion on the use of Basic Methacrylate Copolymer as a food additive". EFSA Journal. 8 (2): 1513. 2010. doi:10.2903 ...
... is the organic compound with the formula C4H9O2CC(CH3)=CH2. A colorless liquid, it is a common monomer for ... In terms of the acute toxicity of butyl methacrylate, the LD50 is 20 g/kg (oral, rat). It is an irritant to the eyes and can ... Methacrylic acid Methyl methacrylate Bauer, Jr., William (2002). "Methacrylic Acid and Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ... the preparation of methacrylate polymers. It is typically polymerized under free-radical conditions. ...
"poly(ethyl methacrylate) macromolecule (CHEBI:53221)". Retrieved 2019-05-01. "POLY(ETHYL METHACRYLATE)". www. ... Poly(ethyl methacrylate) (PEMA) is a hydrophobic synthetic acrylate polymer. It has properties similar to the more common PMMA ... "Poly(ethyl methacrylate) - Alfa Chemistry". Retrieved 2019-05-01. "Common Chemistry - Substance Details ... "CAS DataBase List POLY(ETHYL METHACRYLATE)". Retrieved 2019-11-20. Anusavice, Kenneth J. (2003). Phillips ...
... (PMMA) is the synthetic polymer derived from methyl methacrylate. It is used as an engineering ... "polymethyl methacrylate", Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, Elsevier "polymethyl methacrylate". Merriam-Webster ... Polymethyl methacrylate was discovered in the early 1930s by British chemists Rowland Hill and John Crawford at Imperial ... Methyl methacrylate "synthetic resin" for casting (simply the bulk liquid chemical) may be used in conjunction with a ...
This page provides supplementary chemical data on Methyl methacrylate. The handling of this chemical may incur notable safety ...
... methacrylate > maleimides > cyclopentadiene, imines, alkenes > alkynes Because the Diels-Alder reaction exchanges two π bonds ...
The activities of Röhm GmbH are focused on the development, production and distribution of methacrylate monomers, methacrylate ... Methyl methacrylate monomers of the Meracryl brand are also used in the manufacture of paints, floor coatings and adhesives ... Röhm also produces methacrylate resins under the Degalan, Degadur and Degaroute brands for the production of binders for paints ... "Leading supplier of Methacrylate chemicals worldwide - Röhm". "Auf dem Weg zur neuen Degussa - Evonik Industries". history. ...
... is a form of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). It is formed by casting the monomer, methyl methacrylate, mixed ... PMMA - PolyMethyl MethAcrylate. Crylux, Plexiglas, Acrylite, Lucite, and Perspex are trade names for Acrylic. General ...
"Poly(methyl methacrylate) , Designerdata". Li, Tian; Zhu, Mingwei; Yang, Zhi; Song, Jianwei; Dai, Jiaqi; Yao, Yonggang; Luo, ... methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and epoxy, at the cellular level, thereby rendering them transparent. As soon as released in ... Xuan Wang and his colleagues developed a new production method of infiltrating a prepolymerized methyl methacrylate (MMA) ...
"PERP Program - Methyl Methacrylate". Chemsystems. Archived from the original on 20 August 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2013. " ...
Temporal augmentation with methyl methacrylate. Aesthet Surg J. 2011 Sep;31(7):827-33. doi: 10.1177/1090820X11417425. PMID ...
... meth)acrylates, (meth)acrylamides, and acrylonitrile. ATRP is successful at leading to polymers of high number average ...
Polymerization of methyl methacrylates are only controlled by ditellurides. The importance of X to chain transfer increases in ... While high yields of macromonomers are possible with methacrylate monomers, low yields are obtained when using catalytic chain ... as photoiniferters in polymerization of styrene and methyl methacrylate. Their mechanism of control over polymerization is ... in the USSR it was found that cobalt porphyrins were able to reduce the molecular weight during polymerization of methacrylates ...
Polymerization of methyl methacrylates are only controlled by ditellurides. The importance of X to chain transfer increases in ... While high yields of macromonomers are possible with methacrylate monomers, low yields are obtained when using catalytic chain ... as photoiniferters in polymerization of styrene and methyl methacrylate. Their mechanism of control over polymerization is ... in the USSR it was found that cobalt porphyrins were able to reduce the molecular weight during polymerization of methacrylates ...
