Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Synthesized magnetic particles under 100 nanometers possessing many biomedical applications including DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and CONTRAST AGENTS. The particles are usually coated with a variety of polymeric compounds.
Relating to the size of solids.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).
A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.
Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.
The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.
An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ce, atomic number 58, and atomic weight 140.12. Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Tailored macromolecules harboring covalently-bound biologically active modules that target specific tissues and cells. The active modules or functional groups can include drugs, prodrugs, antibodies, and oligonucleotides, which can act synergistically and be multitargeting.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.

Quantitative detection of individual cleaved DNA molecules on surfaces using gold nanoparticles and scanning electron microscope imaging. (1/1513)

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent type of human genetic variation. Recent work has shown that it is possible to directly analyze SNPs in unamplified human genomic DNA samples using the surface-invasive cleavage reaction followed by rolling circle amplification (RCA) labeling of the cleavage products. The individual RCA amplicon molecules were counted on the surface using fluorescence microscopy. Two principal limitations of such single-molecule counting are the variability in the amplicon size, which results in a large variation in fluorescence signal intensity from the dye-labeled DNA molecules, and a high level of background fluorescence. It is shown here that an excellent alternative to RCA labeling is tagging with gold nanoparticles followed by imaging with a scanning electron microscope. Gold nanoparticles have a uniform diameter (15 +/- 0.5 nm) and provide excellent contrast against the background of the silicon substrate employed. Individual gold nanoparticles are readily counted using publicly available software. The results demonstrate that the labeling efficiency is improved by as much as approximately 15-fold, and the signal-to-noise ratio is improved by approximately 4-fold. Detection of individual cleaved DNA molecules following surface-invasive cleavage was linear and quantitative over 3 orders of magnitude in amount of target DNA (10(-18)-10(-15) mol).  (+info)

Calixarene-encapsulated nanoparticles: self-assembly into functional nanomaterials. (2/1513)

Calixarenes are excellent surfactants for enhancing the dispersion and self-assembly of metal nanoparticles into well-defined structures, particularly those with unit length scales in the 10-100 nm size range. Particles within these ensembles are strongly coupled, giving rise to unique collective optical or magnetic properties. The self-assembled nanostructures described in this feature article include 2D arrays of colloidal Au nanoparticles with size-dependent plasmonic responses, and sub-100 nm Co nanoparticle rings with chiral magnetic states. These nanoparticle assemblies may be further developed for applications in chemical sensing based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and as binary elements for nonvolatile memory, respectively.  (+info)

A gold nanoparticle based approach for screening triplex DNA binders. (3/1513)

Nanoparticle assemblies interconnected with DNA triple helixes can be used to colorimetrically screen for triplex DNA binding molecules and simultaneously determine their relative binding affinities based on melting temperatures. Nanoparticles assemble only when DNA triple helixes form between DNA from two different particles and a third strand of free DNA. In addition, the triple helix structure is unstable at room temperature and only forms in the presence of triplex DNA binding molecules which stabilize the triple helix. The resulting melting transition of the nanoparticle assembly is much sharper and at a significantly higher Tm than the analogous triplex structure without nanoparticles. Upon nanoparticle assembly, a concomitant red-to-blue color change occurs. The assembly process and color change do not occur in the presence of duplex DNA binders and therefore provide a significantly better screening process for triplex DNA binding molecules compared to standard methods.  (+info)

Dye-labeled silver nanoshell-bright particle. (4/1513)

Silica beads with average diameters of 40-600 nm were prepared, and Ru(bpy)3(2+) complexes were incorporated into the beads. These beads were coated by silver layer by layer to generate porous but continuous metal nanoshells. The thicknesses of these metal shells were 5-50 nm. The emission band from the dyes in the silica cores was more narrow and the intensity was enhanced with growth of silver shell thickness due to coupling of the emission light from Ru(bpy)3(2+) in the cores with the metal plasmon from the silver shells. The enhancement of emission intensity was also dependent on the size of the silica core, showing that the enhancement efficiency decreased with an increase in the size of the silica beads. Lifetime measurements support the coupling mechanism between the dye and metal shell. This study can be used to develop novel dye-labeled metal particles with bright and narrow emission bands.  (+info)

Asymmetric functionalization of gold nanoparticles with oligonucleotides. (5/1513)

Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were anisotropically functionalized with two different oligonucleotide sequences using magnetic microparticles as geometric restriction templates for site-selective enzymatic extension of particle-bound oligonucleotides. The divalent linking capability of the resulting AuNPs allowed for the design and programmable assembly of discrete nanoparticle heterostructures.  (+info)

Surface-enhanced fluorescence of fluorescein-labeled oligonucleotides capped on silver nanoparticles. (6/1513)

Tiopronin monolayer-protected silver nanoparticles with different core sizes (average diameter = 2, 5, 20 nm) were prepared by using different mole ratios of silver nitrate/tiopronin. Ligands on the silver particles were partially displaced by fluorescein-labeled thiolate single-stranded oligonucleotides or their complementary unlabeled oligonucleotides through ligand exchange. The fluorophores on silver particles showed a surface-enhanced fluorescence (SEF) dependent on the size of metallic cores. The particles could be coupled through hybridizations of oligonucleotides bound on the particles. The coupled particles were aggregated due to multiple displacements of oligonucleotides on each particle, resulting in stronger SEF. The dye-labeled oligonucleotides were assembled on the silver islands on the solid substrate, and the complementary oligonucleotide-displaced particles were coupled via oligonucleotide hybridization. The couplings between particles and islands resulted in an obvious fluorescence enhancement.  (+info)

Enhanced luminescence of phenyl-phenanthridine dye on aggregated small silver nanoparticles. (7/1513)

Tiopronin-coated silver particles (average diameters of core = 1.6 nm) were prepared by a modified Brust method, and the ligands on the metal core were partially displaced by (2-mercapto-propionylamino) acetic acid-2,5-dioxo-pyrrolidin-1-ylester through ligand exchanges. The particles were bound on amine-pendent polymer backbones by condensation to generate compact aggregates of particles. The aggregated particles displayed a plasmon absorbance rising at 440 nm. Luminescence was enhanced to about 2 times with increasing the plasmon rising by the particle aggregation upon excitation at 400 nm when the polymer was labeled by 3,8-diamino-6-phenyl-phenanthridine.  (+info)

c-Type cytochrome-dependent formation of U(IV) nanoparticles by Shewanella oneidensis. (8/1513)

Modern approaches for bioremediation of radionuclide contaminated environments are based on the ability of microorganisms to effectively catalyze changes in the oxidation states of metals that in turn influence their solubility. Although microbial metal reduction has been identified as an effective means for immobilizing highly-soluble uranium(VI) complexes in situ, the biomolecular mechanisms of U(VI) reduction are not well understood. Here, we show that c-type cytochromes of a dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, are essential for the reduction of U(VI) and formation of extracellular UO(2) nanoparticles. In particular, the outer membrane (OM) decaheme cytochrome MtrC (metal reduction), previously implicated in Mn(IV) and Fe(III) reduction, directly transferred electrons to U(VI). Additionally, deletions of mtrC and/or omcA significantly affected the in vivo U(VI) reduction rate relative to wild-type MR-1. Similar to the wild-type, the mutants accumulated UO(2) nanoparticles extracellularly to high densities in association with an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). In wild-type cells, this UO(2)-EPS matrix exhibited glycocalyx-like properties and contained multiple elements of the OM, polysaccharide, and heme-containing proteins. Using a novel combination of methods including synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy and high-resolution immune-electron microscopy, we demonstrate a close association of the extracellular UO(2) nanoparticles with MtrC and OmcA (outer membrane cytochrome). This is the first study to our knowledge to directly localize the OM-associated cytochromes with EPS, which contains biogenic UO(2) nanoparticles. In the environment, such association of UO(2) nanoparticles with biopolymers may exert a strong influence on subsequent behavior including susceptibility to oxidation by O(2) or transport in soils and sediments.  (+info)

Medical definitions generally refer to terms and concepts within the medical field. The term "metal nanoparticles" is more commonly used in materials science, chemistry, and physics. However, I can provide a general scientific definition that could be relevant to medical applications:

Metal nanoparticles are tiny particles with at least one dimension ranging from 1 to 100 nanometers (nm), composed of metals or metal compounds. They have unique optical, electronic, and chemical properties due to their small size and high surface-to-volume ratio, making them useful in various fields, including medical research. In medicine, metal nanoparticles can be used in drug delivery systems, diagnostics, and therapeutic applications such as photothermal therapy and radiation therapy. Examples of metals used for nanoparticle synthesis include gold, silver, and iron.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Silver" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol Ag and atomic number 47. Silver is a soft, white, lustrous transition metal that occurs in its pure, free form (native silver) as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite.

In the medical field, silver compounds have been used for their antimicrobial properties. For example, silver sulfadiazine is a common topical cream used to prevent or treat wound infections. Colloidal silver, a suspension of silver particles in a liquid, has also been promoted as a dietary supplement and alternative treatment for various conditions, but its effectiveness and safety are not well-established.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. Gold is typically a chemical element with the symbol Au and atomic number 79. It is a dense, soft, malleable, and ductile metal. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions.

However, if you are referring to "Gold" in the context of medical terminology, it may refer to:

1. Gold salts: These are a group of compounds that contain gold and are used in medicine for their anti-inflammatory properties. They have been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, although they have largely been replaced by newer drugs with fewer side effects.
2. Gold implants: In some cases, a small amount of gold may be surgically implanted into the eye to treat conditions such as age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy. The gold helps to hold the retina in place and can improve vision in some patients.
3. Gold thread embedment: This is an alternative therapy used in traditional Chinese medicine, where gold threads are embedded into the skin or acupuncture points for therapeutic purposes. However, there is limited scientific evidence to support its effectiveness.

I hope this information helps! If you have any further questions, please let me know.

Nanoparticles are defined in the field of medicine as tiny particles that have at least one dimension between 1 to 100 nanometers (nm). They are increasingly being used in various medical applications such as drug delivery, diagnostics, and therapeutics. Due to their small size, nanoparticles can penetrate cells, tissues, and organs more efficiently than larger particles, making them ideal for targeted drug delivery and imaging.

Nanoparticles can be made from a variety of materials including metals, polymers, lipids, and dendrimers. The physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles, such as size, shape, charge, and surface chemistry, can greatly affect their behavior in biological systems and their potential medical applications.

