Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Metabolism: The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Enzymes: Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.PhosphoproteinsAdaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Metabolic Engineering: Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Mice, Inbred C57BLLigands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Second Messenger Systems: Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.ras Proteins: Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Biosynthetic Pathways: Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-raf: A ubiquitously expressed raf kinase subclass that plays an important role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. The c-raf Kinases are MAP kinase kinase kinases that have specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 1 and MAP KINASE KINASE 2.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled: The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.src Homology Domains: Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Dependovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Nuclear Localization Signals: Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.Light Signal Transduction: The conversion of absorbed light energy into molecular signals.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Pentose Phosphate Pathway: An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Protein Interaction Mapping: Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Phosphatidylinositols: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Janus Kinase 2: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Janus Kinase 1: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from a broad variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.STAT1 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.

*CSNK2B

... a ubiquitous protein kinase which regulates metabolic pathways, signal transduction, transcription, translation, and ... and dependence of CD163 signaling on CKII and protein kinase C". Eur. J. Immunol. Germany. 31 (4): 999-1009. doi:10.1002/1521- ... Signal. England. 20 (5): 942-8. doi:10.1016/j.cellsig.2008.01.010. ISSN 0898-6568. PMID 18276110. Block, K; Boyer T G; Yew P R ... a potential regulator of proteolysis and protein transport in the mammalian secretory pathway". Virology. 213 (2): 639-49. doi: ...

*Biobase (company)

Signal transduction and metabolic pathways in mammalian species YPD: The complete yeast proteome (protein reports for all known ... and by an early signaling pathway database (TRANSPATH). TRANSPATH constituted the earliest signaling pathway database, ... 2006). "TRANSPATH: an information resource for storing and visualizing signaling pathways and their pathological aberrations". ... alongside the Cell Signaling Network Database (CSNDB) curated by T. Takai at the National Institute of Health Sciences (NIHS) ...

*Biochemical cascade

... several important enzymatic cascades and signal transduction cascades participate in metabolic pathways or signaling networks, ... The Insulin Signaling Pathway The Sonic hedgehog Signaling Pathway The Wnt signaling pathway The JAK-STAT signaling pathway The ... termed signal transduction pathways, that regulate specific cellular functions. Each signal transduction occurs with a primary ... But the main signalling pathways are the cadherin and integrin pathways. The cadherin pathway is present in adhesion junctions ...

*Signal transduction

Biosemiotics Cell signaling Protein-protein interaction Two-component regulatory system Metabolic pathway Gene regulatory ... ISBN 0-07-067065-X. Netpath - A curated resource of signal transduction pathways in humans Signal Transduction - The Virtual ... The majority of signal transduction pathways involve the binding of signaling molecules, known as ligands, to receptors that ... A database about signal transduction pathways Science's STKE - Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment, from the journal ...

*Biological pathway

Most common types of biological pathways: Metabolic pathway Genetic pathway Signal transduction pathway KEGG Pathway database ... NCI-Nature_Pathway_Interaction_Database is a free biomedical database of human cellular signaling pathways (new official name: ... Such a pathway can trigger the assembly of new molecules, such as a fat or protein. Pathways can also turn genes on and off, or ... Pathway_commons is a project and database that uses BioPAX language to convert, integrate and query other biological pathway ...

*Utpal Banerjee

In the past, his lab has identified components of signal transduction pathways that participate in oncogenesis. In addition, ... Banerjee and his researchers are also interested in the study of metabolic control in cancer pathways. ... They have also made critical discoveries in identifying transcription factors and signaling components that are responsible for ... Also of interest to Banerjee and his team is studying the effect of signal transduction pathways on the control of cellular ...

*UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase

These glycosylated compounds are common components of the extracellular matrix and likely play roles in signal transduction, ... This enzyme participates in 4 metabolic pathways: pentose and glucuronate interconversions, ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, ... "Transcriptome characterization elucidates signaling networks that control human ES cell growth and differentiation". Nature ... its positive involvement in transforming growth factor-beta signaling and inhibition in hypoxia". The Journal of Biological ...

*Histidine kinase

This type of enzyme is involved in signal transduction pathways upstream of many cellular processes including various metabolic ... HKs can act as cellular receptors for signaling molecules in a way analogous to tyrosine kinase receptors (RTK). ... HKs are known to serve roles in many different signal transduction pathways, so it is not surprising that the extracellular ... Distinct from other classes of protein kinases, HKs are usually parts of a two-component signal transduction mechanisms in ...

*Warburg effect

Metabolic reprogramming in cancer is largely due to oncogenic activation of signal transduction pathways and transcription ... Nutrient utilization is dramatically altered when cells receive signals to proliferate. Characteristic metabolic changes enable ... Pan JG, Mak TW (April 2007). "Metabolic targeting as an anticancer strategy: dawn of a new era?". Science's STKE. 2007 (381): ... Colen CB, Seraji-Bozorgzad N, Marples B, Galloway MP, Sloan AE, Mathupala SP (December 2006). "Metabolic remodeling of ...

*Glossary of gene expression terms

Signal transduction pathway - a set of biochemical reactions and biomolecular interactions that convert a stimulus into a ... metabolic response. A signaling molecule initially binds to a receptor on the surface of the cell, which stimulates the ... The process just described is known as a signaling cascade, during which the initial stimulus is amplified to have a far- ...

*Pathway

... a group of interacting genes Metabolic pathway, a series of cellular chemical reactions Signalling pathway or Signal ... transduction, a series of interactions to affect gene expression Neural pathway Dopaminergic pathways, neural pathways in the ... Pathway or pathways may refer to: The Pathway, a 2001 album by Officium Triste Pathway (album), by the Flaming Stars Pathways ( ... California Pathways Foundation, an Australian non-profit organisation Pathways Schools, a group of three International schools ...

*Arsenic poisoning

The interference of oxidative stress with signal transduction pathways may affect physiological processes associated with cell ... These metabolic interferences lead to death from multi-system organ failure, probably from necrotic cell death, not apoptosis. ... Ueki K, Kondo T, Tseng YH, Kahn CR (July 2004). "Central role of suppressors of cytokine signaling proteins in hepatic ... Studies have demonstrated that the oxidative stress generated by arsenic may disrupt the signal transduction pathways of the ...

*Nucleoside triphosphate

GTP is essential for signal transduction, especially with G proteins. G proteins are coupled with a cell membrane bound ... Nucleoside triphosphates also serve as a source of energy for cellular reactions and are involved in signalling pathways. ... Despite being synthesized through the metabolic pathway described above, it is primarily synthesized during both cellular ... Synthesis pathways differ depending on the specific nucleoside triphosphate being made, but given the many important roles of ...

*Neuroproteomics

This receptor is important in initiating intracellular metabolic pathways, including Ras, Rak, and MAP kinase. Protein ... "signal transduction" proteins, while NGF resulted in an increase in proteins associated with the ribosome and synthesis of ... These receptor proteins are unable to initiate the intracellular signaling processes that enable the neuron to live, and ... They merely increase the size of the membrane down which a signal can be sent. Other neurotrophic factor proteomes are needed ...

*Biochemical systems theory

J. Vera et al., Power-Law models of signal transduction pathways in: Cellular Signalling doi:10.1016/j.cellsig.2007.01.029), ... N.V. Torres and E.O. Voit, Pathway Analysis and Optimization in Metabolic Engineering, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U ... According to Cornish-Bowden (2007) they "regarded this as a general theory of metabolic control, which includes both metabolic ... Athel Cornish-Bowden, Metabolic control analysis FAQ, website 18 April 2007. Books: M.A. Savageau, Biochemical systems analysis ...

*Respiratory burst

... are important in various signaling cascades and are continuously produced by cells as byproducts of various metabolic pathways ... and Signal Transduction". Annual Review of Plant Biology. 55 (1): 373-399. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.55.031903.141701. PMID ... and via activation of redox-sensitive signaling cascades and protein nitrosylation. NADPH oxidase activation has been suggested ...

*List of biological databases

A curated resource of signal transduction pathways in humans NCI-Nature Pathway Interaction Database Reactome Navigable map of ... human biological pathways, ranging from metabolic processes to hormonal signalling. (Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, ... of Kyoto) MANET database (University of Illinois) Reactome Navigable map of human biological pathways, ranging from metabolic ... processes to hormonal signalling. (Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, European Bioinformatics Institute, NYU Langone ...

*Metabolism

Enzymes also allow the regulation of metabolic pathways in response to changes in the cell's environment or to signals from ... Soyer O, Salathé M, Bonhoeffer S (2006). "Signal transduction networks: topology, response and biochemical processes". J Theor ... Databases Flow Chart of Metabolic Pathways at ExPASy IUBMB-Nicholson Metabolic Pathways Chart SuperCYP: Database for Drug- ... As well as the evolution of new metabolic pathways, evolution can also cause the loss of metabolic functions. For example, in ...

*Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family, member A1

... oxidizes specific proteins that eventually serve as signaling agents for an array of metabolic and inflammatory pathways. ... It is also involved in the consumption of glutathione and the alteration of signal transduction and gene expression. ALDH3A1 ... Leonarduzzi G, Arkan MC, Başağa H, Chiarpotto E, Sevanian A, Poli G (May 2000). "Lipid oxidation products in cell signaling". ... Dianzani MU (June 1998). "4-Hydroxynonenal and cell signalling". Free Radic. Res. 28 (6): 553-60. doi:10.3109/10715769809065811 ...

*Lipid-anchored protein

An example in which palmitoylation of a protein plays a role in cell signaling pathways is in the clustering of proteins in the ... Proteins that have been myristoylated are involved in signal transduction cascade, protein-protein interactions and in ... Some important prenylation chains that are involved in the HMG-CoA reductase metabolic pathway are geranylgeraniol, farnesol ... Reuter, C. W.; Morgan, M. A.; Bergmann, L. (2000-09-01). "Targeting the Ras signaling pathway: a rational, mechanism-based ...

*Grahame Hardie

1999). "Analysis of signal transduction pathways using protein serine - threonine phosphate inhibitors". Protein ... "AMP-activated protein kinase: a cellular energy sensor with a key role in metabolic disorders and in cancer", Biochemical ... David) Grahame Hardie FRS, FRSE, FMedSci is a Scottish biochemist, and Professor of Cellular Signalling, at University of ...

*Dictyostelium discoideum

... and signal transduction. These processes and aspects of development are either absent or too difficult to view in other model ... O'Day DH, Keszei A (May 2012). "Signalling and sex in the social amoebozoans". Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 87 (2): 313-29. doi: ... It carries similar genes and pathways, making it a good candidate for gene knockout. The cell differentiation process occurs ... Changes in size, shape, metabolic activities, and responsiveness can occur as a result of adjustments in gene expression. Cell ...

*Integrin-linked kinase

Photosynthesis and other metabolic pathways are controlled by potassium. When sufficient K+ uptake is not met, PAMPs are ... Leung-Hagesteijn C, Mahendra A, Naruszewicz I, Hannigan GE (May 2001). "Modulation of integrin signal transduction by ILKAP, a ... Transduction of extracellular matrix signals through integrins influences intracellular and extracellular functions, and ... and Ion-Mediated Signaling Pathways Transduced by Plant Integrin-Linked Kinases". Frontiers in Plant Science. 8: 376. doi: ...

*Kinetic logic

... signaling of T lymphocytes; to determine how the timing of the binding and intracellular signal-transduction events can ... of the hormone on the receptor can decide the specificity of signaling between the alternative metabolic or mitogenic pathways ... by another signal and the product reappears but not immediately until a proper delay tx has elapsed. If a signal switches the ... Consider a gene that is off (X = 0) for a considerable time, then is switched on (X = 1) by a signal, and then, after some time ...

*Boris Kholodenko

"Quantification of information transfer via cellular signal transduction pathways". FEBS Lett. 414: 430-434. doi:10.1016/s0014- ... "Implications of macromolecular crowding for signal transduction and metabolic channeling". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 95: 10547- ... pathways can be more sensitive to specific regulatory signals". FEBS Lett. 320: 75-78. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(93)81661-i. CS1 ... "Diffusion control of protein phosphorylation in signal transduction pathways". Biochem. J. 350: 901-907. doi:10.1042/0264-6021: ...

