Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.
A collective term for nutritional disorders resulting from poor absorption or nutritional imbalance, and metabolic disorders resulting from defects in biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) or breakdown (CATABOLISM) of endogenous substances.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Disorders affecting amino acid metabolism. The majority of these disorders are inherited and present in the neonatal period with metabolic disturbances (e.g., ACIDOSIS) and neurologic manifestations. They are present at birth, although they may not become symptomatic until later in life.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.
Inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism are genetic disorders that result from enzyme deficiencies or transport defects in the metabolic pathways responsible for breaking down and processing carbohydrates, leading to accumulation of toxic intermediates or energy deficits, and typically presenting with multisystem clinical manifestations.
A sirtuin family member found primarily in the CELL NUCLEUS. It is an NAD-dependent deacetylase with specificity towards HISTONES and a variety of proteins involved in gene regulation.
A group of disorders which have in common elevations of tyrosine in the blood and urine secondary to an enzyme deficiency. Type I tyrosinemia features episodic weakness, self-mutilation, hepatic necrosis, renal tubular injury, and seizures and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme fumarylacetoacetase. Type II tyrosinemia features INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY, painful corneal ulcers, and keratoses of the palms and plantar surfaces and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme TYROSINE TRANSAMINASE. Type III tyrosinemia features INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme 4-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp42-3)
A photoelectric method of recording an X-ray image on a coated metal plate, using low-energy photon beams, long exposure time and dry chemical developers.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that are activated by ligands and heterodimerize with RETINOID X RECEPTORS and bind to peroxisome proliferator response elements in the promoter regions of target genes.
Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.
Pathological conditions resulting from abnormal anabolism or catabolism of lipids in the body.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.
Disruptions of the rhythmic cycle of bodily functions or activities.
Ocular disorders attendant upon non-ocular disease or injury.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A subclass of histone deacetylases that are NAD-dependent. Several members of the SIRTUINS family are included in this subclass.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).
A large group of diseases which are characterized by a low prevalence in the population. They frequently are associated with problems in diagnosis and treatment.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Triglycerides are the most common type of fat in the body, stored in fat cells and used as energy; they are measured in blood tests to assess heart disease risk, with high levels often resulting from dietary habits, obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, and alcohol consumption.
The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.
Glucose in blood.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
An inherited disorder of connective tissue with extensive degeneration and calcification of ELASTIC TISSUE primarily in the skin, eye, and vasculature. At least two forms exist, autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant. This disorder is caused by mutations of one of the ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. Patients are predisposed to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION and GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.
Acquired or inborn metabolic diseases that produce brain dysfunction or damage. These include primary (i.e., disorders intrinsic to the brain) and secondary (i.e., extracranial) metabolic conditions that adversely affect cerebral function.
The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.
A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.
Salts and esters of the 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid heptanoic acid.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Errors in the metabolism of LIPIDS resulting from inborn genetic MUTATIONS that are heritable.
A homologous family of regulatory enzymes that are structurally related to the protein silent mating type information regulator 2 (Sir2) found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sirtuins contain a central catalytic core region which binds NAD. Several of the sirtuins utilize NAD to deacetylate proteins such as HISTONES and are categorized as GROUP III HISTONE DEACETYLASES. Several other sirtuin members utilize NAD to transfer ADP-RIBOSE to proteins and are categorized as MONO ADP-RIBOSE TRANSFERASES, while a third group of sirtuins appears to have both deacetylase and ADP ribose transferase activities.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A nuclear transcription factor. It is activated by PROSTACYCLIN.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.
Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.
De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with PPAR GAMMA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
A condition characterized by an abnormally elevated concentration of KETONE BODIES in the blood (acetonemia) or urine (acetonuria). It is a sign of DIABETES COMPLICATION, starvation, alcoholism or a mitochondrial metabolic disturbance (e.g., MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE).
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
Various physiological or molecular disturbances that impair ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM function. It triggers many responses, including UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE, which may lead to APOPTOSIS; and AUTOPHAGY.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.
A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of chenodeoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as detergent to solubilize fats in the small intestine and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)
A low-affinity 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase found in a variety of tissues, most notably in LIVER; LUNG; ADIPOSE TISSUE; vascular tissue; OVARY; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The enzyme acts reversibly and can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors.
Fat cells with dark coloration due to the densely packed MITOCHONDRIA. They contain numerous small lipid droplets or vacuoles. Their stored lipids can be converted directly to energy as heat by the mitochondria.
A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.
The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.
Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.
Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
Abstaining from all food.
A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC 2.7.4.3.
A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.
Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.
The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.
Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.

