The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Glucose in blood.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Pathological conditions resulting from abnormal anabolism or catabolism of lipids in the body.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The removing of alkyl groups from a compound. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of many drugs and environmental chemicals, such as DEBRISOQUINE; ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS; and TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANTS. This enzyme is deficient in up to 10 percent of the Caucasian population.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
Abstaining from all food.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Disorders affecting amino acid metabolism. The majority of these disorders are inherited and present in the neonatal period with metabolic disturbances (e.g., ACIDOSIS) and neurologic manifestations. They are present at birth, although they may not become symptomatic until later in life.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that has specificity for relatively planar heteroaromatic small molecules, such as CAFFEINE and ACETAMINOPHEN.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Broad spectrum antifungal agent used for long periods at high doses, especially in immunosuppressed patients.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The consumption of edible substances.
An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)
Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
Functionalization of exogenous substances to prepare them for conjugation in PHASE II DETOXIFICATION. Phase I enzymes include CYTOCHROME P450 enzymes and some OXIDOREDUCTASES. Excess induction of phase I over phase II detoxification leads to higher levels of FREE RADICALS that can induce CANCER and other cell damage. Induction or antagonism of phase I detoxication is the basis of a number of DRUG INTERACTIONS.
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.

METATOOL: for studying metabolic networks. (1/1414)

MOTIVATION: To reconstruct metabolic pathways from biochemical and/or genome sequence data, the stoichiometric and thermodynamic feasibility of the pathways has to be tested. This is achieved by characterizing the admissible region of flux distributions in steady state. This region is spanned by what can be called a convex basis. The concept of 'elementary flux modes' provides a mathematical tool to define all metabolic routes that are feasible in a given metabolic network. In addition, we define 'enzyme subsets' to be groups of enzymes that operate together in fixed flux proportions in all steady states of the system. RESULTS: Algorithms for computing the convex basis and elementary modes developed earlier are briefly reviewed. A newly developed algorithm for detecting all enzyme subsets in a given network is presented. All of these algorithms have been implemented in a novel computer program named METATOOL, whose features are outlined here. The algorithms are illustrated by an example taken from sugar metabolism. AVAILABILITY: METATOOL is available from uk/pub/software/ibmpc/metatool. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: http://www. l.html  (+info)

The fourth dimension of life: fractal geometry and allometric scaling of organisms. (2/1414)

Fractal-like networks effectively endow life with an additional fourth spatial dimension. This is the origin of quarter-power scaling that is so pervasive in biology. Organisms have evolved hierarchical branching networks that terminate in size-invariant units, such as capillaries, leaves, mitochondria, and oxidase molecules. Natural selection has tended to maximize both metabolic capacity, by maximizing the scaling of exchange surface areas, and internal efficiency, by minimizing the scaling of transport distances and times. These design principles are independent of detailed dynamics and explicit models and should apply to virtually all organisms.  (+info)

Generalization of the theory of transition times in metabolic pathways: a geometrical approach. (3/1414)

Cell metabolism is able to respond to changes in both internal parameters and boundary constraints. The time any system variable takes to make this response has relevant implications for understanding the evolutionary optimization of metabolism as well as for biotechnological applications. This work is focused on estimating the magnitude of the average time taken by any observable of the system to reach a new state when either a perturbation or a persistent variation occurs. With this aim, a new variable, called characteristic time, based on geometric considerations, is introduced. It is stressed that this new definition is completely general, being useful for evaluating the response time, even in complex transitions involving periodic behavior. It is shown that, in some particular situations, this magnitude coincides with previously defined transition times but differs drastically in others. Finally, to illustrate the applicability of this approach, a model of a reaction mediated by an allosteric enzyme is analyzed.  (+info)

Metabolic and performance responses to constant-load vs. variable-intensity exercise in trained cyclists. (4/1414)

We studied glucose oxidation (Glu(ox)) and glycogen degradation during 140 min of constant-load [steady-state (SS)] and variable-intensity (VI) cycling of the same average power output, immediately followed by a 20-km performance ride [time trial (TT)]. Six trained cyclists each performed four trials: two experimental bouts (SS and VI) in which muscle biopsies were taken before and after 140 min of exercise for determination of glycogen and periodic acid-Schiff's staining; and two similar trials without biopsies but incorporating the TT. During two of the experimental rides, subjects ingested a 5 g/100 ml [U-(14)C]glucose solution to determine rates of Glu(ox). Values were similar between SS and VI trials: O(2) consumption (3.08 +/- 0.02 vs. 3.15 +/- 0.03 l/min), energy expenditure (901 +/- 40 vs. 904 +/- 58 J x kg(-1) x min(-1)), heart rate (156 +/- 1 vs. 160 +/- 1 beats/min), and rating of perceived exertion (12.6 +/- 0.6 vs. 12.7 +/- 0.7). However, the area under the curve for plasma lactate concentration vs. time was significantly greater during VI than SS (29.1 +/- 3.9 vs. 24.6 +/- 3. 7 mM/140 min; P = 0.03). VI resulted in a 49% reduction in total muscle glycogen utilization vs. 65% for SS, while total Glu(ox) was higher (99.2 +/- 5.3 vs. 83.9 +/- 5.2 g/140 min; P < 0.05). The number of glycogen-depleted type I muscle fibers at the end of 140 min was 98% after SS but only 59% after VI. Conversely, the number of type II fibers that showed reduced periodic acid-Schiff's staining was 1% after SS vs. 10% after VI. Despite these metabolic differences, subsequent TT performance was similar (29.14 +/- 0.9 vs. 30.5 +/- 0.9 min for SS vs. VI). These results indicate that whole body metabolic and cardiovascular responses to 140 min of either SS or VI exercise at the same average intensity are similar, despite differences in skeletal muscle carbohydrate metabolism and recruitment.  (+info)

Acute plasma volume expansion: effect on metabolism during submaximal exercise. (5/1414)

To examine the effect of acute plasma volume expansion (PVE) on substrate selection during exercise, seven untrained men cycled for 40 min at 72 +/- 2% peak oxygen uptake (VO(2 peak)) on two occasions. On one occasion, subjects had their plasma volume expanded by 12 +/- 2% via an intravenous infusion of the plasma substitute Haemaccel, whereas on the other occasion no such infusion took place. Muscle samples were obtained before and immediately after exercise. In addition, heart rate and pulmonary gas and venous blood samples were obtained throughout exercise. No differences in oxygen uptake or heart rate during exercise were observed between trials, whereas respiratory exchange ratio, blood glucose, and lactate were unaffected by PVE. Muscle glycogen and lactate concentrations were not different either before or after exercise. In addition, there was no difference in total carbohydrate oxidation between trials (control: 108 +/- 2 g; PVE group: 105 +/- 2 g). Plasma catecholamine levels were not affected by PVE. These data indicate that substrate metabolism during submaximal exercise in untrained men is unaltered by acute hypervolemia.  (+info)

Advantages and disadvantages of aggregating fluxes into synthetic and degradative fluxes when modelling metabolic pathways. (6/1414)

It is now widely accepted that mathematical models are needed to predict the behaviour of complex metabolic networks in the cell, in order to have a rational basis for planning metabolic engineering with biotechnological or therapeutical purposes. The great complexity of metabolic networks makes it crucial to simplify them for analysis, but without violating key principles of stoichiometry or thermodynamics. We show here, however, that models for branched complex systems are sometimes obtained that violate the stoichiometry of fluxes at branch points and as a result give unrealistic metabolite concentrations at the steady state. This problem is especially important when models are constructed with the S-system form of biochemical systems theory. However, the same violation of stoichiometry can occur in metabolic control analysis if control coefficients are assumed to be constant when trying to predict the effects of large changes. We derive the appropriate matrix equations to analyse this type of problem systematically and to assess its extent in any given model.  (+info)

Cytochrome b evolution in birds and mammals: an evaluation of the avian constraint hypothesis. (7/1414)

Patterns of molecular evolution in birds have long been considered anomalous. Compared with other vertebrates, birds have reduced levels of genetic divergence between groups of similar taxonomic ranks for a variety of nuclear and mitochondrial markers. This observation led to the avian constraint hypothesis, which identifies increased functional constraint on avian proteins as the cause for the reduction in genetic divergence. Subsequent investigations provided additional support for the avian constraint hypothesis when rates of molecular evolution were found to be slower in birds than in mammals in a variety of independent calibrations. It is possible to test the avian constraint hypothesis as an explanation for this avian slowdown by comparing DNA sequence data from protein-coding regions in birds and homologous regions in mammals. The increased selective constraints should lead to a reduction in the proportion of amino acid replacement substitutions. To test for such a decrease, we calculated the numbers of amino acid replacement substitutions per replacement site (dN) and silent substitutions per silent site (dS) for the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene using 38 avian and 43 mammalian comparisons that were phylogenetically independent. We find that dN/dS is significantly smaller in birds than in mammals. This difference cannot be explained by differences in codon bias affecting dS values. We suggest that the avian slowdown can be explained, at least in part, by a decreased tolerance for amino acid substitutions in avian species relative to mammalian species.  (+info)