It is important to note that the use of nanoparticles in medicine is still a relatively new field, and there are ongoing studies to better understand their safety and efficacy.

"Green Chemistry Technology," also known as "Sustainable Chemistry," refers to the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. It aims to minimize negative impacts on human health and the environment, while maximizing economic benefits. This is achieved through the application of principles such as preventing waste, designing safer chemicals, using renewable feedstocks, and minimizing energy use. Green Chemistry Technology involves the development and implementation of novel chemical reactions, catalysts, and processes that are inherently safer and more environmentally benign than traditional methods.

Nanotechnology is not a medical term per se, but it is a field of study with potential applications in medicine. According to the National Nanotechnology Initiative, nanotechnology is defined as "the understanding and control of matter at the nanoscale, at dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications."

In the context of medicine, nanotechnology has the potential to revolutionize the way we diagnose, treat, and prevent diseases. Nanomedicine involves the use of nanoscale materials, devices, or systems for medical applications. These can include drug delivery systems that target specific cells or tissues, diagnostic tools that detect biomarkers at the molecular level, and tissue engineering strategies that promote regeneration and repair.

While nanotechnology holds great promise for medicine, it is still a relatively new field with many challenges to overcome, including issues related to safety, regulation, and scalability.

Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) is a physical phenomenon that occurs at the interface between a metal and a dielectric material, when electromagnetic radiation (usually light) is shone on it. It involves the collective oscillation of free electrons in the metal, known as surface plasmons, which are excited by the incident light. The resonance condition is met when the momentum and energy of the photons match those of the surface plasmons, leading to a strong absorption of light and an evanescent wave that extends into the dielectric material.

In the context of medical diagnostics and research, SPR is often used as a sensitive and label-free detection technique for biomolecular interactions. By immobilizing one binding partner (e.g., a receptor or antibody) onto the metal surface and flowing the other partner (e.g., a ligand or antigen) over it, changes in the refractive index at the interface can be measured in real-time as the plasmons are disturbed by the presence of bound molecules. This allows for the quantification of binding affinities, kinetics, and specificity with high sensitivity and selectivity.

In the context of medicine, there is no specific medical definition for 'metals.' However, certain metals have significant roles in biological systems and are thus studied in physiology, pathology, and pharmacology. Some metals are essential to life, serving as cofactors for enzymatic reactions, while others are toxic and can cause harm at certain levels.

Examples of essential metals include:

1. Iron (Fe): It is a crucial component of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and various enzymes involved in energy production, DNA synthesis, and electron transport.
2. Zinc (Zn): This metal is vital for immune function, wound healing, protein synthesis, and DNA synthesis. It acts as a cofactor for over 300 enzymes.
3. Copper (Cu): Copper is essential for energy production, iron metabolism, antioxidant defense, and connective tissue formation. It serves as a cofactor for several enzymes.
4. Magnesium (Mg): Magnesium plays a crucial role in many biochemical reactions, including nerve and muscle function, protein synthesis, and blood pressure regulation.
5. Manganese (Mn): This metal is necessary for bone development, protein metabolism, and antioxidant defense. It acts as a cofactor for several enzymes.
6. Molybdenum (Mo): Molybdenum is essential for the function of certain enzymes involved in the metabolism of nucleic acids, proteins, and drugs.
7. Cobalt (Co): Cobalt is a component of vitamin B12, which plays a vital role in DNA synthesis, fatty acid metabolism, and nerve function.

Examples of toxic metals include:

1. Lead (Pb): Exposure to lead can cause neurological damage, anemia, kidney dysfunction, and developmental issues.
2. Mercury (Hg): Mercury is highly toxic and can cause neurological problems, kidney damage, and developmental issues.
3. Arsenic (As): Arsenic exposure can lead to skin lesions, cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.
4. Cadmium (Cd): Cadmium is toxic and can cause kidney damage, bone demineralization, and lung irritation.
5. Chromium (Cr): Excessive exposure to chromium can lead to skin ulcers, respiratory issues, and kidney and liver damage.

Magnetite nanoparticles are defined as extremely small particles, usually with a diameter less than 100 nanometers, of the mineral magnetite (Fe3O4). These particles have unique magnetic properties and can be manipulated using magnetic fields. They have been studied for various biomedical applications such as drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, hyperthermia treatment for cancer, and tissue engineering due to their ability to generate heat when exposed to alternating magnetic fields. However, the potential toxicity of magnetite nanoparticles is a concern that needs further investigation before widespread clinical use.

In the context of medical and health sciences, particle size generally refers to the diameter or dimension of particles, which can be in the form of solid particles, droplets, or aerosols. These particles may include airborne pollutants, pharmaceutical drugs, or medical devices such as nanoparticles used in drug delivery systems.

Particle size is an important factor to consider in various medical applications because it can affect the behavior and interactions of particles with biological systems. For example, smaller particle sizes can lead to greater absorption and distribution throughout the body, while larger particle sizes may be filtered out by the body's natural defense mechanisms. Therefore, understanding particle size and its implications is crucial for optimizing the safety and efficacy of medical treatments and interventions.

A drug carrier, also known as a drug delivery system or vector, is a vehicle that transports a pharmaceutical compound to a specific site in the body. The main purpose of using drug carriers is to improve the efficacy and safety of drugs by enhancing their solubility, stability, bioavailability, and targeted delivery, while minimizing unwanted side effects.

Drug carriers can be made up of various materials, including natural or synthetic polymers, lipids, inorganic nanoparticles, or even cells and viruses. They can encapsulate, adsorb, or conjugate drugs through different mechanisms, such as physical entrapment, electrostatic interaction, or covalent bonding.

Some common types of drug carriers include:

1. Liposomes: spherical vesicles composed of one or more lipid bilayers that can encapsulate hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs.
2. Polymeric nanoparticles: tiny particles made of biodegradable polymers that can protect drugs from degradation and enhance their accumulation in target tissues.
3. Dendrimers: highly branched macromolecules with a well-defined structure and size that can carry multiple drug molecules and facilitate their release.
4. Micelles: self-assembled structures formed by amphiphilic block copolymers that can solubilize hydrophobic drugs in water.
5. Inorganic nanoparticles: such as gold, silver, or iron oxide nanoparticles, that can be functionalized with drugs and targeting ligands for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
6. Cell-based carriers: living cells, such as red blood cells, stem cells, or immune cells, that can be loaded with drugs and used to deliver them to specific sites in the body.
7. Viral vectors: modified viruses that can infect cells and introduce genetic material encoding therapeutic proteins or RNA interference molecules.

The choice of drug carrier depends on various factors, such as the physicochemical properties of the drug, the route of administration, the target site, and the desired pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. Therefore, selecting an appropriate drug carrier is crucial for achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes and minimizing side effects.

A nanocapsule is a type of nanoparticle that is characterized by its hollow, spherical structure. It is composed of a polymeric membrane that encapsulates an inner core or "cargo" which can be made up of various substances such as drugs, proteins, or imaging agents. The small size of nanocapsules (typically ranging from 10 to 1000 nanometers in diameter) allows them to penetrate cells and tissue more efficiently than larger particles, making them useful for targeted drug delivery and diagnostic applications.

The polymeric membrane can be designed to be biodegradable or non-biodegradable, depending on the desired application. Additionally, the surface of nanocapsules can be functionalized with various moieties such as antibodies, peptides, or small molecules to enhance their targeting capabilities and improve their stability in biological environments.

Overall, nanocapsules have great potential for use in a variety of medical applications, including cancer therapy, gene delivery, and vaccine development.

Drug delivery systems (DDS) refer to techniques or technologies that are designed to improve the administration of a pharmaceutical compound in terms of its efficiency, safety, and efficacy. A DDS can modify the drug release profile, target the drug to specific cells or tissues, protect the drug from degradation, and reduce side effects.

The goal of a DDS is to optimize the bioavailability of a drug, which is the amount of the drug that reaches the systemic circulation and is available at the site of action. This can be achieved through various approaches, such as encapsulating the drug in a nanoparticle or attaching it to a biomolecule that targets specific cells or tissues.

Some examples of DDS include:

1. Controlled release systems: These systems are designed to release the drug at a controlled rate over an extended period, reducing the frequency of dosing and improving patient compliance.
2. Targeted delivery systems: These systems use biomolecules such as antibodies or ligands to target the drug to specific cells or tissues, increasing its efficacy and reducing side effects.
3. Nanoparticle-based delivery systems: These systems use nanoparticles made of polymers, lipids, or inorganic materials to encapsulate the drug and protect it from degradation, improve its solubility, and target it to specific cells or tissues.
4. Biodegradable implants: These are small devices that can be implanted under the skin or into body cavities to deliver drugs over an extended period. They can be made of biodegradable materials that gradually break down and release the drug.
5. Inhalation delivery systems: These systems use inhalers or nebulizers to deliver drugs directly to the lungs, bypassing the digestive system and improving bioavailability.

Overall, DDS play a critical role in modern pharmaceutical research and development, enabling the creation of new drugs with improved efficacy, safety, and patient compliance.

Nanomedicine is a branch of medicine that utilizes nanotechnology, which deals with materials, devices, or systems at the nanometer scale (typically between 1-100 nm), to prevent and treat diseases. It involves the development of novel therapeutics, diagnostics, and medical devices that can interact with biological systems at the molecular level for improved detection, monitoring, and targeted treatment of various diseases and conditions.

Nanomedicine encompasses several areas, including:

1. Drug delivery: Nanocarriers such as liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers, and inorganic nanoparticles can be used to encapsulate drugs, enhancing their solubility, stability, and targeted delivery to specific cells or tissues, thereby reducing side effects.
2. Diagnostics: Nanoscale biosensors and imaging agents can provide early detection and monitoring of diseases with high sensitivity and specificity, enabling personalized medicine and improved patient outcomes.
3. Regenerative medicine: Nanomaterials can be used to create scaffolds and matrices for tissue engineering, promoting cell growth, differentiation, and vascularization in damaged or diseased tissues.
4. Gene therapy: Nanoparticles can be employed to deliver genetic material such as DNA, RNA, or gene-editing tools (e.g., CRISPR-Cas9) for the targeted correction of genetic disorders or cancer treatment.
5. Medical devices: Nanotechnology can improve the performance and functionality of medical devices by enhancing their biocompatibility, strength, and electrical conductivity, as well as incorporating sensing and drug delivery capabilities.