Viral gene delivery selectively restores feeding and prevents lethality of dopamine-deficient mice. (1/1017)

Dopamine-deficient mice (DA-/- ), lacking tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in dopaminergic neurons, become hypoactive and aphagic and die by 4 weeks of age. They are rescued by daily treatment with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA); each dose restores dopamine (DA) and feeding for less than 24 hr. Recombinant adeno-associated viruses expressing human TH or GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH1) were injected into the striatum of DA-/- mice. Bilateral coinjection of both viruses restored feeding behavior for several months. However, locomotor activity and coordination were partially improved. A virus expressing only TH was less effective, and one expressing GTPCH1 alone was ineffective. TH immunoreactivity and DA were detected in the ventral striatum and adjacent posterior regions of rescued mice, suggesting that these regions mediate a critical DA-dependent aspect of feeding behavior.  (+info)

Human molybdopterin synthase gene: genomic structure and mutations in molybdenum cofactor deficiency type B. (2/1017)

Biosynthesis of the molybdenum cofactor (MoCo) can be divided into (1) the formation of a precursor and (2) the latter's subsequent conversion, by molybdopterin synthase, into the organic moiety of MoCo. These two steps are reflected by the complementation groups A and B and the two formally distinguished types of MoCo deficiency that have an identical phenotype. Both types of MoCo deficiency result in a pleiotropic loss of all molybdoenzyme activities and cause severe neurological damage. MOCS1 is defective in patients with group A deficiency and has been shown to encode two enzymes for early synthesis via a bicistronic transcript with two consecutive open reading frames (ORFs). MOCS2 encodes the small and large subunits of molybdopterin synthase via a single transcript with two overlapping reading frames. This gene was mapped to 5q and comprises seven exons. The coding sequence and all splice site-junction sequences were screened for mutations, in MoCo-deficient patients in whom a previous search for MOCS1 mutations had been negative. In seven of the eight patients whom we investigated, we identified MOCS2 mutations that, by their nature, are most likely responsible for the deficiency. Three different frameshift mutations were observed, with one of them found on 7 of 14 identified alleles. Furthermore, a start-codon mutation and a missense mutation of a highly conserved amino acid residue were found. The locations of the mutations confirm the functional role of both ORFs. One of the patients with identified MOCS2 mutations had been classified as type B, in complementation studies. These findings support the hypothetical mechanism, for both forms of MoCo deficiency, that formerly had been established by cell-culture experiments.  (+info)

Does a high peritoneal transport rate reflect a state of chronic inflammation? (3/1017)

OBJECTIVE: It has recently been reported that a high peritoneal transport rate was associated with increased mortality in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. One possible explanation is that a high peritoneal transport rate might be caused by a state of chronic inflammation, which also per se might result in increased mortality. Therefore, in this study we investigated whether high peritoneal transport rate patients are in a state of chronic inflammation. METHODS: The study included 39 clinically stable peritoneal dialysis patients (free of peritonitis) who had been on PD for more than 3 months (16.8+/-11.8 months). Seven patients were treated with continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD) and the others were on CAPD. A 4-hour standard peritoneal equilibration test (PET) using 2.27% glucose solution was performed in each patient. Dialysate samples at 4 hours and blood samples at 2 hours were measured for interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor(alpha)(TNFalpha), C-reactive protein (CRP), and hyaluronan as markers of inflammation. RESULTS: There was no significant correlation between dialysate/plasma (DIP) creatinine (0.82+/-0.15, range 0.51 - 1.15) and blood concentrations of IL-1beta (11.2 ng/L, range <5 - 65.9 ng/L),TNFalpha (12.1 ng/L, range <5 - 85.4 ng/L), CRP (<10 mg/L, range <10 - 76 mg/L), nor with the blood hyaluronan concentration (165 microg/L, range 55 - 955 microg/L). The dialysate concentrations of IL-1beta and TNFalpha were below the detectable level in most of the samples. Although dialysate hyaluronan concentration (334 microg/L, range 89 - 1100 microg/L) was correlated with D/P creatinine (r= 0.36, p< 0.05), there was no correlation between the total amount of hyaluronan in the effluent and D/P creatinine. However, a significant correlation was found between serum hyaluronan concentration and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (r = -0.49, p< 0.005); GFR also tended to be correlated with serum TNFalpha (r = -0.31, p = 0.058) but not with serum IL-1beta and serum CRP. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that a high peritoneal transport rate is not necessarily related to a state of chronic inflammation in CAPD patients. The high mortality rate observed in high transporters may relate to other issues, such as fluid balance or abnormal nutrition and metabolism, rather than to chronic inflammation.  (+info)

Acute symptomatic seizures - incidence and etiological spectrum: a hospital-based study from South India. (4/1017)

We analysed the incidence and etiological spectrum of acute symptomatic seizures in 2531 patients with seizure disorder, both in-patients and out-patients, seen in a university hospital in South India. Seizure(s) occurred in close temporal association with an acute systemic, metabolic, or toxic insult or in association with an acute central nervous system (CNS) insult in 22.5% of patients. Of the 572 patients, 8% could be grouped under the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) category 4.1 and 92% under category 1.2. The seizure type was generalized in all the patients included in category 4.1 and 78% of patients grouped in category 2.1 had simple or complex partial seizure(s) with or without secondary generalization. Sixteen (3%) patients developed status epilepticus during the acute phase of illness and 7% of patients had only single seizure. Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) and single CT enhancing lesions (SCTEL) together accounted for 77% of the provoking factors in patients grouped under category 2.1. These two etiological factors together accounted for 95% of etiologies in patients aged under 16 years. SCTEL and neurocysticercosis together accounted for 67% of the provoking factors. In 14% of patients cerebrovascular diseases were the etiological factors and 60% of the patients were aged over 40 years. In patients with cerebrovascular diseases, aged under 40 years, cortical sinovenous thrombosis accounted for 37%. SCTEL was the provoking factor in 61% of patients with isolated seizure. Infections of CNS and SCTEL together accounted for 62.5% of etiological factors for status epilepticus. This study illustrates that the etiological spectrum of acute symptomatic seizures in this part of the world is different from that described from developed countries and CNS infections account for a significant number of cases.  (+info)