Fluxes and metabolic pools as model traits for quantitative genetics. I. The L-shaped distribution of gene effects. (8/1414)

The fluxes through metabolic pathways can be considered as model quantitative traits, whose QTL are the polymorphic loci controlling the activity or quantity of the enzymes. Relying on metabolic control theory, we investigated the relationships between the variations of enzyme activity along metabolic pathways and the variations of the flux in a population with biallelic QTL. Two kinds of variations were taken into account, the variation of the average enzyme activity across the loci, and the variation of the activity of each enzyme of the pathway among the individuals of the population. We proposed analytical approximations for the flux mean and variance in the population as well as for the additive and dominance variances of the individual QTL. Monte Carlo simulations based on these approximations showed that an L-shaped distribution of the contributions of individual QTL to the flux variance (R(2)) is consistently expected in an F(2) progeny. This result could partly account for the classically observed L-shaped distribution of QTL effects for quantitative traits. The high correlation we found between R(2) value and flux control coefficients variance suggests that such a distribution is an intrinsic property of metabolic pathways due to the summation property of control coefficients.  (+info)

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Denna uppsats syftar till att undersöka hur fysisk aktivitet i urbana rum förhåller sig till könsstereotypa föreställningar och underliggande strukturer. Uppsatsen ämnar även diskutera om det föreligger risk för att planering av fysisk aktivitet i urbana rum reproducerar könsstereotypa föreställningar och underliggande strukturer. Uppsatsens problemformulering lyder: Hur förhåller sig föreställningar om genus till fysisk aktivitet i det urbana rummet?. För att besvara denna utformas uppsatsen som en litteraturstudie där två avhandlingar om fysisk aktivitet i urbana rum studeras genom en innehållsanalys. De avhandlingar som studeras är Bäckströms avhandling Spår. Om brädsportkultur, informella lärprocesser och identitet (2005) och Nilssons avhandling Arkitekturens kroppslighet - staden som terräng (2010). Fysisk aktivitet i urbana rum har i uppsatsen avgränsats till att representeras av skateboardåkning. Ur analysen framkommer att genus inverkar på vem som fysiskt ...
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On December 8, Urbana FFA competed in the virtual state Food Science and Technology CDE. Marah Kerns, Phoebie Heatherly, Alistar Greenlee, Mckayla Mills, L
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We have developed a system of analysis of metabolites using CE and GC mass spectroscopy suitable for measurement of small tissue samples. Metabolites in defined...
Health Stories - Metabolic System - I put down my lassitude to growing older and did not make an issue of it to my health care providers. But a week
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OpenAnesthesia™ content is intended for educational purposes only and not intended as medical advice.. Reuse of OpenAnesthesia™ content for commercial purposes of any kind is prohibited. ...
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Summer Make-a-tion is our summer long workshop series inviting everyone of all ages to learn, teach, tinker, collaborate, share, innovate, socialize, and create. This is the third year in a row weve run this event and its been a huge success. We are very excited about this years planned workshops. All our workshops are put on by volunteers and are open to the public.. Here is the list of workshops so far, well add more as we plan them!. June 13th. ...
El miércoles (5 de febrero) por la noche, se presentó en The Tonight Show para interpretar una nueva canción, Dreams, con la ayuda de Questlove, The Roots y un trío de cantantes ...
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FUROREM ELIZABETH I gripped the rock above my head. My hand was almost skeletal, the skin scorched off, my regeneration barely able to keep it in one piece. But I pulled myself up anyway, farther up the rock wall. It was easier than it should have been, since my legs were burned away. They would…
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Unified Call Syntax: x.f(y) and f(x,y) Bjarne Stroustrup Herb Sutter Abstract In Urbana, EWG discussed two proposals for generalizing/unifying the two function call
Case Western Reserve University is a leading national research university located in Cleveland, Ohio. Through its seven schools and college, Case Western Reserve offers top-10 programs in health law, organizational behavior and social work and ...
Case Western Reserve is a founding and current member of the University Athletic Association (UAA). The conference participates in the National Collegiate Athletic Associations (NCAA) Division III. Case Institute of Technology and Western Reserve University were also a founding members of the Presidents Athletic Conference (PAC) in 1958. When the athletic departments of the two universities merged in 1971 they dominated the (PAC) for several years. The university remained a member of the PAC until 1983. In the fall of 1984 the university joined the North Coast Athletic Conference (NCAC), a pioneer in gender equality in sports, as a charter member. The 1998-1999 school year marked the final season in which the Spartans were members of the NCAC. As the university had held joint conference membership affiliation with the UAA and the NCAC for over a decade. In 2014, the football team began competing as an associate member of the PAC, as only four out of the eight UAA member institutions remained ...
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CWRU School of Dental Medicine - 2124 Cornell Road, Cleveland, OH 44106-4905 - 216.368.3200. © 2017 Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, Ohio 44106 216.368.2000 ...
Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine faculty members are reaping the rewards of funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), in the form of grants and contracts. The funding totals more than $6.4 million for four different research endeavors. Researchers Mark Chance, PhD, professor of physiology and biophysics, director of the Center for Proteomics and Bioinformatics, and interim chair of the Department of Genetics, and W. Henry Boom, MD, professor of medicine and director of the Tuberculosis Research Unit, are working to tackle the easily transmissible, and often deadly, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). They received a grant for more than $750,000 from the NIH, with the potential to receive up to $2.8 million over the next four years. The researchers are bringing together a multidisciplinary team of experts in proteomics, genetic epidemiology and cytokine biology to study a population within the spectrum of MTB exposure, infection, and disease in the United States, ...
Posted by: Emily Mayock, February 24, 2011 04:05 PM , News Topics: Case Western Reserve University is committed to the free exchange of ideas, reasoned debate and intellectual dialogue. Speakers and scholars with a diversity of opinions and perspectives are invited to the campus to provide the community with important points of view, some of which may be deemed controversial. The views and opinions of those invited to speak on the campus do not necessarily reflect the views of the university administration or any other segment of the university community.. ...
The Center for Evidence-Based Practices at Case Western Reserve University is a partnership between the Jack, Joseph and Morton Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences and the Department of Psychiatry at the Case School of Medicine. The Center is a technical-assistance organization that provides consulting, training, and evaluation services for the implementation of practices that improve outcomes for people with mental illness, substance use disorders, and co-occurring disorders. The Center sponsors three Center of Excellence initiatives: Ohio ACT CCOE, Ohio SAMI CCOE, and Supported Employment.
The Center for Evidence-Based Practices at Case Western Reserve University is a partnership between the Jack, Joseph and Morton Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences and the Department of Psychiatry at the Case School of Medicine. The Center is a technical-assistance organization that provides consulting, training, and evaluation services for the implementation of practices that improve outcomes for people with mental illness, substance use disorders, and co-occurring disorders. The Center sponsors three Center of Excellence initiatives: Ohio ACT CCOE, Ohio SAMI CCOE, and Supported Employment.
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Program in Cell Biology at Case Western Reserve University provides on-going educational opportunities to those students seeking advanced degrees.
List of philosophical publications by Ben Schwan (Case Western Reserve University), including Why Decision-making Capacity Matters, Wrongfulness rewarded?, and What ability can do.
A spin-off venture with its roots in advanced polymers research at Case Western Reserve University has been established, aiming to commercialize polymer technology.
Find information about Case Western Reserve University EMT course. Whether you are considering an associates degree (CNA, LVN, or LPN), or a bachelor of science in nursing (RN), you will find many doors opening after graduation.
A continuously-fed crystallization chamber that allows for kinetic path control through the crystallization phase diagram (from labile/nucleation to metastable/growth) was fabricated and used to crystallize lysozyme. A lumped kinetic model was developed, and parameters for heterogeneous nucleation kinetics w
This paper mainly focuses on the output practical tracking controller design for a class of complex stochastic nonlinear systems with unknown control coefficients. In the existing research results, most of the complex systems are controlled in a certain direction, which leads to the disconnection between theoretical results and practical applications. The authors introduce unknown control coefficients, and the values of the upper and lower bounds of the control coefficients are generalized by constants to allow arbitrary values to be arbitrarily large or arbitrarily small. In the control design program, the design problem of the controller is transformed into a parameter construction problem by introducing appropriate coordinate transformation. Moreover, we construct an output feedback practical tracking controller based on the dynamic and static phase combined by Ito stochastic differential theory and selection of appropriate design parameters, ensuring that the system tracking error can be made