Overall, nanomedicine holds great promise for addressing unmet medical needs, improving diagnostic accuracy, and developing more effective therapies with reduced side effects. However, it also presents unique challenges related to safety, regulation, and scalability that must be addressed before widespread clinical adoption.

Polyglycolic acid (PGA) is a synthetic polymer of glycolic acid, which is commonly used in surgical sutures. It is a biodegradable material that degrades in the body through hydrolysis into glycolic acid, which can be metabolized and eliminated from the body. PGA sutures are often used for approximating tissue during surgical procedures due to their strength, handling properties, and predictable rate of absorption. The degradation time of PGA sutures is typically around 60-90 days, depending on factors such as the size and location of the suture.

Chitosan is a complex carbohydrate that is derived from the exoskeletons of crustaceans, such as shrimp and crabs. It is made up of chains of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine and d-glucosamine units. Chitosan has been studied for its potential medical and health benefits, including its ability to lower cholesterol levels, promote weight loss, and help control blood sugar levels. It is also used in wound care products due to its antibacterial and absorbent properties. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits and establish recommended dosages and safety guidelines.

Ferric compounds are inorganic compounds that contain the iron(III) cation, Fe3+. Iron(III) is a transition metal and can form stable compounds with various anions. Ferric compounds are often colored due to the d-d transitions of the iron ion. Examples of ferric compounds include ferric chloride (FeCl3), ferric sulfate (Fe2(SO4)3), and ferric oxide (Fe2O3). Ferric compounds have a variety of uses, including as catalysts, in dye production, and in medical applications.

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a type of microscopy in which an electron beam is transmitted through a ultra-thin specimen, interacting with it as it passes through. An image is formed from the interaction of the electrons with the specimen; the image is then magnified and visualized on a fluorescent screen or recorded on an electronic detector (or photographic film in older models).

TEM can provide high-resolution, high-magnification images that can reveal the internal structure of specimens including cells, viruses, and even molecules. It is widely used in biological and materials science research to investigate the ultrastructure of cells, tissues and materials. In medicine, TEM is used for diagnostic purposes in fields such as virology and bacteriology.

It's important to note that preparing a sample for TEM is a complex process, requiring specialized techniques to create thin (50-100 nm) specimens. These include cutting ultrathin sections of embedded samples using an ultramicrotome, staining with heavy metal salts, and positive staining or negative staining methods.

Nanostructures, in the context of medical and biomedical research, refer to materials or devices with structural features that have at least one dimension ranging between 1-100 nanometers (nm). At this size scale, the properties of these structures can differ significantly from bulk materials, exhibiting unique phenomena that are often influenced by quantum effects.

Nanostructures have attracted considerable interest in biomedicine due to their potential applications in various areas such as drug delivery, diagnostics, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering. They can be fabricated from a wide range of materials including metals, polymers, ceramics, and carbon-based materials.

Some examples of nanostructures used in biomedicine include:

1. Nanoparticles: These are tiny particles with at least one dimension in the nanoscale range. They can be made from various materials like metals, polymers, or lipids and have applications in drug delivery, imaging, and diagnostics.
2. Quantum dots: These are semiconductor nanocrystals that exhibit unique optical properties due to quantum confinement effects. They are used as fluorescent labels for bioimaging and biosensing applications.
3. Carbon nanotubes: These are hollow, cylindrical structures made of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice. They have exceptional mechanical strength, electrical conductivity, and thermal stability, making them suitable for various biomedical applications such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, and biosensors.
4. Nanofibers: These are elongated nanostructures with high aspect ratios (length much greater than width). They can be fabricated from various materials like polymers, ceramics, or composites and have applications in tissue engineering, wound healing, and drug delivery.
5. Dendrimers: These are highly branched, nanoscale polymers with a well-defined structure and narrow size distribution. They can be used as drug carriers, gene delivery vehicles, and diagnostic agents.
6. Nanoshells: These are hollow, spherical nanoparticles consisting of a dielectric core covered by a thin metallic shell. They exhibit unique optical properties that make them suitable for applications such as photothermal therapy, biosensing, and imaging.

Silicon dioxide is not a medical term, but a chemical compound with the formula SiO2. It's commonly known as quartz or sand and is not something that would typically have a medical definition. However, in some cases, silicon dioxide can be used in pharmaceutical preparations as an excipient (an inactive substance that serves as a vehicle or medium for a drug) or as a food additive, often as an anti-caking agent.

In these contexts, it's important to note that silicon dioxide is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, exposure to very high levels of respirable silica dust, such as in certain industrial settings, can increase the risk of lung disease, including silicosis.

Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula ZnO. It exists as a white, odorless, and crystalline powder. In medicine, zinc oxide is used primarily as a topical agent for the treatment of various skin conditions, including diaper rash, minor burns, and irritations caused by eczema or psoriasis.

Zinc oxide has several properties that make it useful in medical applications:

1. Antimicrobial activity: Zinc oxide exhibits antimicrobial properties against bacteria, viruses, and fungi, which can help prevent infection and promote wound healing.
2. Skin protectant: It forms a physical barrier on the skin, protecting it from external irritants, friction, and moisture. This property is particularly useful in products like diaper rash creams and sunscreens.
3. Astringent properties: Zinc oxide can help constrict and tighten tissues, which may reduce inflammation and promote healing.
4. Mineral sunscreen agent: Zinc oxide is a common active ingredient in physical (mineral) sunscreens due to its ability to reflect and scatter UV light, protecting the skin from both UVA and UVB radiation.

Zinc oxide can be found in various medical and skincare products, such as creams, ointments, pastes, lotions, and powders. It is generally considered safe for topical use, but it may cause skin irritation or allergic reactions in some individuals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "magnetics" is not a term that is commonly used in medical definitions. It is a term more frequently used in physics and engineering to refer to things related to magnets or magnetic fields. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to try to help with those!

Cerium is a chemical element with the symbol "Ce" and atomic number 58. It belongs to the lanthanide series in the periodic table and is the second element in this series. Cerium is a solid at room temperature, with a silver-white appearance and has a face-centered cubic crystal structure.

In medicine, cerium oxide nanoparticles have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications, particularly in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. These nanoparticles are believed to have antioxidant properties that can help protect neurons from oxidative stress and inflammation. However, more research is needed to fully understand the safety and efficacy of cerium-based therapies in medical treatments.

In the context of medical definitions, polymers are large molecules composed of repeating subunits called monomers. These long chains of monomers can have various structures and properties, depending on the type of monomer units and how they are linked together. In medicine, polymers are used in a wide range of applications, including drug delivery systems, medical devices, and tissue engineering scaffolds. Some examples of polymers used in medicine include polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and biodegradable polymers such as polylactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL).

Nanoconjugates are nanoparticles that have been joined or bonded with one or more molecules, such as proteins, drugs, or imaging agents. The process of creating nanoconjugates is called functionalization. This can alter the properties of the nanoparticle, allowing it to perform specific functions, such as targeting certain cells in the body or delivering drugs directly to those cells. Nanoconjugates have potential applications in a variety of fields, including medicine, where they may be used for drug delivery, diagnostic imaging, and sensing.

Surface properties in the context of medical science refer to the characteristics and features of the outermost layer or surface of a biological material or structure, such as cells, tissues, organs, or medical devices. These properties can include physical attributes like roughness, smoothness, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, and electrical conductivity, as well as chemical properties like charge, reactivity, and composition.

In the field of biomaterials science, understanding surface properties is crucial for designing medical implants, devices, and drug delivery systems that can interact safely and effectively with biological tissues and fluids. Surface modifications, such as coatings or chemical treatments, can be used to alter surface properties and enhance biocompatibility, improve lubricity, reduce fouling, or promote specific cellular responses like adhesion, proliferation, or differentiation.

Similarly, in the field of cell biology, understanding surface properties is essential for studying cell-cell interactions, cell signaling, and cell behavior. Cells can sense and respond to changes in their environment, including variations in surface properties, which can influence cell shape, motility, and function. Therefore, characterizing and manipulating surface properties can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of cellular processes and offer new strategies for developing therapies and treatments for various diseases.

