The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Glucose in blood.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Pathological conditions resulting from abnormal anabolism or catabolism of lipids in the body.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The removing of alkyl groups from a compound. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of many drugs and environmental chemicals, such as DEBRISOQUINE; ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS; and TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANTS. This enzyme is deficient in up to 10 percent of the Caucasian population.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
Abstaining from all food.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Disorders affecting amino acid metabolism. The majority of these disorders are inherited and present in the neonatal period with metabolic disturbances (e.g., ACIDOSIS) and neurologic manifestations. They are present at birth, although they may not become symptomatic until later in life.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that has specificity for relatively planar heteroaromatic small molecules, such as CAFFEINE and ACETAMINOPHEN.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Broad spectrum antifungal agent used for long periods at high doses, especially in immunosuppressed patients.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The consumption of edible substances.
An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)
Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
Functionalization of exogenous substances to prepare them for conjugation in PHASE II DETOXIFICATION. Phase I enzymes include CYTOCHROME P450 enzymes and some OXIDOREDUCTASES. Excess induction of phase I over phase II detoxification leads to higher levels of FREE RADICALS that can induce CANCER and other cell damage. Induction or antagonism of phase I detoxication is the basis of a number of DRUG INTERACTIONS.
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.

METATOOL: for studying metabolic networks. (1/1414)

MOTIVATION: To reconstruct metabolic pathways from biochemical and/or genome sequence data, the stoichiometric and thermodynamic feasibility of the pathways has to be tested. This is achieved by characterizing the admissible region of flux distributions in steady state. This region is spanned by what can be called a convex basis. The concept of 'elementary flux modes' provides a mathematical tool to define all metabolic routes that are feasible in a given metabolic network. In addition, we define 'enzyme subsets' to be groups of enzymes that operate together in fixed flux proportions in all steady states of the system. RESULTS: Algorithms for computing the convex basis and elementary modes developed earlier are briefly reviewed. A newly developed algorithm for detecting all enzyme subsets in a given network is presented. All of these algorithms have been implemented in a novel computer program named METATOOL, whose features are outlined here. The algorithms are illustrated by an example taken from sugar metabolism. AVAILABILITY: METATOOL is available from ftp://bmsdarwin.brookes.ac. uk/pub/software/ibmpc/metatool. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: http://www. biologie.hu-berlin.de/biophysics/Theory/tpfeiffer/metatoo l.html  (+info)

The fourth dimension of life: fractal geometry and allometric scaling of organisms. (2/1414)

Fractal-like networks effectively endow life with an additional fourth spatial dimension. This is the origin of quarter-power scaling that is so pervasive in biology. Organisms have evolved hierarchical branching networks that terminate in size-invariant units, such as capillaries, leaves, mitochondria, and oxidase molecules. Natural selection has tended to maximize both metabolic capacity, by maximizing the scaling of exchange surface areas, and internal efficiency, by minimizing the scaling of transport distances and times. These design principles are independent of detailed dynamics and explicit models and should apply to virtually all organisms.  (+info)

Generalization of the theory of transition times in metabolic pathways: a geometrical approach. (3/1414)

Cell metabolism is able to respond to changes in both internal parameters and boundary constraints. The time any system variable takes to make this response has relevant implications for understanding the evolutionary optimization of metabolism as well as for biotechnological applications. This work is focused on estimating the magnitude of the average time taken by any observable of the system to reach a new state when either a perturbation or a persistent variation occurs. With this aim, a new variable, called characteristic time, based on geometric considerations, is introduced. It is stressed that this new definition is completely general, being useful for evaluating the response time, even in complex transitions involving periodic behavior. It is shown that, in some particular situations, this magnitude coincides with previously defined transition times but differs drastically in others. Finally, to illustrate the applicability of this approach, a model of a reaction mediated by an allosteric enzyme is analyzed.  (+info)

Metabolic and performance responses to constant-load vs. variable-intensity exercise in trained cyclists. (4/1414)

We studied glucose oxidation (Glu(ox)) and glycogen degradation during 140 min of constant-load [steady-state (SS)] and variable-intensity (VI) cycling of the same average power output, immediately followed by a 20-km performance ride [time trial (TT)]. Six trained cyclists each performed four trials: two experimental bouts (SS and VI) in which muscle biopsies were taken before and after 140 min of exercise for determination of glycogen and periodic acid-Schiff's staining; and two similar trials without biopsies but incorporating the TT. During two of the experimental rides, subjects ingested a 5 g/100 ml [U-(14)C]glucose solution to determine rates of Glu(ox). Values were similar between SS and VI trials: O(2) consumption (3.08 +/- 0.02 vs. 3.15 +/- 0.03 l/min), energy expenditure (901 +/- 40 vs. 904 +/- 58 J x kg(-1) x min(-1)), heart rate (156 +/- 1 vs. 160 +/- 1 beats/min), and rating of perceived exertion (12.6 +/- 0.6 vs. 12.7 +/- 0.7). However, the area under the curve for plasma lactate concentration vs. time was significantly greater during VI than SS (29.1 +/- 3.9 vs. 24.6 +/- 3. 7 mM/140 min; P = 0.03). VI resulted in a 49% reduction in total muscle glycogen utilization vs. 65% for SS, while total Glu(ox) was higher (99.2 +/- 5.3 vs. 83.9 +/- 5.2 g/140 min; P < 0.05). The number of glycogen-depleted type I muscle fibers at the end of 140 min was 98% after SS but only 59% after VI. Conversely, the number of type II fibers that showed reduced periodic acid-Schiff's staining was 1% after SS vs. 10% after VI. Despite these metabolic differences, subsequent TT performance was similar (29.14 +/- 0.9 vs. 30.5 +/- 0.9 min for SS vs. VI). These results indicate that whole body metabolic and cardiovascular responses to 140 min of either SS or VI exercise at the same average intensity are similar, despite differences in skeletal muscle carbohydrate metabolism and recruitment.  (+info)

Acute plasma volume expansion: effect on metabolism during submaximal exercise. (5/1414)

To examine the effect of acute plasma volume expansion (PVE) on substrate selection during exercise, seven untrained men cycled for 40 min at 72 +/- 2% peak oxygen uptake (VO(2 peak)) on two occasions. On one occasion, subjects had their plasma volume expanded by 12 +/- 2% via an intravenous infusion of the plasma substitute Haemaccel, whereas on the other occasion no such infusion took place. Muscle samples were obtained before and immediately after exercise. In addition, heart rate and pulmonary gas and venous blood samples were obtained throughout exercise. No differences in oxygen uptake or heart rate during exercise were observed between trials, whereas respiratory exchange ratio, blood glucose, and lactate were unaffected by PVE. Muscle glycogen and lactate concentrations were not different either before or after exercise. In addition, there was no difference in total carbohydrate oxidation between trials (control: 108 +/- 2 g; PVE group: 105 +/- 2 g). Plasma catecholamine levels were not affected by PVE. These data indicate that substrate metabolism during submaximal exercise in untrained men is unaltered by acute hypervolemia.  (+info)

Advantages and disadvantages of aggregating fluxes into synthetic and degradative fluxes when modelling metabolic pathways. (6/1414)

It is now widely accepted that mathematical models are needed to predict the behaviour of complex metabolic networks in the cell, in order to have a rational basis for planning metabolic engineering with biotechnological or therapeutical purposes. The great complexity of metabolic networks makes it crucial to simplify them for analysis, but without violating key principles of stoichiometry or thermodynamics. We show here, however, that models for branched complex systems are sometimes obtained that violate the stoichiometry of fluxes at branch points and as a result give unrealistic metabolite concentrations at the steady state. This problem is especially important when models are constructed with the S-system form of biochemical systems theory. However, the same violation of stoichiometry can occur in metabolic control analysis if control coefficients are assumed to be constant when trying to predict the effects of large changes. We derive the appropriate matrix equations to analyse this type of problem systematically and to assess its extent in any given model.  (+info)

Cytochrome b evolution in birds and mammals: an evaluation of the avian constraint hypothesis. (7/1414)

Patterns of molecular evolution in birds have long been considered anomalous. Compared with other vertebrates, birds have reduced levels of genetic divergence between groups of similar taxonomic ranks for a variety of nuclear and mitochondrial markers. This observation led to the avian constraint hypothesis, which identifies increased functional constraint on avian proteins as the cause for the reduction in genetic divergence. Subsequent investigations provided additional support for the avian constraint hypothesis when rates of molecular evolution were found to be slower in birds than in mammals in a variety of independent calibrations. It is possible to test the avian constraint hypothesis as an explanation for this avian slowdown by comparing DNA sequence data from protein-coding regions in birds and homologous regions in mammals. The increased selective constraints should lead to a reduction in the proportion of amino acid replacement substitutions. To test for such a decrease, we calculated the numbers of amino acid replacement substitutions per replacement site (dN) and silent substitutions per silent site (dS) for the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene using 38 avian and 43 mammalian comparisons that were phylogenetically independent. We find that dN/dS is significantly smaller in birds than in mammals. This difference cannot be explained by differences in codon bias affecting dS values. We suggest that the avian slowdown can be explained, at least in part, by a decreased tolerance for amino acid substitutions in avian species relative to mammalian species.  (+info)

Fluxes and metabolic pools as model traits for quantitative genetics. I. The L-shaped distribution of gene effects. (8/1414)

The fluxes through metabolic pathways can be considered as model quantitative traits, whose QTL are the polymorphic loci controlling the activity or quantity of the enzymes. Relying on metabolic control theory, we investigated the relationships between the variations of enzyme activity along metabolic pathways and the variations of the flux in a population with biallelic QTL. Two kinds of variations were taken into account, the variation of the average enzyme activity across the loci, and the variation of the activity of each enzyme of the pathway among the individuals of the population. We proposed analytical approximations for the flux mean and variance in the population as well as for the additive and dominance variances of the individual QTL. Monte Carlo simulations based on these approximations showed that an L-shaped distribution of the contributions of individual QTL to the flux variance (R(2)) is consistently expected in an F(2) progeny. This result could partly account for the classically observed L-shaped distribution of QTL effects for quantitative traits. The high correlation we found between R(2) value and flux control coefficients variance suggests that such a distribution is an intrinsic property of metabolic pathways due to the summation property of control coefficients.  (+info)

