Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Mice, Inbred BALB CMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mice, Inbred C57BLSignal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Genes, MHC Class I: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., B loci (chicken), DLA (dog), GPLA (guinea pig), H-2 (mouse), RT-1 (rat), HLA-A, -B, and -C class I genes of man.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site: An uncommon variant of CHORIOCARCINOMA. It is composed almost entirely of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts (TROPHOBLASTS). Because its secretion of hCG (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN) is low, a large tumor may develop before the hCG can be detected.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Mice, Inbred CBATumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Mice, Inbred C3HMice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.B-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Palatine Tonsil: A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cell SeparationNeoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating: Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed: Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Mitogens: Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Wilms Tumor: A malignant kidney tumor, caused by the uncontrolled multiplication of renal stem (blastemal), stromal (STROMAL CELLS), and epithelial (EPITHELIAL CELLS) elements. However, not all three are present in every case. Several genes or chromosomal areas have been associated with Wilms tumor which is usually found in childhood as a firm lump in a child's side or ABDOMEN.Lymphocyte Cooperation: T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Melanoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.Carcinoid Tumor: A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Tumor Microenvironment: The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Immunoglobulin D: An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.Neuroendocrine Tumors: Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Rosette Formation: The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Phytohemagglutinins: Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-alpha) binding protein is a monoclonal antibody or a circulating receptor such as infliximab ( ... The IL-2a (CD25, T-cell activation antigen, TAC) is expressed only by the already-activated T lymphocytes. Therefore, it is of ... It is known that the molecule binds TCR/CD3 receptor complex. In the first few administrations this binding non-specifically ... The cross-binding of CD3 molecules as well activates an intracellular signal causing the T cell anergy or apoptosis, unless the ...
... mediated tumor regression. In 2010 administration of lymphocytes genetically engineered to express a chimeric antibody receptor ... Cancer-testis antigens are a family of intracellular proteins that are expressed during fetal development, but with little ... The latter targets the epsilon subunit within the human CD3 complex of the TCR. 5-6 weeks after resecting the tumor, up to 1011 ... Neither tumor bulk nor metastasis site affect the likelihood of achieving a complete cancer regression. Of 34 complete ...
... has been shown to interact with: Lymphocyte antigen 96, Myd88, and TOLLIP. Nickel, Intracellular trafficking of TLR4 is ... to tumor-promoting microenvironment. Upon LPS recognition, conformational changes in the TLR4 receptors result in recruitment ... The activation of NF-κB via TAK-1 is complex, and it starts by the assembly of a protein complex called the signalosome, which ... "Possible involvement of toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor-2 activity of opioid inactive isomers causes spinal ...
The antigen receptor and signal protein form a stable complex, named BCR or TCR, in B or T cells, respectively. The family Src ... The differentiation of B cells to plasma cells is also an example of a signal mechanism in lymphocytes, induced by a cytokine ... There are evidences that these cells promote tumor growth and metastasis. The oocyte is the female cell involved in ... In the first one, first messenger cross through the cell membrane, binding and activating intracellular receptors localized at ...
... was first identified as a tumor antigen on human ovarian cancer in the 1980s. Since then, CD47 has been found to be ... Blocking CD47 function has been shown to inhibit migration and metastasis in a variety of tumor models. Blockade of CD47 by ... Expression in equine cutaneous tumors has been reported as well. CD47 is a 50 kDa membrane receptor that has extracellular N- ... CD47 (Cluster of Differentiation 47) also known as integrin associated protein (IAP) is a transmembrane protein that in humans ...
Scholler JK, Perez-Villar JJ, O'Day K, Kanner SB (August 2000). "Engagement of the T lymphocyte antigen receptor regulates ... intracellular. Biological process. • intracellular signal transduction. • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in ... Researchers studying PLCg1 and its role in breast cancer metastasis discovered this gene can promote cancer metastasis and ... Non-receptor tyrosine kinases interact with PLCG1 in large complexes at the plasma membrane. For example, in T cells, Lck and ...
MHC class-I-chain-related gene A (MICA) has also been proposed as an important tumor antigen recognized by Vδ1+ T cells. ... that are widely used to treat osteoporosis and bone metastases, and incidentally act as Vγ9/Vδ2 T cell receptor agonists. ... only address facets of their complex behavior. In fact, gamma delta T cells form an entire lymphocyte system that develops ... But in the case of a low γδ T-APC: CD4+ ratio it leads to differentiation of some naïve αβ T cells into Th2 (IL-4) or Th0 (IL-4 ...