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He is the author of Living Anionic Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate, a book detailing his research on Living anionic ... M. G. Ohara, D. Baskaran and S. Sivaram (2008). "Synthesis of amphiphilic poly(methyl methacrylate-b-ethylene oxide) copolymers ... R. Gnaneshwar & S. Sivaram (2007). "End-Functional Poly (methyl methacrylate) s via Group Transfer Polymerization". J. Power ... Mahua Ganguly Dhara; Swaminathan Sivaram (2010). Living Anionic Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate. VDM Verlag. p. 188. ISBN ...
"Cell-laden microengineered gelatin methacrylate hydrogels". Biomaterials. 31 (21): 5536-5544. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials. ...
"Vaporized Solvent Bonding of Polymethyl Methacrylate". Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology. 30 (8): 826-841. doi:10.1080 ...
Examples of fillers used for this purpose include hyaluronic acid; poly(methyl methacrylate) microspheres with collagen; human ...
The contact dermatitis would be caused by in-ear headphones that contain gold, rubber, dyes, acrylates, or methacrylates. ... Chan, Justin; Rabi, Sina; Adler, Brandon L. (November 2021). "Allergic Contact Dermatitis to (Meth)Acrylates in Apple AirPods ...
For example, polystyrene-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) or PS-b-PMMA (where b = block) is usually made by first polymerizing ... The Copolymerization of Styrene and Methyl Methacrylate". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 66 (9): 1594-1601. doi:10.1021/ja01237a052. Cowie, ... styrene, and then subsequently polymerizing methyl methacrylate (MMA) from the reactive end of the polystyrene chains. This ...
The most common use for the material is to be copolymerized with other acrylate and methacrylate monomers to make emulsion and ... Hydroxyethyl)methacrylate Synthetic resin "2-Hydroxyethyl acrylate". PubChem. "2-Hydroxyethyl ... "The influence of hydrogen bonding on radical chain-growth parameters for butyl methacrylate/2-hydroxyethyl acrylate solution ...
CIM monoliths are made of porous methacrylate polymers composed of interconnected channels that range in size from 1-6 μm. It ... Smrekar, Franc; Ciringer, Mateja; Štrancar, Aleš; Podgornik, Aleš (2011). "Characterisation of methacrylate monoliths for ... 13.894940 BIA Separations is a biotechnology company focused on the production of methacrylate monolithic HPLC columns and ... "Adsorption behavior of large plasmids on the anion-exchange methacrylate monolithic columns". Journal of Chromatography A. 1218 ...
Glycidyl methacrylate is one such monomer used which then incorporates oxirane functionality into the polymer. This would then ... DMAEMA (dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) is another such species. Other innovative techniques for improving acrylic latices ...
... mainly for use as a solvent and for production of methyl methacrylate and bisphenol A, which are precursors to widely-used ... a precursor to methyl methacrylate. Acetone is a good solvent for many plastics and some synthetic fibers. It is used for ... Acetone is used to synthesize methyl methacrylate. It begins with the initial conversion of acetone to acetone cyanohydrin via ...
Monomers Methyl methacrylate Ethyl methacrylate Butyl methacrylate Hydroxyethyl methacrylate Glycidyl methacrylate This article ... Methacrylates are derivatives of methacrylic acid. These derivatives are mainly used to make poly(methyl methacrylate) and ...
139d) Foaming Using a Polystyrene / Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Blend and Nanocomposites. Conference ... methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), a PS/PMMA blend, and nanocomposites of these polymers. Batch foaming involved soaking the samples ...
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Evonik Industries expands the capacities for specialty methacrylates Evonik Industries, one of the worlds leading suppliers of ... At the production site in Mobile, Alabama, the capacity of methacrylate specialty esters will effectively be doubled. For the ... Evonik Industries produces and markets special methacrylic monomers, MMA, GMAA, n- and i-BMA and hydroxy methacrylates under ... methacrylate chemistry, is expanding the production capacity of methacrylate specialty esters in the USA and Germany, to meet ...