*Sigma-1 receptor

... even though σ1 receptors have been linked circumstantially to a wide variety of signal transduction pathways. Links between σ1 ... that modulates calcium signaling through the IP3 receptor. In humans, the σ1 receptor is encoded by the SIGMAR1 gene. The σ1 ... structure-affinity relationships and in vitro metabolic stability". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 17 (10): 3630-41. doi: ... towards a hypothesis that sigma-1 receptors are intracellular amplifiers for signal transduction". Current Medicinal Chemistry ...
Most diseases are the consequence of the breakdown of cellular processes, but the relationships among genetic/epigenetic defects, the molecular interaction networks underlying them, and the disease phenotypes remain poorly understood. To gain insights into such relationships, here we constructed a bipartite human disease association network in which nodes are diseases and two diseases are linked if mutated enzymes associated with them catalyze adjacent metabolic reactions. We find that connected disease pairs display higher correlated reaction flux rate, corresponding enzyme-encoding gene coexpression, and higher comorbidity than those that have no metabolic link between them. Furthermore, the more connected a disease is to other diseases, the higher is its prevalence and associated mortality rate. The network topology-based approach also helps to uncover potential mechanisms that contribute to their shared pathophysiology. Thus, the structure and modeled function of the ...
Genome-scale metabolic network reconstructions are now routinely used in the study of metabolic pathways, their evolution and design. The development of such reconstructions involves the integration of information on reactions and metabolites from the scientific literature as well as public databases and existing genome-scale metabolic models. The reconciliation of discrepancies between data from these sources generally requires significant manual curation, which constitutes a major obstacle in efforts to develop and apply genome-scale metabolic network reconstructions. In this work, we discuss some of the major difficulties encountered in the mapping and reconciliation of metabolic resources and review three recent initiatives that aim to accelerate this process, namely BKM-react, MetRxn and MNXref (presented in this article). Each of these resources provides a pre-compiled reconciliation of many of the ...
Recent development of high-throughput analytical techniques has made it possible to qualitatively identify a number of metabolites simultaneously. Correlation and multivariate analyses such as principal component analysis have been widely used to analyse those data and evaluate correlations among the metabolic profiles. However, these analyses cannot simultaneously carry out identification of metabolic reaction networks and prediction of dynamic behaviour of metabolites in the networks. The present study, therefore, proposes a new approach consisting of a combination of statistical technique and mathematical modelling approach to identify and predict a probable metabolic reaction network from time-series data of metabolite concentrations and simultaneously construct its mathematical model. Firstly, regression functions are fitted to experimental data by the locally estimated scatter plot smoothing method. Secondly, the fitted result is analysed by the ...
Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, occurs during development, wound healing and cancer and involves stages that orchestrate a network of cooperative interactions. Peptide growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) components are two major groups of angiogenesis mediators. Among the different ECM proteins, collagens have been well-associated with in vivo angiogenesis. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) grown in 3-D collagen gels we show that: (1) HUVEC do not survive well in 3-D collagen gels due to rapid induction of apoptosis. (2) VEGF, a potent in vivo angiogenic factor, fails to induce tube formation. (3) PMA was effective in inducing tube formation and survival in HUVEC dispersed in 3-D collagen gels, activating MAP kinase, phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase (PI-3-kinase) and Akt/PKB (protein kinase B) pathways. (4) VEGF was effective in preventing PMA-induced tube-like structure regression after PMA-withdrawal by (5) activating the ...
Dear Colleagues,. We would like to inform you that the registration and abstract submission for the 20th International Symposium on Signal Transduction at the Blood-Brain Barriers is open till 31st of July and we are looking forward to your registration!. The symposium will be held September 13-15, 2017 in Kraków, Poland.. For more information please see: http://bbb.pan.olsztyn.pl/. The program covers all areas of blood-brain barriers research and reflects the latest developments in neurodegenerative diseases, membrane receptors and transporters, transcytosis regulators, epigenetic and transcriptional regulators, metabolic and nutrition regulation, in vivo and in vitro brain barriers models as well as the role of tight junctions and glycocalyx in blood brain barrier permeability. In addition, signaling pathways implicated in the development of neurological diseases and brain tumors are addressed.. We hope to ...
Dear Colleagues,. We would like to inform you that the registration and abstract submission for the 20th International Symposium on Signal Transduction at the Blood-Brain Barriers is open till 31st of July and we are looking forward to your registration!. The symposium will be held September 13-15, 2017 in Kraków, Poland.. For more information please see: http://bbb.pan.olsztyn.pl/. The program covers all areas of blood-brain barriers research and reflects the latest developments in neurodegenerative diseases, membrane receptors and transporters, transcytosis regulators, epigenetic and transcriptional regulators, metabolic and nutrition regulation, in vivo and in vitro brain barriers models as well as the role of tight junctions and glycocalyx in blood brain barrier permeability. In addition, signaling pathways implicated in the development of neurological diseases and brain tumors are addressed.. We hope to ...
The organizing committee warmly invites you to the "20th International Symposium on Signal Transduction at the Blood-Brain Barriers," which will be held September 13-15, 2017 in Kraków, Poland.. Kraków (English: Krakoof) is one of the oldest cities in Poland, dating back to the 7th century. Situated on the Vistula (Polish: Wisła) River, it was the capital of the Kingdom of Poland from 1038 to 1795. Kraków is one of the leading centers of Polish academic, cultural, and artistic life, and is the home of the second oldest university in Central Europe (namely, the Jagiellonian University), alma mater of Nicolaus Copernicus and the Nobel laureate Maria Skłodowska-Curie.. Krakóws historic center includes: the Old Town, with the largest medieval market square in Europe; Kazimierz, an old Jewish district; and the Wawel Castle. Kraków was named European Capital of Culture in 2000.. The symposium program covers all areas of blood-brain barriers research and reflects the latest ...
Looking for online definition of growth factor receptor-bound protein 7 in the Medical Dictionary? growth factor receptor-bound protein 7 explanation free. What is growth factor receptor-bound protein 7? Meaning of growth factor receptor-bound protein 7 medical term. What does growth factor receptor-bound protein 7 mean?
Powerful approach to design cells with optimized metabolic functionalities is to apply the metabolic pathway analysis tool to analyze cellular metabolism and elucidate interaction of cell genotype and phenotype as outlined in the recent review (4). A metabolic network describing a cellular metabolism typically contains hundreds to thousands of reactions catalyzed by functional enzymes to convert feed substrates into precursor metabolites used to synthesize cell components for growth or other metabolites secreted to extracellular environments. These functional enzymes are directly encoded by functional genes that determine cell phenotypes. By using elementary mode analysis as the metabolic pathway analysis tool, a metabolic network can be decomposed into unique pathways, each of which contains a minimal set of enzymatic reactions supporting cell functions (5). Each of these independent ...
The p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signal transduction pathway is activated by proinflammatory cytokines and environmental stress. The detection of p38 MAP kinase in the nucleus of activated cells suggests that p38 MAP kinase can mediate signaling to the nucleus. To test this hypothesis, we constructed expression vectors for activated MKK3 and MKK6, two MAP kinase kinases that phosphorylate and activate p38 MAP kinase. Expression of activated MKK3 and MKK6 in cultured cells caused a selective increase in p38 MAP kinase activity. Cotransfection experiments demonstrated that p38 MAP kinase activation causes increased reporter gene expression mediated by the transcription factors ATF2 and Elk-1. These data demonstrate that the nucleus is one target of the p38 MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. ...
Oxygen is thought to promote species and biomolecule diversity. Previous studies have suggested that oxygen expands metabolic networks by acquiring metabolites with different chemical properties (higher hydrophobicity, for example). However, such conclusions are typically based on biased evaluation, and are therefore non-conclusive. Thus, we re-investigated the effect of oxygen on metabolic evolution using a phylogenetic comparative method and metadata analysis to reduce the bias as much as possible. Notably, we found no difference in metabolic network expansion between aerobes and anaerobes when evaluating phylogenetic relationships. Furthermore, we showed that previous studies have overestimated or underestimated the degrees of differences in the chemical properties (e.g., hydrophobicity) between oxic and anoxic metabolites in metabolic networks of unicellular organisms; however, such overestimation was not observed when considering the ...
Raingeaud J., Whitmarsh A.J., Barrett T., Derijard B., Davis R.J.. The p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signal transduction pathway is activated by proinflammatory cytokines and environmental stress. The detection of p38 MAP kinase in the nucleus of activated cells suggests that p38 MAP kinase can mediate signaling to the nucleus. To test this hypothesis, we constructed expression vectors for activated MKK3 and MKK6, two MAP kinase kinases that phosphorylate and activate p38 MAP kinase. Expression of activated MKK3 and MKK6 in cultured cells caused a selective increase in p38 MAP kinase activity. Cotransfection experiments demonstrated that p38 MAP kinase activation causes increased reporter gene expression mediated by the transcription factors ATF2 and Elk-1. These data demonstrate that the nucleus is one target of the p38 MAP kinase signal transduction pathway.. Mol. Cell. Biol. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunity to growth factor receptor-bound protein 10, a signal transduction molecule, inhibits the growth of breast cancer in mice. AU - O-Sullivan, In Sug. AU - Chopra, Amla. AU - Carr, Janai. AU - Tae, Sung Kim. AU - Cohen, Edward P.. PY - 2008/4/1. Y1 - 2008/4/1. N2 - This study describes the application of a unique strategy to identify breast cancer antigens [tumor-associated antigen (TAA)]. In a mouse model, the strategy led to the identification of growth factor receptor-bound protein 10 (Grb10) as a newly identified TAA. Grb10 is a signal transduction molecule associated with multiple transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors. It was discovered by comparing microarrays of cellular breast cancer vaccines highly enriched for cells that induced breast cancer immunity in tumor-bearing mice with nonenriched vaccines. The vaccines were prepared by transferring a cDNA expression library derived from SB5b cells, a breast cancer ...
en] Biological systems and, in particular, cellular signal transduction pathways are characterised by their high complexity. Mathematical models describing these processes might be of great help to gain qualitative and, most importantly, quantitative knowledge about such complex systems. However, a detailed mathematical description of these systems leads to nearly unmanageably large models, especially when combining models of different signalling pathways to study cross-talk phenomena. Therefore, simplification of models becomes very important. Different methods are available for model reduction of biological models. Importantly, most of the common model reduction methods cannot be applied to cellular signal transduction pathways. Using as an example the epidermal growth factor (EGF) signalling pathway, we discuss how quantitative methods like system ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Activation of the Syk tyrosine kinase is insufficient for downstream signal transduction in B lymphocytes. AU - Hsueh, Robert C.. AU - Hammill, Adrienne M.. AU - Lee, Jamie A.. AU - Uhr, Jonathan W.. AU - Scheuermann, Richard H.. PY - 2002/12/6. Y1 - 2002/12/6. N2 - Background: Immature B lymphocytes and certain B cell lymphomas undergo apoptotic cell death following activation of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signal transduction pathway. Several biochemical changes occur in response to BCR engagement, including activation of the Syk tyrosine kinase. Although Syk activation appears to be necessary for some downstream biochemical and cellular responses, the signaling events that precede Syk activation remain ill defined. In addition, the requirements for complete activation of the Syk-dependent signaling step remain to be elucidated. Results: A mutant form ...
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein ...
Growth factor signaling in neurons controls the expansion of synaptic arbors in response to activity and external stimuli, leading to long-lasting changes in synapse strength and connectivity that underlie learning and memory. Receptor complexes regulating growth factor signal transduction are internalized via endocytosis and directed to specific subcellular membrane compartments from which they exhibit distinct signaling properties, caused by compartment-specific posttranslational modifications and degradative events, or interactions with local binding partners (Sadowski et al., 2009). Therefore, defining the mechanisms by which the rate and direction of the flow of endosomal protein traffic are controlled is critical to determining how neuronal signal transduction pathways are tuned up and down after activation. A host of protein factors control membrane ...
Title: The FRK / RAK-SHB Signaling Cascade: A Versatile Signal- Transduction Pathway that Regulates Cell Survival, Differentiation and Proliferation. VOLUME: 3 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):Cecilia Anneren, Cecilia K. Lindholm, Vitezslav Kriz and Michael Welsh. Affiliation:Department of Medical Cell Biology, Husargatan 3, 75237, Uppsala, Sweden.. Keywords:signal-transduction pathway, proliferation, src homology 2, sh2 domain adapter protein. Abstract: Recent experiments have unravelled novel signal transduction pathways that involve the SRC homology 2 (SH2) domain adapter protein SHB. SHB is ubiquitously expressed and contains proline rich motifs, a phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain, tyrosine phosphorylation sites and an SH2 domain and serves a role in generating signaling complexes in response to tyrosine kinase activation. SHB ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biochemical basis for the functional switch that regulates hepatocyte growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase activation. AU - Sheth, Payal R.. AU - Hays, John L.. AU - Elferink, Lisa. AU - Watowich, Stanley. PY - 2008/4/1. Y1 - 2008/4/1. N2 - Ligand-induced dimerization of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) modulates a system of linked biochemical reactions, sharply switching the RTK from a quiescent state to an active state that becomes phosphorylated and triggers intracellular signaling pathways. To improve our understanding of this molecular switch, we developed a quantitative model for hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-MET) activation using parameters derived in large part from c-MET kinetic and thermodynamic experiments. Our model accurately produces the qualitative and quantitative dynamic features of c-MET phosphorylation observed in cells following ligand binding, including a rapid transient buildup of phosphorylated c-MET at high ...
The regulatory signaling pathways crucial during embryonic development seem to play key roles in adult tissues homeostasis and are often deregulated in pathological conditions. The Wnt pathway plays a pivotal role in orchestrating cell fate decisions during embryonic development, organogenesis, and adult tissues homeostasis of endoderm-derived tissues. The canonical Wnt ... read more signaling is required at different stages of embryonic development, regulating gut patterning and organogenesis, and is instrumental for the maintenance of the intestine epithelium homeostasis in adults. Tumorigenesis arises as a disruption of the homeostatic state of a tissue. Initiation of colorectal tumorigenesis is principally associated with mutations in the APC gene, a central component of the canonical Wnt pathway. Studies of early embryonic events and molecular mechanisms regulating tissue morphogenesis and organogenesis are challenging ...