Hypermetabolism in clinically stable patients with liver cirrhosis. (5/1017)

BACKGROUND: Hypermetabolism has a negative effect on prognosis in patients with liver cirrhosis. Its exact prevalence and associations with clinical data, the nutritional state, and beta-adrenergic activity are unclear. OBJECTIVE: We investigated resting energy expenditure (REE) in 473 patients with biopsy-proven liver cirrhosis. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study with a controlled intervention (beta-blockade) in a subgroup of patients. RESULTS: Mean REE was 7.12 +/- 1.34 MJ/d and correlated closely with predicted values (r = 0.70, P < 0.0001). Hypermetabolism was seen in 160 patients with cirrhosis (33.8% of the study population). REE was > 30% above the predicted value in 41% of the hypermetabolic patients with cirrhosis. Hypermetabolism had no association with clinical or biochemical data on liver function. REE correlated with total body potassium content (TBP; r = 0.49, P < 0.0001). Hypermetabolic patients had lower than normal body weight and TBP (P < 0.05). About 47% of the variance in REE could be explained by body composition whereas clinical state could maximally explain 3%. Plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations were elevated in hypermetabolic cirrhotic patients (by 56% and 41%, respectively; P < 0.001 and 0.01). Differences in REE from predicted values were positively correlated with epinephrine concentration (r = 0.462, P < 0.001). Propranolol infusion resulted in a decrease in energy expenditure (by 5 +/- 3%; P < 0.05), heart rate (by 13 +/- 4%; P < 0.01), and plasma lactate concentrations (by 32 +/- 12%; P < 0.01); these effects were more pronounced in hypermetabolic patients (by 50%, 33%, and 68%, respectively; each P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Hypermetabolism has no association with clinical data and thus is an extrahepatic manifestation of liver disease. Increased beta-adrenergic activity may explain approximately 25% of hypermetabolism.  (+info)

Effect on cytokine release and graft-versus-host disease of different anti-T cell antibodies during conditioning for unrelated haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (6/1017)

Three different types of anti-T cell antibody were used in patients undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with an HLA-A, -B and -DR compatible unrelated donor: ATG-Fresenius (ATG-F) (n = 26), Thymoglobuline (TMG) (n = 61) and OKT-3 (n = 45). The groups were comparable regarding diagnosis, stage, age, conditioning and GVHD prophylaxis, Adverse events were less frequent after ATG-F treatment. Levels of IL-2, IL-6, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and GM-CSF were increased after OKT-3 infusion. In multivariate analysis OKT-3 treatment (P = 0.01), G-CSF treatment (P = 0.02) and a cell dose >/=2.7 x 108/kg (P = 0.03) gave a faster engraftment. Acute GVHD grades II-IV occurred in 25% of the ATG-F patients, 12% of the TMG-patients and 43% (P < 0.001 vs TMG) of the OKT-3 patients. OKT-3 was associated with acute GVHD in multivariate analysis. TRM was 26% using TMG as compared to 43% in the OKT-3 group (P = 0.03). Patient survival at 4 years was 63%, 50% and 45% in the ATG-F, TMG and OKT-3-treated patients, respectively (NS). Relapses were 8%, 49% and 34%, respectively (ATG-F vs TMG, P = 0.03). Relapse-free survivals were 61%, 40% and 37% (NS). Among CML patients the probability of relapse was 61% in TMG-treated patients, while no patients relapsed in the other two groups. To conclude, the type of anti-T cell antibody affects GVHD and relapse after HSCT using unrelated donors.  (+info)

Itraconazole oral solution as antifungal prophylaxis in children undergoing stem cell transplantation or intensive chemotherapy for haematological disorders. (7/1017)

This was an open study of oral antifungal prophylaxis in 103 neutropenic children aged 0-14 (median 5) years. Most (90%) were undergoing transplantation for haematological conditions (77% allogeneic BMT, 7% autologous BMT, 6% PBSC transplants and 10% chemotherapy alone). They received 5.0 mg/kg itraconazole/day (in 10 mg/ml cyclodextrin solution). Where possible, prophylaxis was started at least 7 days before the onset of neutropenia and continued until neutrophil recovery. Of the 103 who entered the study, 47 completed the course of prophylaxis, 27 withdrew because of poor compliance, 19 because of adverse events and 10 for other reasons. Two patients died during the study and another five died within the subsequent 30 days. No proven systemic fungal infections occurred, but 26 patients received i.v. amphotericin for antibiotic-unresponsive pyrexia. One patient received amphotericin for mycologically confirmed oesophageal candidosis. Three patients developed suspected oral candidosis but none was mycologically proven and no treatment was given. Serious adverse events (other than death) occurred in 21 patients, including convulsions (7), suspected drug interactions (6), abdominal pain (4) and constipation (4). The most common adverse events considered definitely or possibly related to itraconazole were vomiting (12), abnormal liver function (5) and abdominal pain (3). Tolerability of study medication at end-point was rated as good (55%), moderate (11%), poor (17%) or unacceptable (17%). Some patients had poor oral intakes due to mucositis. No unexpected problems of safety or tolerability were encountered. We conclude that itraconazole oral solution may be used as antifungal prophylaxis for neutropenic children.  (+info)