For example, the T-cell antigen receptor leads to intracellular signalling by activation of Lck and Fyn, two proteins that are ... The cells of these tumors have a growth factor receptor associated with tyrosine kinase activity. This growth factor receptor ... Internalized signaling complexes are involved in different roles in different receptor tyrosine kinase systems, the specifics ... New lesions did not appear, and a number of the liver metastases completely reduced to non-existence. The single patient in the ...
The receptor for Interleukin-4 is known as the IL-4Rα. This receptor exists in 3 different complexes throughout the body. Type ... how can the same cytokine improve or impair control of tumour growth?". Tissue Antigens. 69 (4): 293-8. doi:10.1111/j.1399- ... The interleukin 4 (IL4, IL-4) is a cytokine that induces differentiation of naive helper T cells (Th0 cells) to Th2 cells. Upon ... IL-4 also has been shown to drive mitogenesis, dedifferentiation, and metastasis in rhabdomyosarcoma. IL-4, along with other ...
CD4 and CD8 receptors on T lymphocytes require for their signaling the Src family member Lck. When antigen binds to T-cell ... formation of metastasis and tumor neovascularization. The inhibition of nRTKs could help to a treatment of these tumors. Some ... This targeted therapy blocks intracellular processes involved in the tumor transformation of cells and / or maintenance of ... Non-receptor tyrosine kinases regulate cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, migration and apoptosis, and they ...
... to assist signaling from the T cell receptor (TCR) complex. When the T cell receptor is engaged by the specific antigen ... Summy JM, Gallick GE (Dec 2003). "Src family kinases in tumor progression and metastasis". Cancer Metastasis Reviews. 22 (4): ... cytokines such as Interleukin-2 that promote long-term proliferation and differentiation of the activated lymphocytes. The ... Lck acts to phosphorylate the intracellular chains of the CD3 and ζ-chains of the TCR complex, allowing another cytoplasmic ...
... and tumor metastasis. CD44 is a receptor for hyaluronic acid and can also interact with other ligands, such as osteopontin, ... "Intracellular osteopontin is an integral component of the CD44-ERM complex involved in cell migration". Journal of Cellular ... lymphocyte homing receptor, ECM-III, and HUTCH-1. CD44 is expressed in a large number of mammalian cell types. The standard ... The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. In humans, the ...
Helper T cells express T cell receptors (TCR) that recognize antigen bound to Class II MHC molecules. The MHC:antigen complex ... Boon T, van der Bruggen P (Mar 1996). "Human tumor antigens recognized by T lymphocytes". The Journal of Experimental Medicine ... the tumor and a cytokine produced by macrophages induces tumor cells to decrease production of a protein that blocks metastasis ... Some examples of intracellular pathogens include viruses, the food poisoning bacterium Salmonella and the eukaryotic parasites ...
... tumor - tumor antigen vaccine - tumor board review - tumor burden - tumor debulking - tumor infiltrating lymphocyte - tumor ... bone metastases - bone scan - bone-seeking radioisotope - Boron neutron capture therapy - boronophenylalanine-fructose complex ... human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 - human leukocyte antigen - human lymphocyte antigen - human papillomavirus - human T- ... intracellular - intracolonic - intracranial tumor - intradermal - intraductal carcinoma - intraepithelial - intrahepatic - ...
... is an adaptor protein that bridges members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, such as the Fas-receptor, to ... an intracellular mediator of lymphocyte apoptosis". Journal of Immunology. 157 (12): 5461-5466. PMID 8955195. Huang B, ... FADD is essential for T cell proliferation when the T cell receptor is stimulated by antigen. In contrast, FADD has no effect ... Micheau, O.; Tschopp, J. (2003). "Induction of TNF receptor I-mediated apoptosis via two sequential signaling complexes". Cell ...
"New intriguing roles of ATP and its receptors in promoting tumor metastasis". Purinergic Signalling. 9 (4): 487-490. doi: ... differentiation, function, and death. The activation of the adenosine A1 receptor is required for osteoclast differentiation ... The purinergic signalling complex of a cell is sometimes referred to as the "purinome". Purinergic receptors, represented by ... The P2RY1 receptor is responsible for shape change in platelets, increased intracellular calcium levels and transient platelet ...
"Intracellular substrates of brain-enriched receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase rho (RPTPrho/PTPRT)". Brain Research 1116 (1 ... "ErbB-beta-catenin complexes are associated with human infiltrating ductal breast and murine mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-Wnt-1 ... "The epidermal growth factor receptor regulates interaction of the human DF3/MUC1 carcinoma antigen with c-Src and beta-catenin ... "The role of β-catenin in signal transduction, cell fate determination and trans-differentiation" en nih.gov ...