Structural approaches are becoming increasingly important for our understanding of cell biology, as the functioning of gene products needs to be analysed in the context of the complex organisation of cells and cannot be understood by studying proteins in isolation alone. This holds particularly true for components of cellular signal transduction pathways. It is now clear that subcellular compartmentalisation and spatiotemporal turnover (i.e. distribution within the cellular structures) of signal transduction components are playing a critical role in the response of cells to extrinsic stimulation. Methods of biochemistry and molecular genetics are widely employed to analyse protein interactions and dissect signalling pathways - however, these approaches yield little information with regard to relevant structural aspects.. In recent years, the concept of differential cellular ...
Serine/threonine kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. Plays an important role in the cascades of cellular responses evoked by changes in the environment. Mediates signaling for determination of cell fate such as differentiation and survival. Plays a crucial role in the apoptosis signal transduction pathway through mitochondria-dependent caspase activation. MAP3K5/ASK1 is required for the innate immune response, which is essential for host defense against a wide range of pathogens. Mediates signal transduction of various stressors like oxidative stress as well as by receptor-mediated inflammatory signals, such as the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Once activated, acts as an upstream activator of the MKK/JNK signal transduction cascade and the p38 ...
Application of Petri net based analysis techniques to signal transduction pathways - Background: Signal transduction pathways are usually modelled using classical quantitative methods, which are based on ordinary differential equations (ODEs). However, some difficulties are inherent in this approach. On the one hand, the kinetic parameters involved are often unknown and have to be estimated. With increasing size and complexity of signal transduction pathways, the estimation of missing kinetic data is not possible. On the other hand, ODEs based models do not support any explicit insights into possible (signal-) flows within the network. Moreover, a huge amount of qualitative data is available due to high-throughput techniques. In order to get information on the systems behaviour, qualitative analysis techniques have been developed. ...
This course will discuss the basic concepts of cellular signal transduction. The role of Signal transduction pathways involving (receptor) kinases, G-protein coupled receptors, adhesion receptors, cytokine receptors, and nuclear hormone receptors in disease development, progression and drug development is discussed.. Disease development and progression is largely due to the activation and or modulation of cellular signaling. Mutations in signaling pathways that drive cell proliferation are key to cancer development and progression. In atherosclerosis, immune signaling is essential to promote plaque formation. Given the involvement of perturbed signaling in disease, components of signaling networks are important candidate drug targets. The ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Src family kinases negatively regulate platelet-derived growth factor α receptor-dependent signaling and disease progression. AU - Rosenkranz, Stephan. AU - Ikuno, Yasushi. AU - Leong, Fee Lai. AU - Klinghoffer, Richard A.. AU - Miyake, Sachiko. AU - Band, Hamid. AU - Kazlauskas, Andrius. PY - 2000/3/31. Y1 - 2000/3/31. N2 - We tested the hypothesis that Src family kinases (SFK) contribute to c- Cbl-mediated degradation of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) α receptor (αPDGFR). Using either a receptor mutant that does not engage SFKs (F72174), or cells that that lack SFKs, we found that SFKs contributed to degradation of the αPDGFR. Overexpression of c-Cbl also reduced the receptor half-life, but only if the receptor was able to engage SFKs. In cultured cells, prolonging the half-life of the receptor correlated with enhanced signaling and more efficient S phase entry, whereas accelerating receptor degradation had the ...
1680 Cell density is a potent regulator of the cell cycle during exponential growth and thus affects gene expression. Many recent studies have characterized cell-density as a controlling factor for cell-cell interactions and the binding of surface-associated adhesion molecules to the cytoskeleton. We examined the impact of cell density on two distinct signal transduction pathways, Protein kinase B (Akt) and Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). These pathways regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, and exhibit cross-talk. Downstream, the MAPK and Akt pathways regulate p70S6kinase (p70S6K) and its substrate S6 ribosomal protein (S6RP). Whereas levels of phospho-S6RP are known to be regulated by phosphorylated-Akt, our findings suggest that in Jurkat cells this is dependent upon the cell density. We show that maximum phosphorylation of S6RP(S235/S236 and S240/244) is observed at lower cell densities ...
Clone REA812 recognizes the human CD163 antigen, a single-chain transmembrane protein also known as hemoglobin scavenger receptor or M130. It is expressed by mature tissue macrophages and peripheral blood monocytes. The expression of CD163 is up-regulated in vitro and in vivo by anti-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin 10 (IL-10) and (gluco)corticosteroid and is shed to blood upon inflammatory activation of macrophages. CD163 functions as a high affinity scavenger receptor for the complex of haemoglobin and haptoglobin. Depending on the ligand, crosslinking of CD163 initiates signal transduction leading to the production of proinflammatory cytokines Il-1ß, IL-6, and GM-CSF or the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Additional information: Clone REA812 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Latvija
Purpose : Upon injury to the cornea, the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) rapidly changes to promote wound healing through its interactions with integrins. We hypothesize that ECM remodelling occurring during corneal wound healing causes the activation of very specific signal transduction mediators that favor faster closure of the wound. Our goal is to proceed to the pharmacological inhibition and/or activation of the PI3K/Akt mediators Akt and CREB using the human tissue-engineered cornea (hTECs) as a model. Methods : hTECs produced by the self-assembly approach were wounded with a 8-mm diameter biopsy punch and deposited on another reconstructed human corneal stroma to allow wound closure on a natural ECM. Total RNAs and proteins were prepared from the epithelial cells of wounded and unwounded areas and their gene expression pattern was determined by microarrays. The wounded tissues were then incubated with or without C646 (a CREB inhibitor) or with or without ...
Colin Willis, Ph.D., assistant professor of pharmacology and an investigator for the Center of Biomedical Research Excellence (COBRE) for the Study of Pain and Sensory Function, presented both a seminar and a poster at the 16th International Symposium on Signal Transduction in the Blood-Brain Barriers, which was held in Sumeg, Hungary, September 12-14, 2013.. The oral presentation, titled "Integrin Receptor Mediated Oxidative Stress Modulates Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity," featured work performed by UNE student Ryan Camire (Nursing 15), Shannon Malloy, a summer volunteer, and Holly Beaulac, a research assistant. Demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica are associated with breakdown of blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity, and this breakdown is mediated at least in part by integrin receptors.. Current MS therapies target integrin receptors; however, selecting which receptor to target is made difficult by the fact that many different ...
Signals emanating from CD40 play crucial roles in B-cell function. To identify molecules that transduce CD40 signalings, we have used the yeast two-hybrid system to done cDNAs encoding proteins that bind the cytoplasmic tail of CD40. A cDNA encoding a putative signal transducer protein, designated TRAF5, has been molecularly cloned. TRAF5 has a tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) domain in its carboxyl terminus and is most homologous to TRAF3, also known as CRAF1, CD40bp, or LAP-1, a previously identified CD40-associated factor. The amino terminus has a RING finger domain, a cluster of zinc fingers and a coiled-coil domain, which are also present in other members of the TRAF family protein except for TRAF1. In vitro binding assays revealed that TRAF5 associates with the cytoplasmic tail of CD40, but not with the cytoplasmic tail of tumor receptor factor receptor type 2, which associates with TRAF2. Based on analysis of ...
Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a long-lasting increase in synaptic efficacy, is the molecular basis for learning and memory. Tetanic stimulation of afferents in the CA1 region of the hippocampus induces glutamate release and activation of glutamate receptors in dendritic spines. A large increase in [Ca2+]i resulting from influx through NMDA receptors leads to constitutive activation of CaM kinase II (CaM KII) . Constitutively active CaM kinase II phosphorylates AMPA receptors, resulting in potentiation of the ionic conductance of AMPA receptors. Early-phase LTP (E-LTP) expression is due, in part, to this phosphorylation of the AMPA receptor. It is hypothesized that postsynaptic Ca2+ increases generated through NMDA receptors activate several signal transduction pathways including the Erk/MAP kinase and cAMP regulatory pathways. The convergence of these pathways at the level of the CREB/CRE transcriptional pathway ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of T Cell Receptor-mediated Signal Transduction by Erbstatin. AU - Imoto, Masaya. AU - Nakamura, Takeshi. AU - Tanaka, Shin Ichiro. AU - Umezawa, Kazuo. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Erbstatin, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, inhibited p59fyn- and p56lck-kinases in vitrowith IC50s of 0.21 and 0.18μg/ml, respectively. Inositol phosphates formation, enhanced by anti-CD3, was also inhibited by erbstatin. Moreover, erbstatin treatment prevented anti-CD3-induced interleukin 2 (IL-2) production, but phorbol ester-induced IL-2 production was not affected by erbstatin.. AB - Erbstatin, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, inhibited p59fyn- and p56lck-kinases in vitrowith IC50s of 0.21 and 0.18μg/ml, respectively. Inositol phosphates formation, enhanced by anti-CD3, was also inhibited by erbstatin. Moreover, erbstatin treatment prevented anti-CD3-induced interleukin 2 (IL-2) production, but phorbol ester-induced IL-2 production was not affected by erbstatin.. UR - ...
Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a long-lasting increase in synaptic efficacy, is the molecular basis for learning and memory. Tetanic stimulation of afferents in the CA1 region of the hippocampus induces glutamate release and activation of glutamate receptors in dendritic spines. A large increase in [Ca2+]i resulting from influx through NMDA receptors leads to constitutive activation of CaM kinase II (CaM KII) . Constitutively active CaM kinase II phosphorylates AMPA receptors, resulting in potentiation of the ionic conductance of AMPA receptors. Early-phase LTP (E-LTP) expression is due, in part, to this phosphorylation of the AMPA receptor. It is hypothesized that postsynaptic Ca2+ increases generated through NMDA receptors activate several signal transduction pathways including the Erk/MAP kinase and cAMP regulatory pathways. The convergence of these pathways at the level of the CREB/CRE transcriptional pathway ...
Title: Molecular Mechanisms of Bcl10-Mediated NF-kappaB Signal Transduction Author: Felicia D. Langel, Ph.D., 2006 Directed by: Brian C. Schaefer, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology and Immunology Bcl10 is a key signaling intermediate in the TCR-to-NF-?B pathway in T lymphocytes. It is currently believed that, once activated, Bcl10 functions within a multiprotein signaling complex that activates the IKK complex. Bcl10 is thought to regulate this signaling complex, but how it transmits its signal through the complex is unknown. A thorough knowledge of Bcl10 biology is critical to understanding how Bcl10 functions and how it regulates its binding partners. In this study, we used mutational analysis, molecular imaging, biochemistry, and computer/bioinformatics modeling to elucidate a structure and function for Bcl10. From our data, we ...
Traditionally, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been regarded as toxic by-products of aerobic metabolism. However, in recent years it has become apparent that plants actively produce ROS as signalling molecules. ROS are able to mediate adaptive responses to various environmental stresses as well as processes such as stomatal closure and development. Downstream signalling events that are modulated by ROS include calcium mobilisation, protein phosphorylation and gene expression. This study investigated signalling proteins acting downstream of ROS, in order to understand how ROS are perceived and transduced to elicit such a wide range of responses. To establish a molecular profile provoked by ROS, a microarray experiment of Arabidopsis plants exposed to exogenous H(_2)O(_2) was analysed. Of the 895 differentially expressed transcripts, a substantial proportion had predicted functions in cell rescue and defence, including heat shock, disease resistance and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Micrococci and peptidoglycan activate TLR2 →Myd88 →IRAK→TRAF→NIK→IKK→NF-κB signal transduction pathway that induces transcription of interleukin-8. AU - Wang, Q.. AU - Dziarski, R.. AU - Kirschning, C. J.. AU - Muzio, M.. AU - Gupta, D.. PY - 2001/4/5. Y1 - 2001/4/5. N2 - This study was done to elucidate the signal transduction pathway of interleukin-8 (IL-8) induction by gram-positive bacteria. Bacteria (micrococci) and peptidoglycan (PGN) induced transcription of IL-8 in HEK293 cells expressing Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and CD14 but not in those expressing TLR1 or TLR4. A mutation within the NF-κB site in the IL-8 promoter abrogated transcriptional induction of IL-8 by the two stimulants. Dominant negative myeloid differentiation protein (MyD88), IL-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK), NFκB-inducing kinase (NIK), and IκB kinase (IKK) mutant forms completely inhibited micrococcus- and PGN-induced activation of NF-κB and ...
Research outputs, collaborations and relationships for MOE International Co-operation Laboratory on Signal Transduction, SMMU published between 1 October 2018 - 30 September 2019 as tracked by the Nature Index.
Histidine-containing phosphotransfer (HPt) factors from Arabidopsis thaliana, designated as AHPs, function most likely in concert with histidine (His)-kinases (HKs) and response regulators (RRs) in certain multistep histidine (His)→aspartate (Asp) phosphorelays that are involved in the signal transduction mechanisms, by which plant cells appear to respond to certain hormonal stimuli, including cytokinin. Although some previous in vitro results from studies on Arabidopsis AHPs (AHP1 to AHP5) supported this hypothesis, it has not yet been proven. To this end, here we constructed transgenic plants that contained the AHP2 protein in a considerably higher amount than in wild-type plants. Such AHP2-overexpressing young seedlings were examined in comparison with wild-type plants, with special reference to hormone responses; particularly, their inhibitory effects on root elongation of plants grown on agar-plates, and also hypocotyl elongation of etiolated seedlings grown in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A ceramide-activated protein phosphatase mediates ceramide-induced G1 arrest of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. AU - Nickels, Joseph T.. AU - Broach, James R.. PY - 1996/2/15. Y1 - 1996/2/15. N2 - Certain mammalian growth modulators, such as tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β, and γ-interferon, induce an antiproliferative response-terminal differentiation, apoptosisis, or cell cycle arrest-through a novel signal transduction pathway mediated by the lipid ceramide as a second messenger. Both a ceramide-activated protein phosphatase and a ceramide-activated protein kinase have been implicated in transmitting the signals elicited by ceramide. We have determined that ceramide addition to the yeast Saccharomyces causes a similar antiproliferative response, resulting in arrest of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. We have also determined that yeast cells contain a ceramide-activated protein phosphatase composed of regulatory subunits encoded ...