Adverse metabolic disorders during highly active antiretroviral treatments (HAART) of HIV disease. (8/1017)

Protease inhibitor treatment has dramatically improved rates of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients. However, it has recently been shown that this medication is associated with long-term side effects characterized by metabolic, clinical and biological alterations. These modifications have been described in patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), including nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and generally (but not always) protease inhibitors (PI). Clinical alterations are characterised by a body fat redistribution syndrome or lipodystrophy, with peripheral lipoatrophy and/or central fat accumulation. They are often associated with biological alterations, i.e. insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia, which can also be observed alone. The pathophysiology of these alterations is presently unknown. The deleterious effect of PI on adipose tissue could be direct or indirect, and is probably modulated by genetic or environmental factors. NRTI could also be involved because of their mitochondrial toxicity. The purpose of the treatment is to control metabolic disturbances in order to prevent immediate complications such as acute pancreatitis and limit possible cardiovascular and diabetic complications at longer term. Studies are in progress to evaluate the possibility of therapeutic alternatives to PI when major metabolic disturbances are present.  (+info)

Metabolic diseases are a group of disorders caused by abnormal chemical reactions in your body's cells. These reactions are part of a complex process called metabolism, where your body converts the food you eat into energy.

There are several types of metabolic diseases, but they most commonly result from:

1. Your body not producing enough of certain enzymes that are needed to convert food into energy.
2. Your body producing too much of certain substances or toxins, often due to a genetic disorder.

Examples of metabolic diseases include phenylketonuria (PKU), diabetes, and gout. PKU is a rare condition where the body cannot break down an amino acid called phenylalanine, which can lead to serious health problems if left untreated. Diabetes is a common disorder that occurs when your body doesn't produce enough insulin or can't properly use the insulin it produces, leading to high blood sugar levels. Gout is a type of arthritis that results from too much uric acid in the body, which can form crystals in the joints and cause pain and inflammation.

Metabolic diseases can be inherited or acquired through environmental factors such as diet or lifestyle choices. Many metabolic diseases can be managed with proper medical care, including medication, dietary changes, and lifestyle modifications.

Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) refer to a group of genetic disorders caused by defects in enzymes or transporters that play a role in the body's metabolic processes. These disorders result in the accumulation or deficiency of specific chemicals within the body, which can lead to various clinical manifestations, such as developmental delay, intellectual disability, seizures, organ damage, and in some cases, death.

Examples of IEM include phenylketonuria (PKU), maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), galactosemia, and glycogen storage diseases, among many others. These disorders are typically inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning that an affected individual has two copies of the mutated gene, one from each parent.

Early diagnosis and management of IEM are crucial to prevent or minimize complications and improve outcomes. Treatment options may include dietary modifications, supplementation with missing enzymes or cofactors, medication, and in some cases, stem cell transplantation or gene therapy.

Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases refer to a group of conditions that result from a disturbance in the normal metabolism of nutrients, essential chemicals needed for the body's functions, or from a deficiency or excess in the diet. These diseases can occur due to genetic factors, poor nutrition, environmental influences, or a combination of these. They can affect various organs and systems in the body, leading to symptoms such as weakness, weight loss or gain, digestive problems, neurological issues, and impaired growth and development. Examples include diabetes mellitus, obesity, phenylketonuria (PKU), and scurvy.

Obesity is a complex disease characterized by an excess accumulation of body fat to the extent that it negatively impacts health. It's typically defined using Body Mass Index (BMI), a measure calculated from a person's weight and height. A BMI of 30 or higher is indicative of obesity. However, it's important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying obesity in populations, it does not directly measure body fat and may not accurately reflect health status in individuals. Other factors such as waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and blood sugar levels should also be considered when assessing health risks associated with weight.

Insulin resistance is a condition in which the body's cells become less responsive to insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates blood sugar levels. In response to this decreased sensitivity, the pancreas produces more insulin to help glucose enter the cells. However, over time, the pancreas may not be able to keep up with the increased demand for insulin, leading to high levels of glucose in the blood and potentially resulting in type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, or other health issues such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Insulin resistance is often associated with obesity, physical inactivity, and genetic factors.

Lipid metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down and utilizes lipids (fats) for various functions, such as energy production, cell membrane formation, and hormone synthesis. This complex process involves several enzymes and pathways that regulate the digestion, absorption, transport, storage, and consumption of fats in the body.