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Denna uppsats syftar till att undersöka hur fysisk aktivitet i urbana rum förhåller sig till könsstereotypa föreställningar och underliggande strukturer. Uppsatsen ämnar även diskutera om det föreligger risk för att planering av fysisk aktivitet i urbana rum reproducerar könsstereotypa föreställningar och underliggande strukturer. Uppsatsens problemformulering lyder: Hur förhåller sig föreställningar om genus till fysisk aktivitet i det urbana rummet?. För att besvara denna utformas uppsatsen som en litteraturstudie där två avhandlingar om fysisk aktivitet i urbana rum studeras genom en innehållsanalys. De avhandlingar som studeras är Bäckströms avhandling Spår. Om brädsportkultur, informella lärprocesser och identitet (2005) och Nilssons avhandling Arkitekturens kroppslighet - staden som terräng (2010). Fysisk aktivitet i urbana rum har i uppsatsen avgränsats till att representeras av skateboardåkning. Ur analysen framkommer att genus inverkar på vem som fysiskt ...
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We have developed a system of analysis of metabolites using CE and GC mass spectroscopy suitable for measurement of small tissue samples. Metabolites in defined...
Health Stories - Metabolic System - I put down my lassitude to growing older and did not make an issue of it to my health care providers. But a week
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FUROREM ELIZABETH I gripped the rock above my head. My hand was almost skeletal, the skin scorched off, my regeneration barely able to keep it in one piece. But I pulled myself up anyway, farther up the rock wall. It was easier than it should have been, since my legs were burned away. They would…
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Unified Call Syntax: x.f(y) and f(x,y) Bjarne Stroustrup Herb Sutter Abstract In Urbana, EWG discussed two proposals for generalizing/unifying the two function call
Case Western Reserve is a founding and current member of the University Athletic Association (UAA). The conference participates in the National Collegiate Athletic Associations (NCAA) Division III. Case Institute of Technology and Western Reserve University were also a founding members of the Presidents Athletic Conference (PAC) in 1958. When the athletic departments of the two universities merged in 1971 they dominated the (PAC) for several years. The university remained a member of the PAC until 1983. In the fall of 1984 the university joined the North Coast Athletic Conference (NCAC), a pioneer in gender equality in sports, as a charter member. The 1998-1999 school year marked the final season in which the Spartans were members of the NCAC. As the university had held joint conference membership affiliation with the UAA and the NCAC for over a decade. In 2014, the football team began competing as an associate member of the PAC, as only four out of the eight UAA member institutions remained ...
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CWRU School of Dental Medicine - 2124 Cornell Road, Cleveland, OH 44106-4905 - 216.368.3200. © 2017 Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, Ohio 44106 216.368.2000 ...
Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine faculty members are reaping the rewards of funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), in the form of grants and contracts. The funding totals more than $6.4 million for four different research endeavors. Researchers Mark Chance, PhD, professor of physiology and biophysics, director of the Center for Proteomics and Bioinformatics, and interim chair of the Department of Genetics, and W. Henry Boom, MD, professor of medicine and director of the Tuberculosis Research Unit, are working to tackle the easily transmissible, and often deadly, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). They received a grant for more than $750,000 from the NIH, with the potential to receive up to $2.8 million over the next four years. The researchers are bringing together a multidisciplinary team of experts in proteomics, genetic epidemiology and cytokine biology to study a population within the spectrum of MTB exposure, infection, and disease in the United States, ...
Posted by: Emily Mayock, February 24, 2011 04:05 PM , News Topics: Case Western Reserve University is committed to the free exchange of ideas, reasoned debate and intellectual dialogue. Speakers and scholars with a diversity of opinions and perspectives are invited to the campus to provide the community with important points of view, some of which may be deemed controversial. The views and opinions of those invited to speak on the campus do not necessarily reflect the views of the university administration or any other segment of the university community.. ...
The Center for Evidence-Based Practices at Case Western Reserve University is a partnership between the Jack, Joseph and Morton Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences and the Department of Psychiatry at the Case School of Medicine. The Center is a technical-assistance organization that provides consulting, training, and evaluation services for the implementation of practices that improve outcomes for people with mental illness, substance use disorders, and co-occurring disorders. The Center sponsors three Center of Excellence initiatives: Ohio ACT CCOE, Ohio SAMI CCOE, and Supported Employment.
The Center for Evidence-Based Practices at Case Western Reserve University is a partnership between the Jack, Joseph and Morton Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences and the Department of Psychiatry at the Case School of Medicine. The Center is a technical-assistance organization that provides consulting, training, and evaluation services for the implementation of practices that improve outcomes for people with mental illness, substance use disorders, and co-occurring disorders. The Center sponsors three Center of Excellence initiatives: Ohio ACT CCOE, Ohio SAMI CCOE, and Supported Employment.
...Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and AstraZeneca a ...The study is sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infect...TB which causes 1.4 million deaths per year is the leading infectiou... New medications are greatly needed to improve and shorten the treatme...,New,tuberculosis,drug,trial,begins,in,South,Africa,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Program in Cell Biology at Case Western Reserve University provides on-going educational opportunities to those students seeking advanced degrees.
A spin-off venture with its roots in advanced polymers research at Case Western Reserve University has been established, aiming to commercialize polymer technology.
Find information about Case Western Reserve University EMT course. Whether you are considering an associates degree (CNA, LVN, or LPN), or a bachelor of science in nursing (RN), you will find many doors opening after graduation.
A continuously-fed crystallization chamber that allows for kinetic path control through the crystallization phase diagram (from labile/nucleation to metastable/growth) was fabricated and used to crystallize lysozyme. A lumped kinetic model was developed, and parameters for heterogeneous nucleation kinetics w
This paper mainly focuses on the output practical tracking controller design for a class of complex stochastic nonlinear systems with unknown control coefficients. In the existing research results, most of the complex systems are controlled in a certain direction, which leads to the disconnection between theoretical results and practical applications. The authors introduce unknown control coefficients, and the values of the upper and lower bounds of the control coefficients are generalized by constants to allow arbitrary values to be arbitrarily large or arbitrarily small. In the control design program, the design problem of the controller is transformed into a parameter construction problem by introducing appropriate coordinate transformation. Moreover, we construct an output feedback practical tracking controller based on the dynamic and static phase combined by Ito stochastic differential theory and selection of appropriate design parameters, ensuring that the system tracking error can be made
Njoke Thomas is fascinated by the idea that a fundamental shift in health sector practices is critical to the elimination of disparities in health outcomes. Specifically, she would like to identify and explore the organizational factors required to facilitate such change. Prior to joining the department she directed the Colorado Trusts Equality in Health Initiative to promote culturally competent practices in healthcare and medical education practices throughout the state. Njoke holds a B.A. in Human Biology from Stanford University and a M.S. in Public Health from Harvard University. ...
Faculty within the Materials Branch , Eric Baer Distinguished University Professor Herbert Henry Dow Professor of Science and Engineering Professor, Macromolecular Science and Engineering Director, NSF Center for Layered Polymeric Systems Develops processing-structure-property relationships in
Ica Manas-Zloczower, Distinguished University Professor and the Thomas W. and Nancy P. Seitz Professor of Advanced Materials and Energy in the Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering, has been awarded the Fred E. Schwab Education Award from the Society of Plastics Engineers. ...
Now for Seifters work. The method of initial concentrations had done a lot to straighten matters out for you, but it does not go far enough. If he now gets almost the same results as we do with his C it is only because one would necessarily be luckier with the new method than the old one. As we see it here, he is still working in the dark with a very arbitrary and cumbersome method, and with no positive assurance that his reagents contain all required components in excess, subscribing to this requirement in principle only. What is the objective to running an old-fashioned titration at any level of hemolysis you want? Also, why do you report percentage reactivations? Surely no one yet knows the relation between this result and quantity of component. If Maltaner is right it is anything but a proportional one. And why do you talk about concentrations and effective concentrations when other publications of yours show that you realize that the terms can only cause confusions when you really mean ...
Speaker: Max Mehlman, Distinguished University Professor, Arthur E. Petersilge Professor of Law and Director of the Law-Medicine Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Law, and Professor of Biomedical Ethics, Case Western Reserve University School of ...
Speaker: Max Mehlman, Distinguished University Professor, Arthur E. Petersilge Professor of Law and Director of the Law-Medicine Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Law, and Professor of Biomedical Ethics, Case Western Reserve University School of ...
Discuss an accomplishment or event, formal or informal, that marked your transition from childhood to adulthood within your culture, community, or family. Its 3:16 A.M. My eyes are bloodshot from sleeplessness; I stumble into my room and crash my head against the soft, plush pillow laying on my bed. I pull the blanket over my … Read moreDreams. ...
Thursday, November 12, 2015. CLEVELAND -- Researchers from the Department of Neurological Surgery at the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine recently received multi-year, multi-million dollar grants from the National Institutes of Health for studies in Parkinsons disease, stroke, and brain cancer. Barry J. Hoffer, MD, PhD, adjunct professor of neurosurgery at Case Western Reserve and a member of the Department of Neurosurgery at University Hospitals (UH) Case Medical Center, received a 3-year, $1 million grant for continuing research into gliptins for the treatment of Parkinsons disease. Gliptins, widely used in the effective treatment of type 2 diabetes to safely regulate blood glucose levels, have also been found to provide neurological protection in Parkinsons. In mouse studies, gliptins increase levels of hormones called incretins which reduced Parkinsons symptoms. The new grant will allow Dr. Hoffer and colleagues to continue their evaluation of gliptins as a new ...