Polymethyl Methacrylate, Surgical Simplex Bone Cement, Ammonium Salt*Polymethyl Methacrylate, Surgical Simplex Bone Cement, ... "Polymethyl Methacrylate" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Polymethyl Methacrylate" by people in Harvard Catalyst ...
For glassy methacrylates, as the hydrogen bonding potential increases (C14DMA,TEGDMA,UDMA,GlyDMA), the increase in DC/VS@Rvmax ... 650 Conversion-dependent shrinkage in (meth)acrylates as a function of irradiance Friday, March 23, 2012: 8 a.m. - 9:30 a.m. ... Results: When comparing glassy x rubbery methacrylates of similar structure (TEGDMA x PEGDMA), Rvmax is similar at both ... meth)acrylates as a function of monomer reactivity, resulting network stiffness and hydrogen bonding potential.. Methods: ...
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... via graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA). The graft copolymerization was achieved successfully in latex stage ... Free-poly methyl methacrylate obtained after extraction with acetone in darkness for 24 hours and drying under reduced pressure ... S. Zhang, L. Cao, F. Shao, L. Chen, J. Jiao, and W. Gao, "Grafting of methyl methacrylate onto natural rubber in supercritical ... B. Wu, R. W. Lenz, and B. Hazer, "Polymerization of methyl methacrylate and its copolymerization with ε-caprolactone catalyzed ...
Methyl methacrylate/ acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (MABS) moulding and extrusion materials - Part 2: Preparation of test ... Methyl methacrylate/ acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (MABS) moulding and extrusion materials. Part 2: Preparation of test ...
The global polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) market size was valued at USD 5,419.3 million in 2022 and is expected to exhibit a ... Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) Market Size, Share & Trends Analysis Report By Form (Beads, Extruded Sheets), By Grade (General ...
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Methyl Methacrylate Adhesives (MMAs). Bostiks SAF & FIT range of innovative structural Methyl Methacrylate Adhesives also ... For which applications Structural Methyl Methacrylate Adhesives are designed?. Bostiks methyl methacrylate structural adhesive ... Methyl Methacrylate Adhesives: Featured Products. Battery-Pack-Cutaway_Pouch-cell-configuration_Battery-pack-Assembly_Battery- ... Methacrylate adhesives are used in a wide range of assembly and manufacturing operations. They are uniquely formulated to bond ...
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Rahmani-Monfard, K., Fathi, A. & Rabiee, S.M. Three-dimensional laser drilling of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) scaffold used ... This study aims to present a newly developed pre-defined three-dimensional polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) scaffold fabricated ... Three-dimensional laser drilling of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) scaffold used for bone regeneration. *ORIGINAL ARTICLE ... methyl methacrylate) and bioactivity. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 76:326-333 ...
Abstract: D05.00004 : Influence of Poly(methyl methacrylate) Inclusion on Ion Dynamics and Conduction Mechanism of Imidazolium ... Our previous studies on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-grafted nanoparticles in 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis( ...
... butyrolactone methacrylate (HGBMA) and 2-methyl-2-adamantyl methacrylate (MadMA) was investigated. The sensitivity is strongly ... Effect of end group structures of methacrylate polymers on ArF photoresist performances Author(s): Hikaru Momose; Shigeo ...
... Seafood Box 2kg Methacrylate Insert (Single) by 100% Chef, 1 ... Material: Methacrylate. Units per box: 1. Dimensions: 27.5 x 19 x 7 cm ...
This shift in the landscape from methacrylate-based composites has fueled the quest for versatile methacrylate-silorane ... In the neat methacrylate formulations, the maximum rates of free-radical polymerization with EDMAB or TTMSS were 0.28 or 0.06 s ... Song, L., Ye, Q., Ge, X., Singh, V., Misra, A., Laurence, J. S., … Spencer, P. (2016). Development of methacrylate/silorane ... Development of methacrylate/silorane hybrid monomer system: Relationship between photopolymerization behavior and dynamic ...