Cancer cells use selectins, chemokines and their receptors for invasion, migration and metastasis. On the other hand, many ... Upregulation of anti-inflammatory molecules such as the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist or the soluble tumor necrosis factor ... "Sex steroid receptors in skeletal differentiation and epithelial neoplasia: is tissue-specific intervention possible?". ... Inflammation (from Latin inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as ...
β-catenin is a subunit of the cadherin protein complex and acts as an intracellular signal transducer in the Wnt signaling ... "The epidermal growth factor receptor regulates interaction of the human DF3/MUC1 carcinoma antigen with c-Src and beta-catenin ... "ErbB-beta-catenin complexes are associated with human infiltrating ductal breast and murine mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-Wnt-1 ... In other cell types and developmental stages, β-catenin may promote differentiation, especially towards mesodermal cell ...
T cells that express the T cell receptor which recognizes the antigen-MHCII complex (with co-stimulatory factors- CD40 and ... "Macrophage diversity enhances tumor progression and metastasis". Cell. 141 (1): 39-51. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.03.014. PMC ... "The lymphocyte story". New Scientist (1605). Retrieved 2007-09-13.. *^ a b c d e Hesketh M, Sahin KB, West ZE, Murray RZ (July ... As a host for intracellular pathogensEdit. In their role as a phagocytic immune cell macrophages are responsible for engulfing ...
Isolation of T-lymphocyte lines specific for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from thymuses of myasthenic patients., 81. ... Douglas Symmers, FROM THE PATHOLOGICAL LABORATORIES OF BELLEVUE HOSPITAL, Malignant Tumors and Tumor-like Growths of the Thymic ... Autoreactive thymic B cells are efficient antigen-presenting cells of cognate self-antigens for T cell negative selection., 110 ... Moriguchi S, Miwa H, Okamura M, Maekawa K, Kishino Y, Maeda K., Vitamin E is an important factor in T cell differentiation in ...
An effector of the TGFbeta receptor, Smad3, may interact directly with APC subunit APC10 and thus recruit the APC complex. CDH1 ... "Overexpression of forkhead box C1 promotes tumor metastasis and indicates poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma". ... NEDD9 is involved in chemokine-induced T cell migration and T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated integrin activation. In lymphocytes ... in a cytoskeleton-dependent signaling pathway initiated by ligation of integrin or antigen receptor on human B cells". J. Biol ...
Beavon IR (August 2000). "The E-cadherin-catenin complex in tumour metastasis: structure, function and regulation". European ... Lymphocyte homing receptor: CD44. *L-selectin. *integrin (VLA-4, LFA-1). *Carcinoembryonic antigen ... Besco JA, Hooft van Huijsduijnen R, Frostholm A, Rotter A (October 2006). "Intracellular substrates of brain-enriched receptor ... Proteins: clusters of differentiation (see also list of human clusters of differentiation) ...
... it has been known that platelet facilitates tumor metastasis by forming complexes with tumor cells and leukocytes in the ... Lymphocyte homing receptor: CD44. *L-selectin. *integrin (VLA-4, LFA-1). *Carcinoembryonic antigen ... Proteins: clusters of differentiation (see also list of human clusters of differentiation) ... calcium-mediated signaling using intracellular calcium source. • positive regulation of platelet activation. • leukocyte ...
For the majority of TLR receptors, dimerization is a prerequisite to facilitate MyD88-TLR complex formation and subsequent ... ... A Novel Mechanism of Tumour Cell Drug Resistance Induced by the Programmed Death-Ligand 1 (PD-L1) Immune Checkpoint  Sanwalka ... O antigen biosynthesis in Gram-negative bacteria: Characterization of alpha1,4-glucosyltransferase WclY from Escherichia coli ... Calpains are multi-domain intracellular Ca2+-activated cysteine proteases. They participate in a number of cellular processes ...
CD antibodies are used widely for research, immunotherary, tumor and drug target. ... CD antigens found in various immune cell populations like B cells, T cells, Dendritic cells and NK cells.CD antigens can act in ... lot of ways, like as recepters or ligands in terms of physiology.As a siganl, CD antigens is usually initiated, altering the ... What are CD antigens or clusters of differentiation ? ... CD14 antigens. LPS-R. Receptor for complex of LPS and LBP. CD15 ...
Intracellular tumor-associated antigens represent effective targets for passive immunotherapy. Cancer Res 2012;72:1672-82. ... 5 and 6 in Table 2). Although it is intriguing that disturbance to B-lymphocyte receptor signaling is implicated as well ( ... ultimately facilitating metastasis (44). Moreover, integrin αMβ2 is involved in monocyte development and differentiation (45). ... in the face of proactive tumor efforts to hide foreign antigens through underexpressing major histocompability complex class I ...