It was previously observed that IL-1beta interferes with BDNF-induced TrkB-mediated signal transduction and protection of cortical neurons from apoptosis evoked by deprivation from trophic support [Tong L., Balazs R., Soiampornkul R., Thangnipon W., Cotman C.W., 2007. Interleukin-1beta impairs brain derived neurotrophic factor-induced signal transduction. Neurobiol. Aging]. Here we investigated whether the effect of the cytokine on neurotrophin signaling is more general. The influence of IL-1beta on NT-3 signaling was therefore studied under conditions when NT-3 primarily activated the TrkC receptor. The cytokine reduced NT-3-induced activation of MAPK/ERK and Akt, but did not interfere with Trk receptor autophosphorylation. IL-1beta reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of the docking proteins, IRS-1 and Shc, which convey receptor activation to the downstream protein kinase ...
The role of Shc-GRB2-Sos and Ras in signal transduction by Gq-coupled receptors, such as the AT1 receptor, is unclear. Importantly, tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc61 82 106 and activation of Ras by angiotensin II were recently demonstrated.107 Tyrosine phosphorylation of a linker protein called Shc appears to be an important mechanism used by all G protein-coupled receptors on the basis of studies to date.108 For Gi-coupled receptors, a pathway for activation of Ras and ERK1/2 has been proposed (Fig 2⇑)106 107 108 in which release of G-protein βγ subunits from G protein-coupled receptors stimulates downstream events leading to tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc.109 c-Src has been proposed as a likely candidate.108 110 111 Additional signal mediators that may be required include PI 3-K and a protein tyrosine phosphatase.108 Once Shc is tyrosine-phosphorylated, it now binds GRB2 via SH2 domain interactions (Fig 2⇑). GRB2 also binds to the guanine nucleotide ...
The C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2)activates platelets through Src and Syk tyrosine kinases via a single cytoplasmic YxxL motif known as a hem immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (hemITAM).Here, we demonstrate using sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation and methyl--cyclodextrin treatment that CLEC-2 translocates to lipid rafts upon ligand engagement and that translocation is essential for hemITAM phosphorylation and signal initiation. HemITAM phosphorylation, but not translocation, is also critically dependent on actin polymerization,Rac1 activation, and release of ADP and thromboxane A2 (TxA2). The role of ADP and TxA2 in mediating hosphorylation is dependent on ligand engagement and rac activation but is independent of platelet aggregation. In contrast,tyrosine phosphorylation of the GPVIFcR -chain ITAM, which has 2 YxxL motifs,is independent of actin polymerization and secondary mediators. These results reveal a unique series of proximal events in CLEC-2 phosphorylation ...
Abstract: Prostate cancer remains a leading cause of death in men despite increased capacity to diagnose at earlier stages. After prostate cancer has become hormone independent which often occurs after hormonal ablation therapies it is difficult to effectively treat. Prostate cancer may arise from mutations and dysregulation of various genes involved in regulation signal transduction (e.g. PTEN Akt etc. ) and the cell cycle (e.g. p53 p21Cip1 p27Kip1 Rb etc. ). This review focuses on the aberrant interactions of signal transduction and cell cycle genes products and how they can contribute to prostate cancer and alter therapeutic effectiveness. Originally published Cell Cycle Vol. 7 No. 12 June 2008 ...
Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) play fundamental roles in bacterial survival and pathogenesis and have been proposed as targets for the development of novel classes of antibiotics. A new coupled assay was developed and applied to analyse the kinetic mechanisms of three new kinds of inhibitors of TCS function. The assay exploits the biochemical properties of the cognate HpkA-DrrA histidine kinase-response regulator pair from Thermotoga maritima and allows multiple turnovers of HpkA, linear formation of phosphorylated DrrA, and Michaelis-Menten analysis of inhibitors. The assay was validated in several ways, including confirmation of competitive inhibition by adenosine 5′-β,γ-imidotriphosphate (AMP-PNP). The coupled assay, autophosphorylation and chemical cross-linking were used to determine the mechanisms by which several compounds inhibit TCS function. A cyanoacetoacetamide showed non-competitive inhibition with respect to ATP concentration in the coupled ...
PCCA002 corresponded to ste3, the putative serpentine pheromone G-coupled receptor. On the basis of the cDNA and EST sequence analysis, the open reading frame appeared to have two alternative 3′ mRNA structures resulting from alternative splicing (Figure 1B). In both transcripts, the ORF initiated with a translational start at position 1359 and spliced out a 46-bp intron between positions 1888 and 1933. A shorter ORF encoding a predicted 301-amino-acid residue peptide resulted from use of a stop codon located at position 2415 within the cosmid sequence. This splice alternative matched the ESTs, s20D1 and s14G9, and a recently released mRNA sequence determined by Thomas and co-workers (GenBank accession no. Aa007236). The alternative splicing product present in the λZAP cDNA clone 2G2, identified by hybridization screening, resulted from the excision of a second intron between positions 2412 and 2462, extending the open reading frame to a stop codon located at position 2775 and resulting in a ...
A wide range of extracellular signals are transduced by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). When activated by ligands, GPCRs can activate associated heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which in turn act on various effectors. Increasing evidence indicates that GPCRs also signal independently of heterotrimeric G proteins. Several GPCRs directly interact with Src-family kinases. Here, we discuss the evidence for direct interaction and activation of Src-family kinases by GPCRs and data that suggest that agonist dosage provides a mechanism by which GPCRs can switch between G protein-dependent and G protein-independent signaling.. ...
BACKGROUND Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) plays an essential role in the regulation of normal physiologic processes of cells. TGF-beta has been shown to regulate several mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathways in several epithelial cells. However, the effects of TGF-beta on soft tissue sarcoma are seldom reported. Our previous studies suggested that there should be some other signal transduction pathways besides Smads, which are important to regulate the growth of human embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cells. In the present study, we examined the expression and functional relations of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) and Smad4 in human RMS tissue and a RMS cell line, RD. METHODS RD cells and normal human primary skeletal myoblasts (Mb) were treated with TGF-beta1 to establish the expression profile of ERK2 at the mRNA and protein levels detected by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Blind source separation methods for deconvolution of complex signals in cancer biology. AU - Zinovyev, Andrei. AU - Kairov, Ulykbek. AU - Karpenyuk, Tatyana. AU - Ramanculov, Erlan. PY - 2013/1/18. Y1 - 2013/1/18. N2 - Two blind source separation methods (Independent Component Analysis and Non-negative Matrix Factorization), developed initially for signal processing in engineering, found recently a number of applications in analysis of large-scale data in molecular biology. In this short review, we present the common idea behind these methods, describe ways of implementing and applying them and point out to the advantages compared to more traditional statistical approaches. We focus more specifically on the analysis of gene expression in cancer. The review is finalized by listing available software implementations for the methods described.. AB - Two blind source separation methods (Independent Component Analysis and Non-negative Matrix Factorization), ...
PQQ Plus 30 Vegetable Capsules DESCRIPTION PQQ Plus, provided by Douglas Laboratories, supplies 20 mg pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), the novel compound that some consider to be a newly discovered vitamin and 50 mg of alpha glycerylphosphoryl choline (alpha GPC) for optimal neurological health in each vegetarian capsule. FUNCTIONS Pyrrolloquinoline (PQQ) is an enzyme cofactor functionally related to the B vitamin family. First recognized as an enzyme cofactor in bacteria, additional findings indicate it may have been present throughout early biological development. Recent evidence indicates PQQ can support several signal transduction pathways that are important in maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis and oxidative function, as well as supporting healthy levels of nerve growth factor and receptor activity. In humans, PQQ has been scientifically studied for its neuroprotective properties. In one double blind placebo controlled study in middle aged ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Signal transduction pathways regulated by mitogen-activated/extracellular response kinase kinase kinase induce cell death. AU - Johnson, Nancy Lassignal. AU - Gardner, Anne M.. AU - Diener, Katrina M.. AU - Lange-Carter, Carol A.. AU - Gleavy, Janice. AU - Jarpe, Matthew B.. AU - Minden, Audrey. AU - Karin, Michael. AU - Zon, Leonard I.. AU - Johnson, Gary L.. PY - 1996/2/9. Y1 - 1996/2/9. N2 - Mitogen-activated/extracellular response kinase kinase (MEK) kinase (MEKK) is a serine-threonine kinase that regulates sequential protein phosphorylation pathways, leading to the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), including members of the Jun kinase (JNK)/stress- activated protein kinase (SAPK) family. In Swiss 3T3 and REF52 fibroblasts, activated MEKK induces cell death involving cytoplasmic shrinkage, nuclear condensation, and DNA fragmentation characteristic of apoptosis. Expression of activated ...
Purpose: : Biochemical, structural and functional characterization of Ca2+-modulated cyclic GMP signaling pathway in the inner retinal neurons, the ganglion cells. Methods: : Immunohistochemical analyses, Western blotting, RT-PCR, Ca2+-imaging, patch clamp recordings and in vitro reconstitution experiments in conjunction with enzyme activity assays were employed. Results: : Ca2+-dependent membrane guanylate cyclase transduction machinery is expressed in RGC-5 cells. Through immunological and functional analyses ROS-GC1 has been identified as the enzyme component of the system. Two Ca2+ sensor proteins, neurocalcin delta and S100B, co-exist with ROS-GC1 and regulate its activity. Staining of RGC-5 cells with specific antibodies against neurocalcin d and ROS-GC1 shows positive reaction in the processes of the cells. Overexpression of ROS-GC1 promotes Ca2+ entry into RGC5 cells as evidenced by the markedly reduced time-to-peak ratio and increased amplitude of ...
Nodulation is an ecologically and economically important plant phenomenon, in which the symbiosis between plants from the family Fabaceae and the bacterial genera rhizobia results in the development of nitrogen fixing nodules on host plant roots. The rhizobia-plant interaction is initiated by Nod factors, which are produced by species-specific rhizobia; Nod factor alone is necessary and sufficient to produce many of the initial responses including ionic fluxes, root hair deformation, changes in gene expression, cortical cell differentiation and generation of a pseudo nodule. Giant cell formation by plant pathogenic root knot nematodes (RKN) invokes host genes necessary for nitrogen-nodule formation. Specific transcription regulators, cytokinin response pathways and early nodulation genes are induced in the nematode feeding site and rhizobia induced nodules. This suggests that nodulation by rhizobia and RKN infection may share host signal transduction and/or ...
The 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimeric, evolutionary conserved enzyme which has emerged as a critical regulator of skeletal muscle cellular bioenergetics. AMPK is activated by both chemical (adipokines) and mechanical (stretch, contraction) stimuli leading to metabolic changes within muscle cells that include increased fatty acid oxidation, glucose uptake and glycolysis, as well as the stimulation and regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. Collectively these acute responses and chronic adaptations act to reduce cellular disturbances, resulting in tighter metabolic control and maintenance of energy homeostasis. This brief review will describe the structure, function and activation of AMPK in skeletal muscle and how this ubiquitous molecule may be a plausible target for the treatment of several lifestyle-related metabolic disorders.
Glucose has profound effects on gene expression, metabolism, and development in microorganisms, animals, and plants (1-9). Although the glucose signal transduction pathways are well characterized in unicellular microorganisms, relatively little is known about the molecular basis of glucose responses in multicellular eukaryotes. In higher plants, glucose has been implicated to be the primary sugar signal that controls many aspects of plant development, including germination, hypocotyl elongation, cotyledon greening and expansion, primary and lateral root growth, true leaf development, floral transition, and the onset of senescence. At the molecular level, the expression of a broad spectrum of genes is either repressed or induced by glucose (4-9). Recently, hexokinase (HXK), the enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of hexose sugars at the first step of the glycolytic pathway, has been shown to be the glucose sensor in plants (9-12). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of Ras in signal transduction from the nerve growth factor receptor. T2 - Relationship to protein kinase C, calcium and cyclic AMP. AU - Szeberenyi, J.. AU - Erhardt, P.. AU - Cai, H.. AU - Cooper, G. M.. PY - 1992/1/1. Y1 - 1992/1/1. N2 - A dominant inhibitory ras mutant (Ha-ras Asn-17) has been used to investigate the role of Ras in nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated signal transduction in PC12 cells. Expression of Ha-Ras Asn-17 blocks neuronal differentiation of these cells in response to NGF treatment. The Ha-Ras Asn-17 block was bypassed by treatment with NGF plus dibutyryl cAMP or NGF plus the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin, but not by NGF plus 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA). Direct stimulation of the cAMP or Ca2+ pathways thus appeared to act synergistically with a Ras-independent NGF signaling pathway. This Ras-independent pathway was also distinct from ...
Insulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PI3K activates 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1), which activates Akt, a serine kinase. Akt in turn deactivates glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3), leading to activation of glycogen synthase (GYS) and thus glycogen synthesis. Activation of Akt also results in the translocation of GLUT4 vesicles from their intracellular pool to the plasma membrane, where they allow uptake of glucose into the cell. Akt also leads to mTOR-mediated activation of protein synthesis by eIF4 and p70S6K. The translocation of GLUT4 protein is also elicited through the CAP/Cbl/TC10 pathway, once Cbl is phosphorylated by INSR. Other signal transduction proteins interact with IRS including GRB2. GRB2 is part of the cascade including ...
Insulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PI3K activates 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1), which activates Akt, a serine kinase. Akt in turn deactivates glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3), leading to activation of glycogen synthase (GYS) and thus glycogen synthesis. Activation of Akt also results in the translocation of GLUT4 vesicles from their intracellular pool to the plasma membrane, where they allow uptake of glucose into the cell. Akt also leads to mTOR-mediated activation of protein synthesis by eIF4 and p70S6K. The translocation of GLUT4 protein is also elicited through the CAP/Cbl/TC10 pathway, once Cbl is phosphorylated by INSR. Other signal transduction proteins interact with IRS including GRB2. GRB2 is part of the cascade including ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Progress in allergy signal research on mast cells. T2 - Signal regulation of multiple mast cell responses through FcεRI. AU - Yamasaki, Shou. AU - Saito, Takashi. PY - 2008/4/8. Y1 - 2008/4/8. N2 - The crosslinking of FcεRI by IgE and antigen (Ag) on mast cells initiates activation cascades that lead to allergic responses. Although it was thought that IgE binding to FcεRI is a passive "sensitization", recent reports suggest that IgE actively promotes mast cell survival in the absence of Ag. However, it is largely unknown how these distinct responses are delivered through the same receptor, FcεRI, depending on the types of stimli. As an underlying molecular mechanism for the generation of diverse responses through FcεRI, we found that the quantity and the duration of the signal through the FcεRI γ chain (FcRγ) determine different mast cell responses. Furthermore, FcRγ-mediated sustained Erk activation is critical for IgE-induced mast cell ...