Robert B. Daroff, M.D., is Interim Vice Dean for Education and Academic Affairs, and Professor of Neurology, at the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. He was Chief of Staff and Senior Vice President for Academic Affairs at University Hospitals of Cleveland from 1994 to 2003. Prior to that, he was Gilbert W. Humphrey Professor and Chairman of the Department of Neurology at CWRU, and Director of Neurology at UHC, positions he had held since 1980.. Dr. Daroff did his undergraduate training at the University of Pennsylvania, where he was Editor-in-Chief of The Daily Pennsylvanian in his senior year. He graduated from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine in 1961, interned at Philadelphia General Hospital, and trained in Neurology at Yale, and Neuro-Ophthalmology at UCSF.. He was on the faculty of the Departments of Neurology and Ophthalmology at the University of Miami from 1968 to 1980.. Dr. Daroff has held, and holds, many national and international positions in his ...
Andrew SloanA new paper in the October issue of the journal Neurosurgical Focus finds the use of laser beneficial for the removal of large, inoperable glioblastoma (GBM) and other types of brain tumors. The paper is authored by Andrew Sloan, MD, and colleagues from University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and Case Comprehensive Cancer Center (Wright J, et al. Neurosurg Focus. 2016 Oct; view video abstract).. Dr. Sloan and other investigators at the Case Comprehensive Cancer Center led the first in human trials, published in 2013, of a procedure with laser interstitial thermotherapy (LITT), a minimally invasive approach using a laser to cook a tumor through a tiny hole in the scalp and bone and the intra-operative MRI (iMRI) to fine tune the treatment rather than the surgeons direct vision.. However, one problem that he and other surgeons faced was tumor swelling. While LITT was successful for brain tumors smaller than the size of a ...
Visit Case Western Reserve Universitys uniquely urban campus, located in the heart of Clevelands cultural hub, University Circle. Plan your trip:. ...
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Prescription Drug Abuse: Trends, Surveillance, and Future Implications Dena M. Fisher Case Western Reserve University Master of Public Health I. Prescription Drug Abuse A. What is it? B. What types of
Get info about Case Western Reserve University anthropology program. There are accredited nursing certificate programs that can help launch your career, performing a variety of medical services within a hospital setting.
Researchers Identify Muscle Factor that Controls Fat Metabolism. New discovery from team at University Hospitals and Case Western Reserve University could lead to metabolic disease therapies. Metabolic diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, have risen to epidemic proportions in the U.S. and occur in about 30% of the population. Skeletal muscle plays a prominent role in controlling the bodys glucose levels, which is important for the development of metabolic diseases like diabetes.. In a recent study, published in The Journal of Clinical Investigation,University Hospitals (UH) Cleveland Medical Center and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine researchers have found that skeletal muscle significantly affects how the body stores and metabolizes fat.. In the study, Mukesh K. Jain, MD, senior author, Chief Academic Officer at UH, and the Ellery Sedgwick Jr. Chair & Distinguished Scientist, and his team set out to investigate the role of a gene called Kruppel-like factor 15 ...
Macek, B., et al. Global and Site-Specific Quantitative Phosphoproteomics: Principles and Applications, Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 2009. 49: 199-221. doi: 10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.011008.145606 ...
Mice and animal studies. All mouse studies were performed in accordance with protocols approved by the IACUCs of Case Western Reserve University and Duke University.. Generation and characterization of Smc-Klf15-KO mice. Sm22-Cre transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase under the transcriptional control of the 2.8-kb mouse Sm22a promoter have previously been described (25). The Sm22Cre mouse line was a gift from Aaron Prowellers laboratory (Case Western Reserve University). The Klf15-floxed mouse line was generated by Ozgene by inserting the LoxP site flanking exon 2 of the Klf15 gene. SMC-specific Klf15 KO mice were generated by mating the Klf15flox/flox mouse line with the Sm22Cre mouse line, designated the Sm22-Cre+/0/Klf15flox/flox (Klf15-Smc-KO) mouse line. The control mice were generated from Klf15flox/flox breeding pairs or Sm22Cre to WT C57BL/6J breeding pairs. To assess the expression pattern of the KlfF15 gene, Sm22-Cre+/0/Klf15flox/flox mouse aorta and liver tissues were harvested ...
Making All the Children Above Average: Ethical and Regulatory Concerns for Pediatricians in Pediatric Enhancement Research, Jessica Wilen Berg, Maxwell J. Mehlman JD, Daniel B. Rubin MA, and Eric Kodish MD. ...
Find an Anesthesiologist in Urbana, IL 61801. Anesthesiologist reviews, phone number, address and map. Find the best Anesthesiologist in Urbana, IL 61801
The Cleveland FES Center is a consortium of five nationally recognized institutions: Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, University Hospitals of Cleveland, and the Cleveland Clinic Neurological Institute.. ...
The influence of the presence of certain amino acids at different concentrations on the catabolic activity of the bacteria Desulfotomaculum ruminis was studied. Introduction of amino acids of the simple chain molecule in concentrations up to 10 g/dm3 in the Starkey media leads to a small...
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Kidney Chart | Metabolic System | This colorful anatomical poster depicts the human kidneys in detail. The basic function and anatomy of the kidneys are included in this chart. The poster also gives information on some common pathologies of the kidney. Printed on premium glossy (200g
Researchers have found yet more evidence that the ApoE4 genotype renders its carriers sensitive to lipid-related alterations and Alzheimers pathology. Scientists led by Radosveta Koldamova at the University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, reported that a depletion of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1)-which shuttles lipids to ApoE-fans the flames of cognitive problems and Aβ deposition in transgenic mice carrying the human ApoE4 gene, but not in animals with the ApoE3 isoform. Published September 19 in the Journal of Neuroscience, the study could have implications for ApoE-related treatments.. This paper highlights the selective vulnerability of the ApoE4 genotype to disease-related changes in Aβ homeostasis, said Gary Landreth, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio. Landreth was not involved in the study.. ABCA1 is a cell-membrane lipid pump that transports cholesterol and other phospholipids out of the cell and onto apolipoproteins such as ApoA-I and ApoE. Some ...
Scientists at Case Western Reserve University and the Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute have discovered that the parasite that causes the most common form of malaria share the same genetic variations -- even when the organisms are separated across continents. The discovery raises concerns that mutations to resist existing medications could spread worldwide, making global eradication efforts even more difficult.
Accession number & update 02708728 Medline R 20080624. Title Dietary influences on cardiovascular disease risk in anabolic steroid- using and nonusing bodybuilders. Source Journal of the American College of Nutrition, {J-Am-Coll-Nutr}, Apr 1989, vol. 8, no. 2, p. 109-19, ISSN: 0731-5724. Author(s) Kleiner-S-M, Calabrese-L-H, Fiedler-K-M, Naito-H-K, Skibinski-C-I. Author affiliation Department of Nutrition, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland.
Yep, as the title suggests the latest research from Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine in Cleveland, Ohio, has found the following: A drug used to treat cancer can reverse Alzheimers disease in mice - and it takes just 72 hours to work its magic. It remains to be seen if the drug has the…
by Dr. Marvin , Aug 17, 2009 , Articles, Gum Disease, Holistic Dentistry, Hot Topics, News. As if you needed another reason to take care of your gums and treat gum disease, researchers at Case Western Reserve University School of Dental Medicine and University Hospital of Cleveland have found that treating periodontal disease reduces arthritic pain, swollen ...
Clinical trial results for a noninvasive colon-cancer test approved last year by the Food and Drug Administration indicate that it is promising as an effective alternative to colonoscopy for African Americans, according to researchers at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. The DNA-screening method, called stool DNA (sDNA), detected precancer in African Americans at…
Puneet Anand, Ph.D, Institute for Transformative Molecular Medicine, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Wolstein Research Building 4107, 2103 Cornell Road, Cleveland OH 44106, USA; Tel: 216.368.5730; E-mail: [email protected] ...
Aliakbar Montazer Haghighi, Ph.D. Professor & Head of the Department of Mathematics Specialty: Probability & Statistics and Queueing Theory Ph. D., Probability and Statistics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, 1976 Curriculum Vitae Laurette B. Foster, Ed.D.
Case Western Reserve University and the Cleveland Clinic are collaborating to better integrate the training of student doctors, dentists, nurses and social workers. One goal: Reduce medical errors.
Scientists know that physical and biochemical signals can guide cells to make, for example, muscle, blood vessels or bone. But the exact recipes to produce the desired tissues have proved elusive. Now, researchers at Case Western Reserve University have taken a step toward identifying that mix by developing an easy and versatile way of forming physical and biochemical gradients in three dimensions.
For its role in a national HIV vaccine trial, Case Western Reserve/University Hospitals Clinical Trials Unit is seeking men who have sex with men who are ...
Results could lead to new anti-inflammatory probiotics Researchers at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine have shown a high-fat diet may lead to... ...
Metabolism[edit]. Androgens are metabolized mainly in the liver.. Medical uses[edit]. Main article: Anabolic steroid § Medical ... The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 89 (10): 5245-55. doi:10.1210/jc.2004-0084. PMID 15472231.. ...
Metabolism[edit]. In humans, bradykinin is broken down by three kininases: angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), aminopeptidase ...
Metabolism[edit]. Alcohol is absorbed throughout the gastrointestinal tract, but more slowly in the stomach than in the small ... Iber, FL (September 1977). "The effect of fructose on alcohol metabolism". Archives of Internal Medicine. 137 (9): 1121. doi: ... Regarding metabolism (β) in the formula; females demonstrated a higher average rate of elimination (mean, 0.017; range, 0.014- ... Metabolism can be affected by numerous factors, including such things as body temperature, the type of alcoholic beverage ...
Glucose metabolism[edit]. According to the National Cancer Institute, two small studies exploring whether and how cell phone ...