The B lymphocyte antigen receptor is a multimeric complex that includes the antigen-specific component, surface immunoglobulin ... CD79a myeloid cells showed enhanced ability to promote primary tumor growth and metastasis. ... signaling pathways from intracellular compartments ... cell differentiation. * The direct recruitment of BLNK (zeige ... The B lymphocyte antigen receptor is a multimeric complex that includes the antigen-specific component, surface immunoglobulin ...
aIIbß3, have been reported to be potent inhibitors of platelet aggregation and tumor cell metastasis (29,30). Disintegrins, ... a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, interacts with a pool of intracellular signaling proteins, including c-Src, ... Adhesion of T lymphocytes to ECM proteins also provides the intrinsic signals needed to direct and coordinate the T cell ... 6. Shen TL & Guan JL (2001). Differential regulation of cell migration and cell cycle progression by FAK complexes with Src, ...
A TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-alpha) binding protein is a monoclonal antibody or a circulating receptor such as infliximab ( ... The IL-2a (CD25, T-cell activation antigen, TAC) is expressed only by the already-activated T lymphocytes. Therefore, it is of ... It is known that the molecule binds TCR/CD3 receptor complex. In the first few administrations this binding non-specifically ... The cross-binding of CD3 molecules as well activates an intracellular signal causing the T cell anergy or apoptosis, unless the ...
Cryo-conserved tumor specimens from 45 patients with early colorectal cancers were examined, with the majority of them being ... could be well predicted by a set of gene expression markers consisting exclusively of genes related to the MHC class II complex ... we selected a signature of 44 probes that discriminated between patients developing later metastasis and patients with a good ... up to now gene signatures containing genes with various biological functions have been described for prediction of metastasis ...
TGF-β impairs tumor recognition by cytotoxic lymphocytes via NKG2D. NKG2D is a homodimeric C-type lectin-like receptor ... TGF-β impairs tumor recognition by cytotoxic lymphocytes via NKG2D. NKG2D is a homodimeric C-type lectin-like receptor ... produced by tumor cells and immune cells in the tumor microenvironment, plays a key role in blunting the NKG2D-mediated tumor ... produced by tumor cells and immune cells in the tumor microenvironment, plays a key role in blunting the NKG2D-mediated tumor ...
CD28 (Antigen CD28) have been characterized as a co-receptor for the TCR-CD3 (T-Cell Receptor-CD3 Antigen) complex and is ... THC Differentiation Pathway. During infection, T and B-lymphocytes recognize microbes by means of antigen-specific cell-surface ... The liver is a major site for the formation and metastasis of Tumors. Malignant Liver Tumors fall into two types: Primary and ... Antigenic stimulation of lymphocytes and other cells of the immune system initiates a complex series of intracellular signal ...
... cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4) and/or PD-1/PD-L1 (programmed death 1 receptor and PD-1 receptor ligand 1) ... β results in the formation of a tetrameric receptor complex that propagates the signal by phosphorylation to the intracellular ... β signaling during tumor progression induces tumor cell migration, invasion, and formation of distant metastasis. At this stage ... β has been shown to suppress T cell proliferation and regulates lymphocyte differentiation. For example, TGF-β stimulates the ...
Additionally, we discuss the use of chimeric-antigen-receptor (CARs) engineered NK cells in cancer immunotherapy. ... Cytotoxic NK cells directly kill tumor cells without previous stimulation by cytotoxic effector molecules, such as perforin and ... Additionally, we discuss the use of chimeric-antigen-receptor (CARs) engineered NK cells in cancer immunotherapy. ... Cytotoxic NK cells directly kill tumor cells without previous stimulation by cytotoxic effector molecules, such as perforin and ...
Tumor-associated macrophages. TCR. T-cell receptor complex. TILs. tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. TNBC. Triple-negative breast ... the role of IL-1 in cell carcinogenesis and tumor metastasis. The interaction of IL-1 with its receptor activates the NFκB in ... Tumor regression and autoimmunity in patients treated with Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 blockade and interleukin ... It acts in the terminal differentiation of CD8+ T cells, and limits T cell numbers by the downregulation of γc receptor and Bcl ...
... secrete exosomes that carry antigens or contain MHC-peptide complexes embedded in their lipid bilayer, and can induce antigen- ... or promote the differentiation of regulatory T lymphocytes or myeloid cells, which suppress immune responses. Its unclear ... or by promoting angiogenesis or migration to other parts of the body in metastasis.[6. M. Iero et al., Tumour-released ... Some exosomes, for example, display the Fas ligand on their surfaces, which, upon binding to a Fas receptor, also known as the ...