The main types of lipids involved in metabolism include triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and fatty acids. The breakdown of these lipids begins in the digestive system, where enzymes called lipases break down dietary fats into smaller molecules called fatty acids and glycerol. These molecules are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to the liver, which is the main site of lipid metabolism.

In the liver, fatty acids may be further broken down for energy production or used to synthesize new lipids. Excess fatty acids may be stored as triglycerides in specialized cells called adipocytes (fat cells) for later use. Cholesterol is also metabolized in the liver, where it may be used to synthesize bile acids, steroid hormones, and other important molecules.

Disorders of lipid metabolism can lead to a range of health problems, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). These conditions may be caused by genetic factors, lifestyle habits, or a combination of both. Proper diagnosis and management of lipid metabolism disorders typically involves a combination of dietary changes, exercise, and medication.

Energy metabolism is the process by which living organisms produce and consume energy to maintain life. It involves a series of chemical reactions that convert nutrients from food, such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, into energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

The process of energy metabolism can be divided into two main categories: catabolism and anabolism. Catabolism is the breakdown of nutrients to release energy, while anabolism is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler ones using energy.

There are three main stages of energy metabolism: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), and oxidative phosphorylation. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell and involves the breakdown of glucose into pyruvate, producing a small amount of ATP and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The citric acid cycle takes place in the mitochondria and involves the further breakdown of pyruvate to produce more ATP, NADH, and carbon dioxide. Oxidative phosphorylation is the final stage of energy metabolism and occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It involves the transfer of electrons from NADH and other electron carriers to oxygen, which generates a proton gradient across the membrane. This gradient drives the synthesis of ATP, producing the majority of the cell's energy.

Overall, energy metabolism is a complex and essential process that allows organisms to grow, reproduce, and maintain their bodily functions. Disruptions in energy metabolism can lead to various diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Inborn errors of amino acid metabolism refer to genetic disorders that affect the body's ability to properly break down and process individual amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. These disorders can result in an accumulation of toxic levels of certain amino acids or their byproducts in the body, leading to a variety of symptoms and health complications.

There are many different types of inborn errors of amino acid metabolism, each affecting a specific amino acid or group of amino acids. Some examples include:

* Phenylketonuria (PKU): This disorder affects the breakdown of the amino acid phenylalanine, leading to its accumulation in the body and causing brain damage if left untreated.
* Maple syrup urine disease: This disorder affects the breakdown of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine, leading to their accumulation in the body and causing neurological problems.
* Homocystinuria: This disorder affects the breakdown of the amino acid methionine, leading to its accumulation in the body and causing a range of symptoms including developmental delay, intellectual disability, and cardiovascular problems.

Treatment for inborn errors of amino acid metabolism typically involves dietary restrictions or supplementation to manage the levels of affected amino acids in the body. In some cases, medication or other therapies may also be necessary. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent or minimize the severity of symptoms and health complications associated with these disorders.

Metabolic syndrome, also known as Syndrome X, is a cluster of conditions that increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. It is not a single disease but a group of risk factors that often co-occur. According to the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, a person has metabolic syndrome if they have any three of the following five conditions:

1. Abdominal obesity (waist circumference of 40 inches or more in men, and 35 inches or more in women)
2. Triglyceride level of 150 milligrams per deciliter of blood (mg/dL) or greater
3. HDL cholesterol level of less than 40 mg/dL in men or less than 50 mg/dL in women
4. Systolic blood pressure of 130 millimeters of mercury (mmHg) or greater, or diastolic blood pressure of 85 mmHg or greater
5. Fasting glucose level of 100 mg/dL or greater

Metabolic syndrome is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as physical inactivity and a diet high in refined carbohydrates and unhealthy fats. Treatment typically involves making lifestyle changes, such as eating a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, and losing weight if necessary. In some cases, medication may also be needed to manage individual components of the syndrome, such as high blood pressure or high cholesterol.

Fetal development is the process in which a fertilized egg grows and develops into a fetus, which is a developing human being from the end of the eighth week after conception until birth. This complex process involves many different stages, including:

1. Fertilization: The union of a sperm and an egg to form a zygote.
2. Implantation: The movement of the zygote into the lining of the uterus, where it will begin to grow and develop.
3. Formation of the embryo: The development of the basic structures of the body, including the neural tube (which becomes the brain and spinal cord), heart, gastrointestinal tract, and sensory organs.
4. Differentiation of tissues and organs: The process by which different cells and tissues become specialized to perform specific functions.
5. Growth and maturation: The continued growth and development of the fetus, including the formation of bones, muscles, and other tissues.

Fetal development is a complex and highly regulated process that involves the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Proper nutrition, prenatal care, and avoidance of harmful substances such as tobacco, alcohol, and drugs are important for ensuring healthy fetal development.

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 is a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood glucose (or sugar) levels resulting from the body's inability to produce sufficient amounts of insulin or effectively use the insulin it produces. This form of diabetes usually develops gradually over several years and is often associated with older age, obesity, physical inactivity, family history of diabetes, and certain ethnicities.

