Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.CitratesEnergy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.MalatesAspergillus niger: An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Isocitrate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC 1.1.1.42.) EC 1.1.1.41.Oxaloacetates: Derivatives of OXALOACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1,4-carboxy aliphatic structure.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Antitussive Agents: Agents that suppress cough. They act centrally on the medullary cough center. EXPECTORANTS, also used in the treatment of cough, act locally.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Aconitate Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.3.Ketoglutaric Acids: A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Taste Threshold: The minimum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Fumarate Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of fumaric acid to yield L-malic acid. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.2.Metabolism: The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Osmeriformes: An order of fish including smelts, galaxiids, and salamanderfish.Root Canal Irrigants: Chemicals used mainly to disinfect root canals after pulpectomy and before obturation. The major ones are camphorated monochlorophenol, EDTA, formocresol, hydrogen peroxide, metacresylacetate, and sodium hypochlorite. Root canal irrigants include also rinsing solutions of distilled water, sodium chloride, etc.Quinine: An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.Metacercariae: Encysted cercaria which house the intermediate stages of trematode parasites in tissues of an intermediate host.Citrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.Oxaloacetic Acid: A dicarboxylic acid ketone that is an important metabolic intermediate of the CITRIC ACID CYCLE. It can be converted to ASPARTIC ACID by ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE.Acetyl Coenzyme A: Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.Succinic Acid: A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)PyruvatesSmear Layer: Adherent debris produced when cutting the enamel or dentin in cavity preparation. It is about 1 micron thick and its composition reflects the underlying dentin, although different quantities and qualities of smear layer can be produced by the various instrumentation techniques. Its function is presumed to be protective, as it lowers dentin permeability. However, it masks the underlying dentin and interferes with attempts to bond dental material to the dentin.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase ComplexOxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Malate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)GlyoxylatesTaste Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of gustatory stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain. The four basic classes of taste perception are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Stars, Celestial: Large bodies consisting of self-luminous gas held together by their own gravity. (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)TartratesSuccinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Fluoroacetates: Derivatives of acetic acid with one or more fluorines attached. They are almost odorless, difficult to detect chemically, and very stable. The acid itself, as well as the derivatives that are broken down in the body to the acid, are highly toxic substances, behaving as convulsant poisons with a delayed action. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Fumarates: Compounds based on fumaric acid.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Heterophyidae: A family of intestinal flukes of the class Trematoda which occurs in animals and man. Some of the genera are Heterophyes, Metagonimus, Cryptocotyle, Stellantchasmus, and Euryhelmis.Succinate Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Citrus: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Oxalic Acid: A strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables. It is produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. It is not metabolized but excreted in the urine. It is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Aconitic AcidSodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Sodium Hypochlorite: It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Aluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Irritants: Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.Succinate-CoA Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the first step leading to the oxidation of succinic acid by the reversible formation of succinyl-CoA from succinate and CoA with the concomitant cleavage of ATP to ADP (EC 6.2.1.5) or GTP to GDP (EC 6.2.1.4) and orthophosphate. Itaconate can act instead of succinate and ITP instead of GTP.EC 6.2.1.-.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Evolution, Chemical: Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.6-Phytase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate and water to 1L-myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5-pentakisphosphate and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.26.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Pyruvate Carboxylase: A biotin-dependent enzyme belonging to the ligase family that catalyzes the addition of CARBON DIOXIDE to pyruvate. It is occurs in both plants and animals. Deficiency of this enzyme causes severe psychomotor retardation and ACIDOSIS, LACTIC in infants. EC 6.4.1.1.Urolithiasis: Formation of stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT, usually in the KIDNEY; URINARY BLADDER; or the URETER.