A more recent example is induction of solid tumor differentiation by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) ... The intracellular signaling pathways that accomplish this are varied and complex. Frequently, these pathways are ... and greatly accumulated in tumor cells; (2) expressed only on tumor cells, for example, altered blood group antigens or mucins ... lymphocytes), and play a regulatory role in cell proliferation and differentiation.64 Basement membranes also prevent the free ...
codes for a human epidermal growth factor receptor with tyrosine kinase activity in the intracellular domain- activates ... Diffuse medium-sized lymphocytes and high proliferation index represented by high Ki-67 fraction. Starry sky appearance ( ... miRNAs and siRNAs are incorporated into RNA-induced silencing complexes. If the RISC and mRNA are a perfect match, they mRNA ... Leads to abnormal RARareceptor that cant signal for myeloid differentiation at physiologic levels of retinoic acid ...
TLR4 has been shown to interact with: Lymphocyte antigen 96, Myd88, and TOLLIP. Nickel, Intracellular trafficking of TLR4 is ... to tumor-promoting microenvironment. Upon LPS recognition, conformational changes in the TLR4 receptors result in recruitment ... The activation of NF-κB via TAK-1 is complex, and it starts by the assembly of a protein complex called the signalosome, which ... "Possible involvement of toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor-2 activity of opioid inactive isomers causes spinal ...
A primary one is delivered by the T-cell receptor (TCR) complex after antigen recognition and additional costimulatory signals ... T cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemActivation of T lymphocytes is a key event for an efficient response of ... Osteoclast differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG) Osteoclast differentiation, organism-specific biosystemThe ... of tumor cells in vitro They also effectively impeded tumor formation and growth in vivo miR-181a2/181b2 exert the tumor ...
Immunotherapies such as the dendritic cell (DC) vaccine, heat shock protein vaccines, and epidermal growth factor receptor ( ... Antibody therapy that targets specific tumor antigen may promote tumor killing in one of three ways: 1. Direct receptor- ... inhibit effector lymphocyte function. Tumor associated macrophages aid in tumor invasion and metastasis, and local regulatory B ... tumor antigen presentation by antigen presenting cells via major histocompatibility complexes (MHC), or signaling through IFN-γ ...
... and radiotherapeutic regimens relies on the induction of immunogenic tumor cell death and on the induction of an anticancer ... This stimulates antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells to efficiently take up tumor antigens, process them, and cross ... Major histocompatibility complex. MYD88. Myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88. NLRP3. NLR family, pyrin domain ... 2001). IFNgamma and lymphocytes prevent primary tumour development and shape tumour immunogenicity. Nature, 410(6832), 1107- ...
However, extreme care should be taken on how IgE-based anti-tumor approaches should be devised. Overall, IgE appears as a ... Because of its peculiar immune features, IgE may present a superior anti-tumor performance as compared to IgG. ... T lymphocyte responses by dendritic cells armed with PSA/anti-PSA (antigen/antibody) complexes. Clin. Immunol. 2001, 101, 276- ... invasion and metastasis. It is well established that solid tumors are infiltrated by mast cells, B and T lymphocytes, ...
... are intracellular (1, 11, 12, 15). We hypothesized that a TCRm Ab directed against the peptide-HLA complex formed by ALY and ... Efficient identification of novel HLA-A(*)0201-presented cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes in the widely expressed tumor antigen ... PRAME-induced inhibition of retinoic acid receptor signaling-mediated differentiation--a possible target for ATRA response in ... Immunodeficient mouse strains display marked variability in growth of human melanoma lung metastases. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15( ...
One strategy is to target the antigen to surface receptors on antigen-presenting cells (APCs), ... ... The let-7 family of miRNAs regulates cell differentiation .... Studies of intracellular sorting of endocytosed ErbB3 Restricted ... Characterization of proteoglycan expression by B lymphocytes Restricted Access Stien, Kristine Bye (Master thesis / ... Complex chromosome rearrangement 46,XY,t(10;14)(q11.22;q12),inv(10)(q11.22;q24.2) in a neurodevelopmentally delayed boy. : Does ...
I major histocompatibility complex tetramers reveals high numbers of antigen-experienced tumor-specific cytolytic T lymphocytes ... al Frequency of MART-1/MelanA and gp100/PMel17-specific T cells in tumor metastases and cultured tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes ... et al A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas. J ... 5A) ⇓ , and expressed intracellular perforin (Fig. 5B) ⇓ already after 2 days of culture. Production of IFN-γ by Melan-A- ...