Get involved The classroom is just the beginning. Nearly all of our students-practically 99 percent-participate in some form of experiential learning during their time at Case Western Reserve. From joining any of our 25 dynamic student organizations to making discoveries in research jobs both on and off campus to studying abroad, opportunities abound for you to connect with
Njoke Thomas is fascinated by the idea that a fundamental shift in health sector practices is critical to the elimination of disparities in health outcomes. Specifically, she would like to identify and explore the organizational factors required to facilitate such change. Prior to joining the department she directed the Colorado Trusts Equality in Health Initiative to promote culturally competent practices in healthcare and medical education practices throughout the state. Njoke holds a B.A. in Human Biology from Stanford University and a M.S. in Public Health from Harvard University. ...
Faculty within the Materials Branch , Eric Baer Distinguished University Professor Herbert Henry Dow Professor of Science and Engineering Professor, Macromolecular Science and Engineering Director, NSF Center for Layered Polymeric Systems Develops processing-structure-property relationships in
CLINICAL FACULTY PART TIME TERM ADJUNCT If you are passionate about the nursing profession and are looking for a career that is rewarding and empowering and also comes with great perks such opportunities to grow both personally and professionally then the College of Nursing is interested in ... Faculty Part Time Term Adjunct - Community Nursing/University of Cincinnati/?site_id=22267 This content originally appeared on ...
Now for Seifters work. The method of initial concentrations had done a lot to straighten matters out for you, but it does not go far enough. If he now gets almost the same results as we do with his C it is only because one would necessarily be luckier with the new method than the old one. As we see it here, he is still working in the dark with a very arbitrary and cumbersome method, and with no positive assurance that his reagents contain all required components in excess, subscribing to this requirement in principle only. What is the objective to running an old-fashioned titration at any level of hemolysis you want? Also, why do you report percentage reactivations? Surely no one yet knows the relation between this result and quantity of component. If Maltaner is right it is anything but a proportional one. And why do you talk about concentrations and effective concentrations when other publications of yours show that you realize that the terms can only cause confusions when you really mean ...
Looking to refine your interviewing skills and network with alumni from local companies? If so, start preparing now for Mock Interviews with Professionals where you will have the opportunity to conduct a mock interview with an industry professional. Requirements to participate: 1) register for the event, 2) have an approved resume in CareerLink *Both requirements must be completed by Thursday, March 12th. Plan and practice early so you can participate and connect with Weatherhead alumni and other business professionals. Dress Code: Business Professional Register via CareerLink Contact Information: Career Management Office Email: [email protected] Phone: 216.368.3662
Speaker: Max Mehlman, Distinguished University Professor, Arthur E. Petersilge Professor of Law and Director of the Law-Medicine Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Law, and Professor of Biomedical Ethics, Case Western Reserve University School of ...
Speaker: Max Mehlman, Distinguished University Professor, Arthur E. Petersilge Professor of Law and Director of the Law-Medicine Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Law, and Professor of Biomedical Ethics, Case Western Reserve University School of ...
Discuss an accomplishment or event, formal or informal, that marked your transition from childhood to adulthood within your culture, community, or family. Its 3:16 A.M. My eyes are bloodshot from sleeplessness; I stumble into my room and crash my head against the soft, plush pillow laying on my bed. I pull the blanket over my … Read moreDreams. ...
Cleveland also was host to the Ohio Collegiate Athletic Assn. Become a leader in the translation of biomedical engineering research breakthroughs to clinical implementation with this degree! Here is a list of some of the popular programs Case offers: Legal Professions And Studies Health And Continue Reading Home; Apply; Give; Visit; Directories; Request Info See Our Walking Maps . 37.80. Located in Cleveland, Ohio. Western Reserve Academy is a coeducational boarding and day school that offers students in grades 9-12 a distinctive college preparatory education in a beautiful, supportive setting. Determinations as to granting reasonable accommodations for … Four years later, the newly organized Ohio High School Athletic Assn. Applicants requiring a reasonable accommodation for any part of the application and hiring process should contact the Office of Inclusion, Diversity and Equal Opportunity at 216-368-8877 to request a reasonable accommodation. Case Western Reserve University AS View Ally ...
Thursday, November 12, 2015. CLEVELAND -- Researchers from the Department of Neurological Surgery at the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine recently received multi-year, multi-million dollar grants from the National Institutes of Health for studies in Parkinsons disease, stroke, and brain cancer. Barry J. Hoffer, MD, PhD, adjunct professor of neurosurgery at Case Western Reserve and a member of the Department of Neurosurgery at University Hospitals (UH) Case Medical Center, received a 3-year, $1 million grant for continuing research into gliptins for the treatment of Parkinsons disease. Gliptins, widely used in the effective treatment of type 2 diabetes to safely regulate blood glucose levels, have also been found to provide neurological protection in Parkinsons. In mouse studies, gliptins increase levels of hormones called incretins which reduced Parkinsons symptoms. The new grant will allow Dr. Hoffer and colleagues to continue their evaluation of gliptins as a new ...
Robert B. Daroff, M.D., is Interim Vice Dean for Education and Academic Affairs, and Professor of Neurology, at the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. He was Chief of Staff and Senior Vice President for Academic Affairs at University Hospitals of Cleveland from 1994 to 2003. Prior to that, he was Gilbert W. Humphrey Professor and Chairman of the Department of Neurology at CWRU, and Director of Neurology at UHC, positions he had held since 1980.. Dr. Daroff did his undergraduate training at the University of Pennsylvania, where he was Editor-in-Chief of The Daily Pennsylvanian in his senior year. He graduated from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine in 1961, interned at Philadelphia General Hospital, and trained in Neurology at Yale, and Neuro-Ophthalmology at UCSF.. He was on the faculty of the Departments of Neurology and Ophthalmology at the University of Miami from 1968 to 1980.. Dr. Daroff has held, and holds, many national and international positions in his ...
Andrew SloanA new paper in the October issue of the journal Neurosurgical Focus finds the use of laser beneficial for the removal of large, inoperable glioblastoma (GBM) and other types of brain tumors. The paper is authored by Andrew Sloan, MD, and colleagues from University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and Case Comprehensive Cancer Center (Wright J, et al. Neurosurg Focus. 2016 Oct; view video abstract).. Dr. Sloan and other investigators at the Case Comprehensive Cancer Center led the first in human trials, published in 2013, of a procedure with laser interstitial thermotherapy (LITT), a minimally invasive approach using a laser to cook a tumor through a tiny hole in the scalp and bone and the intra-operative MRI (iMRI) to fine tune the treatment rather than the surgeons direct vision.. However, one problem that he and other surgeons faced was tumor swelling. While LITT was successful for brain tumors smaller than the size of a ...
Visit Case Western Reserve Universitys uniquely urban campus, located in the heart of Clevelands cultural hub, University Circle. Plan your trip:. ...
William E. Deal holds a joint appointment in Cognitive Science and Religious Studies at Case Western Reserve University. He is Severance Professor of the History of Religion in the Department of Religious Studies and Professor of Cognitive Science and Chair of the Department of Cognitive Science. He has served as Associate Director for Digital Humanities at the Baker-Nord Center for the Humanities in the College of Arts and Sciences, is past Chair of the Department of Religious Studies, and served for several years as Director of CWRUs Asian Studies Program. He was the founding director of the Inamori International Center for Ethics and Excellence. Dr. Deal received an A.B. in Religion (magna cum laude) and an A.M. in Asian Studies from Washington University in St. Louis. He received his Ph.D. in Religion from Harvard University in 1988. At CWRU, Dr. Deal teaches courses that focus on theory and interpretation in the academic study of religion, the cognitive science of religion and ethics, ...
Case Western Reserve University Academic Awards Program (Albert W. Smith Scholarship), plus all other merit scholarships info on
Prescription Drug Abuse: Trends, Surveillance, and Future Implications Dena M. Fisher Case Western Reserve University Master of Public Health I. Prescription Drug Abuse A. What is it? B. What types of
Get info about Case Western Reserve University anthropology program. There are accredited nursing certificate programs that can help launch your career, performing a variety of medical services within a hospital setting.