Digestion and metabolism[edit]. As a structural analog of glutamate and glutamine, the theanine in preparations (teas, pure ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Ionotropic glutamate receptor modulators • Glutamate metabolism/transport modulators ... "Kinetics of L-Theanine Uptake and Metabolism in Healthy Participants Are Comparable after Ingestion of L-Theanine via Capsules ... Intermediary Metabolism. 4: 41-42. doi:10.1016/j.jnim.2015.12.308.. ...
Metabolism[edit]. Purple bacteria are mainly photoautotrophic, but are also known to be chemoautotrophic and photoheterotrophic ... A. A. Tsygankov; A. N. Khusnutdinova (January 2015). "Hydrogen in metabolism of purple bacteria and prospects of practical ... Alastair G. McEwan (March 1994). "Photosynthetic electron transport and anaerobic metabolism in purple non-sulfur phototrophic ...
Metabolism[edit]. Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens is a chemotrophic organism that uses H2 as an electron donor and ...
Metabolism[edit]. A paucity of research exists on the metabolism of muscarine in the human body, suggesting this compound is ... Though there has been extensive research in the field of acetylcholine metabolism by acetylcholinesterase, muscarine is not ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Acetylcholine metabolism/transport ...
Metabolism[edit]. glycerol-3-phosphate. Synthesis of diacylglycerol begins with glycerol-3-phosphate, which is derived ...
Role of metabolism in cancer[edit]. The role of PI-3-kinase in anabolic signaling by insulin, IGF-1, and other growth factors ... For the discovery of PI-3-Kinase and its role in cancer metabolism, Cantley was one of eleven recipients of the inaugural ... March 2008). "The M2 splice isoform of pyruvate kinase is important for cancer metabolism and tumour growth". Nature. 452 (7184 ... is an American cell biologist and biochemist who has made significant advances to the understanding of cancer metabolism. Among ...
Metabolism[edit]. Lipases and carboxyl esterases that hydrolyze triglycerides have demonstrated enzymatic activity towards wax ... Hargrove, J.L. (2004). "Nutritional significance and metabolism of very long chain fatty alcohols and acids from dietary waxes ...
Metabolism[edit]. *Metabolomics: Scientific study of chemical processes involving metabolites. It is a "systematic study of the ...
Metabolism of 13(S)-HODE[edit]. Like most polyunsaturated fatty acids and mono-hydroxyl polyunsaturated fatty acids, 13(S)-HODE ... "The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 100 (5): 2006-14. doi:10.1210/jc.2014-4214. PMC 4803888. PMID 25794249.. ... "Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism. 1 (4): 165-75. doi:10.1177/2042018810381066. PMC 3474614. PMID 23148161. ... Endocrinology and Metabolism. 299 (6): E879-86. doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00508.2010. PMID 20858748.. ...
This leads to the idea that thermogenesis is part of metabolism, Kleiber's original treatment, and rules out that metabolism is ... Dodds, P. S.; Rothman, D. H.; Weitz, J. S. (2001). "Re-examination of the 3/4 law of metabolism". J. Theor. Biol. 209: 9-27. ... Thus, basal metabolism is no a pure power law anymore but the weighted sum of two. This evolutive tradeoff can explain several ... Concepts of efficiency in the use of energy by the metabolism[edit]. This limit to blood flow considerations is problematic ...
Amino acid metabolism[edit]. *PLP is a cofactor in the biosynthesis of five important neurotransmitters: serotonin, dopamine, ... Lipid metabolism[edit]. PLP is an essential component of enzymes that facilitate the biosynthesis of sphingolipids.[4] ... Glucose metabolism[edit]. PLP is a required coenzyme of glycogen phosphorylase, the enzyme necessary for glycogenolysis to ... Ink, Steven L; Henderson, Lavell M (1984). "Vitamin B6 Metabolism". Annual Review of Nutrition. 4: 455-70. doi:10.1146/annurev. ...
Metabolism[edit]. On cold winter nights, these birds can reduce their body temperature by as much as 12°C (from their normal ...
Metabolism[edit]. Norethisterone has an elimination half-life of 5.2 to 12.8 hours, with a mean elimination half-life of 8.0 ... Metabolism. Mainly CYP3A4 (liver);[1] also 5α-/5β-reductase, 3α-/3β-HSD, and aromatase. ... The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2001, 86, 303-309. *^ Kim, J. J.; Kurita, T.; Bulun, S. E. Progesterone ... 5α-Reductase plays an important role in the metabolism of norethisterone, and 5α-reductase inhibitors such as finasteride and ...
Metabolism[edit]. Data on the metabolism of CoQ10 in animals and humans are limited.[42] A study with 14C-labeled CoQ10 in rats ... Absorption and metabolism[edit]. Absorption[edit]. CoQ10 is a crystalline powder insoluble in water. Absorption follows the ... Kishi, H.; Kanamori, N.; Nisii, S.; Hiraoka, E.; Okamoto, T.; Kishi, T. (1964). "Metabolism and Exogenous Coenzyme Q10 in vivo ... Bhagavan, Hemmi N.; Chopra, Raj K. (2006). "Coenzyme Q10: Absorption, tissue uptake, metabolism and pharmacokinetics". Free ...
Drug metabolism in liver[edit]. Drug metabolism in liver: transferases are : glutathione, sulfate, acetate, glucoronic acid. P- ... Drug metabolism is usually divided into two phases: phase 1 and phase 2. Phase 1 reaction is thought to prepare a drug for ... Skett, Paul; Gibson, G. Gordon (2001). Introduction to drug metabolism. Cheltenham, UK: Nelson Thornes Publishers. ISBN 0-7487- ... Each of the P-450 proteins is unique and accounts (to some extent) for the variation in drug metabolism between individuals. ...
Almost all cacti have obligate Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in their stems; the few cacti with leaves may have C3 Metabolism in ... Crassulacean acid metabolism, also known as CAM photosynthesis, is a carbon fixation pathway that evolved in some plants as an ... "Crassulacean Acid Metabolism and Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Modifications in Peperomia camptotricha". Plant Physiology. 77 (1 ... M. Kluge, I. P. Ting (2012). Crassulacean Acid Metabolism: Analysis of an Ecological Adaptation Volumen 30 de Ecological ...
Isovaleryl-coenzyme A, also known as isovaleryl-CoA, is an intermediate in the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids.[1][2][ ... "Nutrient Metabolism: Structures, Functions, and Genes (2nd ed.). Academic Press. pp. 385-388. ISBN 978-0-12-387784-0. . ... The first step in HMB metabolism is the reversible transamination of leucine to [α-KIC] that occurs mainly extrahepatically ( ...
Metabolism[edit]. Pregnenolone undergoes further steroid metabolism in one of several ways: *Pregnenolone can be converted into ...
Metabolism[edit]. Common ostriches are able to attain their necessary energetic requirements via the oxidation of absorbed ... A key point when looking at the common ostrich metabolism is to note that it is a non-passerine bird. Thus, BMR in ostriches is ... The end-product of catabolism of protein metabolism in animals is nitrogen.[67] Animals must excrete this in the form of ... King, J. R.; Farner, D.S. (1961). "Energy Metabolism, thermoregulation, and body temperature". In Marshall, A. J. (ed.). ...
Metabolism[edit]. Estriol is metabolized via glucuronidation and sulfation.[22][23] Excretion[edit]. The main urinary ... Kenneth L. Becker (2001). Principles and Practice of Endocrinology and Metabolism. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 932, 1061 ... Musey PI, Kirdani RY, Bhanalaph T, Sandberg AA (December 1973). "Estriol metabolism in the baboon: analysis of urinary and ... The metabolism and excretion of estriol in these animals closely resembled that which has been observed in humans.[23] ...
Growth and Metabolism[edit]. C. krusei grows at a maximum temperature of 43-45 °C. Although most of the medically important ...
Metabolism[edit]. Atorvastatin metabolism is primarily through cytochrome P450 3A4 hydroxylation to form active ortho- and ... Bile elimination follows hepatic and/or extrahepatic metabolism. There does not appear to be any entero-hepatic recirculation. ... The ortho-hydroxy metabolite undergoes further metabolism via glucuronidation. As a substrate for the CYP3A4 isozyme, it has ... Atorvastatin undergoes high intestinal clearance and first-pass metabolism, which is the main cause for the low systemic ...
Biosynthesis and metabolism[edit]. Glycerol 3-phosphate is synthesized by reducing dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), a ... Using this shuttle system, NADH generated by cytosolic metabolisms including glycolysis is reoxidized to NAD+ reducing DHAP to ...
Genetic differences in metabolism[edit]. Genetic differences relating to toxicant metabolism pathways, such as polymorphisms ...
... inhibits alcohol dehydrogenase, and thus slows the metabolism of ethanol.[29] It also inhibits metabolism of ... Metabolism[edit]. A cytochrome P450 enzyme is proposed to metabolize diethyl ether.[28] ... P. T. Normann; A. Ripel; J. Morland (1987). "Diethyl Ether Inhibits Ethanol Metabolism in Vivo by Interaction with Alcohol ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • GABA receptor modulators • GABA metabolism/transport modulators ...
Metabolism[edit]. The mammalian LD50 is 21.8 mg/kg (rats, oral).[1] Phase I metabolism of tefluthrin proceeds via both ... In phase II metabolism, the phase I metabolites are glucuronidated on any available alcohol groups to facilitate membrane ...
Brush up on metabolism, the chemical reactions in the bodys cells that change food into energy, in this article. ... What Is Metabolism?. Metabolism (meh-TAB-uh-liz-um) is the chemical reactions in the bodys cells that change food into energy ... What Controls Metabolism?. Several hormones of the endocrine system help control the rate and direction of metabolism. ... Metabolism is a balancing act involving two kinds of activities that go on at the same time:. *building up body tissues and ...
Like in all other eukaryotic microalgae, in diatoms, the intermediate metabolism of carbon and nitrogen metabolism is closely ... Remodeling diatom metabolism. Orly Levitan, Jorge Dinamarca, Ehud Zelzion, Desmond S. Lun, L. Tiago Guerra, Min Kyung Kim, ... Remodeling diatom metabolism. Orly Levitan, Jorge Dinamarca, Ehud Zelzion, Desmond S. Lun, L. Tiago Guerra, Min Kyung Kim, ... Remodeling of intermediate metabolism in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum under nitrogen stress. Orly Levitan, Jorge ...
Get all the facts on metabolism in this article. ... energy it needs from food through a process called metabolism. ... What Is Metabolism?. Metabolism (pronounced: meh-TAB-uh-lih-zem) is a collection of chemical reactions that takes place in the ... If metabolism stops, living things die.. Heres an example of how the process of metabolism works in humans - and it begins ... Inborn errors of metabolism. Metabolic diseases that are inherited are called inborn errors of metabolism. When babies are born ...
Proinflammatory signal suppresses proliferation and shifts macrophage metabolism from Myc-dependent to HIF1α-dependent Lingling ... Developmental accumulation of inorganic polyphosphate affects germination and energetic metabolism in Dictyostelium discoideum ...
Almost all cacti have obligate Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in their stems; the few cacti with leaves may have C3 Metabolism in ... Crassulacean acid metabolism, also known as CAM photosynthesis, is a carbon fixation pathway that evolved in some plants as an ... "Crassulacean Acid Metabolism and Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Modifications in Peperomia camptotricha". Plant Physiology. 77 (1 ... M. Kluge, I. P. Ting (2012). Crassulacean Acid Metabolism: Analysis of an Ecological Adaptation Volumen 30 de Ecological ...
Protein metabolism. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k Voet, Donald; Voet, Judith; Pratt, Charlotte (2008). ... Blue nodes: amino acid metabolism. Grey nodes: vitamin and cofactor metabolism. Brown nodes: nucleotide and protein metabolism. ... "Nucleotide Metabolism II". Oregon State. Retrieved 20 October 2014.. *^ Bailey, CJ (2009). "Orotic aciduria and uridine ... "Nucleotide Metabolism". The Medical Biochemistry Page. Retrieved 20 October 2014.. *^ "Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase ...