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Background Focal adhesion Kinase (FAK) is a nonreceptor proteins tyrosine kinase that is overexpressed in tumors and plays a significant role in tumor survival and PD318088 metastasis. in matched main tumors by Spearman correlation analysis. In addition a strong positive correlation was observed between high FAK expression and shorter overall survival and progression free survival in patients with metastatic tumors. Conclusions The data demonstrate a high potential for FAK as a therapeutic target especially in triple-negative breast cancer patients with high FAK expression. Rabbit Polyclonal to BLNK (phospho-Tyr84). (not shown). Thus these data suggest that targeting FAK in triple-negative breast cancer patients is usually a promising approach. It is important to note that FAK has many binding partners and integrates multiple oncogenic survival pathways and sequesters tumor-suppressor pathways [1 22 Therefore future therapeutics should involve multiple targets cross-linked ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Disruption of ETV6 leads to TWIST1-dependent progression and resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in prostate cancer. AU - Tsai, Yuan Chin. AU - Zeng, Tao. AU - Abou-Kheir, Wassim. AU - Yeh, Hsiu Lien. AU - Yin, Juan Juan. AU - Lee, Yi Chao. AU - Chen, Wei Yu. AU - Liu, Yen Nien. PY - 2018/2/19. Y1 - 2018/2/19. N2 - Background: ETS variant gene 6 (ETV6) is a putative tumor suppressor and repressed by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in prostate cancer. Since EGFR antagonists seem ineffective in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), we aim to study the role of ETV6 in the development of drug resistance. Methods: Etv6 target gene was validated by ChIP and promoter reporter assays. Correlation of ETV6 and TWIST1 was analyzed in human clinical datasets and tissue samples. Migration, invasion, and metastasis assays were used to measure the cellular responses after perturbation of ETV6 -TWIST1 axis. ...
Our findings implicate the APC tumor suppressor gene in the process of axial patterning in Xenopus. Since induction of the dorsoanterior axis involves the activities of embryonic signaling centers (or organizers), these findings demonstrate that APC has signal transduction activity. APC seems to act in the same signaling pathway as β-catenin. They have similar characteristics, including induction of the homeobox protein Siamois. Furthermore, APC signaling is strongly dependent on the availability of a free cytosolic pool of β-catenin, which by itself has axis-inducing activity. Moreover, APC or APC/β-catenin complexes seem to have direct positive signaling activity, since APC does not act indirectly simply by binding up β-catenin or by changing the levels of β-catenin. We propose, therefore, that axis induction by APC is due to its role in a ...
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The MET inhibitor INC-280 restored sensitivity to erlotinib and promoted apoptosis in nonCsmall-cell lung cancer choices rendered resistant to erlotinib by hepatocyte growth factor. to revive awareness to erlotinib and promote apoptosis in NSCLC versions rendered erlotinib resistant by HGF. These data give a preclinical rationale for a continuing phase 1 scientific trial of erlotinib plus INC-280 in mutation, among the first identified systems of EGFR TKI level of resistance involves activation from the MET receptor, resulting in restored downstream signaling in both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/proteins Rabbit polyclonal to EGFR.EGFR is a receptor tyrosine kinase.Receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGF) and related growth factors including TGF-alpha, amphiregulin, betacellulin, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor, GP30 and vaccinia virus growth factor. kinase B (AKT) and mitogen-activated proteins kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase ...
Signal Transduction and Gene Expression. Cell growth, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis can be regulated by cytokines, growth factors, and cellular stresses that trigger distinct as well as overlapping signaling pathways. Abnormal signaling is associated with human cancer. The overall research interest in my laboratory is to study cellular signal transduction pathways in normal and tumor cells. These studies may provide novel therapeutic targets for cancer treatment.. Our work is currently centered in two areas: 1) To study the role of PIAS (protein inhibitor of activated STAT) proteins in cellular signaling. In studies aimed at the understanding of cytokine-activated JAK-STAT signaling pathway, our laboratory has discovered the PIAS family of proteins, which can ...
Aberrant activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is recognized as a critical factor in the etiology of colorectal cancer. Evidence has suggested that dysregulated beta-catenin activity is associated with the majority of colon cancers via activation of the expression of Wnt regulated oncogenes. In the nucleus, beta-catenin regulates transcription by recruiting additional coactivators. These coactivators all have distinct and unique functions on Wnt/beta-catenin target gene activation. Here we report two coactivators for beta-catenin-mediated transcription: CCAR1 (Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulator 1) and CARM1 (coactivator-associated-protein-arginine-methyltransferase 1). We show that both CCAR1 and CARM1 interact with beta-catenin and positively modulate beta-catenin-mediated gene expression. In colorectal cancer cells, which have constitutively high Wnt/beta-catenin activity, depletion of CCAR1 or CARM1 inhibits the expression of Wnt/beta-catenin-mediated oncogenes and ...
Looking for online definition of AXL receptor tyrosine kinase in the Medical Dictionary? AXL receptor tyrosine kinase explanation free. What is AXL receptor tyrosine kinase? Meaning of AXL receptor tyrosine kinase medical term. What does AXL receptor tyrosine kinase mean?
The cytokine-activated Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway plays an important role in the control of a wide variety of biological processes. When misregulated, JAK/STAT signaling is associated with various human diseases, such as immune disorders and tumorigenesis. To gain insights into the mechanisms by which JAK/STAT signaling participates in these diverse biological responses, we carried out a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen in cultured Drosophila cells. We identified 121 genes whose double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated knockdowns affected STAT92E activity. Of the 29 positive regulators, 13 are required for the tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT92E. Furthermore, we found that the Drosophila homologs of RanBP3 and RanBP10 are negative regulators of JAK/STAT signaling through their control of nucleocytoplasmic transport of STAT92E. In ...
Histidine-to-aspartate (His-Asp) phosphorelay (or two-component) systems are very common signal transduction mechanisms that are implicated in a wide variety of cellular responses to environmental stimuli. The His-Asp phosphorelay components include "sensor histidine kinase (HK)", "phosphotransfer intermediate (HPt)", and "response regulator (RR)". With special reference to three bacterial species (Mesorhizobium loti, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Sinorhizobium meliloti), each of which belongs to a different genera of Rhizobia, here we attempted to compile all of the His-Asp phosphorelay components in order to reveal a comparative genome-wide overview as to the His-Asp phosphorelay. It was revealed that M. loti has 47 HKs, 1 HPts, and 58 RRs; B. japonicum has 80 HKs, 3 HPts, and 91 RRs; whereas S. meliloti has 40 HKs, 1 HPt, and 58 RRs. These His-Asp phosphorelay components were extensively compiled and characterized. The resulting overview as to the His-Asp phosphorelay of ...
Epidermal growth factor receptors are present in some breast cancers in man, and there is an inverse relation to oestrogen receptor state. We assessed the presence of epidermal growth factor receptors as a single prognostic indicator in a series of breast tumours by comparing this with the Bloom and Richardson scores for these tumours. One hundred and eight ductal tumours were examined for epidermal growth factor receptors by radioligand binding. There was a significant (p less than 0.01) correlation between the presence of the growth factor receptor and poor prognosis as assessed by the Bloom and Richardson score, suggesting that epidermal growth factor receptor state could be a useful prognostic marker. Epidermal growth factor receptor state was not significantly correlated with the lymph node state but showed a tendency to be associated with large tumours.. ...
The DNA replication checkpoint is a complex signal transduction pathway, present in all eukaryotic cells, that functions to maintain genomic integrity and cell viability when DNA replication is perturbed. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe the major effector of the replication checkpoint is the protein kinase Cds1. Activation of Cds1 is known to require the upstream kinase Rad3 and the mediator Mrc1, but the biochemical mechanism of activation is not well understood. We report that the replication checkpoint is activated in two stages. In the first stage, Mrc1 recruits Cds1 to stalled replication forks by interactions between the FHA domain of Cds1 and specific phosphorylated Rad3 consensus sites in Mrc1. Cds1 is then primed for activation by Rad3-dependent phosphorylation. In the second stage, primed Cds1 molecules dimerize via phospho-specific interactions mediated by the FHA domains and are activated by autophosphorylation. This two-stage activation mechanism for the ...
Ca2+ ions are important second messengers in many cellular signal transduction pathways. Compromised Ca2+ homeostasis and signaling have been linked to many human diseases, including muscle dysfunction and heart failure.1-5 Two principal sources provide Ca2+ to the cell: channels in the plasma membrane (PM) that allow external Ca2+ to enter the cell and internal stores sequestered in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) that release Ca2+. Junctional membrane complexes between PM and ER/SR are present in all excitable cells, providing effective mechanisms for cross-talk between Ca2+ channels/transporters in the PM and Ca2+ release channels in intracellular membranes.6-10 A central focus in cardiovascular research is to understand the basic mechanisms that underlie the control of Ca2+ signaling in the heart and to search for ways to correct the defective Ca2+ ...
In contrast to receptor protein tyrosine kinases and associated downstream signaling events in the cardiovascular system, the protein tyrosine phosphatases that potentially function as counter-regulatory agents have been less extensively investigated. Thus, the present study addressed the functional role of the ubiquitous phosphatase PTP1B in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells and in carotid arteries. In addition to targeting the PDGF receptor, PTP1B has been reported to induce dephosphorylation of several other receptor tyrosine kinases, including the insulin receptor,17 epidermal growth factor receptor,30 and IGF-1 receptor.15. We report for the first time that PTP1B targets PDGF- or FGF-induced cell motility and proliferation in vitro and neointima formation in vivo. It is interesting to note a recent study indicating that signaling events downstream of the PDGF receptor were not significantly altered in fibroblasts genetically ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Activation of JAK/STAT pathway transduces cytoprotective signal in rat acute myocardial infarction. AU - Negoro, Shinji. AU - Kunisada, Keita. AU - Tone, Eiroh. AU - Funamoto, Masanobu. AU - Oh, Hidemasa. AU - Kishimoto, Tadamitsu. AU - Yamauchi-Takihara, Keiko. PY - 2000/9. Y1 - 2000/9. N2 - Objectives: We reported that the activation of gp130 transduced hypertrophic and cytoprotective signals via Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway in cardiac myocytes. Recent in vivo experiments have demonstrated that the JAK/STAT pathway is activated in acute pressure overload hearts. The present study was designed to examine whether the JAK/STAT pathway is also activated in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and to determine its pathophysiological roles in ischemic heart disease. Methods and results: AMI model was generated by the ligation of proximal left anterior descending coronary artery of male Wistar rat. ...
Defective heme synthesis in mammals has been suspected of causing neuropathy associated with porphyrias and lead poisoning. To determine the molecular action of heme in neuronal cells, we examined the effect of the inhibition of heme synthesis on nerve growth factor (NGF) signaling in PC12 cells. We found that the inhibition of heme synthesis by succinyl acetone interferes with NGF-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Furthermore, we show that heme deficiency obliterates the activation of the signaling intermediates of the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway and its downstream target, the transcription activator cyclic AMP response element-binding protein. Strikingly, microarray expression analysis shows that the inhibition of heme synthesis selectively diminishes the induction of expression of a subset of neuron-specific genes by NGF, such as Ras and neurofilament proteins, whereas ...
... , Authors: Gagani Athauda, Donald P Bottaro. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nuclear factor-kappaB and cAMP response element binding protein mediate opposite transcriptional effects on the Flk-1/KDR gene promoter.. AU - Illi, B.. AU - Puri, P.. AU - Morgante, L.. AU - Capogrossi, M. C.. AU - Gaetano, C.. PY - 2000/6/23. Y1 - 2000/6/23. N2 - -The vascular endothelial growth factor receptor Flk-1/KDR is highly expressed during development and almost disappears in adult tissues. Despite its biological relevance, little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling its expression. In the present work, it is shown that cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)-related antigens bind specific sequences in the Flk-1/KDR promoter. Functional studies demonstrate that cAMP represses whereas tumor necrosis factor-alpha, an activator of NF-kappaB, stimulates promoter activity. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) P/CAF and CBP/p300 together with p65/RelA, the catalytic subunit of NF-kappaB, increase Flk-1/KDR promoter ...
Signaling pathways that converge on two different transcription factor complexes, NFκB and AP-1, have been identified in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers resistant to the antiestrogen, tamoxifen. Two cell line models of tamoxifen-resistant ER-positive breast cancer, MCF7/HER2 and BT474, showing increased AP-1 and NFκB DNA-binding and transcriptional activities, were studied to compare tamoxifen effects on NFκB and AP-1 regulated reporter genes relative to tamoxifen-sensitive MCF7 cells. The model cell lines were treated with the IKK inhibitor parthenolide (PA) or the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (PS341), alone and in combination with tamoxifen. Expression microarray data available from 54 UCSF node-negative ER-positive breast cancer cases with known clinical outcome were used to search for potential genes signifying upregulated NFκB and AP-1 transcriptional activity in association with tamoxifen resistance. The association of these genes ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevention of spinal motor neuron death by IGF-1 associating with the signal transduction systems in SODG93A transgenic mice. AU - Narai, Hisashi. AU - Manabe, Yasuhiro. AU - Murakami, Tetsuro. AU - Nagai, Makiko. AU - Kamiya, Tatsushi. AU - Abe, Koji. PY - 2007/11/13. Y1 - 2007/11/13. N2 - Background and aims: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by selective loss of central and peripheral motor neurons. There are many hypotheses about the underlying cause of this disease: one theory is that motor neurons lack crucially needed trophic factors, resulting in neuronal degeneration, cell death, and atrophy of target muscles. The role of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in ALS and its mechanism of action are important from both pathogenic and therapeutic points of view. Methods: The present study investigated the changes of IGF-1R? and the key intracellular downstream protein insulin ...
BACKGROUND: Receptors belonging to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family transfer extracellular signals by homotypic and heterotypic receptor interaction and cross-activation. Cell differentiation, death, and proliferation are regulated via these receptor-tyrosine-kinases. However, the initial mechanisms that lead to signal specificity and diversity, which cause a defined cellular response, are incompletely understood. We investigated the recruitment of receptor complexes in two c-erbB2-overexpressing breast carcinoma cell lines, SK-BR-3 and BT474, after ligand binding and its effects on intracellular signal transduction and cell cycle regulation. METHODS: In order to analyze the coaggregation of receptors on the cell surface induced by specific growth factor treatment, we used the flow cytometric Foerster-type fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique. Cell cycle kinetics were monitored flow cytometrically via the ...