As for crystalline metal nanoparticles, dislocations were found to influence the mechanical properties of nanoparticles, ... Typical instances of this method are the production of metal oxide or hydroxide nanoparticles by hydrolysis of metal alkoxides ... metal, and metal-oxide nanoparticles". Mater. Adv. 2: 186-235. doi:10.1039/d0ma00439a. IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical ... nanoparticles enhance light absorption by increasing scattering. Recently, the metal core-dielectric shell nanoparticle has ...
This metal will form the core. The pre-formed nanoparticle acts as the seed required for the nucleation of the second metal ... This takes place through a galvanic replacement reaction in which a metal nanoparticle comes in contact with a different metal ... This is achieved by first reducing the core metal followed by nucleation of the shell metal around it. The core metal also ... Once the complete reduction of the first metal is ensured, the second metal precursor is added. The second metal ion gets ...
Sastry, M; Ahmad A; Khan MI; Kumar R (2003). "Biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles using fungi and actinomycete". Current ... For external gold nanoparticle production, the solution color can vary depending on the size of the gold nanoparticles; smaller ... Gericke, M; Pinches A (2006). "Biological synthesis of metal nanoparticles". Hydrometallurgy. 83 (1-4): 132-140. Bibcode: ... External gold nanoparticle synthesis by P. chrysosporium was attributed to laccase, while intracellular gold nanoparticle ...
Silver nanoparticles can be incorporated on many types of surfaces including metals, plastic, and glass. In medical equipment, ... The nanoparticles in these appliances are synthesized using electrolysis. Through electrolysis, silver is extracted from metal ... Silver nanoparticles are nanoparticles of silver of between 1 nm and 100 nm in size. While frequently described as being ' ... Bhattacharya R, Mukherjee P (August 2008). "Biological properties of "naked" metal nanoparticles". Advanced Drug Delivery ...
Human breast carcinoma cells infused with metal nanoparticles in vitro have been shown to have an increase in morbidity with ... Huang, Yue-Wern; Wu, Chi-heng; Aronstam, Robert S. (2010-10-25). "Toxicity of Transition Metal Oxide Nanoparticles: Recent ... Sharma, Harshita; Mishra, Pawan K.; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Vaidya, Bhuvaneshwar (2015-09-01). "Metal nanoparticles: a ... Other gold nanoparticles on the market are mostly for synthesis of nanoparticle complexes in research. Nanocomposix specializes ...
Metal nanoparticles are promising as carriers for drug delivery to the brain. Common metals used for nanoparticle drug delivery ... Silver nanoparticles in particular have a higher degree of toxicity compared to other metal nanoparticles such as gold or iron ... Metal nanoparticles are associated with risks of neurotoxicity and cytotoxicity. These heavy metals generate reactive oxygen ... Metal nanoparticles are chemically synthesized using reduction reactions. For example, drug-conjugated silver nanoparticles are ...
Nanoparticles by composition, Cobalt compounds, Semiconductor materials, Transition metal oxides). ... One-pot hydrothermal synthesis of metal oxide hollow spheres starts with carbohydrates and metal salts dissolved in water at ... Cobalt oxide nanoparticles have been observed to readily enter cells, a property that conceivably could lead to applications in ... Cobalt oxide nanoparticles anchored on single-walled carbon nanotubes have been investigated for sensing nitrogen oxides NO x ...
... production has been induced generally through the introduction of both metal oxide and positively charged metal nanoparticles ... this process initializes ROS production similar to the metal nanoparticles. Carbon nanostructures such as graphene oxide (GO) ... The key to nanoparticle efficacy against antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria lies in their small size. On the nano scale, ... Nanoparticles can enhance the effects of traditional antibiotics which a bacterium may have become resistant to, and decrease ...
"Noble-Metal High-Entropy-Alloy Nanoparticles: Atomic-Level Insight into the Electronic Structure". Journal of the American ... High-entropy-alloy nanoparticles (HEA-NPs) are nanoparticles having five or more elements alloyed in a single-phase solid ... "Simultaneous Multication Exchange Pathway to High-Entropy Metal Sulfide Nanoparticles". Journal of the American Chemical ... "Ultrafine Silver Nanoparticles for Seeded Lithium Deposition toward Stable Lithium Metal Anode". Advanced Materials. 29 (38): ...
TiO2 nanoparticle products are sometimes coated with silica or alumina, or doped with another metal for specific applications ... The toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles on nematodes increases with smaller nanoparticle diameter specifically 7 nm nanoparticles ... "Metal-based nanoparticles in soil: Fate, behavior, and effects on soil invertebrates". Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. ... along with silicon dioxide nanoparticles and zinc oxide nanoparticles. It is the second most advertised nanomaterial in ...
The SPR of platinum nanoparticles is found in the ultraviolet range (215 nm), unlike the other noble metal nanoparticles which ... These concepts suggest the possible role of platinum nanoparticles in the development of solar energy conversion using metal ... By changing the size, shape and environment of metal nanoparticles, their optical properties can be used for electrontic, ... Platinum nanoparticles are usually in the form of a suspension or colloid of nanoparticles of platinum in a fluid, usually ...
The charge-transfer complex that forms between the metal ions and the dendrimer exhibits a ligand-to-metal charge transfer, or ... Dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles (DENs) are nanoparticles ranging from 1.5 to 10 nm that are synthesized by a template ... where Mp+ refers to the metal ions used and n refers to the average number of metal ions complexed within each dendrimer. After ... where M is the zerovalent metal used and n is the number of metal atoms. DENs can be characterized mainly by ultraviolet- ...
The unhardened material is then dissolved to produce a "shell". The shell is then coated with ceramic, metals, metallic glass, ... Ceramic nanoparticle is a type of nanoparticle that is composed of ceramics, which are generally classified as inorganic, heat- ... They were formed using a process called sol-gel which mixes nanoparticles within a solution and gel to form the nanoparticle. ... Ceramic nanoparticle have unique properties because of their size and molecular structure. These properties are often shown in ...
In a transition-metal lattice doped with rare-earth metals, an excited-state charge transfer exists between two excited ions. ... From this, the number of unit cells in a nanoparticle, and thus the total mass of the nanoparticle, can be estimated. As the ... To calculate the molecular mass of a nanoparticle, the size of the nanoparticle, the size and shape of the unit cell structure ... The use of upconverting nanoparticles in fingerprinting is highly selective. The upconverting nanoparticles can bind to ...
Nanoparticles can be made from different materials such as metals, ceramics and polymers. The stability of the nanoparticles ... Examples include Using graphene oxide for applications in electronics Using nanoparticles of metal oxides, carbon nanotubes and ... Nanoparticle deposition refers to the process of attaching nanoparticles to solid surfaces called substrates to create coatings ... Bare nanoparticles tend to stabilize themselves either by sorption of molecules from the surroundings or by lowering the ...
The metallic core of magnetic nanoparticles may be passivated by gentle oxidation, surfactants, polymers and precious metals. ... Ferrite nanoparticles or iron oxide nanoparticles (iron oxides in crystal structure of maghemite or magnetite) are the most ... Magnetic nanoparticles are a class of nanoparticle that can be manipulated using magnetic fields. Such particles commonly ... Magnetic nanoparticle clusters that are composed of a number of individual magnetic nanoparticles are known as magnetic ...
Currently there are many synthetic methods such as water-in-oil microemulsion, one-step thermal synthesis with metal precursors ... The size increase of the bimetallic nanoparticles enables a wider range of biological applications. Platinum nanoparticles ... Iron-platinum nanoparticles (FePt NPs) are 3D superlattices composed of an approximately equal atomic ratio of Fe and Pt. Under ... Nanoparticles have also been grown with coercivities up to 37 kOe. Due to their superparamagnetism and controllable shape, size ...
... the metal ions migrated to the outer part of the glaze and were reduced to metals. The end result was a double layer of metal ... A copper nanoparticle is a copper based particle 1 to 100 nm in size. Like many other forms of nanoparticles, a copper ... Moreover, using nanoparticles, native amino acids can be detected. A copper nanoparticle-plated screen-printed carbon electrode ... In fact, the nanoparticles enable the sensor to be more stable at high temperatures and varying pH, and more resistant to toxic ...
Semiconductor quantum dots are fluorescent and metal nanoparticles exhibit surface plasmon absorbances, making both amenable to ... Nanoparticles may also be mixed with larger particles. For some applications, nanoparticles may be characterized in complex ... Many nanoparticles do not yet have reference materials available. Nanoparticles have the challenge that reference materials can ... A high background of natural and incidental nanoparticles may interfere with detection of the target engineered nanoparticle, ...
The oxidation of the surface of some liquid metal alloys leads to the formation of loose or porous 3D nanostructures. For the ... 2008). "E. V. Petrova, A. F. Dresvyannikov, M. A. Tsyganov, Gubaidullina A. M., Vlasov V. V., Islamov G. G. nanoparticles of ... Nanosized aluminium oxide (nanosized alumina) occurs in the form of spherical or nearly spherical nanoparticles, and in the ... The liquid metal technology of synthesis of nanostructural aerogel AlOOH from molten Ga-Bi and Al-Al (Institute of RF IPPE ...
Metal nanoparticles, such as gold nanoparticles, have optical qualities(also described in nanomaterials) that allow for less ... polymeric nanoparticles, inorganic nanoparticles, viral nanoparticles, lipid-based nanoparticles, and nanoparticle albumin- ... Polymeric nanoparticles are synthetic polymers with a size ranging from 10 to 100 nm. Common synthetic polymeric nanoparticles ... Nanoparticle drug delivery systems are engineered technologies that use nanoparticles for the targeted delivery and controlled ...
"Functionalization of Silica Nanoparticles for Corrosion Prevention of Underlying Metal". In Kong, Eric S. W. (ed.). ... Kicklebick, Guido (2015). "Nanoparticles and Composites". In Levy, David; Zayat, Marcos (eds.). The Sol-Gel Handbook: Synthesis ...
Metal oxide and pure metal nanoparticles are used in Catalysis, sensors, oxygen antioxident, self repairing metal, ceramics, UV ... When EWM is performed in a standard atmosphere containing oxygen, metal oxides are formed. Pure metal nanoparticles can also be ... and in the production of metal nanoparticles. One of the first documented cases of using electricity to melt a metal occurred ... Nanoparticles are created by EWM when the ambient gas of the system cools the recently produced vaporous metal. EWM can be used ...
Silver outcompetes other metals for the available sulfide, leading to an overall decrease in bioavailable sulfur in the ... and most of the silver nanoparticles in wastewater remain in the original silver nanoparticle form. The presence of natural ... with approximately 3.9 tonnes of silver nanoparticles entering the environment annually. Silver nanoparticles are not entirely ... Most silver nanoparticles in products have an organic shell structure around a core of Ag0. This shell is often created with ...
This hypothesis has been offered for explaining the singular magnetic properties of nanoparticles made of gold and other metals ... In fact, all metals exhibit some magnetization in magnetic fields due a combination of de Haas-van Alphen effect, core ... Surprisingly, it is also possible to have tiny persistent currents inside resistive metals that are placed in a magnetic field ... Bluhm, H.; Koshnick, N.; Bert, J.; Huber, M.; Moler, K. (2009). "Persistent Currents in Normal Metal Rings". Phys. Rev. Lett. ...