In Type 2 diabetes, the body's cells become resistant to insulin, meaning they don't respond properly to the hormone. As a result, the pancreas produces more insulin to help glucose enter the cells. Over time, the pancreas can't keep up with the increased demand, leading to high blood glucose levels and diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes is managed through lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, regular exercise, and a healthy diet. Medications, including insulin therapy, may also be necessary to control blood glucose levels and prevent long-term complications associated with the disease, such as heart disease, nerve damage, kidney damage, and vision loss.

Adipose tissue, also known as fatty tissue, is a type of connective tissue that is composed mainly of adipocytes (fat cells). It is found throughout the body, but is particularly abundant in the abdominal cavity, beneath the skin, and around organs such as the heart and kidneys.

Adipose tissue serves several important functions in the body. One of its primary roles is to store energy in the form of fat, which can be mobilized and used as an energy source during periods of fasting or exercise. Adipose tissue also provides insulation and cushioning for the body, and produces hormones that help regulate metabolism, appetite, and reproductive function.

There are two main types of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). WAT is the more common form and is responsible for storing energy as fat. BAT, on the other hand, contains a higher number of mitochondria and is involved in heat production and energy expenditure.

Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue can lead to obesity, which is associated with an increased risk of various health problems such as diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is not a standard or widely recognized medical term. It seems to be a rather broad and vague phrase that combines several concepts: prenatal (occurring before birth), nutritional (relating to nutrition), physiological (relating to the functioning of living organisms and their parts), and phenomena (observable events or occurrences).

If you're interested in a specific aspect of maternal and fetal nutrition, physiology, or related processes during pregnancy, I would be happy to help further if you could provide a more precise term or question. For example, prenatal nutritional physiological phenomena could refer to the process of how certain nutrients are transported across the placenta, how maternal nutrition affects fetal growth and development, or how various hormonal and metabolic changes occur during pregnancy.

Inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism refer to genetic disorders that affect the body's ability to break down and process carbohydrates, which are sugars and starches that provide energy for the body. These disorders are caused by defects in enzymes or transport proteins that play a critical role in the metabolic pathways involved in carbohydrate metabolism.

There are several types of inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism, including:

1. Galactosemia: This disorder affects the body's ability to metabolize the sugar galactose, which is found in milk and other dairy products. It is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase.
2. Glycogen storage diseases: These disorders affect the body's ability to store and break down glycogen, which is a complex carbohydrate that serves as a source of energy for the body. There are several types of glycogen storage diseases, each caused by a deficiency in a different enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism.
3. Hereditary fructose intolerance: This disorder affects the body's ability to metabolize the sugar fructose, which is found in fruits and sweeteners. It is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme aldolase B.
4. Pentose phosphate pathway disorders: These disorders affect the body's ability to metabolize certain sugars and generate energy through the pentose phosphate pathway. They are caused by defects in enzymes involved in this pathway.

Symptoms of inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism can vary widely depending on the specific disorder and its severity. Treatment typically involves dietary restrictions, supplementation with necessary enzymes or cofactors, and management of complications. In some cases, enzyme replacement therapy or even organ transplantation may be considered.

Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a NAD+-dependent deacetylase enzyme that plays a crucial role in regulating several cellular processes, including metabolism, aging, stress resistance, inflammation, and DNA repair. It is primarily located in the nucleus but can also be found in the cytoplasm. SIRT1 regulates gene expression by removing acetyl groups from histones and transcription factors, thereby modulating their activity and function.

SIRT1 has been shown to have protective effects against various age-related diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. Its activation has been suggested to promote longevity and improve overall health by enhancing cellular stress resistance and metabolic efficiency. However, further research is needed to fully understand the therapeutic potential of SIRT1 modulation in various diseases.

Tyrosinemia is a rare genetic disorder that affects the way the body metabolizes the amino acid tyrosine, which is found in many protein-containing foods. There are three types of tyrosinemia, but type I, also known as hepatorenal tyrosinemia or Hawkins' syndrome, is the most severe and common form.

Tyrosinemia type I is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme fumarylacetoacetase, which is necessary for the breakdown of tyrosine in the body. As a result, toxic intermediates accumulate and can cause damage to the liver, kidneys, and nervous system. Symptoms of tyrosinemia type I may include failure to thrive, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, jaundice, and mental developmental delays.

If left untreated, tyrosinemia type I can lead to serious complications such as liver cirrhosis, liver cancer, kidney damage, and neurological problems. Treatment typically involves a low-tyrosine diet, medication to reduce tyrosine production, and sometimes liver transplantation. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for improving outcomes in individuals with tyrosinemia type I.

Xeroradiography is not a commonly used medical imaging modality today, but it was once widely used in the past. It's a form of diagnostic radiography that uses x-rays to produce images on a special type of electrically charged, light-sensitive paper, similar to a photocopier or xerographic machine.

The xeroradiography process involves several steps:

1. The patient is positioned between the x-ray source and an imaging plate, which is coated with a layer of selenium.
2. X-rays pass through the patient and strike the selenium layer, causing it to release electrons that are attracted to and collected by a positively charged wire grid on the backside of the plate.
3. The charged areas of the plate are then dusted with a fine powder called "toner," which adheres to the charged areas.
4. A high-voltage electrical charge is applied to the plate, causing the toner to become electrically attracted to and fused to a sheet of paper that is pressed against the plate.
5. The resulting image on the paper shows areas of increased x-ray absorption (such as bones) as white or light gray, while areas of lower x-ray absorption (such as soft tissues) appear darker.