Researchers Identify Muscle Factor that Controls Fat Metabolism. New discovery from team at University Hospitals and Case Western Reserve University could lead to metabolic disease therapies. Metabolic diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, have risen to epidemic proportions in the U.S. and occur in about 30% of the population. Skeletal muscle plays a prominent role in controlling the bodys glucose levels, which is important for the development of metabolic diseases like diabetes.. In a recent study, published in The Journal of Clinical Investigation,University Hospitals (UH) Cleveland Medical Center and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine researchers have found that skeletal muscle significantly affects how the body stores and metabolizes fat.. In the study, Mukesh K. Jain, MD, senior author, Chief Academic Officer at UH, and the Ellery Sedgwick Jr. Chair & Distinguished Scientist, and his team set out to investigate the role of a gene called Kruppel-like factor 15 ...
Macek, B., et al. Global and Site-Specific Quantitative Phosphoproteomics: Principles and Applications, Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 2009. 49: 199-221. doi: 10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.011008.145606 ...
Mice and animal studies. All mouse studies were performed in accordance with protocols approved by the IACUCs of Case Western Reserve University and Duke University.. Generation and characterization of Smc-Klf15-KO mice. Sm22-Cre transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase under the transcriptional control of the 2.8-kb mouse Sm22a promoter have previously been described (25). The Sm22Cre mouse line was a gift from Aaron Prowellers laboratory (Case Western Reserve University). The Klf15-floxed mouse line was generated by Ozgene by inserting the LoxP site flanking exon 2 of the Klf15 gene. SMC-specific Klf15 KO mice were generated by mating the Klf15flox/flox mouse line with the Sm22Cre mouse line, designated the Sm22-Cre+/0/Klf15flox/flox (Klf15-Smc-KO) mouse line. The control mice were generated from Klf15flox/flox breeding pairs or Sm22Cre to WT C57BL/6J breeding pairs. To assess the expression pattern of the KlfF15 gene, Sm22-Cre+/0/Klf15flox/flox mouse aorta and liver tissues were harvested ...
Making All the Children Above Average: Ethical and Regulatory Concerns for Pediatricians in Pediatric Enhancement Research, Jessica Wilen Berg, Maxwell J. Mehlman JD, Daniel B. Rubin MA, and Eric Kodish MD. ...
Dive into the research topics of CO,sub,2,/sub, (carbon dioxide) fixation by applying new chemical absorption-precipitation methods. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Year of Award: 2000. Publication Information: The American Mathematical Monthly, vol. 106, 1999, pp. 705-719 and 812-828. Summary: This paper introduces a circle of ideas from control theory via the question of equivalence between \(n\)-dimensional first order linear systems and \(n\)th-order linear equations. The full answer to this equivalence question introduces some of the central concepts of modern control theory.. Read the Articles. Some Fundamental Control Theory I ...
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The Cleveland FES Center is a consortium of five nationally recognized institutions: Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, University Hospitals of Cleveland, and the Cleveland Clinic Neurological Institute.. ...
The influence of the presence of certain amino acids at different concentrations on the catabolic activity of the bacteria Desulfotomaculum ruminis was studied. Introduction of amino acids of the simple chain molecule in concentrations up to 10 g/dm3 in the Starkey media leads to a small...
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Kidney Chart | Metabolic System | This colorful anatomical poster depicts the human kidneys in detail. The basic function and anatomy of the kidneys are included in this chart. The poster also gives information on some common pathologies of the kidney. Printed on premium glossy (200g
Researchers have found yet more evidence that the ApoE4 genotype renders its carriers sensitive to lipid-related alterations and Alzheimers pathology. Scientists led by Radosveta Koldamova at the University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, reported that a depletion of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1)-which shuttles lipids to ApoE-fans the flames of cognitive problems and Aβ deposition in transgenic mice carrying the human ApoE4 gene, but not in animals with the ApoE3 isoform. Published September 19 in the Journal of Neuroscience, the study could have implications for ApoE-related treatments.. This paper highlights the selective vulnerability of the ApoE4 genotype to disease-related changes in Aβ homeostasis, said Gary Landreth, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio. Landreth was not involved in the study.. ABCA1 is a cell-membrane lipid pump that transports cholesterol and other phospholipids out of the cell and onto apolipoproteins such as ApoA-I and ApoE. Some ...
Sydney K. Brannoch, Ph.D. 2019 Ph.D., Biology, Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) and the Cleveland Museum of Natural History (CMNH) Advisor: Gavin J. Svenson, Ph.D. 2012 BA, Philosophy, University of Maryland, College Park Professional Appointments 2019 Postdoctoral Scholar - Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Washington, Seattle Advisor: John Tuthill, Ph.D. Teaching…
Scientists at Case Western Reserve University and the Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute have discovered that the parasite that causes the most common form of malaria share the same genetic variations -- even when the organisms are separated across continents. The discovery raises concerns that mutations to resist existing medications could spread worldwide, making global eradication efforts even more difficult.
... Look up metabolism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Metabolism. General ... The metabolism of cancer cells is also different from the metabolism of normal cells, and these differences can be used to find ... "metabolism , Origin and meaning of metabolism by Online Etymology Dictionary". Archived from the original ... The first pathways of enzyme-based metabolism may have been parts of purine nucleotide metabolism, while previous metabolic ...
Metabolism of ionizing radiation was theorized as early as 1956 by the Russian microbiologist S. I. Kuznetsov. Beginning in the ... Radiosynthesis is the theorized capture and metabolism, by living organisms, of energy from ionizing radiation, analogously to ...
Studies on flux through the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway during D-xylose metabolism have revealed that limiting the rate ... Since the pentose phosphate pathway produces additional NADPH during metabolism, limiting this step will help to correct the ... However, the effectiveness of D-xylose metabolizing laboratory strains do not always reflect their metabolism abilities on raw ... and XDH enzyme levels have been tested in the laboratory in the attempt to optimize the efficiency of the D-xylose metabolism ...
The biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids involves a number of enzymes. In plants, all phenylpropanoids are derived from the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, a.k.a. phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia-lyase) is an enzyme that transforms L-phenylalanine and tyrosine into trans-cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid, respectively. Trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase (cinnamate 4-hydroxylase) is the enzyme that transforms trans-cinnamate into 4-hydroxycinnamate (p-coumaric acid). 4-Coumarate-CoA ligase is the enzyme that transforms 4-coumarate (p-coumaric acid) into 4-coumaroyl-CoA. Cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), an enzyme that transforms cinnamyl alcohol into cinnamaldehyde Sinapine esterase, an enzyme that transforms sinapoylcholine into sinapate (sinapic acid) and choline Trans-cinnamate 2-monooxygenase, an enzyme that transforms trans-cinnamate (cinnamic acid) into 2-hydroxycinnamate Caffeate O-methyltransferase, an enzyme that transforms caffeic acid into ferulic ...
"Urban Metabolism" - Encyclopedia of the Earth article Metabolism of Cities - Research hub with publications, datasets and tools ... It wasn't until 1965 when Abel Wolman fully developed and used the term urban metabolism in his work, "The Metabolism of Cities ... Industrial ecology Industrial metabolism Social metabolism MuSIASEM Urban ecology Pincetl, S., Bunje, P., & Holmes, T. (2012). ... Urban metabolism has been proven to be a necessary tool for measuring levels of greenhouse gas because it is an out-put or ...
... refers to the metabolic pathways to synthesize and break down purines that are present in many organisms. ... Purine metabolism can have imbalances that can arise from harmful nucleotide triphosphates incorporating into DNA and RNA which ... Modulation of purine metabolism has pharmacotherapeutic value. Purine synthesis inhibitors inhibit the proliferation of cells, ... February 2012). "Defects in purine nucleotide metabolism lead to substantial incorporation of xanthine and hypoxanthine into ...
... refers to the biological pathways that consume or create cysteine. The pathways of different amino acids ... In addition to the reactions below, L-cysteine is also a product of glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism. D-cysteine ... L-Cysteine is also consumed in methionine and glutathione metabolism as well as pantothenate/coenzyme A biosynthesis. L- ... desulfhydrase Sulfur metabolism (Articles lacking sources from December 2009, All articles lacking sources, Sulfur metabolism, ...
... or socioeconomic metabolism is the set of flows of materials and energy that occur between nature and society ... Social metabolism represents an extension of the metabolism concept from biological organisms like human bodies to the ... Studies of social metabolism can be carried out at different levels of system aggregation, see material flow analysis. In ... Social or socioeconomic metabolism is also described as "the self-reproduction and evolution of the biophysical structures of ...
Metabolism." "Journals Ranked by Impact: Endocrinology & Metabolism". 2020 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed ... Cell Metabolism is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering physiology, with an emphasis on understanding the ...
Stream metabolism Metabolism Vazquez, Alexei (2017-10-27). Overflow Metabolism: From Yeast to Marathon Runners. Academic Press ... "An upper limit on Gibbs energy dissipation governs cellular metabolism" (PDF). Nature Metabolism. 1 (1): 125-132. doi:10.1038/ ... Overflow metabolism refers to the seemingly wasteful strategy in which cells incompletely oxidize their growth substrate (e.g. ... That is, if the cell were to produce enough of these enzymes to support fast growth with respiratory metabolism, it would ...