coated magnetic nanoparticles with humic acids. After capturing lead ions, the nanoparticles can then be captured using a ... The heavy-metal binding abilities of humic acids have been exploited to develop remediation technologies for removing heavy ... complexes is an important aspect of the biological role of humic acids in regulating bioavailability of metal ions. The ... metals from waste water. To this end, Yurishcheva et al. ...
In particular, his research interests include the synthesis of crystalline metal oxide nanoparticles, heterostructures, hybrid ... Niederberger, Markus; Pinna, Nicola (2009). Metal Oxide Nanoparticles in Organic Solvents. Springer. ISBN 978-1-84882-671-7. ... He is executive editor of the Journal of Nanoparticle Research, associate editor of Carbon Energy and was member of the ... "Journal of Nanoparticle Research - Editorial Board". Retrieved 2015-02-21. "Carbon Energy - Editorial Board". Retrieved 2021-04 ...
... of carbon-encapsulated metal nanoparticles;(iv) of patterned graphite and thus micromechanically exfoliated graphene-like ... "Single Crystal Metals Encapsulated in Carbon Nanoparticles". Science. 259 (5093): 346-8. Bibcode:1993Sci...259..346R. doi: ... "Magnetic separation of GdC2 encapsulated in carbon nanoparticles". Carbon. 32 (3): 507. doi:10.1016/0008-6223(94)90173-2. Lu, X ... and of synthesis and structural characterization of supergiant fullerenes containing single crystal metal 'encapsulates', have ...
"2010 Noble Metal Nanoparticles Conference GRC". www.grc.org. Retrieved September 17, 2018. "Teri W. Odom". The David and Lucile ... In 2010, she became the founding chair of the Noble Metal Nanoparticles Gordon Research Conference Between 2016 and 2018, she ... "Teri W. Odom receives 2014 IPMI™ Carol Tyler Award" (PDF). Kitco (Press release). International Precious Metals Institute. June ... Odom also conducts research into nanoparticle-cell interactions using new biological nanoconstructs that offer imaging and ...
"Inhaled metal Tube dust can enter bloodstream, study finds". BBC News. 15 December 2022. Sheikh, H. A.; Tung, P. Y.; Ringe, E ... Maghemite nanoparticles are used in biomedicine, because they are biocompatible and non-toxic to humans, while their magnetism ... Pankhurst, Q A; Connolly, J; Jones, S K; Dobson, J (2003). "Applications of magnetic nanoparticles in biomedicine". Journal of ... Harrison, R. J. (2022-12-15). "Magnetic and microscopic investigation of airborne iron oxide nanoparticles in the London ...
... found a way to study the conversion process in detail and determine the perfect size for the catalytic nickel nanoparticles. ... Lead author Charlotte Vogt from Utrecht University says: "When we make metal nanoparticles smaller and smaller, they start to ... putting us in the position to unlock the true potential of small metal nanoparticles for CO2 catalysis," says Bert Weckhuysen, ... www/sa/en/who-we-are/sustainability/whats-new/sustainability-news/2018/unlocking-the-potential-of-metal-nanoparticles ...
Naked metal nanoparticles are synthesized by various physical and chemical methods. Chemical methods involving metal salt ... methods used to prepare metal nanoparticles are highlighted and further tannic acid mediated synthesis of metal nanoparticles ... led to inclination of scientific community towards eco-friendly agents for the reduction of metal salts to form nanoparticles. ... Metal nanoparticles harbour numerous exceptional physiochemical properties absolutely different from those of bulk metal as a ...
Transition-metal phosphides (TMPs) are versatile materials with tunable electronic and structural properties that have led to ... Controlled Synthesis of Transition Metal Phosphide Nanoparticles to Establish Composition-Dependent Trends in Electrocatalyti ... surfaces on which metal-metal bridge sites are available for H adsorption but not the flat (0001) surfaces. The versatility of ... Transition-metal phosphides (TMPs) are versatile materials with tunable electronic and structural properties that have led to ...
... delivering essentially defect-free superalloy metal nanoparticles.. The team of Sandia researchers perform these highly ... Single gold nanoparticle crystals formed using radiolysis at Sandias Gamma Irradiation Facility (approximately 30 nm in size ... radiation science have designed a radical system of experiments to study the science of creating metal and alloy nanoparticles. ... "Were using radiation to break down the molecular structure of substances and form nanoparticles - a synthetic approach that is ...
... (Nanowerk News) Engineers at Harvard have demonstrated a new kind of tunable ... and colleagues have engineered the size and shape of metal nanoparticles so that the color they appear strongly depends on the ... The nanoparticles can be regarded as antennas-similar to antennas used for wireless communications-but much smaller in scale ... Novel liquid metal circuits for flexible, self-healing wearables. Oct 02, 2023 ...
Photoemission from metal nanoparticles, Protsenko I.E., Uskov A.V. Export as BibNote ® (RIS) ... Photoemission from metal nanoparticles. I.E. Protsenko a, b, A.V. Uskov a, b. a Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of ... Citation: Protsenko I E, Uskov A V Photoemission from metal nanoparticles Phys. Usp. 55 508-518 (2012). BibTex. BibNote ® ( ... TY JOUR TI Photoemission from metal nanoparticles AU Protsenko, I. E. AU Uskov, A. V. PB Physics-Uspekhi PY 2012 JO Physics- ...
On the other hand, noble metal particles, particularly gold (Au) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs), can be incorporated into ... In the past two decades, nanoparticles have been widely studied for a wide range of applications, and noble metal nanoparticles ... Bactericidal Properties of Plants-Derived Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles (NPs). Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) 2018, 23, ... Application of Metal Nanoparticle-Hydrogel Composites in Tissue Regeneration by Hui-Li Tan ...
Many synthesis methods have been proposed, most of which involve nanometric metal particles. In this article the various ... Metal nanoparticles for the catalytic synthesis of carbon nanotubes Christophe Laurent, Emmanuel Flahaut, Alain Peigney and ... Metal nanoparticles for the catalytic synthesis of carbon nanotubes C. Laurent, E. Flahaut, A. Peigney and A. Rousset, New J. ... Many synthesis methods have been proposed, most of which involve nanometric metal particles. In this article the various ...
Metal nanoparticles@MOF nanocomposites as SERS tags for biodetection 25 de xuño de 2018 ...
21 in Science, Argonne and Temple University researchers describe the behavior of metal nanoparticles by watching them in real ... Tags: 3D ImagingImagingIndustry NewsMaterials ScienceMetalsNanoparticlesnanoscale structurenanotechnologyrust. ... 21 in Science, Argonne and Temple University researchers describe the behavior of metal nanoparticles by watching them in real ... New Study Reveals the Mystery behind the Formation of Hollowed Nanoparticles during Metal Oxidation. In a paper published Apr. ...
... toxic metal and silicate particles are present in both the cigarette fluid and aerosol. ... Metal and silicate particles including nanoparticles are present in electronic cigarette cartomizer fluid and aerosol. PLoS One ... toxic metal and silicate particles including nanoparticles are present in both the cigarette fluid and aerosol. [1] ... Heavy metals like tin are increasingly being recognized as carrying significant endocrine disrupting potential and belong to a ...
Metal nanoparticles are typically covered with organic molecules called ligands, which generally prevent the formation of metal ... For a new study, the team made metal "coins" from nanoparticles of gold, silver, palladium and other metals. Credit: Chen lab ... Brown University researchers have shown a way to make bulk metals by smashing tiny metal nanoparticles together, which allows ... 1 Comment on New Technique Builds Super-Hard Metals by Smashing Tiny Nanoparticles Together * The 10th Man , January 23, 2021 ...
The limits of detection (3s$_{y/x})$ and the analytical ranges for gold nanoparticles/carbon nanotube modified electrode (AuNP/ ... CNT/GCE) and copper nanoparticles/carbon nanotube modified electrode (CuNP/CNT/GCE) for 40 s accumulation times were 55 \textmu ... This study describes a sensitive and accurate voltammetric method for determination of boron using metal nanoparticles/carbon ... This study describes a sensitive and accurate voltammetric method for determination of boron using metal nanoparticles/carbon ...
Glucose oxidase-initiated cascade catalysis for sensitive impedimetric aptasensor based on metal-organic frameworks ... functionalized with Pt nanoparticles and hemin/G-quadruplex as mimicking peroxidases. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad ... was proposed by using Cu-based metal-organic frameworks functionalized with Pt nanoparticles, aptamer, hemin and GOx (Pt@CuMOFs ... was proposed by using Cu-based metal-organic frameworks functionalized with Pt nanoparticles, aptamer, hemin and GOx (Pt@CuMOFs ...
McArdle, Hazel (2016) High Sensitivity Nucleic Acid Detection using Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles. PhD thesis, Dublin ... By using the SAM template, hemispherical nanoparticles are formed which can then be functionalised on one side with NA prior to ... By controlling the size and shape of nanoparticles, their properties can be finely tuned to suit the application required. A ... which is then followed by target hybridisation to a complementary probe strand which is labelled with a nanoparticle. ...
Significance and Use 5.1 A tiered strategy for characterization of nanoparticle properties is necessary to draw meaningful ... and analysis procedures for metal and metal oxide nanoparticles. Use of krypton is required due to the low overall surface area ... Standard Test Method for Measurement of Airborne Metal Oxide Nanoparticle Surface Area Concentration in Inhalation Exposure ... This test method describes the determination of the as administered surface area of airborne metal oxide nanoparticles in ...
Metal nanoparticles lead the way towards solar water decontamination. Three lowest-order modes of an interacting triangle of ... Metal nanoparticles lead the way towards solar water decontamination - Melbourne Centre for Nanofabrication *About us *Mission ... Daniel Gomez, are creating novel metal nanoparticles capable of efficient light collection and focusing, in order to enhance ... They have achieved this by creating arrays of nanoparticles using aluminium, an abundant and inexpensive metal, which offers ...
... which allows the subsequent synthesis of metal/metal oxide nanoparticles for catalytic degradation of environmental pollutants ... 427782 Polymer-Nanoparticle Mixed Matrix Membranes for Toxic Metal and Organic Remediation in Water Thursday, November 12, 2015 ... We developed polymer-nanoparticle based MMMs with stimuli-responsive pores and high metal adsorption capacity, ... Iron nanoparticles were also synthesized in the membrane module. By integration of nanofiltration and functionalized membranes ...
A comparison of the radiosensitisation ability of 22 different element metal oxide nanoparticles using clinical megavoltage X- ... A comparison of the radiosensitisation ability of 22 different element metal oxide nanoparticles using clinical megavoltage X- ... superoxide anion radicals and singlet oxygen in aqueous solutions of the following metal oxide nanoparticles: Al2O3, SiO2, Sc2O ... Background: A wide range of nanoparticles (NPs), composed of different elements and their compounds, are being developed by ...
... monometallic nanoparticle formation is avoided by selectively growing the secondary metal on the primary metal nanoparticle but ... Synthesis of supported bimetallic nanoparticles often results in mixtures containing one or two metals. Here, the authors ... method where one metal particle is initially formed on a support and the second metal is then grown exclusively on this metal ... Here we report a general strategy for synthesizing supported bimetallic nanoparticles by atomic layer deposition, where ...
Metal Nanoparticle Photogeneration, and Multiphoton Photoemission from Thin Metal Films and Metal Nanoparticles. ...