Its easy to purchase Corning Gentest metabolism products online. Just browse our online catalog, and add products directly to ... Its easy to purchase Corning Gentest metabolism products online. Just browse our online catalog, and add products directly to ... Only select distributors in Canada sell Corning metabolism products. For global customers outside of Canada, please contact ... Only select distributors in Canada sell Corning metabolism products. For global customers outside of Canada, please contact ...
This work identifies a critical role of autophagy in regulating lipid metabolism and may provide a new approach to the ... A critical role of autophagy in regulating lipid metabolism is identified, and may provide a new approach to prevent lipid ... This study identifies a critical function for autophagy in lipid metabolism that could have important implications for human ... describe a novel function for autophagy in regulating lipid metabolism, which they term macrolipophagy. In this process, ...
What are the myths and facts of metabolism? Can you speed your metabolism up to lose weight? Find out more here. ... Metabolism involves biochemical reactions in the body and is central to maintaining life. ... Fast facts on metabolism:. *When people use the word metabolism they are often referring to catabolism and anabolism. ... It is a common belief that slim people have a higher metabolism and overweight people have a slower metabolism. In fact, this ...
Get all the facts on metabolism in this article. ... energy it needs from food through a process called metabolism. ... What Is Metabolism?. Metabolism (pronounced: meh-TAB-uh-liz-um) is the chemical reactions in the bodys cells that change food ... What Controls Metabolism?. Several hormones of the endocrine system help control the rate and direction of metabolism. ... Metabolism is a balancing act involving two kinds of activities that go on at the same time:. *building up body tissues and ...
Metabolism may have started in our early oceans before the origin of life. 25 Apr 2014 The chemical reactions behind metabolism ... Monkeys regulate metabolism to cope with environment and rigours of mating season. 20 Apr 2016 The flexible physiology of ... shows that while the activity of our genes influences our metabolism, the opposite is also true and the nutrients available to ...
Lipschitz, D. A., Bothwell, T. H., Seftel, H. C., et al., The role of ascorbic acid in the metabolism of storage iron, Br. J. ... Lipschitz, D. A., Bothwell, T. H., Seftel, H. C., et al., The role of ascorbic acid in the metabolism of storage iron, Br. J. ... Brown, E. B., et al., Eds., Proteins of Iron Metabolism, Grune and Stratton, New York (1977). .Google Scholar ... Aisen, P., and Brown, E. B., The iron-binding function of transferrin in iron metabolism, Semin. Hematol. 14: 31-53 (1977). ...
Lipid biology biophysics gene expression metabolism nutrition obesity pathology protein proteins synthesis ...
Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates, and ... Lipid metabolism disorders, such as Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs disease, involve lipids. Lipids are fats or fat-like ... Article: Lipid metabolism disorders associated with dioxin exposure in a cohort of... ... Article: Molecular Mechanisms of Lipid Metabolism Disorders in Infectious Exacerbations of Chronic... ...
Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates, and ... ClinicalTrials.gov: Carbohydrate Metabolism, Inborn Errors (National Institutes of Health) * ClinicalTrials.gov: ... Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. Normally your enzymes break carbohydrates down into ...
Cellular Metabolism - P art 2 Energy as it relates to Biology Enzymes Metabolism Catabolism (ATP production) Glycolysis and the ... Cell Metabolism Part 2 * 1. Ch 4: Cellular Metabolism - P art 2 ,ul,,li,Energy as it relates to Biology ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,li, ... 4. Metabolism p 101 Anabolism  Synthesis Energy transferred commonly measured in calories: 1 cal =  1 g of H 2 O by 1 ° C 1 ... 2. Metabolism ,ul,,li,Definition = "All chemical reactions that take place within an organism." ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,li,Metabolic ...
In thermodynamic terms, metabolism maintains the balance.. Laws of Thermodynamics and metabolism. Catabolism, in total, ... Cellular metabolism couples the spontaneous processes of catabolism with the non-spontaneous processes of anabolism. ... The laws of thermodynamics apply to metabolism.. What is thermodynamics?. Thermodynamics is the study of energy transformations ... Metabolism Thermodynamics. News-Medical. 09 August 2020. ,https://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/Metabolism-Thermodynamics ...
Steven Grinspoon, a recognized expert in substrate metabolism, with a focus on the regulation of ectopic adipose tissue and ... Metabolism Unit. The Metabolism Unit is led by Dr. Steven Grinspoon, a recognized expert in substrate metabolism, with a focus ... The Metabolism Unit, formed in 2019, was previously known as the Massachusetts General Hospital Program in Nutritional ... The Metabolism Unit is currently conducting a number of clinical research studies. See what were researching. ...
... * 1. INTRODUCTION10 Quick And Easy Fat Torching Recipes Compliments of: Dave Ruel & ...
For those with a genetic variation associated with slower caffeine metabolism, increased consumption of coffee is associated ... Cite this: Heavy coffee drinkers with slow caffeine metabolism at increased risk of nonfatal MI - Medscape - Mar 07, 2006. ... Heavy coffee drinkers with slow caffeine metabolism at increased risk of nonfatal MI. ... consumption of the delicious brown bean among people with slow caffeine metabolism was associated with an increased risk of ...
Please help make this a valuable resource for drug metabolism scientists by expanding the content on this site.. Obtain a User ... or result from phase I metabolism reactions creating reactive electrophilic groups. ...
Description of nutrition and metabolism research in the Genetics and Genome Science Program, a Ph.D. program in the Baylor ...
Welcome to Cardiovascular Endocrinology & Metabolism We are pleased to announce publication of the first issue of the journal ... Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at Cardiovascular Endocrinology & Metabolism.. ... Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at Cardiovascular Endocrinology & Metabolism.. ... Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at Cardiovascular Endocrinology & Metabolism.. ...
Metabolism is used to describe the chemical reactions and metabolic pathways involved in maintaining the living state of the ... Nutrition, metabolism and energy. Nutrition is the key to metabolism. The pathways of metabolism rely upon nutrients that they ... what would happend and how would happen if a fat person with bad metabolism changes radically its metabolism? sorry for my ... Proteins in metabolism. Proteins are the main tissue builders in the body. They are part of every cell in the body. Proteins ...
Research in several MCCB labs focuses on these different aspects of metabolism to gain a better understanding of its link to ... Metabolism and disease. Most organisms rely on food as a source of the basic building blocks needed for essential cellular ... Research in the Shaw lab investigates how the IRS proteins regulate tumor metabolism, as well as the tumor cell response to the ... Research in several MCCB labs focuses on these different aspects of metabolism to gain a better understanding of its link to ...
... - Dataset (Excel 2007 (.xlsx) 65kB Dec27 16). *Lake Metabolism Module - Instructors Version Dataset ( ... Project EDDIE , EDDIE Environmental Data , EDDIE Modules , Lake Metabolism Module. Lake Metabolism Module. This module was ... Lake Metabolism Module - Dataset. a 65kB Excel 2007 (.xlsx) file file details Provenance. Project EDDIE: D.C. Richardson, J.L. ... Lake Metabolism Module - Student Handout. a 1004kB Microsoft Word 2007 (.docx) file file details Provenance. Project EDDIE: D.C ...
Ive just been discussing metabolism with my students. I show the crowd a seed and a tree and point out that the tree has ...
Metabolism definition, Biology, Physiology. the sum of the physical and chemical processes in an organism by which its material ... metabolism in Culture Expand. metabolism [(muh-tab-uh-liz-uhm)]. The total of the chemical reactions that maintain the life of ... Note: In humans, metabolism is related to the intake and use of food; persons with a high metabolism can eat more without ... metabolism me·tab·o·lism (mĭ-tābə-lĭzəm). n. *. The complex of physical and chemical processes occurring within a living cell ...
Mitochondrial metabolism and cancer.. Porporato PE1, Filigheddu N2, Pedro JMB3,4,5,6,7, Kroemer G3,4,5,6,7,8,9, Galluzzi L3,10, ... Mitochondrial metabolism in immunosurveillance. Mitochondria are fundamental for the recognition of cancer cells by the immune ... Mitochondrial metabolism and oncogenesis. Mitochondria have a major impact on virtually all processes linked to oncogenesis, ... Mitochondrial metabolism in response to treatment. All forms of treatment, including chemotherapy, radiation therapy and ...
... a fast metabolism makes the difference between reaching your goals and spinning your wheels without seeing much progess. ... Raise your metabolism with meals and snacks high in iron, says Jones. Iron helps transport oxygen to your cells, supports your ... Revving your metabolism involves more than healthy diet and exercise -- you also need enough rest each day. Your body ... Contrary to popular belief, the way to get a faster metabolism is not through hours of cardio. Weight lifting is the best thing ...
  • This study identifies a critical function for autophagy in lipid metabolism that could have important implications for human diseases with lipid over-accumulation such as those that comprise the metabolic syndrome. (nature.com)
  • Lipid metabolism disorders, such as Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs disease , involve lipids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some miRNAs have now been identified to be potent post-transcriptional regulators of lipid metabolism genes, including miR-122, miR-33, miR-758, and miR-106b. (hindawi.com)
  • The role of miRNAs in the regulation of lipid metabolism is just beginning to be explored. (hindawi.com)
  • Several miRNAs have been described to regulate lipid metabolism, including miR-122, miR-33, miR-758, and miR-106b [ 11 - 14 ] (Table 1 ). (hindawi.com)
  • Research on the metabolism of extremophilic bacteria ( Thermotoga, Caldicellulosiruptor ) and archaea ( Pyrococcus, Thermococcus ) has been ongoing for many years, and focused on their sugar catabolism, central metabolic pathways, hydrogen production and archaeal lipid biosynthesis. (wur.nl)
  • These future studies may lead to novel immunotherapies by targeting T cell-intrinsic lipid metabolism. (dkfz.de)
  • Rats fed with a high-fat, high-glucose diet supplemented with high-fructose corn syrup showed alterations in energy and lipid metabolism similar to clinical diabetes, with elevated fasting glucose and increased cholesterol and triglycerides. (nih.gov)
  • Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at Cardiovascular Endocrinology & Metabolism. (lww.com)
  • For doctors certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine, the formal subspecialty is endocrinology, diabetes and metabolism. (healthgrades.com)
  • There are 111 specialists practicing Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism in Indiana with an overall average rating of 3.7 stars. (healthgrades.com)
  • There are 68 hospitals in Indiana with affiliated Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism specialists, including IU Health Methodist Hospital , Hancock Regional Hospital and Community Hospital . (healthgrades.com)