2-[(2-Bromo-2-methylpropanoyl)oxy]ethyl Methacrylate
Return to Article Details Low loss poly(methyl methacrylate) useful in polymer optical fibres technology Download Download PDF ...
Polymerization shrinkage in Methacrylate-based composite is one of the most important factors in composite restorations failure ... Keywords: Polymerization, Composite Resin, Silorane, Methacrylate, LED Dental Curing Lights Full-Text [PDF 238 kb] (3123 ... Background and Aims: Polymerization shrinkage in Methacrylate-based composite is one of the most important factors in composite ... Pahlavan A, Hasani Tabatabaei M, Arami S, Ataie M, Valizadeh S. Comparison of Polymerization Shrinkage in Methacrylate and ...
Comparison of Temperature Rise in Silorane-Based and Methacrylate-Based Composites Cured by LED and Argon Laser ... Conclusion : Silorane-based composites showed higher temperature rise than methacrylate-based ones. Argon laser revealed less ... Tempera-ture changes in silorane-, ormocer-, and di-methacrylate -based composites and Pulp chamber roof during light-curing. J ... Comparison of Temperature Rise in Silorane-Based and Methacrylate-Based Composites Cured by LED and Argon Laser. J Iran Dent ...
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HA-Methacrylate with lower or higher methacrylate substitution ratio (e.g. 1% and 10%) may be offered through custom synthesis ... Hyaluronic Acid is functionalized with polymerizable methacrylate groups. Purity: ,95% powder. Standard Degree of substitution ...
Polymethyl Methacrylate, Surgical Simplex Bone Cement, Ammonium Salt*Polymethyl Methacrylate, Surgical Simplex Bone Cement, ... "Polymethyl Methacrylate" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Polymethyl Methacrylate" by people in this website by year, ...
  • Specifically, this study analyzes batch foaming of the following materials: pure polystyrene (PS), pure poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), a PS/PMMA blend, and nanocomposites of these polymers. (
  • Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is an amorphous transparent thermoplastic polymer. (
  • This study aims to present a newly developed pre-defined three-dimensional polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) scaffold fabricated via CO 2 laser drilling technique. (
  • Our previous studies on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-grafted nanoparticles in 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide (HMIM-TFSI) showed that polymer-ionic liquid interactions influence the solvation and dynamics of ionic liquid. (
  • Poly ( methyl methacrylate ) ( PMMA ) is the synthetic polymer derived from methyl methacrylate . (
  • What is Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA, acrylic glass) and what is it used for? (
  • We report impact ionisation spectra from spherical poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microparticles of 724?nm diameter impacting a rhodium target. (
  • Due to its increasing use in the production of domes used in the building and construction sector and its numerous benefits, including UV resistance, high transparency, and surface hardness, the market value of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is anticipated to increase. (
  • Monomers Methyl methacrylate Ethyl methacrylate Butyl methacrylate Hydroxyethyl methacrylate Glycidyl methacrylate This article includes a list of related items that share the same name (or similar names). (
  • Do you have questions related to customer service and order process for VISIOMER Methacrylate monomers? (
  • Light curable antibacterial, dental composite restoration materials, consisting of 80 wt% of a strontium fluoroaluminosilicate glass dispersed in methacrylate monomers have been produced. (
  • In the present work, we have functionalized isosorbide 5-methacrylate with various aromatic lignin-inspired esters to yield a series of isosorbide-2-aryl carboxylate-5-methacrylate monomers (ArIMAs) as single regioisomers. (
  • These derivatives are mainly used to make poly(methyl methacrylate) and related polymers. (
  • Polymerizations were carried out by conventional free radical initiation to obtain the corresponding high molecular-weight poly(aryl carboxylate isosorbide methacrylate)s (PArIMAs). (
  • Polymethyl Methacrylate" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Polymethyl Methacrylate" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Polymethyl Methacrylate" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Polymethyl Methacrylate" by people in Profiles. (