The Wnt signaling pathways are a group of signal transduction pathways made of proteins that pass signals from outside of a cell through cell surface receptors to the inside of the cell. Three Wnt signaling pathways have been characterized: the canonical Wnt pathway, the noncanonical planar cell polarity pathway, and the noncanonical Wnt/calcium pathway. All three Wnt signaling pathways are activated by the binding of a Wnt-protein ligand to a Frizzled family receptor, which passes the biological signal to the protein Dishevelled inside the cell. The canonical Wnt pathway leads to regulation of gene transcription, the noncanonical planar cell polarity pathway regulates the cytoskeleton that is responsible for the shape of the cell, and the noncanonical Wnt/calcium pathway ...
The Wnt signaling pathways are a group of signal transduction pathways made of proteins that pass signals into a cell through cell surface receptors. Three Wnt signaling pathways have been characterized: the canonical Wnt pathway, the noncanonical planar cell polarity pathway, and the noncanonical Wnt/calcium pathway. All three pathways are activated by binding a Wnt-protein ligand to a Frizzled family receptor, which passes the biological signal to the Dishevelled protein inside the cell. The canonical Wnt pathway leads to regulation of gene transcription, and is thought to be negatively regulated in part by the SPATS1 gene. The noncanonical planar cell polarity pathway regulates the cytoskeleton that is responsible for the shape of the cell. The noncanonical Wnt/calcium pathway regulates calcium inside the ...
Fig. S1. The apoptotic effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on human CD4+ T cells. CD4+ T cells (106 cells/ml) were cultured for 48 h in the indicated concentrations of CAPE (0-100 μM). The percentage of annexin-V+ and 7-amino actinomycin D (7-AAD)+ cells were measured by flow cytometry.. Fig. S2. The apoptotic effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on stimulated human CD4+ T cells. CD4+ T cells (106 cells/ml) were cultured for 48 h in the absence or presence of CAPE (10 μM) with soluble anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies (2 μg/ml) stimulation. The percentage of annexin-V+ and 7-amino actinomycin D (7-AAD)+ cells from four asthmatic patients were measured by flow cytometry.. Fig. S3. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) inhibits interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-5 production by polarized T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cells. Polarized helper T cells (106 cells/ml) were cultured for 48 h in the absence or presence of CAPE (10 μM) with soluble anti-CD3 and ...
The Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway in the fruit fly and the mouse. (A) The D. melanogaster JAK/STAT cytokine
The present invention provides a modular system for mounting one or more medical devices on an IV pole at a patients bedside. The system comprises a support plate, and at least one modular interconnection receptacle adapted to be detachably mounted on the support plate and adapted to receive a medical device. In one embodiment, the interconnection receptacle has electrical connection means serving as an electrical conduit between the medical device and a monitor. The means for attaching the medical device to the interconnection receptacle has a greater retention force than the means for attaching the interconnection receptacle to the support plate. Thus, in response to a threshold force on the patient line connected to the medical device, the interconnection receptacle breaks free of the support plate while the medical device remains attached to the interconnection receptacle. This maintains fluid connection to the patient and electrical connection to
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recent advances on skin-resident stem/progenitor cell functions in skin regeneration, aging and cancers and novel anti-aging and cancer therapies. AU - Mimeault, Murielle. AU - Batra, Surinder Kumar. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - Recent advances in skin-resident adult stem/progenitor cell research have revealed that these immature and regenerative cells with a high longevity provide critical functions in maintaining skin homeostasis and repair after severe injuries along the lifespan of individuals. The establishment of the functional properties of distinct adult stem/progenitor cells found in skin epidermis and hair follicles and extrinsic signals from their niches, which are deregulated during their aging and malignant transformation, has significantly improved our understanding on the etiopathogenesis of diverse human skin disorders and cancers. Particularly, enhanced ultraviolet radiation exposure, inflammation and oxidative stress and telomere attrition during ...
Although regulators of the Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway are widely expressed in vertebrate nervous systems, their roles at synapses are unknown. Here, we show that Vangl2 is a postsynaptic factor crucial for synaptogenesis and that it coprecipitates with N-cadherin and PSD-95 from synapse-rich brain extracts. Vangl2 directly binds N-cadherin and enhances its internalization in a Rab5-dependent manner. This physical and functional interaction is suppressed by β-catenin, which binds the same intracellular region of N-cadherin as Vangl2. In hippocampal neurons expressing reduced Vangl2 levels, dendritic spine formation as well as synaptic marker clustering is significantly impaired. Furthermore, Prickle2, another postsynaptic PCP component, inhibits the N-cadherin-Vangl2 interaction and is required for normal spine formation. These results demonstrate direct control of classic cadherin by PCP factors; this control may play a central role in the precise formation and maturation of cell-cell
Autophosphorylation sites of growth factor receptors with tyrosine kinase activity function as specific binding sites for Src homology 2 (SH2) domains of signaling molecules. This interaction appears to be a crucial step in a mechanism by which receptor tyrosine kinases relay signals to downstream signaling pathways. Nck is a widely expressed protein consisting exclusively of SH2 and SH3 domains, the overexpression of which causes cell transformation. It has been shown that various growth factors stimulate the phosphorylation of Nck and its association with autophosphorylated growth factor receptors. A panel of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor mutations at tyrosine residues has been used to identify the Nck binding site. Here we show that mutation at Tyr-751 of the PDGF beta-receptor eliminates Nck binding both in vitro and in living cells. Moreover, the Y751F PDGF receptor mutant failed to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Signal transduction pathways involved in melatonin-induced neuroprotection after focal cerebral ischemia in mice. AU - Kilic, Ülkan. AU - Kilic, Ertugrul. AU - Reiter, Russel J. AU - Bassetti, Claudio L.. AU - Hermann, Dirk M.. PY - 2005/1. Y1 - 2005/1. N2 - Because of its favorable action profile in humans, melatonin is a particularly interesting candidate as a neuroprotectant in acute ischemic stroke. Until now, the signaling mechanisms mediating melatonins neuroprotective actions remained essentially uninvestigated. Herein, we examined the effects of melatonin, administered either orally for 9 wk as a stroke prophylactic (4 mg/kg/day) or intraperitoneally immediately after reperfusion onset (4 mg/kg), on the activation of signal transduction pathways in mice submitted to 90 min of intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion, followed by 24 hr of ...
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), a potent mitogen for mesenchymal cells, elicits its effects by binding to cell surface tyrosine kinase receptors, denoted α- and β-receptors. This thesis describes the mechanism of interaction between stimulated PDGF receptors and various intracellular molecules.. PDGF-B is homologous to the transforming protein v-sis encoded by the simian sarcoma virus (SSV). Transformation of cells by the v-sis oncogene occurs through an autocrine mechanism, whereby the v-Sis protein produced by a cell activates the cells own PDGF receptors. We investigated the subcellular location of the autocrine signal and found that in c-Sis/B-chain transformed cells, autophosphorylated intracellular receptors initiated activation of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase, and tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C-γ (PLC-γ) and Ras GTPase-activating protein (RasGAP). These signals were, however, not sufficient for transformation of the cells.Receptor-association with ...
The acetylcholine analogue carbachol rapidly activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and caused tyrosine phosphorylation of the adapter protein p52 Shc and the epidermalgrowth factor (EGF) receptor, in human embryonic kidney cells stably expressing m3 muscarinic receptors. The protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF109203X caused a significant partial inhibition of m3 receptor-mediated activation of MAPK. The PKC-independent MAPK activity elicited by carbachol in the presence of GF109203X was reproducibly abolished by AG1478, an inhibitor of EGF-receptor tyrosine kinase activity, and by the Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP1. In a subset of these experiments, GF109203X concomitantly increased carbachol-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of p52 Shc and the EGF receptor. In co-stimulation experiments, carbachol and EGF activated MAPK in a non-additive fashion; moreover, EGF-induced association of Shc with the phosphorylated EGF receptor was inhibited by carbachol. This effect of carbachol was ...
Immunological synapses are initiated by signaling in discrete T cell antigen receptor microclusters and are important for the differentiation and effector functions of T cells. Synapse formation involves the orchestrated movement of microclusters toward the center of the contact area with the antigen-presenting cell. Microcluster movement is associated with centripetal actin flow, but the function of motor proteins is unknown. Here we show that myosin IIA was necessary for complete assembly and movement of T cell antigen receptor microclusters. In the absence of myosin IIA or its ATPase activity, T cell signaling was interrupted downstream of the kinase Lck and the synapse was destabilized. Thus, T cell antigen receptor signaling and the subsequent formation of immunological synapses are active processes dependent on myosin IIA.
RAC Gamma Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase (Protein Kinase Akt 3 or Protein Kinase B Gamma or RAC PK Gamma or STK 2 or AKT3 or EC 2.7.11.1) - Pipeline Review, H2 2017 Size and Share Published in 2017-08-29 Available for US$ 3500 at Researchmoz.us
Accumulating data show that the tyrosine protein kinase Zap-70 plays an essential role in T cell receptor-mediated signal transduction. However, the model of action, as well as the physiologically relevant substrates of Zap-70, have not been determined. We have attempted to identify a 120-kD tyrosine-phosphorylated protein (p120) that associates with Zap-70 in activated T lymphocytes. The results of our analyses showed that p120 is largely encoded by the c-cbl protooncogene. Furthermore, the association of Zap-70 with c-Cbl was shown to be induced by T cell receptor stimulation, implying that it required posttranslational modification of one or both of these products. FynT, but not Lck, also associated with c-Cbl in activated T cells. Finally, using a heterologous system, it was demonstrated that the ability of Zap-70 to cause tyrosine phosphorylation of p120c-cbl was dependent on Lck- or FynT-mediated signals. As c-Cbl can associate with several other ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular cloning and characterization of mitogen-activated protein kinase 2 in Toxoplasma gondii. AU - Huang, Huan. AU - Ma, Yan Fen. AU - Bao, Yi. AU - Lee, Hattie. AU - Lisanti, Michael P.. AU - Tanowitz, Herbert B.. AU - Weiss, Louis M.. PY - 2011/10/31. Y1 - 2011/10/31. N2 - Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are major signal transduction systems by which eukaryotic cells convert environmental cues to intracellular events, such as cell proliferation and differentiation. Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan that is both a human and animal pathogen. This Apicomplexan causes significant morbidity and mortality in immune-competent and immune-compromised hosts. In humans, the most common manifestations of T. gondii infections are chorioretinitis in congenital infection and encephalitis in immune-compromised patients, such as patients with advanced AIDS. We have identified a T. gondii homolog of the MAPK ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Epidermal Growth Factor-Activated Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Suppresses Growth Hormone Expression and Stimulates Proliferation in MtT/E Cells. AU - Nogami, H.. AU - Soya, H.. AU - Hiraoka, Y.. AU - Aiso, Sadakazu. AU - Hisano, S.. PY - 2012/2/1. Y1 - 2012/2/1. N2 - The mechanism for the inhibition of growth hormone (GH) expression by the epidermal growth factor (EGF) was examined in two clonal cell lines, MtT/E and MtT/S. The former has a negligible basal level of GH, whereas the latter has a high basal GH. The treatment of MtT/E cells with retinoic acid resulted in a significant increase in GH mRNA and subsequently GH. This stimulatory response to retinoic acid was strongly suppressed by EGF. This suppression was associated with an increase in the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (Erk1/2). The MEK [mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinases that activate ERK1 and ERK2] inhibitor, PD98059, clearly inhibited the ...
Cancer cells have different characteristics due to the genetic differences where these unique features may strongly influence the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. Here, we show that the spontaneous reactivation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), distinct from conventional ERK activation, represents a potent mechanism for cancer cell survival. We studied ERK1/2 activation in vitro in SW480 colorectal cancer cells. Although ERK signaling tends to be transiently activated, we observed the delayed reactivation of ERK1/2 in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated SW480 cells. This effect was observed even after EGF withdrawal. While phosphorylated ERK1/2 translocated into the nucleus following its primary activation, it remained in the cytoplasm during late-phase activation. The inhibition of primary ERK1/2 activation or protein trafficking, blocked reactivation and concurrently increased caspase 3 activity. Our results suggest that the ...
Substance P is a member of the tachykinin family of neuropeptides that plays an important role in pain transmission, neurogenic inflammatory diseases and the adaptive response to stress. Substance P exerts its biological activities via binding to a G-protein coupled receptor of the neurokinin (NK) receptor family. Here, we show by Western blot experiments that substance P induced a transient synthesis of the zinc finger transcriptional regulator Egr-1 in human glioma cells. Substance P-induced stimulation of Egr-1 biosynthesis was completely inhibited by the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor PD98059 and by AG1487, an epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor. These results indicate that transactivation of the EGF receptor as well as stimulation of the mitogen activated/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) are essential for substance P/NK-1 receptor-induced activation of Egr-1 biosynthesis. Moreover, we show that the ...
To better understand the roles of TGF-beta in bone metabolism, we investigated osteoclast survival in response TGF-beta and found that TGF-beta inhibited apoptosis. We examined the receptors involved in promotion of osteoclast survival and found that the canonical TGF-beta receptor complex is involved in the survival response. The upstream MEK kinase TAK1 was rapidly activated following TGF-beta treatment. Since osteoclast survival involves MEK, AKT, and NFkappaB activation, we examined TGF-beta effects on activation of these pathways and observed rapid phosphorylation of MEK, AKT, IKK, IkappaB, and NFkappaB. The timing of activation coincided with SMAD activation and dominant negative SMAD expression did not inhibit NFkappaB activation, indicating that kinase pathway activation is independent of SMAD signaling. Inhibition of TAK1, MEK, AKT, NIK, IKK, or NFkappaB repressed TGF-beta-mediated osteoclast survival. Adenoviral-mediated TAK1 or MEK inhibition ...
Sex myoblast migration in the Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite represents a simple, genetically amenable model system for studying how cell migration is regulated during development. Two separable components of sex myoblast guidance have been described: a gonad-independent mechanism sufficient for the initial anterior migration to the mid-body region, and a gonad-dependent mechanism required for precise final positioning (J. H. Thomas, M. J. Stern and H. R. Horvitz (1990) Cell 62, 1041-1052). Here, we demonstrate a role for a Ras-mediated signal transduction pathway in controlling sex myoblast migration. Loss-of-function mutations in let-60 ras, ksr-1, lin-45 raf, let-537/mek-2 or sur-1/mpk-1 cause defects in sex myoblast final positions that resemble those seen in gonad-ablated animals, while constitutively active let-60 ras(G13E) trans-genes allow fairly precise positioning to occur in the absence of the gonad. A mosaic analysis demonstrated that let-60 ras is required ...