Microbial metabolism Sulfur cycle Schiff JA (1979). "Pathways of assimilatory sulphate reduction in plants and microorganisms ... Media related to Sulfur metabolism at Wikimedia Commons (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, ... Articles to be merged from February 2022, All articles to be merged, Commons category link from Wikidata, Sulfur metabolism). ...
... , often referred to as aquatic ecosystem metabolism in both freshwater (lakes, rivers, wetlands, streams, ... Overflow metabolism Lake metabolism Apparent oxygen utilisation Odum, Howard T., "Primary production in flowing waters", ... Analogous to metabolism within an individual organism, stream metabolism represents how energy is created (primary production) ... Stream metabolism can be influenced by a variety of factors, including physical characteristics of the stream (slope, width, ...
... is the movement and regulation of calcium ions (Ca2+) in (via the gut) and out (via the gut and kidneys) of ... 276-277 An important aspect of calcium metabolism is plasma calcium homeostasis, the regulation of calcium ions in the blood ...
... (also called specialized metabolism) is a term for pathways and small molecule products of metabolism that ... As an example can serve sterols, that are products of secondary metabolism, and, at the same time, represent a base for a cell ... Secondary metabolism in plants Evolution of plant specialized metabolic pathways v t e (All articles with unsourced statements ... Cavalier-Smith, T. (1992). "Origins of secondary metabolism". Ciba Foundation Symposium. Novartis Foundation Symposia. 171: 64- ...
... is the means by which a microbe obtains the energy and nutrients (e.g. carbon) it needs to live and ... This form of metabolism occurs in members of the Planctomycetota (e.g. "Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans") and involves the ... All microbial metabolisms can be arranged according to three principles: 1. How the organism obtains carbon for synthesizing ... Aerobic metabolism occurs in Bacteria, Archaea and Eucarya. Although most bacterial species are anaerobic, many are facultative ...
... denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the synthesis of proteins and amino acids ( ... "Protein Metabolism". 7 October 2020. Nuttall FQ, Gannon MC. , Dietary protein and the blood glucose ... Articles with J9U identifiers, Articles with LCCN identifiers, Articles with NKC identifiers, Metabolism). ...
Biology portal Carbohydrate+metabolism at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) BBC - GCSE ... Carbohydrate metabolism is the whole of the biochemical processes responsible for the metabolic formation, breakdown, and ... Many steps of carbohydrate metabolism allow the cells to access energy and store it more transiently in ATP. The cofactors NAD+ ... Brockman, R P (March 1978). "Roles of glucagon and insulin in the regulation of metabolism in ruminants. A review". The ...
Industrial metabolism Social metabolism Urban metabolism Information metabolism Earth's energy budget World energy supply and ... It comprises both industrial metabolism and urban metabolism. In layman's terms, anthropogenic metabolism indicates the human ... Anthropogenic metabolism, also referred to as metabolism of the anthroposphere, is a term used in industrial ecology, material ... Anthropogenic metabolism can be seen as synonymous to social or socioeconomic metabolism. ...
Since lipids are hydrophobic molecules, they need to be solubilized before their metabolism can begin. Lipid metabolism often ... Lipid metabolism is the synthesis and degradation of lipids in cells, involving the breakdown or storage of fats for energy and ... Lipid metabolism is often considered as the digestion and absorption process of dietary fat; however, there are two sources of ... Lipid metabolism also occurs in plants, though the processes differ in some ways when compared to animals. The second step ...
Variations in genes influence alcohol metabolism and drinking behavior. The reaction from ethanol to carbon dioxide and water ... glycerolipid metabolism, and bile acid biosynthesis pathways. If the body had no mechanism for catabolizing the alcohols, they ... meaning that ethanol is capable of inducing its own metabolism. Ethanol has indeed been observed to be cleared more quickly by ... Drug Metabolism Reviews. 36 (3-4): 511-529. doi:10.1081/dmr-200033441. PMID 15554233. S2CID 27992318. Pregnancy and Alcohol ...
"Molecular Metabolism Review Speed". "Molecular Metabolism". 2020 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). ... Molecular Metabolism is a monthly peer-reviewed open-access journal publishing research articles, reviews and commentaries in ...
Modulating the pyrimidine metabolism pharmacologically has therapeutical uses, and could implement in cancer treatment. ... Garavito MF, Narváez-Ortiz HY, Zimmermann BH (May 2015). "Pyrimidine Metabolism: Dynamic and Versatile Pathways in Pathogens ... a new probe for the metabolism of DNA and RNA in normal and tumorous tissue". Cancer Research. 34 (6): 1381-4. PMID 4363656. ... "Higher order structures in purine and pyrimidine metabolism". Journal of Structural Biology. 197 (3): 354-364. doi:10.1016/j. ...
"Nature metabolism". PubMed. United States National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 2022-07-14. "Nature Metabolism". Web of ... "Nature Metabolism". Scopus. Retrieved 2022-07-14. "Journals Ranked by Impact: Endocrinology & Metabolism". 2021 Journal ... Metabolism". "Displaying Record for Publication: Nature Metabolism". CASSI. Chemical Abstracts Service. Retrieved 2022-07-14. " ... Nature Metabolism is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Nature Portfolio. It was established in 2019. The ...
The metabolism of pharmaceutical drugs is an important aspect of pharmacology and medicine. For example, the rate of metabolism ... of Minnesota Biocatalysis/Biodegradation Database SPORCalc Drug metabolism Small Molecule Drug Metabolism Drug metabolism ... Drug metabolism is divided into three phases. In phase I, enzymes such as cytochrome P450 oxidases introduce reactive or polar ... Phase I metabolism of drug candidates can be simulated in the laboratory using non-enzyme catalysts. This example of a ...
... : Theory and policy. In: Ayres, R.U., Simonis, U.K. (Eds.), Industrial Metabolism: Restructuring for ... Industrial metabolism is a subsystem of the anthropogenic or socioeconomic metabolism, which also comprises non-industrial ... Industrial ecology Material flow accounting Material flow analysis Information metabolism Social metabolism Urban metabolism ... Industrial metabolism is a concept to describe the material and energy turnover of industrial systems. It was proposed by ...
... , sometimes referred to as informational metabolism or energetic-informational metabolism, is a ... For the sake of analysis, one may think of energy metabolism and information metabolism as separate processes. Kępiński ... Time and the Self in Antoni Kępiński's Conception of Information Metabolism Description of information metabolism on Wikisocion ... Information metabolism is the other side of the same process, but it concerns the structural aspect (i.e. how matter and energy ...
These changes are observed with regards to glucose metabolism. The changes in metabolism occur because the rate of metabolism ... These materials can be obtained from carbon metabolism (e.g. glucose metabolism) or from peripheral metabolism. The enhanced ... The function of the central carbon metabolism (metabolism of glucose) has been fine-tuned to exactly meet the needs of the ... Cellular metabolism is represented by a large number of metabolic reactions involving the conversion of the carbon source ( ...
Although daily estimates of metabolism are most common, whole-lake metabolism can be integrated over longer time periods such ... In terms of the organisms contributing to metabolism in each of these zones, limnetic metabolism is dominated by phytoplankton ... The influence of these constituents on organismal metabolism ultimately governs metabolism at the whole-lake scale and can ... many lake metabolism studies only have a single epilimnetic estimate of metabolism, however, this may overestimate metabolic ...
1960). Metabolism 1960: The Proposals for a New Urbanism. Bijutsu Shuppan Sha. Kisho Kurokawa (1977). Metabolism in ... The translation he found was the word Metabolism. The group's manifesto Metabolism: The Proposals for New Urbanism was ... The icon of Metabolism, Kurokawa's Nakagin Capsule Tower was erected in the Ginza district of Tokyo in 1972 and completed in ... Metabolism developed during the post war period in a Japan that questioned its cultural identity. Initially the group had ...
Secondary metabolism is connected to primary metabolism by using building blocks and biosynthetic enzymes derived from primary ... Secondary metabolism produces a large number of specialized compounds (estimated 200,000) that do not aid in the growth and ... Primary metabolism governs all basic physiological processes that allow a plant to grow and set seeds, by translating the ... Primary metabolism in a plant comprises all metabolic pathways that are essential to the plant's survival. Primary metabolites ...
Metabolism refers to all the physical and chemical processes in the body that convert or use energy, such as: ... Metabolism. In: Boron WF, Boulpaep EL, eds. Medical Physiology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 58. ...
In conclusion, in the current study we evaluated the long-term implications of GDM on glucose metabolism in a large cohort of ... GDM provides an important metabolic window to the subsequent glucose metabolism in women and of interest, we observed that pre- ... Long-term Changes in Glucose Metabolism After Gestational Diabetes. A Double Cohort Study. ...
... In The Nature of Metabolism, youll explore the amazing process of ... metabolism, including the key hormones involved in weight loss regulation. Jillian details the effects of these hormones and ...
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Impacts on Metabolism and Endocrine Function. Studies by Spiegel, Van Cauter, and colleagues,9,10 linked sleep loss with ...
The Microbial Metabolism Group aims to understand, at the molecular level, how methanogens are surviving and growing in extreme ... This is a gold nugget for biochemists like me, which are looking for new metabolisms and new enzymes from freshly characterized ... "chemoautotrophic ancient metabolism" and nowadays, they could be used for new biotechnologies to efficiently capture carbon ...