Xeroradiography was known for its high-resolution images and ability to detect subtle differences in tissue density. However, it has largely been replaced by digital radiography and other imaging modalities that offer similar or better image quality with lower radiation doses and greater convenience.

Homeostasis is a fundamental concept in the field of medicine and physiology, referring to the body's ability to maintain a stable internal environment, despite changes in external conditions. It is the process by which biological systems regulate their internal environment to remain in a state of dynamic equilibrium. This is achieved through various feedback mechanisms that involve sensors, control centers, and effectors, working together to detect, interpret, and respond to disturbances in the system.

For example, the body maintains homeostasis through mechanisms such as temperature regulation (through sweating or shivering), fluid balance (through kidney function and thirst), and blood glucose levels (through insulin and glucagon secretion). When homeostasis is disrupted, it can lead to disease or dysfunction in the body.

In summary, homeostasis is the maintenance of a stable internal environment within biological systems, through various regulatory mechanisms that respond to changes in external conditions.

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs) are a group of nuclear receptor proteins that function as transcription factors, regulating the expression of specific genes. They play crucial roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis, lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and inflammation.

There are three major subtypes of PPARs: PPAR-α, PPAR-β/δ, and PPAR-γ. These subtypes have different tissue distributions and functions:

1. PPAR-α: Predominantly expressed in the liver, heart, kidney, and brown adipose tissue. It regulates fatty acid oxidation, lipoprotein metabolism, and glucose homeostasis.
2. PPAR-β/δ: Expressed more widely in various tissues, including the brain, muscle, adipose tissue, and skin. It is involved in fatty acid oxidation, cell differentiation, and wound healing.
3. PPAR-γ: Primarily expressed in adipose tissue, macrophages, and the colon. It plays a central role in adipocyte differentiation, lipid storage, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation.

PPARs are activated by specific ligands, such as fatty acids, eicosanoids, and synthetic compounds like fibrates (PPAR-α agonists) and thiazolidinediones (PPAR-γ agonists). These agonists have been used in the treatment of metabolic disorders, including dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes.

A high-fat diet is a type of eating plan that derives a significant proportion of its daily caloric intake from fat sources. While there is no universally agreed-upon definition for what constitutes a high-fat diet, it generally refers to diets in which total fat intake provides more than 30-35% of the total daily calories.

High-fat diets can vary widely in their specific composition and may include different types of fats, such as saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and trans fats. Some high-fat diets emphasize the consumption of whole, unprocessed foods that are naturally high in fat, like nuts, seeds, avocados, fish, and olive oil. Others may allow for or even encourage the inclusion of processed and high-fat animal products, such as red meat, butter, and full-fat dairy.

It's important to note that not all high-fat diets are created equal, and some may be more healthful than others depending on their specific composition and the individual's overall dietary patterns. Some research suggests that high-fat diets that are low in carbohydrates and moderate in protein may offer health benefits for weight loss, blood sugar control, and cardiovascular risk factors, while other studies have raised concerns about the potential negative effects of high-fat diets on heart health and metabolic function.

As with any dietary approach, it's important to consult with a healthcare provider or registered dietitian before making significant changes to your eating habits, especially if you have any underlying medical conditions or are taking medications that may be affected by dietary changes.

Adipocytes are specialized cells that comprise adipose tissue, also known as fat tissue. They are responsible for storing energy in the form of lipids, particularly triglycerides, and releasing energy when needed through a process called lipolysis. There are two main types of adipocytes: white adipocytes and brown adipocytes. White adipocytes primarily store energy, while brown adipocytes dissipate energy as heat through the action of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1).

In addition to their role in energy metabolism, adipocytes also secrete various hormones and signaling molecules that contribute to whole-body homeostasis. These include leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and inflammatory cytokines. Dysregulation of adipocyte function has been implicated in the development of obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Neonatal screening is a medical procedure in which specific tests are performed on newborn babies within the first few days of life to detect certain congenital or inherited disorders that are not otherwise clinically apparent at birth. These conditions, if left untreated, can lead to serious health problems, developmental delays, or even death.

The primary goal of neonatal screening is to identify affected infants early so that appropriate treatment and management can be initiated as soon as possible, thereby improving their overall prognosis and quality of life. Commonly screened conditions include phenylketonuria (PKU), congenital hypothyroidism, galactosemia, maple syrup urine disease, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis, and hearing loss, among others.

Neonatal screening typically involves collecting a small blood sample from the infant's heel (heel stick) or through a dried blood spot card, which is then analyzed using various biochemical, enzymatic, or genetic tests. In some cases, additional tests such as hearing screenings and pulse oximetry for critical congenital heart disease may also be performed.

It's important to note that neonatal screening is not a diagnostic tool but rather an initial step in identifying infants who may be at risk of certain conditions. Positive screening results should always be confirmed with additional diagnostic tests before any treatment decisions are made.