Qualitative Analysis of Genetic Regulatory Networks in Bacteria | SpringerLinkQualitative Analysis of Genetic Regulatory Networks in Bacteria | SpringerLink

Parameter estimation in models combining signal transduction and metabolic pathways: The dependent input approach. IET Syst. ... Analysis of signalling pathways using the PRISM model checker. In G. Plotkin, editor, Proc. of CMSB, pages 179-190, Edinburgh, ... Approximations and their consequences for dynamic modelling of signal transduction pathways. Math. Biosci., 207 (1): 40-57, ... Metabolic stability and epigenesis in randomly constructed genetic nets. J. Theor. Biol., 22 (3): 437-467, 1969.PubMedCrossRef ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-1-4419-7964-3_6

IJMS  | Free Full-Text | Investigation of Differences in Fertility among Progenies from Self-Pollinated Chrysanthemum | HTMLIJMS | Free Full-Text | Investigation of Differences in Fertility among Progenies from Self-Pollinated Chrysanthemum | HTML

In KEGG pathway analysis, significantly enriched metabolic pathways or signal transduction pathways were identified in DEGs. ... many of which are involved in signaling pathways downstream of the S-protein-mediated self-recognition machinery [12]. ... A total of 42,586 unigenes were assigned to 135 KEGG pathways (Table S3). The majority of these pathways were "metabolic ... A total of 43,970 unigenes were assigned to 135 KEGG pathways (Table S4). The majority of these pathways were "metabolic ...
more infohttp://mdpi.com/1422-0067/19/3/832/htm

Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Recent Advances in Understanding
Plant Development and Related Processes | OMICS InternationalSurface Plasmon Resonance Based Recent Advances in Understanding Plant Development and Related Processes | OMICS International

An in depth understanding of signal transduction events, metabolic pathways, cell cycle and cell death coordination using SPR ... Phytohormones and associated metabolic pathways and signaling events. *Identification of salicyclic acid binding proteins ( ... SPR technology has been used understand the hormone metabolic pathways and their signal transduction. ... such as signal transduction events, metabolic pathways, cell cycle, cell death coordination and so on. SPR provides excellent ...
more infohttps://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/surface-plasmon-resonance-based-recent-advances-in-understandingplant-development-and-related-processes-2161-1009-1000300.php?aid=84432

Development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a Model Pathogen: A System for the Genetic Identification of Gene Products Required...Development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a Model Pathogen: A System for the Genetic Identification of Gene Products Required...

Many conserved signal transduction and metabolic pathways are critical for fungal pathogenicity (Kirsch and Whitney 1991; M ... signaling pathways in S. cerevisiae and C. glabrata may be unable to activate the dimorphism pathway in vivo. In the future, it ... 2000). These conserved signal transduction and metabolic pathways are best understood in S. cerevisiae in large part because ... Given the evolutionary conservation of basic signal transduction and metabolic pathways in fungi and the results described here ...
more infohttps://www.genetics.org/content/159/2/499

Frontiers | Heparan Sulfate Induces Necroptosis in Murine Cardiomyocytes: A Medical-In silico Approach Combining In vitro...Frontiers | Heparan Sulfate Induces Necroptosis in Murine Cardiomyocytes: A Medical-In silico Approach Combining In vitro...

Cardiomyocytes exposed to heparan sulfate showed an activation of the intrinsic apoptosis signal pathway via cytochrome C and ... Cardiomyocytes exposed to heparan sulfate showed an activation of the intrinsic apoptosis signal pathway via cytochrome C and ... that this proof-of-concept is a first step towards simulating the extent of activated components in the pro-apoptotic pathway ... Several signalling pathways involved in apoptosis and necroptosis are linked to trauma or sepsis associated cardiomyopathy. The ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2018.00393/full

Frontiers | Global Transcriptome Profiling Analysis of Inhibitory Effects of Paclobutrazol on Leaf Growth in Lily (Lilium...Frontiers | Global Transcriptome Profiling Analysis of Inhibitory Effects of Paclobutrazol on Leaf Growth in Lily (Lilium...