Sirt6 is an NADH (NAD+)-dependent deacetylase with a critical role in hepatic lipid metabolism. Ketogenesis is controlled by a ... Besides their role in N-reductive drug metabolism, only little is known about their physiological functions. In this study, we ... Sex-specific hepatic lipid and bile acid metabolism alterations in Fancd2-deficient mice following dietary challenge. Journal ... Mitochondrial amidoxime-reducing component 2 (MARC2) has a significant role in N-reductive activity and energy metabolism. ...
Calcium Metabolism Modifiers. Class Summary. These agents decrease the movement of calcium from bone to serum. Bisphosphonates ... Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP Former Professor, Department of Medicine, Former Chief, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, ...
Non-open access articles that fall outside this five year window are available only to institutional subscribers and current ASPET members, or through the article purchase feature at the bottom of the page. ...
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common noncommunicable diseases worldwide. In the Eastern Mediterranean Region there has been a rapid increase in the incidence of diabetes mellitus and it is now the fourth leading ...
GSH regulates the metabolism of proteins and their acti … ... Metabolism and antioxidant function of glutathione] Pathol Biol ... GSH regulates the metabolism of proteins and their activities by means of thiol-disulfide exchange. During oxidative stress, ...
Get all the facts on metabolism in this article. ... energy it needs from food through a process called metabolism. ... What Is Metabolism?. Metabolism (pronounced: meh-TAB-uh-liz-um) is the chemical reactions in the bodys cells that change food ... What Controls Metabolism?. Several hormones of the endocrine system help control the rate and direction of metabolism. ... Metabolism is a balancing act involving two kinds of activities that go on at the same time:. *building up body tissues and ...
Posts about Oxygen Metabolism written by Roger Jahnke OMD ... that leads to the possibility that altering oxygen metabolism ...
... Popp, Raymond Arthur ... Popp, Raymond Arthur (1958)."Comparative metabolism of blastocysts, extraembryonic membranes, and uterine endometrium of the ...
Nutrition and Metabolism. Skeletal Muscle Protein Metabolism in the Elderly. Interventions to Counteract the Anabolic ... Schematic representation of muscle protein metabolism in response to anabolic stimuli (exercise and/or amino acid ingestion) in ... Schematic representation of muscle protein metabolism in response to anabolic stimuli (exercise and/or amino acid ingestion) in ... Muscle Protein Metabolism in the Elderly. Skeletal muscle proteins are constantly and simultaneously synthesized and degraded. ...
Faulty metabolism of Parkinsons medication in the brain linked to severe side effects Peer-Reviewed Publication Uppsala ... Faulty metabolism of Parkinsons medication in the brain linked to severe side effects. Uppsala University ... has now been able to connect the problems with defective metabolism of L-Dopa in the brain. The study is published in Science ...
Changes in glucose metabolism are a well-known cancer trait but this study revealed that cells with extra copies of mutant Kras ... as those with extra copies undergo a change in their metabolism. ... Metabolism rewiring leads to aggressive lung cancers. By on ...
Its time you know the burning truths about your metabolism. ... Its time you know the burning truths about your metabolism. ( ... Myth #3: Skipping meals reduces your metabolism.. If you dont eat dinner, will your metabolism take a nosedive? Probably not. ... 8 Myths About Metabolism You Need to Stop Believing. Read full article. ... Myth #1: Breakfast is the most important meal of the day because it wakes up your metabolism. ...
... yielding findings that indicate improved absorption and metabolism. This also led to discovering mangos ability in reducing ...
The best metabolism boosters like the ones in our list below are designed to give you a better chance at losing weight whilst ... Outlook Spotlight Outlook Spotlight Best Metabolism Boosters Best Metabolism Boosters Reviews Metabolism Booster Weight Loss ... Our Top 5 Metabolism Boosters For Weight Loss * PhenQ - Our Top Pick For An Overall Metabolism Boost (Best Overall For Weight ... Best Metabolism Boosters The best metabolism boosters like the ones in our list below are designed to give you a better chance ...
... is one of the most malignant cancers resulting from abnormal metabolism alterations. As one of the essential amino acids, ... Targeting regulation of tryptophan metabolism for colorectal cancer therapy: a systematic review H. Zhang, A. Zhang, J. Miao, H ... This paper aims to discuss the role of tryptophan metabolism in a normal organism and investigate the relationship between this ... Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most malignant cancers resulting from abnormal metabolism alterations. As one of the ...
Cysteine metabolism in periportal and perivenous hepatocytes: perivenous cells. have greater capacity for glutathione ... Compared with the RM group, most of the upregulated DEGs in the NM group belonged to Glutathione metabolism, whereas most of ... The lipid kinase VPS34 orchestrates autophagy, endocytosis, and metabolism and is implicated in cancer and metabolic disease. ... Tolerant and sensitive cultivars respond differentially in terms of thiol metabolism, essential amino acids (EEAs) and ...
Division of Endocrinology & Metabolism. Royal Victoria Hospital. MUHC Glen site. 1001 Décarie Blvd.. Montreal, Quebec H4A 3J1. ...
Metabolism & Endocrinologists near me. By weighing reviews and other important factors, we can help you find the right care. ... Learn more about Diabetes, Metabolism & Endocrinologists and how to choose the right one for you. Learn more about Diabetes, ... There are 17 specialists practicing Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism in Vermont with an overall average rating of 3.9 stars ... There are 5 hospitals in Vermont with affiliated Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism specialists, including University Of ...
... immunology/metabolism;immunology/mortality/pathology;immunology/pathology;immunology;metabolismmetabolism;. ... immunology/metabolism;inhibitors;methodstherapeutictherapy/genetics/immunology;therapy/genetics;use;. ...
Sketchy Metabolism Drops Are Big With TikTok Teens. Wellness company Raes product is effectively marketed-even if it might ... Lemon Water Will Not Boost Your Metabolism. We set out to debunk and/or extol the virtues of drinking lemon water. The news is ... Your metabolism slows as you age, which makes it harder to lose weight. Heres how to fight those effects. ...
Brush up on metabolism, the chemical reactions in the bodys cells that change food into energy, in this article. ... What Is Metabolism?. Metabolism (meh-TAB-uh-liz-um) is the chemical reactions in the bodys cells that change food into energy ... What Controls Metabolism?. Several hormones of the endocrine system help control the rate and direction of metabolism. ... Metabolism is a balancing act involving two kinds of activities that go on at the same time:. *building up body tissues and ...
BSc Biomedical Science (Nutrition and Metabolism pathway) degree planner. Size: 559.2 kB. Type: PDF. ... Nutrition and Metabolism not your thing? You can choose to keep your Biomedical Science specialisation general, or you can ...
Foods to Speed Up Metabolism. 8 Foods to Give Your Metabolism the Boost It Needs June 25, 2018 by Rosy Pahwa ... 8 Foods to Give Your Metabolism the Boost It Needs Have you ever had that friend who can eat whatever they want and never gain ... We need to make sure were turning to healthy foods, and the type that speed up your metabolism are great to keep on hand. We ... Alissia Zenhausern, NMD, and Rebecca Lee, RN, to round up the eight best foods to speed up your metabolism. ...
  • In conclusion, in the current study we evaluated the long-term implications of GDM on glucose metabolism in a large cohort of Finnish women with GDM and healthy controls. (
  • GDM provides an important metabolic window to the subsequent glucose metabolism in women and of interest, we observed that pre-diabetic stages were alarmingly prevalent following GDM pregnancy. (
  • Changes in glucose metabolism are a well-known cancer trait but this study revealed that cells with extra copies of mutant Kras utilise glucose differently from those either with a single mutation or normal lungs. (
  • A compound in the body called nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), which declines with aging and obesity, is thought to play a role in healthy glucose metabolism. (
  • The researchers analyzed glucose metabolism in muscles and took other measurements before and after supplementation. (
  • Cardiac expression of human type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase increases glucose metabolism and protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiac dysfunction in male mice. (
  • But its role as an agent in weight management may come from its ability to regulate the metabolism of lipids and glucose metabolism. (
  • For doctors certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine, the formal subspecialty is endocrinology, diabetes and metabolism. (
  • There are 17 specialists practicing Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism in Vermont with an overall average rating of 3.9 stars. (
  • There are 5 hospitals in Vermont with affiliated Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism specialists, including University Of Vermont Medical Center , Brattleboro Memorial Hospital and Rutland Regional Medical Center . (
  • Learn about the Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism Fellowship application process and view application instructions. (
  • The time it takes to make a fast metabolism can vary based on many factors, including your diet, activity level, age, underlying conditions (such as diabetes), and overall health status. (
  • The colloquial understanding of 'having a slow metabolism' equates to the tendency to gain weight without overeating, whereas 'having a fast metabolism' equates to the ability to overeat without gaining weight,' Dr. Fertig says. (
  • In fact, some people who seem to have a fast metabolism are probably just more active - and maybe fidget more - than others. (