  • There are 54 hospitals in Washington with affiliated Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism specialists, including UW Medical Center - Montlake , MultiCare Tacoma General Hospital and EvergreenHealth Medical Center - Kirkland . (healthgrades.com)
  • Deterioration of mitochondria and metabolism is a common component of numerous diseases such as cancer and neurodegeneration as well as the aging process. (umassmed.edu)
  • Here, we review the cancer cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic mechanisms through which mitochondria influence all steps of oncogenesis, with a focus on the therapeutic potential of targeting mitochondrial metabolism for cancer therapy. (nih.gov)
  • Your mitochondria have enormous potential to influence your health, specifically cancer, and I'm starting to believe that optimizing mitochondrial metabolism may in fact be at the core of effective cancer treatment. (mercola.com)
  • Antonio Zorzano @IRBBarcelona @UniBarcelona and co-authors tell all you need know about #organelle - #mitochondria communication, and explain how deficient organelle tethering affects organelle # metabolism . (twitter.com)
  • The Bioenergetics, Mitochondria, and Metabolism Subgroup attracts participants with a wide range of interests. (biophysics.org)
  • The role of mitochondria in cell metabolism and apoptosis are hot topics since they combine bioenergetics with mitochondria ability to rapidly respond to changes in cell function and adaption but also disease development. (biophysics.org)
  • In order to join the Bioenergetics, Mitochondria, and Metabolism Subgroup, you must be a member of the Society. (biophysics.org)
  • New findings reported in the July issue of Cell Metabolism, a Cell Press publication, are offering new leads as to why some people might suffer from high levels of triglycerides. (redorbit.com)
  • Evidence emerging in the last years has led to the re-appreciation of the central role of altered cell metabolism in cancer. (dkfz.de)
  • Based upon the previous work, our T Cell Metabolism group will use mouse melanoma models to identify the metabolic checkpoints regulating anti-tumor T cell bioenergetics, survival and effector functions. (dkfz.de)
  • The long-term research goal of our T Cell Metabolism group is to translate our findings made using the mouse models into clinical benefits. (dkfz.de)
  • Current projects in the lab center on developing new experimental techniques to learn how genetic changes within individual genes and proteins can impair cell metabolism and cause diabetes. (mcgill.ca)
  • Mitochondrial metabolism and cancer. (nih.gov)
  • However, tumors arise, progress, and respond to therapy in the context of an intimate crosstalk with the host immune system, and many immunological functions rely on intact mitochondrial metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • Mitochondrial metabolism in malignant transformation. (nih.gov)
  • Mitochondrial metabolism in tumor progression. (nih.gov)
  • Rhonda Patrick, PhD is a biomedical scientist who has studied the interaction between mitochondrial metabolism, aberrant metabolism, and cancer . (mercola.com)
  • She's also investigated mitochondrial function and metabolism, which is one of my own most recent passions. (mercola.com)
  • From Albert Lehninger's studies of mitochondrial metabolism to Peter Pedersen's work in bioenergetics and more, Johns Hopkins has built a distinguished legacy of discovery in the field of metabolism and systems biology. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Chapters are divided into three parts, the first part focuses on protocols commonly utilized in cancer metabolism studies, such as protocols comprising stable isotope labeling methods, protocols for studying glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and mitochondrial metabolism. (springer.com)
  • 1) How does altered mitochondrial metabolism initiate cellular transformation? (stanford.edu)
  • 2) What are the therapeutic suceptabilities associated with altered mitochondrial metabolism? (stanford.edu)
  • Please help make this a valuable resource for drug metabolism scientists by expanding the content on this site. (archive.org)
  • His research interests and publications span all aspects of drug discovery and development, particularly where drug metabolism impacts on the design of more efficacious and safer drugs. (google.com)
  • He joined Pfizer in 1999, where he is currently a Research Fellow in the Drug Metabolism Group (Groton Laboratories). (google.com)
  • He worked for Pfizer for 24 years in the Pharmacokinetics, Dynamics and Metabolism Department contributing scientific leadership to the drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic evaluations on many drug discovery and development projects across a range of therapeutic areas including cardiovascular, allergy and respiratory, anti-infectives and sexual health. (google.com)
  • Review a recent study where a recombinant human AO enzyme using a mammalian cell based expression system enabled the early assessment of the liability of AO for drug metabolism and clearance. (corning.com)
  • Catabolism (kuh-TAB-uh-liz-um), or destructive metabolism, is the process that produces the energy needed for all activity in the cells. (kidshealth.org)
  • When people use the word 'metabolism' they are often referring to catabolism and anabolism. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Cellular metabolism couples the spontaneous processes of catabolism with the non-spontaneous processes of anabolism. (news-medical.net)
  • As part of metabolism, organic compounds are broken down to provide heat and energy in the process called catabolism . (dictionary.com)
  • Chapters consider individual amino acids, grouped according to their metabolic origin, and discussing their biosynthesis (in plants and micro-organisms for those that are dietary essentials for human beings), major metabolic roles (mainly in human metabolism) and catabolism (again mainly in human metabolism). (indiebound.org)
  • The chemical reactions behind metabolism - the processes that occur within all living organisms in order to sustain life - may have formed spontaneously in the Earth's early oceans, according to research published today. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the above described set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radiosynthesis is the theorized capture and metabolism, by living organisms, of energy from ionizing radiation, analogously to photosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ceramide, a central sphingolipid, affects cellular metabolism with important consequences on the onset and progression of metabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. (umassmed.edu)
  • The Metabolism, Energy Balance, and Obesity program supports basic and clinical studies related to energy balance and physiological mechanisms modulating weight gain, loss, and maintenance. (nih.gov)
  • The theme "Metabolism, Obesity and Diabetes" covers two fundamental lines of research detailed at the "Research and development" page. (uclouvain.be)
  • The aim of the "Hormones and Metabolism" line of research is to better understand the causes and consequences of obesity, diabetes mellitus, and other endocrine diseases with an impact on metabolism, and to identify new therapeutic targets, test new treatments and improve patient care. (uclouvain.be)
  • Welcome to CMOR, The Center for Metabolism and Obesity Research in the Institute for Basic Biomedical Research. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • CMOR is an interdepartmental and interdisciplinary center established to support the advancement of our understanding of the basic biological mechanisms that regulate metabolism, and how they are dysregulated in disorders such as obesity, diabetes, stroke, and cancer. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Addressing topics such as nutrient sensing, bioenergetics, and endocrine regulation, the center employs both cutting edge technologies and fundamental basic science to advance our understanding of the biology that regulates metabolism and how it is dysregulated in attendant disorders such as obesity, diabetes, cancer, and stroke. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • To lead in the study and support of integrative research in the field of metabolism and obesity to advance our understanding of the biological mechanisms that regulate metabolism and how they are dysregulated in attendant disorders, such as obesity and diabetes. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • To foster interactions between CMOR and agencies that support research in metabolism and obesity. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Circadian clocks play a major role in orchestrating daily metabolism and their disruption can lead to metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • The Indirect calorimetry is well established and widely used to measure metabolism, and recommended for the treatment of obesity and management of weight by World Health Organization, American Dietetic Association and American College of Sports Medicine. (forbes.com)
  • The chemical reactions of metabolism are organized into metabolic pathways. (news-medical.net)
  • However, because normal cells and cancer cells often require the same energy sources and metabolic pathways, designing metabolism-based cancer therapies without systemic toxicity has proven challenging. (eurekalert.org)
  • This program also supports studies that explore mathematical models contributing to the understanding of whole-body energy balance and metabolism as well as the metabolic pathways in cells, tissues, and organs. (nih.gov)
  • There is also discussion of regulatory mechanisms for all these metabolic pathways, and of metabolic and genetic diseases affecting the (human) metabolism of amino acids. (indiebound.org)
  • Vision: Understanding how specific metabolic pathways influence biological outcomes and behavior is the goal of metabolism in our era, and is a common foundation for systems and behavioral biology. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Purine metabolism refers to the metabolic pathways to synthesize and break down purines that are present in many organisms. (rug.nl)
  • The chemical reactions of metabolism are organized into metabolic pathways, in which one chemical is transformed through a series of steps into another chemical, each step being facilitated by a specific enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • A striking feature of metabolism is the similarity of the basic metabolic pathways among vastly different species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific proteins in the body control the chemical reactions of metabolism. (kidshealth.org)
  • Specific proteins in the body control the chemical reactions of metabolism, and each chemical reaction is coordinated with other body functions. (kidshealth.org)
  • Proteins of Iron Metabolism , Grune and Stratton, New York (1977). (springer.com)
  • B-12 is essential for the metabolism of proteins and fats . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Many proteins are enzymes that catalyze the chemical reactions in metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diet industry has been plagued with crazy fad diets that do nothing but slow your metabolism and prime your body for yo-yo weight gain. (harpercollins.com)
  • Can Klonopin Slow Your Metabolism? (livestrong.com)
  • Does Not Eating Slow Your Metabolism? (livestrong.com)
  • Mizushima, N. & Klionsky, D. J. Protein turnover via autophagy: implications for metabolism. (nature.com)
  • JJL @doyonlab @SbastienLevesq4 # metabolism #autophagy . (twitter.com)
  • All that -- in addition to the fact that tea could boost your metabolism -- is reason enough to swap out one of those cups of coffee and drink green tea," says Zelman. (webmd.com)
  • Does Eating More Boost Your Metabolism? (livestrong.com)
  • Does Intermittent Fasting Boost Your Metabolism? (healthline.com)