TCRs and CARs targeting antigens shared across tumors, such as CGAs or tissue-differentiation antigens, will be highly ... MAC, membrane attack complex. (d) RNA electroporation of antigen receptors into T cells. Because of the short half-life of RNA ... for use in ACT has come from the surgical removal of a cancer metastasis in order to obtain tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes ( ... Here, the antigen-binding and intracellular-signaling domains of a receptor are separated into two components that assemble ...
... between the affinity of the T-cell receptor for self-antigens and the proper development of a unique population of lymphocytes ... Human IFN-inducible protein-16 (IFI16) is an essential intracellular foreign DNA receptor of innate immunity and also ... the super elongation complexes (SECs), and the bromodomain protein 4 (Brd4)-P-TEFb complex. This study (pp. E15-E24) identifies ... E6-E14), we used mouse cells to select proteins that formed tumors from a library of small transmembrane proteins with ...
  • Clinical application of NK cells is an area of intense investigation not only in oncology, especially in hematological malignancies, including leukemia and lymphoma, but also in solid tumors such as ovarian cancer, sarcoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, glioblastoma, and many other types ( 3 - 9 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This method is based on the site-specific delivery of proteins to solid tumors and to tissue surrounding the solid tumor by direct injection of a nucleic acid sequence. (google.com)
  • In this article, we report the presence of MECA 79 + blood vessels displaying all the phenotypic characteristics of HEVs in most of the 319 human primary solid tumors, including melanomas, breast, ovarian, colon, and lung carcinomas, analyzed. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the present study, we investigated the presence of HEVs within various human primary solid tumors and their association with lymphocyte infiltration, immune orientation, and clinical outcome in breast cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The prospective study on HEVs in human solid tumors was conducted on paraffin-embedded tumor blocks with representative tumor areas of 18 primary melanomas, 5 primary colon carcinomas, 5 primary lung carcinomas, 18 primary ovarian carcinomas, and 127 primary breast carcinomas, operated on between 2003 and 2010. (aacrjournals.org)
  • T cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have established efficacy in the treatment of B-cell malignancies, but their relevance in solid tumors remains undefined. (springer.com)
  • Here we report results of the first human trials of CAR-T cells in the treatment of solid tumors performed in the 1990s. (springer.com)
  • Clinical efficacy of CAR-T cell therapy for the treatment of solid tumors, however, is rare due to physical and biochemical factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This review focuses on different aspects of multiple mechanisms of immunosuppression in solid tumors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although CAR-T cell treatment of solid tumors has not shown promising response, a comprehensive understanding of the multiple barriers seen in the TME is necessary to advance CAR engineering in cancer immunology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this review, we analyze the factors that limit the application of CAR-T cell therapy in the treatment of solid tumors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We then characterize some new approaches that are being considered to overcome these hurdles, providing guidance for researchers and physicians to effectively fight solid tumors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, improving the capacity of modified-T cells to specifically degrade the ECM in stroma-rich solid tumors, yet without compromising their cytotoxicity, would enhance their antitumor activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It has become clear that these cells and released cytokines, such as transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and interleukin (IL) 10, inside solid tumors seriously dampen the efficacy of infused CAR-T cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • GC represents a prototype of inflammatory carcinogenesis in solid tumors. (rupress.org)
  • In physiological settings, the TGF-β-mediated immune suppression is crucial for the establishment of immune tolerance and prevention of chronic inflammation, e.g., in the gastrointestinal tract ( 4 , 8 , 9 ), but in malignant disease TGF-β promotes immune escape, tumor progression and metastasis ( 4 , 10 - 13 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Besides caspases, cathepsins have recently been shown to be associated with cell death regulation [6-and various other physiological and pathological processes, such as maturation of the MHC class II complex, bone remodelling, keratinocyte differentiation, tumour progression and metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, as well as atherosclerosis [13, (table 1). (smw.ch)
  • Extracellular matrix proteins and cell adhesion receptors (integrins) play essential roles in the regulation of cell adhesion and migration. (scielo.br)
  • These proteins are connected to intracellular proteins that include diverse signaling molecules recruited to sites of focal adhesion, and are also linked to the actin cytoskeleton (2). (scielo.br)
  • Interaction of integrins with the ECM proteins can induce tyrosine phosphorylation of many intracellular proteins. (scielo.br)
  • FAK, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, interacts with a pool of intracellular signaling proteins, including c-Src, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), Rho GTPase family members, Grb2, and p130 CAS (6). (scielo.br)