Investigation of pore water and soil extraction tests for characterizing the fate of poorly soluble metal-oxide nanoparticles. ... Investigation of pore water and soil extraction tests for characterizing the fate of poorly soluble metal-oxide nanoparticles. ...
An in situ method has been developed to fabricate gold nanoparticle (Au NP) films on different substrates, regardless of ... In situ synthesis of metal nanoparticle embedded freestanding multifunctional PDMS films. Macromol Rapid Commun 30, 1116-1122 ( ... A solid-state plasmonic solar cell via metal nanoparticle self-assembly. Adv Mater 24, 4750-4755 (2012). ... Figure 5: Metal-enhanced fluorescence study on Au NP film.. (A) Schematic presentation of wrinkled PDMS substrate preparation ( ...
Photochemical reaction dynamics of hybrid structures composed of metal nanoparticle and organic layer studied by time- and ... Presentation] Nanoparticles and nanoparticle-based materials : synthesis, characterization, and applications2010. *. Author(s) ... Journal Article] Nanoparticle injection to single animal cells using femtosecond laser-induced impulsive force2008. *. Author(s ... Presentation] Gold nanoparticle enhanced photochromic reaction of photochromic diarylethene polymers2010. *. Author(s). Seiya ...
Metal Basis) ultra pure high quality with worldwide shipping From us you can easily purchase this product at great price. ... We Provide Carbon Coated Cobalt Nanoparticles (Co/C, Purity: 99.5%, APS: 40-80nm, ... Carbon Coated Cobalt Nanoparticles (Co/C, Purity: 99.5%, APS: 40-80nm, Metal Basis) at great prices. Place online order and we ... Carbon Coated Cobalt Nanoparticles. (Co/C, Purity: 99.5%, APS: 40-80nm, Metal Basis). Available Pack Size: 10Gms, 25Gms, 50Gms ...
... single metal, etc.), high-purity targets, functional ceramics, and structural devices. ... Nanoparticles *Metal Alloy *MAX Phase *Lithium Battery Anode *Surfactant *Molecular sieves *Concrete Admixtures ... What are Titanium carbide nanoparticles used for?. Nano titanium carbide is one of the transition metal carbides with the ... Metal Alloy TZM Molybdenum Boats. TZM alloy is more stable than pure Molybdenum at higher temperatures, while its mechanical ...
Nanoparticles *Metal Alloy *MAX Phase *Lithium Battery Anode *Surfactant *Molecular sieves *Concrete Admixtures *Cladding of ... Gold nanoparticles come in two forms: solid powder and liquid solution.. Gold nanoparticles solution is sols dispersed in an ... Small gold nanoparticles (2-5nm) appear yellow, medium gold nanoparticles (10-20nm) appear wine red, and larger gold ... Gold is an inert metal that does not react or change when it comes into contact with living organisms. Gold can be used to make ...
As for crystalline metal nanoparticles, dislocations were found to influence the mechanical properties of nanoparticles, ... Typical instances of this method are the production of metal oxide or hydroxide nanoparticles by hydrolysis of metal alkoxides ... metal, and metal-oxide nanoparticles". Mater. Adv. 2: 186-235. doi:10.1039/d0ma00439a. IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical ... nanoparticles enhance light absorption by increasing scattering. Recently, the metal core-dielectric shell nanoparticle has ...
  • 250 Pages Report] FMI estimates the global Metal & Metal Oxide Nanoparticles market to reach a value of US$ 29,958.8 million by the year 2022. (futuremarketinsights.com)
  • Sales prospects of Metal & Metal Oxide Nanoparticles are expected to expand CAGR of 11.6% and to top a valuation of US$ 89,894.6 million by 2032. (futuremarketinsights.com)
  • In light of the growing desire for personal care products, it is projected that the personal care & cosmetics sector would directly affect the use of Metal & Metal Oxide Nanoparticles. (futuremarketinsights.com)
  • The global metal and metal oxide nanoparticles market is expected to grow rapidly in the coming years. (futuremarketinsights.com)
  • The Metal & Metal Oxide Nanoparticles market witnessed a CAGR of 4.1% over the historical period of 2017 to 2021. (futuremarketinsights.com)
  • As per the current estimate, the forecast growth outlook for Metal & Metal Oxide Nanoparticles remains around 11.6% for the period between 2022 and 2032. (futuremarketinsights.com)
  • Growing demand for personal care products & pharmaceuticals drugs is expected to bolster the demand for Metal & Metal Oxide Nanoparticles during the projected period. (futuremarketinsights.com)
  • Increasing awareness about health, hygiene & well-being is the major factor propelling the demand for personal care products, which in turn is expected to boost the demand for metal & metal oxide nanoparticles. (futuremarketinsights.com)
  • The work presented in this thesis addresses the selectivity problem by depositing metal/metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) on the surface of graphene. (tudelft.nl)
  • Four types of metal/metal oxide nanoparticles were investigated: Gold (Au), Platinum (Pt), Copper (Cu), and Iron (Fe). (tudelft.nl)
  • Metal oxide nanoparticles are widely used in various applications, including removing pollutants from contaminated water, tracking cancer cell growth, targeted drug delivery. (escholarship.org)
  • Although significant research has been pursued on the surface transformations of metal oxide nanoparticles, multi-component adsorption kinetics, changes in adsorbate structure, and the impacts on the nanomaterial properties in complex environments remain unclear. (escholarship.org)
  • The research presented in this dissertation pursues a greater understanding of metal oxide nanoparticle characterizations, implications, and biomolecule-nanoparticle interactions from studies of amino acid and protein adsorption. (escholarship.org)
  • Metal oxide semiconductor nanowires have important applications in label-free biosensing due to their ease of fabrication and ultralow detection limits. (nature.com)
  • We instead demonstrate the use of gas-phase synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) to decorate zinc oxide nanowire (ZnO NW) devices for biosensing applications. (nature.com)
  • Tellurium Oxide Nanoparticle Dispersions are suspensions of Tellurium oxide nanoparticles in water or various organic solvents such as ethanol or mineral oil. (americanelements.com)
  • American Elements manufactures oxide nanopowders and nanoparticles with typical particle sizes ranging from 10 to 200nm and in coated and surface functionalized forms. (americanelements.com)
  • Particularly, metal oxide nanoparticles are gaining competence as key industrial constituents, progressing toward a remarkable rise in their applications. (diva-portal.org)
  • Zinc oxide and titanium oxide nanoparticles are the most commonly employed metal oxide nanoparticles in sunscreens, ointments, foot care, and over the counter topical products. (diva-portal.org)
  • In this review article, we have discussed the characteristics of metal oxide nanoparticles and its applications in the cosmetic industry. (diva-portal.org)
  • In particular, they found that the greatest catalytic activity is achieved with extremely small nanoparticles - less than 4 nanometers (4 billionths of a meter) - supported on the metal cerium oxide, or ceria. (bnl.gov)
  • They found success using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). (nih.gov)
  • The green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using plant extract, the cost-effective solution, and the abundance and environmental issue have been gaining much attention to scientists. (hindawi.com)
  • This work demonstrates a facile, rapid, low cost, and environmentally preparation of colloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) under ultrasonic irradiation temperature using natural honey as a capping and reducing agent. (researchgate.net)
  • The silver nanoparticles preparation following green pathways have shown great potential with wide applications in different fields include biosensing, biomedical, electronics, catalysis etc. (amrita.edu)
  • Silver nanoparticles were prepared using the extract of Cynodon dactylon , a common medicinal plant from South India following green pathway. (amrita.edu)
  • She also performed biotechnology tests on microalgal isolates to study their heavy metal tolerance and the biological production of silver nanoparticles. (nih.gov)
  • Measurements with the FMPS indicated that particle number concentrations near the furnace increased up to 1000-fold above the baseline during the pouring of molten metal. (cdc.gov)
  • The influence of the metal shell thickness, particle diameter and the nanoscale rod form on the location of dissipation spectrum maximum is analyzed. (spie.org)
  • Nanoparticle interactions with plasma proteins are important in evaluating undesirable interactions between the nanoparticles and the coagulation system, because protein binding can alter nanoparticle physicochemical properties, [ 10 , 11 ] which, in turn, determines particle interaction with proteins. (medscape.com)
  • [ 16 ] Interestingly, this property is largely dependent on particle size, as only large (220 nm) nanoparticles, but not their small (24 nm) counterparts, activated intrinsic coagulation. (medscape.com)
  • Perforation of the cell membrane by these nanoparticles depended on particle surface properties and the incubation time. (medscape.com)
  • A nanoparticle or ultrafine particle is usually defined as a particle of matter that is between 1 and 100 nanometres (nm) in diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • The possibility of shifting the resonance wavelengths by tuning the particle geometry allows using them in the fields of molecular labeling, biomolecular assays, trace metal detection, or nanotechnical applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anisotropic nanoparticles display a specific absorption behavior and stochastic particle orientation under unpolarized light, showing a distinct resonance mode for each excitable axis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Silicon carbide nanoparticles ( CAS 409-21-2 ) has high purity, small particle size, uniform distribution, large specific surface area, high surface activity, and low bulk density. (cookingmamacookoff.com)
  • The portable testo DiSCmini particle counter makes measuring the number concentration of nanoparticles easier than ever before. (testo.com)
  • In this study, the single particle mass spectrometer (SPMS) was applied to explore the composition of DPM, namely the origin of metals and size preferences of metals originating from metallic fuel additives and lube oil. (cdc.gov)
  • The number of new nanoparticle characterization products is rapidly increasing as global expenditure on nanotechnology research rises. (futuremarketinsights.com)
  • The production of nanoparticles with specific properties is a branch of nanotechnology. (wikipedia.org)
  • My research team was dedicated to nanotechnology and doping nanoparticles. (cancer.org)
  • Curious, I searched several prominent quack websites and found that nanoparticles are a popular topic. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Using catalyst characterization techniques at Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Rodriguez and coworkers Jonathan Hanson and Jan Hrbek found that nanoparticles of either gold or copper, supported on a metal, can perform this catalytic role. (bnl.gov)
  • There is a compelling need to understand the toxicity effects of nanoparticles which can easily enter the cells and induce oxidative stress. (diva-portal.org)
  • In particular, the back-action between NV and plasmonic nanoparticles is nonlinear and depends on optical wavelength, nanoparticle position, and metal type. (degruyter.com)
  • Propagating optical eigenmodes are found in densely packed monolayers of plasmonic nanoparticles on a metal mirror. (github.io)
  • An air quality survey was conducted at a precious metals refinery in order to evaluate worker exposures to airborne metals and to provide detailed characterization of the aerosols. (cdc.gov)
  • Platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) are noteworthy scientific tools that are being explored in various biotechnological, nanomedicinal, and pharmacological fields. (mdpi.com)
  • Researchers from Utrecht University, Netherlands in collaboration with R&D colleagues Peter Berben, Esther Groeneveld and Gerda Kamsma from BASF in De Meern, Netherlands, have found a way to study the conversion process in detail and determine the perfect size for the catalytic nickel nanoparticles. (basf.com)