  • Polymethyl methacrylate was discovered in the early 1930s by British chemists Rowland Hill and John Crawford at Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) in the United Kingdom. (
  • Styrene methyl methacrylate copolymers are clear, rigid, amorphous polymers that offer extreme clarity and transparency, excellent flow properties for processing, medical and food contact approvals and excellent property retention after sterilization. (
  • Glycidyl methacrylate is used as an important component of many polymers and resins. (
  • It is formed when a copolymer of methyl methacrylate (an organic ester) is crosslinked with glycol dimethacrylate (Wikipedia). (
  • Methacrylates are derivatives of methacrylic acid. (
  • Methyl Methacrylate is a methyl ester of methacrylic acid. (
  • The reaction between methacrylic acid and methanol results in the ester methyl methacrylate. (
  • Bostik's SAF & FIT range of innovative structural Methyl Methacrylate Adhesives also referred to MMA adhesives, are two-part reactive acrylic adhesives. (
  • For which applications Structural Methyl Methacrylate Adhesives are designed? (
  • The 'Global Methyl Methacrylate Adhesives Market Size , Share, Analysis, Trends, Report and Forecast 2023-2028' by Expert Market Research gives an extensive outlook of the global methyl methacrylate adhesives market, assessing the market on the basis of its segments like product, end-use, and major regions. (
  • The global methyl methacrylate adhesives market is anticipated to be driven by the rising demand from the automotive industry for these adhesives due to their versatility in bonding with different substrates. (
  • Methyl methacrylate adhesives have seen a notable rise in use in the automotive industry due to their desirable properties, such as fatigue resistance, excellent impact and peel strength, high-tension strength, temperature resistance, high toughness and flexibility, propelling the market demand for these products worldwide. (
  • Additionally, the growing demand for methyl methacrylate adhesives in the wind energy sector is anticipated to propel the global methyl methacrylate adhesives market due to its high temperature, electrical insulation, and resistance. (
  • However, the global market for methyl methacrylate adhesives is being constrained by factors including the fluctuating price of raw materials. (
  • The growing demand for methyl methacrylate adhesives in the building and construction sector is a key trend anticipated to drive the methyl methacrylate adhesives market in the future due to their qualities including great durability and weather resistance. (
  • The methyl methacrylate adhesives market is also booming due to the increased need for lightweight, streamlined solutions as well as their enhanced compatibility with metals and other speciality substrates. (
  • Evonik Industries, one of the world's leading suppliers of methacrylate chemistry, is expanding the production capacity of methacrylate specialty esters in the USA and Germany, to meet the increasing demand of the market. (
  • At the production site in Mobile, Alabama, the capacity of methacrylate specialty esters will effectively be doubled. (
  • SCIGRIP® SG5000 High Performance Methacrylate Adhesives are fast curing, low viscosity materials for bonding metals, plastics and composites. (
  • Methacrylate adhesives are used in a wide range of assembly and manufacturing operations. (
  • SAF 30-5 is made of patented methacrylate adhesives and shows unmatched performance in term of resistance and flexibility. (
  • This shift in the landscape from methacrylate-based composites has fueled the quest for versatile methacrylate-silorane adhesives. (
  • Methyl methacrylate (MMA) adhesives are a type of reactive acrylic adhesives that typically contain an initiator and resin or a hardener and resin. (
  • Artificial fingernail products are made from many chemicals, but the main one in most of these products is ethyl methacrylate (EMA). (
  • Methyl methacrylate is also used for the production of the co-polymer methyl methacrylate-butadiene-styrene (MABS), used as a modifier for PVC. (
  • During the follow-up site visit, PBZ air samples were collected for total and respirable particulate, styrene, alpha-methyl styrene, and methyl methacrylate. (
  • Respirable particulate, alpha-methyl styrene, and methyl methacrylate air sample concentrations were all below relevant evaluation criteria. (
  • 2-Hydroxypropyl methacrylate is a monofunctional methacrylic monomer used in UV-curable inks and coatings. (