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Phosphoric Acids: Inorganic derivatives of phosphoric acid (H3PO4). Note that organic derivatives of phosphoric acids are listed under ORGANOPHOSPHATES.Acetobacter: A species of gram-negative bacteria of the family ACETOBACTERACEAE found in FLOWERS and FRUIT. Cells are ellipsoidal to rod-shaped and straight or slightly curved.Keto AcidsChelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Citrus sinensis: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar orange fruit which is also a source of orange oil.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Propionates: Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.Garcinia cambogia: A plant species of the family CLUSIACEAE. It is a source of hydroxycitric acid.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Oxalates: Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.Acetoacetates: Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.Heptanoates: Salts and esters of the 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid heptanoic acid.Taste Disorders: Conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception. Taste disorders are frequently associated with OLFACTION DISORDERS. Additional potential etiologies include METABOLIC DISEASES; DRUG TOXICITY; and taste pathway disorders (e.g., TASTE BUD diseases; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE DISEASES; and BRAIN STEM diseases).Dentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Tooth Root: The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)Phosphorus, Dietary: Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Potassium Citrate: A powder that dissolves in water, which is administered orally, and is used as a diuretic, expectorant, systemic alkalizer, and electrolyte replenisher.IsocitratesRats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Phytic Acid: Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.GlutaratesGluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Malate Synthase: An important enzyme in the glyoxylic acid cycle which reversibly catalyzes the synthesis of L-malate from acetyl-CoA and glyoxylate. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.2.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Coenzyme ADicarboxylic Acid Transporters: A family of organic anion transporters that specifically transport DICARBOXYLIC ACIDS such as alpha-ketoglutaric acid across cellular membranes.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Chorda Tympani Nerve: A branch of the facial (7th cranial) nerve which passes through the middle ear and continues through the petrotympanic fissure. The chorda tympani nerve carries taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and conveys parasympathetic efferents to the salivary glands.Methylmethacrylates: The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.Ketosis: A condition characterized by an abnormally elevated concentration of KETONE BODIES in the blood (acetonemia) or urine (acetonuria). It is a sign of DIABETES COMPLICATION, starvation, alcoholism or a mitochondrial metabolic disturbance (e.g., MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE).Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Oxo-Acid-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.Caproates: Derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated six carbon aliphatic structure.Dextromethorphan: Methyl analog of DEXTRORPHAN that shows high affinity binding to several regions of the brain, including the medullary cough center. This compound is an NMDA receptor antagonist (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and acts as a non-competitive channel blocker. It is one of the widely used ANTITUSSIVES, and is also used to study the involvement of glutamate receptors in neurotoxicity.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Phosphofructokinase-1: An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.Larynx: A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A: A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Aspergillus: A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Codeine: An opioid analgesic related to MORPHINE but with less potent analgesic properties and mild sedative effects. It also acts centrally to suppress cough.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Methylcellulose: Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases: A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Tricarboxylic Acids: Organic compounds that are acyclic and contain three acid groups. A member of this class is citric acid which is the first product formed by reaction of pyruvate and oxaloacetate. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p443)Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.TriglyceridesHydro-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Calcium Sulfate: A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.Antimetabolites: Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Acids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sodium Glutamate: One of the FLAVORING AGENTS used to impart a meat-like flavor.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Tooth Demineralization: A tooth's loss of minerals, such as calcium in hydroxyapatite from the tooth matrix, caused by acidic exposure. An example of the occurrence of demineralization is in the formation of dental caries.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Mice, Inbred C57BLStereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
  • Smaller biomolecules such as amino acids, nucleotides and sugars that were studied in first year chemistry (CHEM1120) are known to have important biological functions of their own, and are also utilised as building blocks for biopolymers such as proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides. (edu.au)
  • Nucleotide metabolism - Digestion of nucleic acids. (unige.it)