  • Fasting for short periods can slightly boost your metabolism. (healthline.com)
  • Eating breakfast is one way to get your metabolism fires burning strong, but what you eat can boost your metabolism even more. (popsugar.com)
  • Does THC Increase Your Metabolism? (livestrong.com)
  • Can Binges Increase Your Metabolism? (livestrong.com)
  • However, studies have shown that fasting for short periods can actually increase your metabolism , not slow it down ( 30 , 31 ). (healthline.com)
  • Recent guidelines address the aberrations in bone metabolism and disease that occur as a complication of chronic kidney disease. (medscape.com)
  • [ 2 ] In the current article, we summarize those components of a further set of guidelines that are relevant to the practicing pharmacist-the K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for bone metabolism and disease in CKD. (medscape.com)
  • Bone Metabolism Clinic addressing osteoporosis, calcium and mineral metabolism as well as genetic and acquired metabolic bone diseases. (mcgill.ca)
  • Metabolism refers to biochemical processes that occur within any living organism - including humans - to maintain life. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Metabolism refers to the way the body uses energy, which is measured in calories. (jamaica-gleaner.com)
  • Metabolism refers to all the chemical processes in your body. (healthline.com)
  • Metabolism" refers to how quickly the body utilizes energy. (reference.com)
  • Several hormones of the endocrine system help control the rate and direction of metabolism. (kidshealth.org)
  • Several of the hormones of the endocrine system are involved in controlling the rate and direction of metabolism. (kidshealth.org)
  • Fatty acid metabolism consists of catabolic processes that generate energy, and anabolic processes that create biologically important molecules (triglycerides, phospholipids, second messengers, local hormones and ketone bodies). (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulin is one of the main hormones involved in fat metabolism. (healthline.com)
  • Identifying liver hormones that play a role in the develolpment of type 2 diabetes is among the goals of Division of Metabolism researcher Mehboob Hussain. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Anabolism (uh-NAB-uh-liz-um), or constructive metabolism, is all about building and storing. (kidshealth.org)
  • Anabolism (pronounced: uh-NAB-uh-lih-zem), or constructive metabolism , is all about building and storing: It supports the growth of new cells, the maintenance of body tissues, and the storage of energy for use in the future. (kidshealth.org)
  • 4. Metabolism p 101 Anabolism  Synthesis Energy transferred commonly measured in calories: 1 cal =  1 g of H 2 O by 1 ° C 1 Kcal =  temp. (slideshare.net)
  • When it comes to weight loss, a fast metabolism makes the difference between reaching your goals and spinning your wheels without seeing much progess. (ehow.com)
  • On the other hand, those with fast metabolism burn more calories and are less likely to accumulate a lot of fat. (healthline.com)
  • This article reviews why some people have fast metabolism and how you can speed up your metabolism to burn more calories. (healthline.com)
  • What Does Fast Metabolism Mean? (livestrong.com)
  • What Is the Difference Between Slow & Fast Metabolism? (livestrong.com)
  • Metabolism (meh-TAB-uh-liz-um) is the chemical reactions in the body's cells that change food into energy. (kidshealth.org)
  • Your body gets the energy it needs from food through a process called metabolism. (kidshealth.org)
  • Metabolism converts the fuel in the food we eat into the energy needed to power everything we do, from moving to thinking to growing. (kidshealth.org)
  • One role of fatty acids in animal metabolism is energy production, captured in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the book describes in detail the energy metabolism of the various groups of bacteria. (springer.com)
  • Although becoming overweight is a result of the body storing excess energy as fat, sometimes, hormonal problems or an underlying medical condition may affect metabolism. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Metabolism , the sum of the chemical reactions that take place within each cell of a living organism and that provide energy for vital processes and for synthesizing new organic material. (britannica.com)
  • Energy formation is one of the vital components of metabolism. (news-medical.net)
  • The pathways of metabolism rely upon nutrients that they breakdown in order to produce energy. (news-medical.net)
  • Enzymes are crucial to metabolism because they allow organisms to drive desirable reactions that require energy. (news-medical.net)
  • In metabolism some substances are broken down to yield energy for vital processes while other substances, necessary for life, are synthesized. (dictionary.com)
  • Iron-rich foods, like beans, boost your energy and your metabolism. (ehow.com)
  • Iron helps transport oxygen to your cells, supports your cellular metabolism, gives you natural energy, and helps with chemical reactions needed to burn fat. (ehow.com)
  • See, every cell in your body plays a role in energy metabolism-the process of turning the food you eat into energy that keeps your heart beating, lungs pumping, and muscles moving. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • If your iron levels run too low, your muscles don't get enough O2, your energy plummets, and your metabolism sputters, says Tammy Lakatos Shames, R.D., author of Fire Up Your Metabolism: 9 Proven Principles for Burning Fat and Losing Weight Forever . (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Metabolism is the process the body uses to break down food and nutrients for energy and to support different functions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The B vitamins play many essential roles in energy metabolism in the body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A healthy metabolism ensures that the body uses these nutrients for energy rather than storing them as fat. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Your metabolism is the rate at which you "burn off" energy from the food you eat. (wikihow.com)
  • Skipping meals causes the body to think that it might have to start preparing for famine, causing it to lower its metabolism in an effort to save energy. (wikihow.com)
  • Emerging evidence indicates that impaired cellular energy metabolism is the defining characteristic of nearly all cancers regardless of cellular or tissue origin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aside from increased reliance on glucose as an energy source, changes in other glucose metabolism pathways, e.g. the pentose phosphate pathway, the glucosamine biosynthesis pathway, and anaplerosis, are also noted in the hypertrophied hearts. (nih.gov)
  • Following the Metabolism Revolution plan, you will burn fat, build muscle, improve your skin, boost energy levels, and look and feel great-all while losing weight quickly and keeping it off for life. (harpercollins.com)
  • Our bodies get the energy they need from food through metabolism, the chemical reactions in the body's cells that convert the fuel from food into the energy needed to do everything from moving to thinking to growing. (rchsd.org)
  • The energy metabolism project aims to understand how energy intake and expenditure, and diabetes, affect neuronal plasticity and vulnerability to disease. (nih.gov)
  • To elucidate the physiological basis of sex differences in responses to energy intake, we maintained groups of male and female rats for 6 months on diets with usual, reduced calories (20% and 40% CR), ADF, or elevated (high-fat/high-glucose) energy levels and measured multiple physiological variables related to reproduction, energy metabolism, and behavior (39). (nih.gov)
  • Enzymes are crucial to metabolism because they allow organisms to drive desirable reactions that require energy that will not occur by themselves, by coupling them to spontaneous reactions that release energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • 6. Decrease Diet Soda Although it's low in calories and seems like an easy swap for high calorie beverages, diet soda may actually have adverse effects on your metabolism. (yahoo.com)
  • Not only does a speedy metabolism help you burn more calories, but it allows you to eat more during your weight loss journey, making you more likely to stick with your new lifestyle for long-term results. (ehow.com)
  • Metabolism is defined as the series of chemical reactions that burn calories. (medicinenet.com)
  • The faster your metabolism, the more calories you burn. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Another reason to drink your milk: Calcium plays a key role in regulating your fat metabolism, which determines whether you burn calories or store them as fat. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • A faster metabolism burns calories more quickly than a slower one, making it less likely that a person will put on weight. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Everybody's metabolism is slightly different, so everybody has slightly different needs when it comes to calories. (wikihow.com)
  • Slowing your metabolism can involve some pretty unpleasant things: skipping meals, eating few calories, etc. (wikihow.com)
  • While there is controversy as to whether there is an 'after-burn' effect where calories continue to be burned after exercise is finished, there's no doubt that exercising burns calories and builds muscle and that muscle increases metabolism. (jamaica-gleaner.com)
  • Those with slow metabolism tend to have more leftover calories, which get stored as fat. (healthline.com)
  • The faster your metabolism, the more calories your body needs. (healthline.com)
  • 7 Metabolism Boosting Moves # metabolism #weightloss Here are some specific exercises that really kick your metabolism into high-gear and torch calories, inspired by a 28-Day Fat Torch series. (twitter.com)
  • By burning extra calories of food before they are stored as fat as well as burning the existing extra fat, metabolism can be increased. (reference.com)
  • To achieve weight loss and boost metabolism, more calories need to be burned than consumed. (reference.com)
  • Exercising speeds up the metabolism, and for hours after, calories can still be burned. (reference.com)
  • Don't Only Count Calories and Steps, Your Metabolism is Key! (forbes.com)
  • Metabolism determines what our bodies need to sustain our life--and how many calories we should be eating to maintain, loose, or gain weight. (forbes.com)
  • MPC, which operates at a critical branch point in carbohydrate metabolism, counteracts the Warburg effect. (newswise.com)
  • Cancers appear to do whatever they can to get rid of MPC, a protein involved in carbohydrate metabolism, shows the study led by Jared Rutter, Ph.D., professor of biochemistry and Dee Glen and Ida W. Smith Endowed Chair for Cancer Research at the University of Utah. (newswise.com)
  • Studies on flux through the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway during D-xylose metabolism have revealed that limiting the rate of this step may be beneficial to the efficiency of fermentation to ethanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the pentose phosphate pathway produces additional NADPH during metabolism, limiting this step will help to correct the already evident imbalance between NAD(P)H and NAD+ cofactors and reduce xylitol byproduct formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study, carried out in yeast - which can be used to model some of the body's fundamental processes - shows that while the activity of our genes influences our metabolism, the opposite is also true and the nutrients available to cells influence our genes. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Research in several MCCB labs focuses on these different aspects of metabolism to gain a better understanding of its link to disease processes. (umassmed.edu)