  • The conformational changes of the TLR4 induce the recruitment of intracellular adaptor proteins containing the TIR domain which is necessary to activate the downstream signaling pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MyD88-dependent pathway is regulated by two adaptor-associated proteins: Myeloid Differentiation Primary Response Gene 88 (MyD88) and TIR Domain-Containing Adaptor Protein (TIRAP). (wikipedia.org)
  • E6-E14 ), we used mouse cells to select proteins that formed tumors from a library of small transmembrane proteins with randomized hydrophobic amino acid sequences. (pnas.org)
  • Later studies showed that activation of naïve T cells required not only a foreign antigenic signal supplied by the accessory (or antigen-presenting) cell, but also a second, or costimulatory signal supplied by antigen-presenting cell-expressed surface proteins designated, CD80 and CD86 (7) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • The presence of killed bacteria in the adjuvant clearly enhances immunity against vaccine proteins, but whether this effect occurred primarily through an activation of unknown innate immune mechanisms, or through bystander activation of lymphocytes via strong bacterial antigens, is a subject for discussion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In particular, this method is directed to site-specific delivery of nucleic acids encoding major histocompatibility proteins, cytokines, and toxins to a solid tumor. (google.com)
  • The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily is a group of multifunctional proteins comprising more than 40 members that are clustered in several subfamilies, which include TGF-β, activins/inhibins, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), nodal and growth differentiation factors (GDFs) [ 1 , 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Hundreds of proteins with various defined key cellular functions were identified from TNBC and non-TNBC tumors. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Background: Coat Protein Complex II (COPII) is composed of five cytosolic proteins: Sec23/24 complex, Sec13/31 complex, and Sar1. (cellsignal.com)
  • They include a leucine-rich house substrate in the human complex alpha of the Ld-like peptide in renal, and pages with the CDK1-mediated proteins, catalyzed extracellular blood interactions, can target generated in membrane from reviewed type factors by lysine of a side-chain of evidence deficiency dwellers( Takahashi and Yamanaka 2006, Takahashi et al. (familie-walther.eu)
  • Biochemical studies of CDC42 show that, in response to external signals originating from cell surface receptors and cell adhesion molecules, GEFs engage CDC42 and form macromolecular complexes with scaffolding proteins and/or kinases and with specific effector molecules triggering a signalling cascade to direct cellular responses (Cerione, 2004). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The smooth identification and low-cost production of highly specific agents that interfere with signaling cascades by targeting an active domain in surface receptors, cytoplasmic and nuclear effector proteins, remain important challenges in biomedical research. (mdpi.com)
  • Two of the proteins in this family are exclusively or predominantly expressed in the prostate, as well as in prostate cancer, and thus members of this family have been termed "STEAP" (Six Transmembrane Epithelial Antigen of the Prostate). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Heterotrimeric G proteins, consisting of the guanine nucleotide-binding Gα subunits with GTPase activity and the closely associated Gβ and Gγ subunits, are important signaling components for receptors with seven transmembrane domains (7TMRs). (aspetjournals.org)
  • proteins belonging to all 4 subfamilies, including G s , G i , G q , and G 12 are found to play important roles in receptor tyrosine kinase signaling, regulation of oxidant production, development, and cell migration, through physical and functional interaction with proteins other than 7TMRs. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Heterotrimeric G proteins are characteristically activated by seven-transmembrane domain receptors (7TMRs), also known as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). (aspetjournals.org)
  • The different AGS proteins exhibit selectivity for G protein subunits and present diverse modes of action ranging from promoting GTP binding as a GEF (AGS1 for Gα i ), stabilizing the GDP-bound complex as a guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (AGS3 for Gα i/o ), and interfering with subunit interaction independently of nucleotide exchange (AGS8 with Gβγ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Although the signals integrated by these accessory proteins has not been fully delineated, they are part of the intracellular changes processed through G protein activation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Immunotherapies such as the dendritic cell (DC) vaccine, heat shock protein vaccines, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRvIII) vaccines have shown encouraging results in clinical trials, and have demonstrated synergistic effects with conventional therapeutics resulting in ongoing phase III trials. (mdpi.com)
  • In breast cancer, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2/neu) are the three biomarkers used clinically to guide treatment. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • An intravenously-administered agent capable of modulating the activity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), with potential antineoplastic activity. (cancer.gov)
  • Trastuzumab's targeted therapy has become a stronghold for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive breast cancer patients. (jcancer.org)
  • HER2 (Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor 2) is a tyrosine kinase receptor of the family that includes HER1 (EGFR), HER3 and HER4. (jcancer.org)
  • Aside these inherent difficulties, the potency of the immune responses raised by the antigen-IgE-FcεRI axis is unquestionably among the most immediate and powerful biological reactions to the external environment. (mdpi.com)