By analyzing dynamic changes of differentially expressed genes, nine metabolic pathways and signal transduction pathways were ... GA metabolism and signaling transduction and these genes were highlighted to reveal their importance in regulation of plant ... By analyzing dynamic changes of differentially expressed genes, nine metabolic pathways and signal transduction pathways were ... Annotation, pathways, functional classification and phylogenetic classification of these data were analyzed based on Nr, Nt, ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2016.00491/full

Stony Brook University Graduate Bulletin - Fall 2019 - 
					HBYProgramsStony Brook University Graduate Bulletin - Fall 2019 - HBYPrograms

... signal transduction pathways and metabolic control. ... PI3 kinase signaling.. Mathias, Richard T.Professor, Ph.D., ... Konopka, James B.17, Professor, Ph.D., 1985, UCLA: G protein-coupled receptor signal transduction and yeast morphogenesis. ... Smith, Steven O.14, Professor, Ph.D., 1985, University of California, Berkeley: Molecular mechanisms of signal transduction. ... Bowen, Mark, Associate Professor, Ph.D., 1998 , , University of Illinois, Chicago; Molecular aspects of signal transduction. ...
more infohttps://www.stonybrook.edu/sb/graduatebulletin/current/academicprograms/hby/faculty.php

Maize Opaque Endosperm Mutations Create Extensive Changes in Patterns of Gene Expression | Plant CellMaize Opaque Endosperm Mutations Create Extensive Changes in Patterns of Gene Expression | Plant Cell

Primary metabolic pathways and signal transduction in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.): comparison of transcriptional profiling ... The Arabidopsis Nodulin Homeobox Factor AtNDX Interacts with AtRING1A/B and Negatively Regulates Abscisic Acid Signaling ... The aspartic acid metabolic pathway, an exciting and essential pathway in plants ... Use of signal thresholds to determine significant changes in microarray data analyses ...
more infohttp://www.plantcell.org/content/14/10/2591/tab-article-info

CK2 beta Antibody
		        
	CK2 beta Antibody

... a ubiquitous protein kinase which regulates metabolic pathways, signal transduction, transcription, translation, and ... Wnt signaling pathway positive regulation of activin receptor signaling pathway adiponectin-activated signaling pathway ... signal transduction negative regulation of cell proliferation positive regulation of pathway-restricted SMAD protein ... regulation of signal transduction by p53 class mediator ... of immunoprecipitated chromatin is presented as signal relative ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/antibody/product/Casein-Kinase-2-beta-Antibody-Polyclonal/PA5-27416

Chromosomal-Level Assembly of the Asian Seabass Genome Using Long Sequence Reads and Multi-layered ScaffoldingChromosomal-Level Assembly of the Asian Seabass Genome Using Long Sequence Reads and Multi-layered Scaffolding

Temporal pattern of loss/persistence of duplicate genes involved in signal transduction and metabolic pathways after teleost- ... 2013) Gonad differentiation in zebrafish is regulated by the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Biol Reprod 90(2): 45-56. * View ... Evolution of multiple phosphodiesterase isoforms in stickleback involved in cAMP signal transduction pathway. BMC Syst Biol 3: ... negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway (GO:0090090), cytokine receptor activity (GO:0004896), interleukin-1 ...
more infohttps://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1005954

Methods of Protein Destabilization and Uses Thereof - AURORA BIOSCIENCES CORPORATIONMethods of Protein Destabilization and Uses Thereof - AURORA BIOSCIENCES CORPORATION

... for example for regulating a multi-step metabolic or signal transduction pathway. ... Phosphorylation dependent degradation signals have also been identified in the transcription factors NF-κB and β-catenin, in ... to find useful compounds that are specific and selective for a particular protein or signal transduction or metabolic pathway. ... Altered expression of signal. Expression of enzymes. See PCT application. transduction enzymes. responsible for the post-. WO ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2011/0191873.html

Integrated metabolomics and genomics analysis provides new insights into the fiber elongation process in Ligon lintless-2...Integrated metabolomics and genomics analysis provides new insights into the fiber elongation process in Ligon lintless-2...

Gamma-aminobutyric acid, known as a signaling factor in many organisms, was significantly elevated in mutant fibers. Higher ... of factors associated with cell elongation found in this study will facilitate further research in understanding metabolic ... To understand metabolic processes involved in cotton fiber elongation, changes in metabolites and transcripts in the Li 2 ... Cotton fiber cell development is a complex and highly regulated process involving many metabolic pathways, signal transduction ...
more infohttps://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2164-14-155

Plus itPlus it

... of a proteins half-life is a common means of signal transduction and directly controlling biochemical/metabolic pathways (49 ... Schillace RV, Scott JD: Organization of kinases, phosphatases, and receptor signaling complexes. J Clin Invest 103:761-765, ... The fundamental problem with overexpressing these transgenes is that they deregulate metabolic pathways. In contrast, by ... In vivo metabolic analyses.. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed 2 weeks before and 2 weeks after the vector ...
more infohttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/50/8/1813

Analysis of metabolic pathways related to fertility restoration and identification of fertility candidate genes associated with...Analysis of metabolic pathways related to fertility restoration and identification of fertility candidate genes associated with...

... and it can identify the major biochemical metabolic pathways and signal transduction pathways for DEGs. According to the GO and ... Carbohydrates provide energy to maintain the development of the anthers and pollen, but they also act as signals that influence ... To clarify whether these DEGs regulate pollen development via these pathways, we mapped the metabolic pathways regulated by ... The metabolic pathways associated with these pathways could facilitate further analyses of the genes and molecular mechanisms ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1186%2Fs12870-019-1824-9

DiVA - Search resultDiVA - Search result

Progress in understanding signal transduction and metabolic pathways is hampered by a shortage of suitable sensors for tracking ... The vibration signals collected during I second were treated to yield power spectra that were used for all further work. A ... The signal-to-noise values obtained by SALDI-MS were 20-100 times higher compared with the ones obtained by using traditional ... Optimization of the signal of the analyte ions is also limited to adjustments of the applied voltage or the distance between ...
more infohttp://kth.diva-portal.org/smash/resultList.jsf?af=%5B%5D&aq=%5B%5B%7B%22categoryId%22%3A%2211529%22%7D%5D%5D&aqe=%5B%5D&aq2=%5B%5B%5D%5D&language=en&query=

Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Ming ChenProtocols and Video Articles Authored by Ming Chen

... signal transductions and metabolic pathways of living organisms. Although high-throughput technologies such as yeast two-hybrid ... Slit-Robo signaling had been reported to function as chemoattractive signal for vascular endothelial cells during angiogenesis ... Pathway Knockout and Redundancy in Metabolic Networks Journal of Theoretical Biology. Feb, 2011 , Pubmed ID: 21075121 The ... Indeed, pathway knockout considers additional effects of structural asymmetry. In the metabolic networks of amino acid ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/author/Ming_Chen

Oxygen Deficiency Responsive Gene Expression inChlamydomonas reinhardtii through a Copper-Sensing Signal Transduction Pathway |...Oxygen Deficiency Responsive Gene Expression inChlamydomonas reinhardtii through a Copper-Sensing Signal Transduction Pathway |...

Although these metabolic pathways have been substantially unraveled, the signal transduction mechanisms resulting in ... signal transduction mechanism. The existence of at least one other oxygen deficiency signaling pathway may allow the organism ... 6), indicating that the two signaling pathways have some common components. Yet, the oxygen deficiency signaling pathway is not ... Cyc6, Cpx1, and Crd1 are three target genes of a copper deficiency signal transduction pathway. Each is activated during ...
more infohttp://www.plantphysiol.org/content/128/2/463?ijkey=d83ab81ea144ffed6cf7c011946cb89d3cc3116d&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Adenylyl cyclase - Proteopedia, life in 3DAdenylyl cyclase - Proteopedia, life in 3D

... which is important in many signal transduction and metabolic pathways[6]. The main product of this reaction is cAMP, with a ... Exposure of these channels to cAMP causes them open, stopping the transmission of signals, and thus impairs higher cognitive ... In mammals adenylyl cyclase plays an important role in signal transduction pathways in which cAMP is a secondary messenger[12] ... This homodimer-forskolin complex can be further activated in response to a signal via binding to a G-proteins βγ-subunit [2][ ...
more infohttp://proteopedia.org/wiki/index.php/Adenylyl_cyclase

Adenylyl cyclase - Proteopedia, life in 3DAdenylyl cyclase - Proteopedia, life in 3D

... which is important in many signal transduction and metabolic pathways[6]. The main product of this reaction is cAMP, with a ... Exposure of these channels to cAMP causes them open, stopping the transmission of signals, and thus impairs higher cognitive ... In mammals adenylyl cyclase plays an important role in signal transduction pathways in which cAMP is a secondary messenger[13] ... This homodimer-forskolin complex can be further activated in response to a signal via binding to a G-proteins βγ-subunit [2][ ...
more infohttp://proteopedia.org/wiki/index.php/Adenylate_Cyclase

NATO Advanced Study Institute on Plant Molecular BiologyNATO Advanced Study Institute on Plant Molecular Biology

... and Function Membrane Machines Protein Trafficking Regulation of Metabolic Pathways Intercellular Transport Signal Transduction ... The NATO Advanced Study Institute on Plant Molecular Biology Cellular Integration of Signaling Pathways in Plant Development ... genetic and biochemical approaches to studying underexplored pathways. These workshops will be designed to be of value both to ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/plant-ed/1997-February/001671.html

Transcriptome analysis of callus from Picea balfouriana | BMC Genomics | Full TextTranscriptome analysis of callus from Picea balfouriana | BMC Genomics | Full Text

... metabolic pathways (starch and sucrose metabolism), and phenylalanine metabolism. We found that the initiation of embryogenic ... tissues affected gene expression in many KEGG pathways, but predominantly in plant hormone signal transduction, plant-pathogen ... The changes in multiple pathways related to induction in the P. balfouriana embryogenic tissues described here, will contribute ... KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analysis revealed that the most significantly altered genes were ...
more infohttps://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2164-15-553

Transcriptomic Responses of the Interactions between Clostridium cellulovorans 743B and Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009 in a...Transcriptomic Responses of the Interactions between Clostridium cellulovorans 743B and Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009 in a...

Furthermore, in order to identify significantly enriched metabolic pathways and signal transduction pathways related to the ... The MCPs then interact with the cytoplasmic signaling proteins (CheW and CheA), resulting in a change in the rate of ... Metabolic pathway engineering for enhanced biohydrogen production. Int J Hydrogen Energy 34:7404-7416. doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene. ... Genes and pathways that are associated with important cellular metabolic processes and deemed statistically significant are ...
more infohttps://aem.asm.org/content/82/15/4546?ijkey=f9dc675099565dd2d985c81784ebc065abfef186&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Coexpression-Based Clustering of Arabidopsis Root Genes Predicts Functional Modules in Early Phosphate Deficiency Signaling |...Coexpression-Based Clustering of Arabidopsis Root Genes Predicts Functional Modules in Early Phosphate Deficiency Signaling |...

Pi plays key roles in signal transduction cascades and in the regulation of metabolic pathways. Due to its low mobility in ... 2006) PHO2, microRNA399, and PHR1 define a phosphate-signaling pathway in plants. Plant Physiol 141: 988-999. ... genes that have been identified by genetic screenings into their positions in the puzzle of signaling or metabolic pathways. ... GPI-anchored proteins in general and AGPs in particular have been associated with activating signaling pathways by interacting ...
more infohttp://www.plantphysiol.org/content/155/3/1383

Novel expression profiles of microRNAs suggest that specific miRNAs regulate gene expression for the sexual maturation of...Novel expression profiles of microRNAs suggest that specific miRNAs regulate gene expression for the sexual maturation of...

... expressed miRNAs between 23SSI and 23DSI and their different functions indicated that more genes or metabolic pathways in ... KEGG pathway analysis revealed that in unpaired females, the highly-expressed miRNA-1, miRNA-71, miRNA-7, and miR-7-5p only ... Meanwhile, in paired mature females, highly-expressed bantam inhibited more biological pathways, such as the citrate cycle, ... inhibited the limited pathways, such as proteasome and ribosome assembly. ...
more infohttps://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1756-3305-7-177

CSNK2B - WikipediaCSNK2B - Wikipedia

... a ubiquitous protein kinase which regulates metabolic pathways, signal transduction, transcription, translation, and ... and dependence of CD163 signaling on CKII and protein kinase C". Eur. J. Immunol. Germany. 31 (4): 999-1009. doi:10.1002/1521- ... Signal. England. 20 (5): 942-8. doi:10.1016/j.cellsig.2008.01.010. ISSN 0898-6568. PMID 18276110. Block, K; Boyer T G; Yew P R ... a potential regulator of proteolysis and protein transport in the mammalian secretory pathway". Virology. 213 (2): 639-49. doi: ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CSNK2B
  • To understand metabolic processes involved in cotton fiber elongation, changes in metabolites and transcripts in the Li 2 mutant fibers were compared to wild-type fibers during development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A number of factors associated with cell elongation found in this study will facilitate further research in understanding metabolic processes of cotton fiber elongation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interaction of CD163 with the regulatory subunit of casein kinase II (CKII) and dependence of CD163 signaling on CKII and protein kinase C". Eur. (wikipedia.org)