  • The Fast Metabolism Diet" TM is a trademark of Brainstorming Sessions Inc. (
  • The material on this website and on the Fast Metabolism Diet App is for informational purposes only and is not intended as a substitute for the advice and care of your physician. (
  • The Material is based on the NY Times #1 Best Selling book, The Fast Metabolism Diet. (
  • As with all new weight loss or weight maintenance regimes, the nutrition program described on this website and on the Fast Metabolism Diet App should be followed only after first consulting with your physician to make sure it is appropriate for your individual circumstances. (
  • Responsibility for any adverse effects that may result from the use or application of the information contained on this website or on the Fast Metabolism Diet App is expressly disclaimed. (
  • The Fast Metabolism Diet Book. (
  • According to Harvard Health Publishing , a fast metabolism means you'll burn more calories during the day, whether you're moving or at rest. (
  • What Does It Mean To Have A Fast Metabolism? (
  • Dec 01, 2022 Guard Mada Health Comments Off on What Does It Mean To Have A Fast Metabolism? (
  • If weight loss is the goal, looking for foods that give you a fast metabolism should be your first learning. (
  • Many, if not all, thought about having a fast metabolism or at least researched how to do it. (
  • Some of the best foods for a fast metabolism are protein-rich foods. (
  • Staying on the topic of fast metabolism foods, use more chili peppers in your foods. (
  • The caffeine in coffee can help with a fast metabolism, and tea contains health-boosting compounds that work with caffeine to make your metabolism fast. (
  • Cacao and apple cider vinegar can also help with a fast metabolism. (
  • Food and exercise aren't the only factors to be aware of when aiming for a fast metabolism. (
  • Because carbohydrate metabolism is important in parasitic flatworms, a substantial amount of carbohydrate must be present in the host diet to assure normal growth of the parasite. (
  • Discontinuation of cadmium administration for 14 days in rats previously injected with cadmium chloride (1 mg/kg per day) for 21 days, failed to reverse the observed changes in hepatic cAMP or carbohydrate metabolism. (
  • Data provide evidence that suggests that the gluconeogenic potential of liver is markedly enhanced following chronic exposure to cadmium and that the cadmium-induced changes in carbohydrate metabolism may be associated with an enhanced synthesis of cAMP. (
  • Fortunately, there are many ways that help increase your metabolism. (
  • It will help increase your metabolism and remove toxins and fat. (
  • Eating these foods and regularly adding them to your diet could help increase your metabolism, even if only for a few hours. (
  • This is called our "resting metabolic rate," and along with the calories we burn through exercise and digesting food, it makes up what most of us refer to simply as our "metabolism. (
  • When people refer to metabolism, they're really talking about metabolic rate, which, in simplest terms, is the number of calories you burn every day. (
  • Your metabolism is the set of cellular mechanisms that generate energy from your food and environment in order to power every single cell in the body," says Casey Means, MD , cofounder and chief medical officer of Levels Health in Portland, Ore. When those energy-producing pathways run smoothly, you experience optimal metabolic health, something that's foundational for overall well-being. (
  • The number of calories a body at rest uses to do these things is known as basal metabolic rate, also called basal metabolism. (
  • Metabolic health - normal versus insulin resistant muscles affect basal metabolism. (
  • When a bat is confronted by a viral antigen, the proportional increase in metabolism for raising an immune response may be trivial compared to the very large increase in the metabolic costs of flight. (
  • The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is a key nuclear receptor in the control of lipid metabolism. (
  • We have also identified a further acyl-CoA thioesterase, peroxisomal acyl-CoA thioesterase 2, PTE-2, as a novel PPARalpha target gene, and have shown that this enzyme acts as a 'general' acyl-CoA thioesterase in peroxisomal lipid metabolism. (
  • The induction of this enzyme by fibrates, which act as ligands for the PPARalpha, suggests a link between cholesterol and lipid metabolism mediated via the PPARalpha. (
  • Although inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are rare individually, collectively IEM cause substantial morbidity and mortality and the diagnosis is challenging. (
  • Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are a diverse heterogeneous group of inherited disorders that usually present in the paediatric population as varied clinical manifestations of defects in catabolism or anabolism of nutrients or energy-producing molecules. (
  • Inborn errors of metabolism / editors, Jèurgen Schaub, Fran ois Van Hoof, Henri L. Vis. (
  • Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is the main screening method for inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs). (
  • Myth #2: You need to eat every three hours to boost your metabolism. (
  • Ikaria Lean Belly Juice Reviews - Does This Weight Loss Powder Will Help You To Boost Metabolism? (
  • Everything on this list will do everything mentioned above to some degree - they will all give you more energy, boost your metabolism, and sate your appetite, reducing hunger pangs. (
  • It feels like everybody's always talking about ways to boost or improve their metabolism, as if doing so were as simple as turning on your coffee maker. (
  • It absolutely is possible to boost your metabolism, but it's not quite as easy as flipping a switch. (
  • Further tests confirmed that the mice cannot produce any GSH in their T cells, and indicated that several signaling events that directly boost metabolism and increase energy consumption are lacking. (
  • The claimed purpose of metabolism supplements, in capsule or liquid form, is to boost bodily energy to the point that a person can burn more calories and lose weight. (
  • Green tea has long been known to boost metabolism. (
  • The capsaicin in chili peppers can boost metabolism by slightly increasing the rate at which your body burns calories. (
  • This helps speed up your metabolism and burn more calories in the long run. (
  • Find out how metabolism affects weight, the truth behind slow metabolism and how to burn more calories. (
  • Enter your Drug Metabolism & Disposition username. (
  • Drug metabolism and disposition / American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. (
  • Prof. Brenner and colleagues summarized their work in the journal Immunity in an article entitled "Glutathione Primes T Cell Metabolism for Inflammation. (
  • Dynamic Model of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Metabolism in Fed-Batch Culture. (
  • It is essential for cell metabolism as well as for cell proliferation and closely linked to the formation of reactive oxygen species. (
  • Drinking plenty of water is crucial to maintain a healthy metabolism. (
  • So how do you achieve a healthy metabolism or improve metabolism for your body? (
  • That's right, as crazy as it sounds, you need to put your cells' mitochondria front and center because they lie at the core of a healthy metabolism. (
  • I want to analyze my genes with the gene sets in specific pathways, such as the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, etc. (
  • Colorectal cancer accompanies inflammation and imbalance of intestinal microbiota and affects tryptophan metabolism. (
  • I also want databases of other pathways like inflammation, energy metabolism, and so on (these are not available in REACTOME). (
  • If fats build up in the liver in the long term, it can lead to dysfunction in the metabolism of the liver, inflammation, and other forms of fatty liver disease that have nothing to do with alcohol. (
  • The aim of the Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism ( JPEM ) is to diffuse speedily new medical information by publishing clinical investigations in pediatric endocrinology and basic research from all over the world. (
  • Our understanding of the contribution of muscle protein turnover to sarcopenia has shifted from a thesis in which basal muscle protein metabolism was thought to be compromised in the elderly, to a new paradigm whereby the synthetic responsiveness of muscle protein synthesis to anabolic stimuli, such as food and contractile loading, is blunted with aging. (
  • Use our degree planner to help you plan the courses you need to take for your BSc majoring in Biomedical Science (Nutrition and Metabolism pathway). (
  • Nutrition and Metabolism not your thing? (
  • The Microbial Metabolism Group aims to understand, at the molecular level, how methanogens are surviving and growing in extreme environments. (
  • In The Nature of Metabolism, you'll explore the amazing process of metabolism, including the key hormones involved in weight loss regulation. (
  • Several hormones of the endocrine system help control the rate and direction of metabolism. (
  • Besides, strength training stimulates the production of anabolic hormones that stimulate metabolism. (
  • Without adequate iodine, your thyroid is unable to produce thyroid hormones and your metabolism can take a major nosedive, says St. Pierre. (
  • Alterations in all these hormones influence bone metabolism . (
  • Smaller, more frequent meals do not speed metabolism, compared to the same total calories and macronutrients consumed in larger, less-frequent meals," Mike says. (
  • PhenQ is weighted more towards the thermogenic side of things - it boosts your metabolism a great deal, very ably, allowing your body to burn through more calories than you would be able to without it. (
  • When your body recovers these tears and rebuilds muscles, it spends calories and speeds up metabolism. (
  • Fat loss can be achieved by restricting the number of calories you eat, but the other important factor in weight control is the amount of exercise that you do and the effect that exercise has on your metabolism. (
  • Proteins take more calories to digest than any other food, therefore they help to keep your metabolism running optimally throughout the day. (
  • A new study suggests that substituting whole grains for refined grains in the diet increases calorie loss by reducing calories retained during digestion and speeding up metabolism. (