  • In practice, however, it has proven unexpectedly difficult to coax the immune system into vigorously rejecting malignancies, despite repeated demonstrations that tumor-associated antigens can provoke immune responses. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Genes of interest comprise various cytokine family members like interferon-gamma and interleukin-1, and Toll-like receptor families 1,2,3,4,6,7, and 9, which are important for the early activation of the specific (adaptive) immune responses. (uio.no)
  • B lymphocytes can both positively and negatively regulate cellular immune responses. (jimmunol.org)
  • These results have led to the prediction that B cell depletion could therapeutically enhance immune responses to tumors. (jimmunol.org)
  • through H1R augments antigen GW3965 HCl receptorCmediated immune responses, suggesting cross-talk between G proteinCcoupled receptors and antigen receptorCmediated signaling. (cylch.org)
  • In 1995 the SEREX (serological expression cloning) technique to identify tumour antigens was developed by Pfreundschuh and colleagues [ 5 ], which remains the leading approach to identifying new antigens that elicit humoral immune responses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These studies demonstrate the critical impact of systemic immune responses that drive tumor rejection. (stanford.edu)
  • We sought to characterize the patterns of T-lymphocyte infiltration and somatic mutations in metastases that are associated with and predictive of response to the DC vaccine. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Surgical cure rates are compromised by the fact that most patients are diagnosed at a late stage of disease because of the delayed onset of symptoms, by which time metastases and organ infiltration may have already occurred. (bmj.com)
  • In conjunction with tumor sequencing, the combined multivariate and collapsing method was used to identify gene mutations that are associated with vaccine response. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, during recirculation, T lymphocyte movement through distinct microenvironments is mediated by integrins, which are critical for cell cycle, differentiation and gene expression. (scielo.br)
  • This study aimed at the identification of prognostic gene expression markers in early primary colorectal carcinomas without metastasis at the time point of surgery by analyzing genome-wide gene expression profiles using oligonucleotide microarrays. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Whereas up to now gene signatures containing genes with various biological functions have been described for prediction of metastasis in CRC, in this study metastasis could be well predicted by a set of gene expression markers consisting exclusively of genes related to the MHC class II complex involved in immune response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using this methodology we were able to identify a predictive gene signature in an unbiased manner that shows a functional relationship to tumor biology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gammaretroviral and lentiviral vectors have been used most commonly in antigen receptor gene therapy trials. (investorvillage.com)
  • In this study, we hypothesized that the MASL1 gene plays a role in erythroid differentiation, and used a human erythroid cell culture system to explore this concept. (unt.edu)
  • Low affinity receptor for IgE, ligand for CD19, CD21 and CD81. (sinobiological.com)
  • The structural nature of such ligand-induced receptor alteration is not completely understood, potentially representing allosteric movement ( 2 , 6 ), relative movement between subunits ( 13 , 14 ), or dynamic states of quaternary structure that respond to external torque and directional force induced by ligation ( 15 - 17 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The heterogeneity of patients with complex diseases where the phenotype can have multiple genetic and environmental components [ 2 , 3 ] usually prevents one from finding differentially expressed genes between different groups of patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CH) and the Hoffman-La Roche AG (Basel, CH). We were the first to report the identification of genes underlying T-cell specificity and recognition (mouse T-cell receptor, in '86). (uio.no)
  • Inside the cell, RA further binds to Retinoic Acid Receptor (RAR) and its isoforms (α, β, Ω) along with hormone binding receptors to allow transcription of genes . (symbiosisonlinepublishing.com)
  • At the meeting, researchers in fields ranging from immunology to neurology and tumor biology presented their recent findings on exosomes and other types of secreted membrane vesicles, including the ability of pathogens to manipulate host exosome activity and the influence of the vesicles on allergies. (the-scientist.com)
  • This review provides a brief description of five families of CAMs (cadherins, integrins, CD44, immunoglobulin superfamily, and selectins) and highlights their altered expression in relation both to prognosis and tumour behaviour in squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus. (bmj.com)
  • One among these aberrations is alterations of Retinoid Acid Receptor β (RAR β) expression in various carcinomas like squamous cell carcinoma, breast carcinoma, leukemia etc . (symbiosisonlinepublishing.com)
  • Apart from the maturing DCs, CCR7-expressing subsets of immature DCs (often called "semimature" DCs because of their intermediate phenotype) use this receptor to migrate continuously, in the absence of danger signals, to the lymph nodes, where they contribute to the peripheral immune tolerance against self-Ags ( 9 , 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Because of its peculiar immune features, IgE may present a superior anti-tumor performance as compared to IgG. (mdpi.com)
  • However, extreme care should be taken on how IgE-based anti-tumor approaches should be devised. (mdpi.com)