  • In order to understand how these nickel nanoparticles behave during the conversion of CO 2 , the researchers studied the catalysts in action. (basf.com)
  • In addition, Nickel Nanoparticles should be avoided under stress. (us-nano.com)
  • Metal and semiconductor nanoparticles have excellent optical and electrochemical properties that strongly depend on their size and shape. (spie.org)
  • Nanowerk News ) The ultrashort laser ablation of solid materials is basis of different modern and advanced scientific and technological areas as fabrication of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles, deposition of nanostructures and their embedding in optical films, or deposition on their surfaces in order to alter exciting properties or development of new. (nanowerk.com)
  • Wray, A. T. & Klaine, S. J. Modeling the influence of physicochemical properties on gold nanoparticle uptake and elimination by Daphnia magna . (nature.com)
  • The compatibility of administrated nanoparticles with components of the coagulation system depends on their physicochemical properties. (medscape.com)
  • Nanoparticles' physicochemical properties determine their effects on coagulation. (medscape.com)
  • For some properties, like transparency or turbidity, ultrafiltration, stable dispersion, etc., substantial changes characteristic of nanoparticles are observed for particles as large as 500 nm. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result of the supercritical-CO 2 -assisted surface modification of QDs, the QDs were well dispersed in the polymer matrix and showed high luminescence ( 'Formation of poly(methyl methacrylate)-ZnO nanoparticle quantum dot composites by dispersion polymerization in supercritical CO 2 ' ). (nanowerk.com)
  • Polymer-ZnO nanoparticle QDs by dispersion polymerization in supercritical CO 2 are shown. (nanowerk.com)
  • At the lowest range, metal particles smaller than 1 nm are usually called atom clusters instead. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nanoparticles are usually distinguished from microparticles (1-1000 µm), "fine particles" (sized between 100 and 2500 nm), and "coarse particles" (ranging from 2500 to 10,000 nm), because their smaller size drives very different physical or chemical properties, like colloidal properties and ultrafast optical effects or electric properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the same reason, dispersions of nanoparticles in transparent media can be transparent, whereas suspensions of larger particles usually scatter some or all visible light incident on them. (wikipedia.org)
  • The properties of nanoparticles often differ markedly from those of larger particles of the same substance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basically, nanoparticles are particles that measure between 1 and 100 nanometers in size. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Noble metal nanomaterials such as Au, Ag, and Pt with size particles between 1 and 100 nanometers have distinguished properties such as the chemical and optical properties due to a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) [ 6 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Metal nanoparticles can bind proteins and produce proteinaceous particles called proteons. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • This report describes an investigation in which NIOSH used iron-doped diesel fuel to generate metal-bearing diesel particles and a subsequent analysis of the particles using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). (cdc.gov)
  • The resulting nanoparticles could be used in the catalytic hydrogenation of styrene. (chemistryviews.org)
  • The nanoparticles could also be recycled for ten catalytic cycles. (chemistryviews.org)
  • Although gold nanoparticles continue to show the greatest catalytic activity, copper is almost as reactive and its cost is much lower. (bnl.gov)
  • Metal Nanoparticles Immobilized on Molecularly Modified Surfaces : Versatile Catalytic Systems f. (rwth-aachen.de)
  • Stegemeier, J. P., Avellan, A. & Lowry, G. V. Effect of initial speciation of copper- and silver-based nanoparticles on their long-term fate and phytoavailability in freshwater wetland mesocosms. (nature.com)
  • NP treatments led to elevated copper and gold tissue concentrations in adult insects, which resulted in terrestrial fluxes of metals. (duke.edu)
  • These metal fluxes were associated with increased gold and copper tissue concentrations for both spider genera. (duke.edu)
  • This suggested method is general and can be extended to other noble metals, such as gold, palladium, and copper and may possibly find various additional application from medicine to industry. (researchgate.net)
  • These endogenous metal nanoparticles, along with engineered zinc and copper nanoparticles at subnanomolar levels, were shown to be lethal to cultured cancer cells. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Endogenous metal nanoparticles obtained from the blood of humans, rabbits, or dogs and engineered zinc and copper nanoparticles at subnanomolar levels were shown to kill cultured cancer cells [ 3 ] [ 4 ] . (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Rodriguez will discuss how the use of gold and copper nanoparticles might provide a solution to this problem at 8:30 a.m. (bnl.gov)
  • We report on bottom-up approach of growing copper nanoparticles by exposing precursor metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to an electron beam. (aip.org)
  • A complete understanding of the toxicity mechanism of nano-ZnO is intended to resolve whether and to what extent such nanoparticles may pose a threat to the environment and to human beings. (diva-portal.org)
  • citation needed] Nanoclusters are agglomerates of nanoparticles with at least one dimension between 1 and 10 nanometers and a narrow size distribution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we report on the development and experimental validation of a laser-based technique which uses coherent Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering (CRBS) to detect nanoparticles with characteristic sizes ranging from the atomic scale to tens of nanometers. (osti.gov)
  • These nanoparticles are highly reactive, and their abundance in the environment brings potential concerns to their exposure, leading to increased interactions with biomolecules that have impactful environmental and health effects. (escholarship.org)
  • We hypothesise that reactive transition metals and organic carbon species are driving these effects through redox-mediated reactions. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Results of TEM/EDS analyses confirmed the high number of nanoparticles measured by the FMPS and indicated the aerosols were rich in metals including silver, lead, antimony, selenium, and zinc. (cdc.gov)
  • It was discovered that zinc nanoparticles produce no odor response but increase the odor reaction if mixed with an odorant. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Naturally occurring zinc nanoparticles were found to exist in olfactory and nasal respiratory epithelia and cilia in animals [ 5 ] . (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Studies of these nanoparticles by transmission electron microscopy and the selected area electron diffraction method revealed the existence of metal elemental crystalline zinc nanoparticles 2-4 nm in diameter. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Man-made microparticles include ceramics, glass, polymers and metals. (nih.gov)
  • Nanomaterial Powder, is an worldwide manufacturer and supplier of nanoparticles, nanopowders, micron powders, and CNTs (carbon nanotubes) in small quantity for research and in bulk order for industry groups. (nanomaterialpowder.com)
  • Biomimetic Nucleation of Metal-Organic Frameworks on Silk Fibroin Nanoparticles for Designing Core-Shell-Structured pH-Responsive Anticancer Drug Carriers. (bvsalud.org)
  • The nanoparticles in traffic exhaust are especially harmful, although the biological mechanisms by which they induce detrimental cardiovascular effects remain to be fully established. (ed.ac.uk)
  • We also provide a few examples of nanoparticle metamolecules with designed properties realized in such well-controlled plasmonic metastructures. (rsc.org)
  • Unlike the solid-air and solid-liquid interfaces, the optical properties of metal nanoparticles adsorbed at the liquid-liquid interface have not been theoretically exploited to date. (rsc.org)
  • In this work, the three dimensional finite difference time domain (3D-FDTD) method is employed to clarify the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) based optical properties of gold nanoparticles (NPs) adsorbed at the water-oil interface, including near field distribution, far field absorption and their relevance. (rsc.org)
  • A growing scientific interest is recently focused on some specific properties of noble metal nanoparticles. (nanowerk.com)
  • The enhancement factor is found to depend on the parameters of the incident irradiation, nanoparticles dimensions and the dielectric properties of the surrounding. (nanowerk.com)
  • However, nanoparticles exhibit different dislocation mechanics, which, together with their unique surface structures, results in mechanical properties that are different from the bulk material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-spherical nanoparticles (e.g., prisms, cubes, rods etc.) exhibit shape-dependent and size-dependent (both chemical and physical) properties (anisotropy). (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-spherical nanoparticles of gold (Au), silver (Ag), and platinum (Pt) due to their fascinating optical properties are finding diverse applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rubber tires and other rubbers exposed to high temperatures and large amounts of wear take advantage of the properties of this nanoparticle. (cookingmamacookoff.com)
  • The solid physiological and biochemical properties of metal nanoparticles reflect their importance in cell homeostasis and disease. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • As a team, we studied the chemical properties of semiconducting materials, which includes metal sulfide alloy nanoparticles such as CdxZn1-xS. (cancer.org)
  • In other words, we could produce desired optical properties of nanoparticles and contribute to new discoveries in its current applications to LEDs, lasers, and bioimaging in medicine. (cancer.org)
  • Transfer of gold nanoparticles from the water column to the estuarine food web. (nature.com)
  • Glenn, J. B. & Klaine, S. J. Abiotic and biotic factors that influence the bioavailability of gold nanoparticles to aquatic macrophytes. (nature.com)
  • Lovern, S. B., Owen, H. A. & Klaper, R. Electron microscopy of gold nanoparticle intake in the gut of Daphnia magna . (nature.com)
  • gold nanoparticles, microplastics and temperature. (nature.com)
  • In this study, we instead functionalize nanowires using gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) deposited via a gas-phase synthesis method. (nature.com)
  • Two types of alkylthiol-terminated poly(acrylic acid) (PAAs, varying in length) are synthesized and used to functionalize gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to mimic similar assembly effects of single-stranded DNA-capped AuNPs using synthetic polyelectrolytes. (osti.gov)
  • article{osti_1409368, title = {Interfacial Self-Assembly of Polyelectrolyte-Capped Gold Nanoparticles}, author = {Zhang, Honghu and Nayak, Srikanth and Wang, Wenjie and Mallapragada, Surya and Vaknin, David}, abstractNote = {Here, we report on pH- and salt-responsive assembly of nanoparticles capped with polyelectrolytes at vapor-liquid interfaces. (osti.gov)
  • Based on nanobodies (Nbs), we have developed a rapid flow-through dot enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (dot ELISA) and gold nanoparticle (GNP) lateral-flow immunoassay for detecting 3-PBA. (nih.gov)
  • This collaboration has brought us a better understanding of how these solid catalysts work, putting us in the position to unlock the true potential of small metal nanoparticles for CO 2 catalysis," says Bert Weckhuysen, Professor of Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis at Utrecht University. (basf.com)
  • Metal nanoparticles are useful for a number of applications , most prominently in the field of catalysis. (chemistryviews.org)