  • All of your body's cellular processes, including metabolism, depend on water. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • This volume details common experimental approaches in studies designed to illuminate various processes used to study cancer metabolism. (springer.com)
  • This review summarizes the evidence for a critical role of some miRNAs in regulating cholesterol metabolism and suggests novel ways to manage dyslipidemias and cardiovascular diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • This paper addresses recent research and links between miRNAs and their role in regulating cholesterol metabolism and suggests that manipulating their expression in vivo may open new avenues for treating dyslipidemias and cardiovascular diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • 2019. Metabolism Thermodynamics . (news-medical.net)
  • The Metabolism Unit, formed in 2019, was previously known as the Massachusetts General Hospital Program in Nutritional Metabolism. (massgeneral.org)
  • But when you disrupt your so-called circadian rhythm-by crossing time zones, for instance-your cells don't function the way they should and your metabolism suffers, according to researchers at the Center for Epigenetics and Metabolism at University of California - Irvine. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Last 48 hours to send your abstract on the link of # metabolism and #epigenetics . (twitter.com)
  • The Metabolism Unit is currently conducting a number of clinical research studies. (massgeneral.org)
  • Click on the links below to learn more details about MCCB research concerning metabolism and disease. (umassmed.edu)
  • It takes only 20 minutes in any fixed position to inhibit your metabolism, according to Carrie Schmitz, an ergonomic research manager for Ergotron. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • CMOR is an integrative and collaborative center that combines research into the molecular and cellular mechanisms of metabolism with a wide range of physiological and behavioral studies. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The overall goal of CMOR is to develop an infrastructure to facilitate cutting-edge research into the fundamental basic science of metabolism. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Metabolism promotes excellence in research by publishing high-quality original research papers, fast-tracking cutting-edge papers, research brief reports, mini-reviews, and other special articles related to all aspects of human metabolism . (elsevier.com)
  • The research, which appears online on Oct. 30 in Molecular Cell , implicates changes in a key step in metabolism - the way cellular fuel is utilized - as an important driver of colon cancer that is also likely to be important in many other cancer settings. (newswise.com)
  • The traditional approach for measuring metabolism is to use a metabolic cart, which is rather bulky and expensive equipment, available only in clinic or research labs. (forbes.com)
  • Foods rich in iron also tend to contain protein, which raises your metabolism. (ehow.com)
  • supports the metabolism of carbohydrates, fat, and protein. (sephora.com)
  • Rev up your # metabolism by eating more protein, eating dinner earlier, and walking as much as you can! (twitter.com)
  • The almonds, cannellini beans, and yogurt also add a great deal of protein, and what's more, the zinc in the yogurt may increase the production of the hormone leptin, which is shown to improve metabolism and suppress appetite . (popsugar.com)
  • Thyroxine, a hormone made and released by the thyroid gland, plays a key role in determining how fast or slow the chemical reactions of metabolism go in a person's body. (kidshealth.org)
  • Our results reveal that the accumulation of lipids is a consequence of remodeling of intermediate metabolism, especially reactions in the tricarboxylic acid and the urea cycles. (pnas.org)
  • Metabolism (pronounced: meh-TAB-uh-lih-zem) is a collection of chemical reactions that takes place in the body's cells. (kidshealth.org)
  • Thyroxine (pronounced: thigh-ROK-seen), a hormone produced and released by the thyroid (pronounced: THIGH-royd) gland, plays a key role in determining how fast or slow the chemical reactions of metabolism proceed in a person's body. (kidshealth.org)
  • These compounds can either be directly occurring (e.g. naturally occurring/endogenous compound, or parent drug) or result from phase I metabolism reactions creating reactive electrophilic groups. (archive.org)
  • The answers to these questions lie in the enzyme -mediated chemical reactions that take place in living matter (metabolism). (britannica.com)
  • Metabolism is a term that is used to describe all chemical reactions involved in maintaining the living state of the cells and the organism. (news-medical.net)
  • Together, these reactions make up an organism's metabolism . (rsc.org)
  • Chemical reactions that occur during metabolism are affected by temperature. (rsc.org)
  • Metabolism (/məˈtæbəlɪzəm/, from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical reactions in organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • This two-day symposium organized by Paul Taylor and Fen-Biao Gao will bring together basic and clinical scientists to discuss the role of perturbed RNA metabolism in neurological diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), and repeat expansion disorders. (elsevier.com)
  • Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental , 106 , [154204]. (rug.nl)
  • METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL , 62 (8), 1189-1198. (rug.nl)
  • Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental , 62 (4), 499-508. (rug.nl)
  • Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental , 59 (8), 1092-1105. (rug.nl)
  • In addition, it examines pathways used by bacteria for the degradation of organic compounds, the synthesis of cellular constituents, the regulation of bacterial metabolism and the fixation of molecular nitrogen. (springer.com)
  • Crassulacean acid metabolism , also known as CAM photosynthesis , is a carbon fixation pathway that evolved in some plants as an adaptation to arid conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aberrant metabolism of cancer cells remains a promising but elusive therapeutic target. (stanford.edu)
  • The student will gain the latest insights on how nutrition regulates metabolism and how unbalanced nutrition may lead to disease. (rug.nl)
  • Calcium speeds up metabolism, while vitamin C helps the body absorb this mineral, creating an overall win-win situation. (yahoo.com)
  • Retrieved on August 09, 2020 from https://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/Metabolism-Thermodynamics.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • This symposium will highlight insights into tumor metabolism from leaders in the field and explore how this information is being used to design safe and effective, metabolism-targeted therapies. (eurekalert.org)
  • Our group aims at delineating the role of nicotinamide metabolism in brain tumors by targeted metabolomics and bioinformatics approaches using malignant brain tumor cells and tumor stem cells. (dkfz.de)
  • In addition, nicotinamide will be measured in biofluids of brain tumor patients and correlated with the activity of the respective enzymes in the tumor tissue with the aim of identifying biomarkers for the activity of nicotinamide metabolism for future stratification of patients to treatment with inhibitors of this pathway. (dkfz.de)
  • Work considered for publication in Metabolism includes studies in humans, animal and cellular models. (elsevier.com)
  • The Cancer Biology Program has been renamed the Cell Signaling and Metabolism Program. (bcm.edu)
  • We also provide extensive protocols in biochemistry and tissue culture to assist all investigators and students in exploring the diverse biology that is metabolism. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Here we review the biology of fructose metabolism as well as potential mechanisms by which excessive fructose consumption may contribute to cardiometabolic disease. (jci.org)
  • transport in cells is a key step in metabolism. (bartleby.com)
  • Following his retirement in 2010 he has continued to provide occasional consulting and lecturing in the field of metabolism and pharmacokinetics. (google.com)
  • As a general rule, the smaller and more physically active you are, the faster your metabolism. (wikihow.com)
  • Loss of MPC seems to be a biomarker for cancer aggressiveness and patient survival," said Rutter, also co-director of the Diabetes and Metabolism Center at the University of Utah, and co-leader of the Nuclear Control of Cell Growth and Differentiation Program at the Huntsman Cancer Institute. (newswise.com)
  • Inborn errors of metabolism, like the one seen in galactosemia, are caused by defective genes. (bartleby.com)
  • Preliminary evidence suggests that several enzymes implicated in nicotinamide metabolism are overexpressed in brain tumors. (dkfz.de)
  • If the metabolism of nicotinamide is found to be functionally relevant for the malignant phenotype or the treatment resistance of brain tumors, small molecule screens will be performed to identify inhibitors of the respective enzymes. (dkfz.de)
  • Decreasing your metabolism means you are "turning down" your body's internal furnaces, which lowers your calorie requirements. (wikihow.com)
  • Drawing on her fundamental "food as medicine" techniques, she's created the Metabolism Revolution diet, which strategically manipulates macronutrients to speed the body's metabolic rate, a guaranteed way to kick start a stalled metabolism. (harpercollins.com)
  • The staff in the Division of Metabolism at the Children's Center diagnoses and treats diseases and conditions in children that result from genetic mutations that prevent the body's natural molecules from being used properly. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Now, sure, our metabolism slows as we grow older, but you can keep the weight off by eating right. (dictionary.com)
  • In the cold their metabolism slows dramatically, and this is why some cold-blooded animals hibernate. (rsc.org)
  • A person's metabolism naturally slows down as they age. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • MicroRNAs involved in cholesterol metabolism. (hindawi.com)
  • Amino Acid Metabolism, 3rd Edition covers all aspects of the biochemistry and nutritional biochemistry of the amino acids. (indiebound.org)
  • Throughout the book the emphasis is on the nutritional importance of amino acids, integration and control of metabolism and metabolic and other disturbances of relevance to human biochemistry and health. (indiebound.org)
  • LPL is required for normal metabolism of triglycerides in blood," Fong said. (redorbit.com)
  • 7. Don't Forget Your ZZZ's Getting a least seven to eight hours of sleep every night is crucial to a healthy metabolism. (yahoo.com)
  • The detoxifying nature of this beverage may help your body function at an optimal level, which means a healthy metabolism. (yahoo.com)
  • 13. Vitamin B is Key Getting in all over your vitamin B, which you can do by incorporating small amounts of nuts, seeds, lean chicken, beef, and fish into your diet, helps maintain a healthy metabolism. (yahoo.com)
  • Studies using transgenic mouse models and pharmacological compounds to mimic or counter the switch of substrate preference in cardiac hypertrophy have demonstrated that increased glucose metabolism in adult heart is not harmful and can be beneficial when it provides sufficient fuel for oxidative metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • WebMD reports that eating a healthy diet increases metabolism as well. (reference.com)
  • Our results show that diatoms can remodel their intermediate metabolism on environmental cues and reveal that a key signal in this remodeling is associated with nitrogen assimilation. (pnas.org)