  • The extra calories lost by those who ate whole grains was equivalent of a brisk 30-minute walk-or enjoying an extra small cookie every day in terms of its impact," says senior author Susan B. Roberts, PhD, senior scientist and director of the Energy Metabolism Laboratory at USDA HNRCA. (
  • Let's break it down into simple terms: the faster your metabolism works, the more calories your body burns. (
  • GSH regulates the metabolism of proteins and their activities by means of thiol-disulfide exchange. (
  • Specific proteins in the body control the chemical reactions of metabolism. (
  • In addition, alterations of function and expression of proteins associated with iron metabolism are increasingly recognized to be pathogenetic factors and potential vulnerabilities of these diseases. (
  • New potential treatment strategies utilizing the importance of the iron homeostasis include iron chelation, modulation of proteins involved in iron metabolism, induction of leukemic cell death via ferroptosis and exploitation of iron proteins for the delivery of antileukemic drugs. (
  • Moco is in the active site of critical molybdoenzymes, which use to work as small electron transport chains and participate in N and S metabolism, hormone biosynthesis, toxic compound transformations and other important processes not only in plants but also in all the other kingdoms of life. (
  • Here we describe a protocol, using gas chromatography (GC)- and liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS), to resolve intracellular fluxes of the central carbon metabolism in illuminated intact Arabidopsis thaliana rosettes using the time course of the unlabeled fractions in 40 major constituents of the metabolome after switching to 13 CO 2 . (
  • Glutathione plays important roles in antioxidant defense, nutrient metabolism, and regulation of cellular events (including gene expression, DNA and protein synthesis, cell proliferation and apoptosis, signal transduction, cytokine production and immune response, and protein glutathionylation). (
  • New knowledge of the nutritional regulation of GSH metabolism is critical for the development of effective strategies to improve health and to treat these diseases. (
  • Regulation of Secondary Metabolism and Keys to Its Manipulation. (
  • Thyroxine, a hormone made and released by the thyroid gland, plays a key role in determining how fast or slow the chemical reactions of metabolism go in a person's body. (
  • Sea salt is a tastier option than plain old table salt, but it lacks iodine-a key element that gives your thyroid gland (which controls your metabolism) its mojo. (
  • Though powerful and needed separately, together, they work for the appropriate functioning of the thyroid gland, which regulates metabolism. (
  • I'd steer clear of processed and refined foods as well as alcohol and caffeine, which Haylie and Shelley said would prevent my metabolism from functioning optimally. (
  • The metabolism-boosting claims of the supplements are usually based on their ingredients: Rae Metabolism Drops included caffeine, taurine, and raspberry ketones. (
  • Researchers have noted the connection between caffeine and metabolism-for example, in an August 2020 study published in Nutrition Research . (
  • Most of the parasitic platyhelminths studied have a predominantly anaerobic metabolism (i.e., not dependent upon oxygen). (
  • But a slow metabolism isn't usually the cause of weight gain. (
  • You might want to blame a medical condition for slow metabolism and weight gain. (
  • But rarely does a medical condition slow metabolism enough to cause a lot of weight gain. (
  • Here are some healthy lifestyle habits that support good metabolism. (
  • However, no studies have tested whether it improves metabolism in people. (
  • According to MedlinePlus , metabolism comes down to how your body uses energy, from breathing to digesting food. (
  • Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most malignant cancers resulting from abnormal metabolism alterations. (
  • Our studies show that alterations of dopaminergic signaling in the brain affects liver metabolism in a circadian manner. (
  • The review was divided into 3 topics: (1) Bone metabolism, (2) Effects of the osteoporosis on the alveola bone, (3) Therapies used for treatment of the osteoporosis. (
  • Bone metabolism in anorexia nervosa and hypothalamic amenorrhea. (
  • Metabolism (pronounced: meh-TAB-uh-liz-um) is the chemical reactions in the body's cells that change food into energy. (
  • Catabolism (pronounced: kuh-TAB-uh-liz-um), or destructive metabolism, is the process that produces the energy needed for all activity in the cells. (
  • When your body is chronically underfed, it naturally reduces metabolism to save energy. (
  • Because that energy balance impacts weight, most people lump metabolism into one of two buckets: slow or fast. (
  • The study revealed that GSH also stimulates energy metabolism in T cells. (
  • This article explains how Prof. Brenner's team discovered that the antioxidant GSH produced by T cells serves not only as a garbage collector to dispose of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals, but also as a key switch for energy metabolism that controls the immune response, and is thus of high relevance to various diseases. (
  • At one time, the company sold products geared toward metabolism -which is related to energy and weight changes-but the metabolism drops and capsules were discontinued. (
  • Additionally, a September 2019 Molecular Nutrition & Food Research study stated: "Taurine deficiency may cause a weak energy metabolism and energy metabolism dysfunction," meaning that boosting taurine levels would be helpful for metabolism. (
  • Fat is lost from the whole body only when energy output exceeds input, so change your metabolism and your body composition by exercising. (
  • Some people blame their weight on how their body breaks down food into energy, also known as metabolism. (
  • Metabolism does help decide how much energy a body needs. (
  • Metabolism is the process by which the body changes food and drink into energy. (
  • It supports your metabolism and ensures that the fuel in your diet gives your body the energy it needs to function. (
  • It also helps to release more energy from the metabolism of food. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Energy Metabolism. (
  • This review considers how our understanding of energy utilized by energy metabolism has progressed since the pioneering work on this topic in the late 1960s and early 1970s. (
  • The review concludes by up-dating the state of knowledge of energy metabolism in the early 1970s and listing some future research questions. (
  • Since metabolism is the chemical process of breaking down food for energy, the foods a person chooses to consume can affect the speed of metabolism - making it fast or slowing it up. (
  • If you desire to lose a few pounds, increase energy, or want an overall better health and wellness feeling, understanding what metabolism means is a solid first step toward speeding it up. (
  • If you don't eat dinner, will your metabolism take a nosedive? (
  • Substance use leads to altered dopamine signaling followed by reprogramming of circadian gene expression and metabolism in the reward system. (
  • Pesticide metabolism in humans, including polymorphisms. (
  • Lack of sleep is linked to a significant decrease in the speed and function of metabolism and increases the risk of obesity. (
  • Rae ran into issues with the drops when the company discovered through social media that the metabolism drops were not being used as intended-which they addressed in a February 2020 statement. (
  • In March 2020, however, the brand decided to discontinue the metabolism line of products for good in an effort 'to prioritize [their] focus on innovation and other wellness offerings that support women to shine from the inside out. (
  • Metabolism comes from a Greek word, " metabolismo ," which means change. (
  • It is known that metabolites, rate-limiting enzymes, and ARH in tryptophan metabolism are associated with the development of CRC. (
  • Deux membres de la plateforme Facility, A. Moing & P. Pétriacq, sont co-editeurs d'un numéro spécial sur " Fruit Metabolism and Metabolomics " dans le journal METABOLITES , et sont à la recherche d'articles, de revues ou de communications courtes dans ce domaine. (
  • Another study, published December 2019 in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that drinking four cups of coffee per day led to a 4 percent decrease in body fat over the 24-week study, likely because of coffee's ability to support metabolism. (
  • Your metabolism slows as you age, which makes it harder to lose weight. (
  • Starving only stresses your body and slows down your metabolism. (
  • I am talking about PhenQ , an incredible metabolism booster and overall diet aid from Wolfson Brands Ltd. It is incredibly popular, with good reason, and is incredibly dependable as an invaluable aid during your weight loss journey. (
  • You need to exclude from your diet foods and ingredients that slow down your metabolism. (
  • This process is crucial for the metabolism and muscle-building process. (
  • Yeah, yeah, yeah, you've heard it all before-all you need to speed up your metabolism is to build more muscle, drink lots of ice water, and try to spend less time sitting, right? (
  • Muscle is essential for keeping your metabolism humming, and women who consumed three to seven servings of dairy per day lost more fat and gained more muscle mass than women who downed less, according to research from McMaster University. (
  • These results highlight the important connectivity between single type of neurons and metabolism and show how psychoactive drugs impact physiology through direct brain-liver connections," says Emiliana Borrelli, PhD, professor of Microbiology & Molecular Genetics at UCI School of Medicine, who, for this study, collaborated with the late Paolo Sassone-Corsi, PhD, professor of Biological Chemistry at UCI. (
  • Dysregulation of liver metabolism could contribute to an altered allostatic state and therefore be involved in continued use of drugs. (
  • These results uncover a strict communication between neurons/brain areas and liver metabolism as well as the association between substance use and systemic deficits," said Borrelli. (
  • In all, 29 metabolism-like chemical reactions were spotted, seemingly catalysed by iron and other metals that would have been found in early ocean sediments. (