  • Silver metal has attracted substantial attention because of a potential application in different areas such as antibacterial agents, catalysis, biological and chemical sensors, water treatment, and biomedicine [ 10 - 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Metal nanoparticles alone are not able to do the catalysis," Rodriguez said. (bnl.gov)
  • Newly occurred corona may change the nanoparticle interfacial state and its biological and ecological identity. (escholarship.org)
  • Being much smaller than the wavelengths of visible light (400-700 nm), nanoparticles cannot be seen with ordinary optical microscopes, requiring the use of electron microscopes or microscopes with laser. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, the small size of nanoparticles leads to a lower concentration of point defects compared to their bulk counterparts, but they do support a variety of dislocations that can be visualized using high-resolution electron microscopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • High-Throughput, Algorithmic Determination of Nanoparticle Structure from Electron Microscopy Images (https://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/54101-high-throughput-algorithmic-determination-of-nanoparticle-structure-from-electron-microscopy-images), MATLAB Central File Exchange. (mathworks.com)
  • Transition metals with noticeable PMS activation capacity differed from noble metals in several aspects, such as the effect of radical quenching on 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) degradation, electron paramagnetic resonance spectral features, oxidative conversion of bromide into bromate, and oxidation intermediate distribution. (elsevierpure.com)
  • and (ii) noble metals such as Rh, Ir, and Au that mediated direct electron transfer from organic compound (electron donor) to persulfate (electron acceptor) without involving the formation of radical species. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Nanoparticles occur widely in nature and are objects of study in many sciences such as chemistry, physics, geology, and biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environmental and work sciences examine the influence of nanoparticles on humans and the environment. (testo.com)
  • Which risks do nanoparticles present for humans and the environment? (testo.com)
  • Local biosensors are advanced devices, whose basic working principle is to analyze spectra of noble metal nanoparticles. (spie.org)
  • Universal Noble Metal Nanoparticle Seeds Realized Through Iterative Reductive Growth and Oxidative Dissolution Reactions. (mathworks.com)
  • The efficient excitation of plasmons in these structures, significantly influences the interaction of the electromagnetic filed and nanoparticle and contribute to appearance of new effects that are not observed in bulk materials. (nanowerk.com)
  • The interview with Professor Dr Peter Gehr from the Institute for Anatomy at the University of Bern identifies the hazards of nanoparticles and points out the opportunities of comprehensive nanoparticle measurement with the testo DiSCmini. (testo.com)
  • The data will aid in evaluating explosion hazards in the minerals/metals processing industries. (cdc.gov)
  • NIOSH conducted a study of the explosibility of various metals and other elemental dusts dispersed in air to aid in understanding dust cloud combustion and in evaluating the explosion hazards in the minerals and metals processing industries. (cdc.gov)
  • Researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a study in an isolated zone of an underground mine to characterize aerosols generated by: (1) a diesel-powered personnel carrier vehicle operated over a simulated light-duty cycle and (2) the simulated repair of existing equipment using manual metal arc welding (MMAW). (cdc.gov)
  • Dermal exposure to these metal oxides predominantly occurs through explicit use of cosmetic products and airway exposure to nanoparticle dusts is primarily mediated via occupational exposure. (diva-portal.org)
  • NIOSH's Pittsburgh Research Laboratory conducted a study of the explosibility of various metals and elemental dusts, focusing on explosion temperatures. (cdc.gov)
  • One method of stabilizing metal nanoparticles is by using metal complexes as the precursor, which produces nanoparticles with ligands coordinated to the surface. (chemistryviews.org)
  • 1. Immunoassay for tumor markers in human serum based on Si nanoparticles and SiC@Ag SERS-active substrate. (nih.gov)
  • 9. Ag/SiO2 core-shell nanoparticle-based surface-enhanced Raman probes for immunoassay of cancer marker using silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles as separation tools. (nih.gov)
  • What are Titanium carbide nanoparticles used for? (cookingmamacookoff.com)
  • As the world's two largest gas titanium carbide nanoparticle are also expected to change significantly. (cookingmamacookoff.com)
  • 1. Nano titanium carbide is one of the transition metal carbides with the highest hardness, but its brittleness is not suitable for pure use. (cookingmamacookoff.com)
  • 6. Titanium carbide nanoparticles are used as welding and current drilling wires. (cookingmamacookoff.com)
  • 7. Titanium carbide nanoparticles are used in the preparation of cermets. (cookingmamacookoff.com)
  • 8. Titanium carbide nanoparticles are used for wear-resistant surface coating of metal parts such as tool heads. (cookingmamacookoff.com)
  • 9. Titanium carbide nanoparticles are used as thermal insulation coatings for spacecraft atmospheric return. (cookingmamacookoff.com)
  • 11. Titanium carbide nanoparticles are used to produce wear-resistant materials, sharp tools and so on. (cookingmamacookoff.com)
  • 12. Titanium carbide nanoparticle coating can improve alloys, abrasive steel bearings, pipes and cutting tools. (cookingmamacookoff.com)
  • 14. The application of titanium carbide nano-granular layer in metal forming is carried out during the CVD process of about 1000 °C, which ensures maximum adhesion. (cookingmamacookoff.com)
  • Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used in the chemical, electrical, and electronic industries. (nih.gov)
  • Once nanoparticles are introduced in complex aqueous biological and environmental systems, proteins adsorb onto their surfaces and form a dynamic layer termed "corona. (escholarship.org)
  • Details of protein and amino acid (building block of proteins) interactions with nanoparticles and substantial structural change on nanoparticle surfaces remain unclear. (escholarship.org)
  • They are an important component of atmospheric pollution, and key ingredients in many industrialized products such as paints, plastics, metals, ceramics, and magnetic products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compounds called contrast agents (typically metal complexes) alter the magnetic fields around them, thus affecting radiofrequency signals and creating contrast in MRI images. (nih.gov)
  • Macrophytes and the associated microbiome thus form a biologically active system that can be a major sink for nanoparticle accumulation and transformations. (nature.com)
  • Results of the survey were used to deduce appropriate strategies for mitigation of worker exposure to airborne metals. (cdc.gov)
  • biological systems also contain complexity as proteins and nutrients can all be found at the nanomaterial-water interface upon nanoparticle exposure. (escholarship.org)
  • Here we present the general theory of NV-plasmonic nanoparticle interactions. (degruyter.com)
  • Nanoparticle interactions with platelets, coagulation factors and endothelial cells may all contribute to undesirable coagulation-mediated toxicities (Figure 1). (medscape.com)
  • Since the procoagulant activity (PCA) of nanomaterials is elucidated from their impact on the main components of the coagulation system - endothelial cells, coagulation factors and platelets - we will review studies describing nanoparticle interactions with these components. (medscape.com)
  • This effect is particularly strong for nanoparticles dispersed in a medium of different composition since the interactions between the two materials at their interface also becomes significant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results indicate that the laser wavelength can be used as an efficient parameter for nanoparticles size control. (nanowerk.com)
  • This four-wave-mixing approach should enable advances in the understanding of nanoparticle growth that could potentially lead to improved modeling of the growth mechanisms, and thus to improve synthesis selectivity of nanoparticles and yield. (osti.gov)
  • Endogenous Metal Nanoparticles in Biological Systems" Encyclopedia , https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/15743 (accessed December 07, 2023). (encyclopedia.pub)
  • The experimental analyses realized on the basis of emission spectroscopy have showed that the ablated material is composed by two components - single atoms and nanoparticles (Fig. 1). (nanowerk.com)
  • The realization of these mechanisms can explain the experimentally observed dependences for the velocity distribution of the ablated atoms and nanoparticles, sizes and size distribution of the generated nanoparticles obtained at laser ablation at wavelengths in the UV and visible spectral range. (nanowerk.com)
  • Recently, it was found that the blood and tissues of vertebrate animals and mammals contain endogenous metal nanoparticles comprising 30-400 atoms [ 3 ] . (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Furthermore, the effects of nanoparticle type and amino acid concentration on the mechanisms of amino acids, lysine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and arginine, adsorption on α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were investigated. (escholarship.org)
  • Nanoparticle- and environmental-related factors, including effects of pH, nanoparticle-type, biomolecule concentration, pre-adsorbed phosphate and lipopolysaccharides, and nanoparticle production in a workplace environment (occupational health study), were investigated. (escholarship.org)
  • Researchers designed nanoparticles representing RBDs of the S protein of animal sarbecoviruses and SARS-CoV-2 to evaluate their potential as a pan-sarbecovirus vaccine candidate. (news-medical.net)
  • [ 14 ] Corona profiles specific to nanoparticles have not been described so far, and protein binding to nanoparticles shares many features of that described for any other biomaterials. (medscape.com)
  • A new preprint study depicted the generation of self-assembling coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) nanoparticle vaccines. (news-medical.net)
  • SP/15/8/31575) will address other biological pathways, such as the role of eicosanoids as a mechanism by which inhalation of nanoparticles links the lung to the systemic circulation. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Magnesium-aluminum-boron alloy is a very important lightweight metal material. (nmfbihop.com)
  • Long time readers will realize that homeopaths have-hilariously- invoked nanoparticles as the mechanism by which homeopathy "works. (scienceblogs.com)
  • This study comparatively examines the efficiency and mechanism of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation by twenty metal and metalloid nanoparticles loaded on alumina. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Predicting nanoparticle fate in aquatic environments requires mimicking of ecosystem complexity to observe the geochemical processes affecting their behaviour. (nature.com)
  • The current paper reviews progress in this field regarding nasal nanoparticle vaccines for COVID-19. (news-medical.net)
  • Titania nanoparticles were modified using tetraethyl orthosilicate in a capillary condensation process and nanoparticles interconnected by silica layers were obtained. (umd.edu)
  • In order to further investigate the effect of addition of a silica layer, photocatalytic activity of surface-modified bi-phase titania nanoparticles was characterized on the basis of a pseudo-first order kinetic model. (umd.edu)
  • The results indicate that surface modification can enhance the photoactivity of original titania nanoparticles when an optimal amount of silica layer is present on the surface of nanoparticles. (umd.edu)
  • and ceramic (silica) nanoparticles. (medscape.com)
  • A small fraction of the entire pool of nanoparticles is usually linked with proteins to form proteons. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Nanoparticles bind misfolded proteins and help to remove them from the blood. (encyclopedia.pub)