  • 1-Methylcylohexantyl methacrylate [76392-14-8] is used as Photoresist monomer. (
  • This one-hundred-and-twenty-fifth volume of the IARC Monographs contains evaluations of the carcinogenic hazard to humans of five High Production Volume chemicals: al yl chloride, 1-bromo-3-chloropropane, 1-butyl glycidyl ether, 4-chlorobenzotrifluoride, and glycidyl methacrylate. (
  • data that was included in the monographs on Owing to its interesting chemical and phys- glycidyl methacrylate, 1-bromo-3-chloropro- ical properties, glycidyl methacrylate is currently pane, and 1-butyl glycidyl ether. (
  • Glycidyl methacrylate is a member of a family IARC (1985). (
  • 3864739 and metabolite of glycidyl methacrylate that IARC (1987). (
  • Methyl methacrylate (C5H8O2) is used in the manufacture of resins and plastics, and as an enteric coating for tablet medications. (
  • Pahlavan A, Hasani Tabatabaei M, Arami S, Ataie M, Valizadeh S. Comparison of Polymerization Shrinkage in Methacrylate and Silorane-Based Composites Cured by different LEDs. (
  • 0.001) Silorane-based composites showed significantly higher temperature rise than methacrylate-based ones. (
  • However where the temperature is low but the need for a seamless, colourful and durable resin finish is high, then specialist methyl methacrylate (MMA) solutions tailored to the location's temperature can be utilised to create the desired finish. (
  • Methyl methacrylate is a reactive resin, and the polymerized form is used as cement in dentistry, orthopaedic surgery and ophthalmology. (
  • The relationship between the sensitivity of ArF photoresist and the end group structures of copolymers consisting of (beta) -hydroxy-(gamma) -butyrolactone methacrylate (HGBMA) and 2-methyl-2-adamantyl methacrylate (MadMA) was investigated. (
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the polymerization behavior and structure/property relationships of methacrylate-silorane hybrid systems. (
  • The phase separation phenomenon may be attributed to differences in the rates of free-radical polymerization of methacrylates and cationic ring-opening polymerization of silorane. (
  • Silorane-based composite (P90) showed significantly less polymerization shrinkage than that of methacrylate-based composite (Z250). (
  • Methods: Circular specimens (5 x 2 mm) were manufactured from methacrylate and silorane composite resins, and light-cured at 19.8, 27.8, 39.6, and 55.6 J/cm2, using second-generation LED at 1,390 mW/cm2. (
  • When comparing glassy x rubbery methacrylates of similar structure (TEGDMA x PEGDMA), Rv max is similar at both irradiances, but TEGDMA presents much greater DC/VS@Rv max as irradiance decreases than does the rubbery polymer, pointing to the much greater free volume entrapment at higher irradiances for glassy networks. (
  • Methyl Methacrylate Crosspolymer is a film former used in cosmetics and beauty products, as well as a viscosity increasing agent, according to research. (
  • In 1974 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration outlawed a similar chemical, methyl methacrylate (MMA), used in fingernail products. (
  • Pill-form methacrylate bases of different sizes for all types of miniatures and wargames. (
  • Using a methyl methacrylate (MMA) catalyst, the Flowfast material is able to speed up the floor's rate of cure , making it an excellent choice for refurbishment projects, shop fit-outs or even fast-paced new build developments. (
  • Chlorhexidine-releasing methacrylate dental composite materials. (
  • Methyl Methacrylate Crosspolymer is considered a safe filler in cosmetics and beauty products and was given a safety rating of 100% by the EWG. (
  • HA-Methacrylate with lower or higher methacrylate substitution ratio (e.g. 1% and 10%) may be offered through custom synthesis service. (
  • In this study, we investigated the improvement of the thermal and mechanical properties of Vietnam deproteinized natural rubber (DPNR) via graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA). (
  • Measures Methyl Methacrylate With a Range of 10-500 ppm. (
  • The long downtime periods and snail's pace construction schedules caused by waiting for a floor to fully cure can be consigned to the past thanks to the Flowfast range of methyl methacrylate (MMA) enhanced floors. (
  • Transparent and red methacrylate champagne and ice bucket in irregular shapes. (
  • About the same time, chemist and industrialist Otto Röhm of Röhm and Haas AG in Germany attempted to produce safety glass by polymerizing methyl methacrylate between two layers of glass. (