  • 9. Nucleic Acids: How Structure Conveys Information. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 10. Biosynthesis of Nucleic Acids: Replication. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The three main purposes of metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the structures that make up animals, plants and microbes are made from three basic classes of molecule: amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids (often called fats). (wikipedia.org)
  • Water stress caused the accumulation of citric acid, declined fruit quality, leaded to change of the genetic rela- tive expression about citric acid synthesis and degradation. (scirp.org)
  • 4. Metabolism p 101 Anabolism  Synthesis Energy transferred commonly measured in calories: 1 cal =  1 g of H 2 O by 1 ° C 1 Kcal =  temp. (slideshare.net)
  • CHEM 1112 (CHEM 1112) General Chemistry Laboratory II ( 1 semester hour ) A continuation of CHEM 1111 demonstrating the concepts covered in CHEM 1312 , including acid base chemistry, reaction kinetics, electrochemistry, polymers, and organic synthesis. (utdallas.edu)
  • A transamination reaction takes place in the synthesis of most amino acids. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Stanley Miller's synthesis of the amino acids by sparking a reducing atmosphere ( 2 ) was the paradigm for prebiotic synthesis for many years, so at first, it was natural to suppose that similar methods would meet with equal success in the nucleotide field. (pnas.org)
  • In some examples, such mutants have several phenotypes, including an increased production of citric acid relative to the parental strain. (osti.gov)
  • The American food chemist James Currie, in 1917, discovered that the mold , aspergillus niger , had certain strains that could be used for the production of citric acid. (creationwiki.org)
  • One of the best benefits of citric acid in all its applications is that it is natural and poses little to no risk to the environment. (wisegeek.org)
  • In conjunction with synthetic and systems biology, metabolic pathway engineering, or the reprogramming of a cell's metabolism for increased production of a desired metabolite, has enabled the biosynthesis of diverse chemicals for the food, biofuels, pharmaceuticals, textiles, and cosmetic industries ( 1 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Reputable companies will only use natural citric acid but it's hard to tell the difference unless you check their website or pick up the phone and ask. (globalhealingcenter.com)
  • The metabolic pathway map example "Citric acid cycle (TCA cycle)" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Biology solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. (conceptdraw.com)
  • Both organic acids are formed by the same metabolic pathway, but whereas citric acid is the end product in A . niger , A . terreus performs two additional enzymatic steps leading to itaconic acid. (springer.com)
  • The molecular formula of citric acid is C6H8O7. (reference.com)
  • Your use of a bizarre alternative citric acid cycle as a point of 'verification' for your claims about 'molecular intelligence' indicates that 'molecular intelligence' is premised upon a biology that we know does not correspond to the terrestrial biology that we have on hand. (antievolution.org)
  • 1) Declare that you are actually describing the 'real' citric acid cycle, never mind what Wikipedia and biologists have said, and that therefore no change in your concept of 'molecular intelligence' is necessary. (antievolution.org)
  • 4) You alter both your description of the citric acid cycle and your concept of 'molecular intelligence' in such a way that the changes in the citric acid cycle description have clear correlated changes in the concept. (antievolution.org)
  • The down-regulation of CitACO1, CitGAD4 and up-regulation of CitCS1, CitCS2 might be one of the reasons that promoted to the accumulation of citric acid. (scirp.org)
  • Despite of this high similarity, the optimization of the production process and the mechanism and regulation of overflow of these two acids has mostly been investigated independently, thereby ignoring respective knowledge from the other. (springer.com)
  • Regulation of cancer cell metabolism. (springer.com)
  • Understanding the regulation of aspartate metabolism using a model based on measured kinetic parameters. (wikipathways.org)
  • The results showed that the content of citric acid, malic acid, quinic acid and total organic acids per gram sarcocarp were extremely increased by 285.2%, 320%, 480% and 299.1%, and the content of per-fruit organic acid were 77.39%, 89.64%, 117.24% and 75.9% respectively compared to those control in the fruit mature stage. (scirp.org)
  • Therefore, this study aims to investigate the protective effects of two organic acids, that is, citric acid and L-malic acid, which are the main components of Fructus Choerospondiatis , on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and the underlying mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
  • These results also demonstrate that organic acids, besides flavonoids, may also be the major active ingredient of Fructus Choerospondiatis responsible for its cardioprotective effects and should be attached great importance in the therapy of ischemic heart disease. (hindawi.com)
  • And citric acid and L-malic acid are two main organic acids of Fructus Choerospondiatis , the content of which accounted for 26.36% and 22.95% of total organic acids, respectively [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Organic acids, which are also widely distributed in fresh fruits, vegetables, and spices besides Chinese herbs, were always considered to be weak in activity and were usually discarded in the extraction process. (hindawi.com)