Lipid metabolism disorders are a group of conditions that result from abnormalities in the breakdown, transport, or storage of lipids (fats) in the body. These disorders can lead to an accumulation of lipids in various tissues and organs, causing them to function improperly.

There are several types of lipid metabolism disorders, including:

1. Hyperlipidemias: These are conditions characterized by high levels of cholesterol or triglycerides in the blood. They can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and pancreatitis.
2. Hypercholesterolemia: This is a condition characterized by high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, also known as "bad" cholesterol, in the blood. It can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
3. Hypocholesterolemias: These are conditions characterized by low levels of cholesterol in the blood. Some of these disorders may be associated with an increased risk of cancer and neurological disorders.
4. Hypertriglyceridemias: These are conditions characterized by high levels of triglycerides in the blood. They can increase the risk of pancreatitis and cardiovascular disease.
5. Lipodystrophies: These are conditions characterized by abnormalities in the distribution of body fat, which can lead to metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance, diabetes, and high levels of triglycerides.
6. Disorders of fatty acid oxidation: These are conditions that affect the body's ability to break down fatty acids for energy, leading to muscle weakness, liver dysfunction, and in some cases, life-threatening neurological complications.

Lipid metabolism disorders can be inherited or acquired, and their symptoms and severity can vary widely depending on the specific disorder and the individual's overall health status. Treatment may include lifestyle changes, medications, and dietary modifications to help manage lipid levels and prevent complications.

Inflammation is a complex biological response of tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is characterized by the following signs: rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), calor (heat), dolor (pain), and functio laesa (loss of function). The process involves the activation of the immune system, recruitment of white blood cells, and release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to the elimination of the injurious stimuli and initiation of the healing process. However, uncontrolled or chronic inflammation can also lead to tissue damage and diseases.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Fatty liver, also known as hepatic steatosis, is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal accumulation of fat in the liver. The liver's primary function is to process nutrients, filter blood, and fight infections, among other tasks. When excess fat builds up in the liver cells, it can impair liver function and lead to inflammation, scarring, and even liver failure if left untreated.

Fatty liver can be caused by various factors, including alcohol consumption, obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), viral hepatitis, and certain medications or medical conditions. NAFLD is the most common cause of fatty liver in the United States and other developed countries, affecting up to 25% of the population.

Symptoms of fatty liver may include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain or discomfort, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). However, many people with fatty liver do not experience any symptoms, making it essential to diagnose and manage the condition through regular check-ups and blood tests.

Treatment for fatty liver depends on the underlying cause. Lifestyle changes such as weight loss, exercise, and dietary modifications are often recommended for people with NAFLD or alcohol-related fatty liver disease. Medications may also be prescribed to manage related conditions such as diabetes, high cholesterol, or metabolic syndrome. In severe cases of liver damage, a liver transplant may be necessary.

Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets, primarily in response to elevated levels of glucose in the circulating blood. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood glucose levels and facilitating the uptake and utilization of glucose by peripheral tissues, such as muscle and adipose tissue, for energy production and storage. Insulin also inhibits glucose production in the liver and promotes the storage of excess glucose as glycogen or triglycerides.

Deficiency in insulin secretion or action leads to impaired glucose regulation and can result in conditions such as diabetes mellitus, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and associated complications. Exogenous insulin is used as a replacement therapy in individuals with diabetes to help manage their blood glucose levels and prevent long-term complications.

Adipose tissue, white is a type of fatty tissue in the body that functions as the primary form of energy storage. It is composed of adipocytes, which are specialized cells that store energy in the form of lipids, primarily triglycerides. The main function of white adipose tissue is to provide energy to the body during periods of fasting or exercise by releasing free fatty acids into the bloodstream. It also plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis by regulating metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation. White adipose tissue can be found throughout the body, including beneath the skin (subcutaneous) and surrounding internal organs (visceral).

Chronobiology disorders are a group of conditions that involve disruptions in the body's internal biological clock, which regulates various physiological processes such as sleep-wake cycles, hormone release, and metabolism. These disorders can result in a variety of symptoms, including difficulty sleeping, changes in mood and energy levels, and problems with cognitive function.

Some common examples of chronobiology disorders include:

1. Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome (DSPS): This condition is characterized by a persistent delay in the timing of sleep, so that an individual's preferred bedtime is significantly later than what is considered normal. As a result, they may have difficulty falling asleep and waking up at socially acceptable times.
2. Advanced Sleep Phase Syndrome (ASPS): In this condition, individuals experience an earlier-than-normal timing of sleep, so that they become sleepy and wake up several hours earlier than most people.
3. Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder: This disorder is characterized by a persistent mismatch between the individual's internal biological clock and the 24-hour day, resulting in irregular sleep-wake patterns that can vary from day to day.
4. Irregular Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder: In this condition, individuals experience a lack of consistent sleep-wake patterns, with multiple periods of sleep and wakefulness throughout the 24-hour day.
5. Shift Work Sleep Disorder: This disorder is caused by the disruption of normal sleep-wake patterns due to working irregular hours, such as night shifts or rotating schedules.
6. Jet Lag Disorder: This condition occurs when an individual travels across time zones and experiences a temporary mismatch between their internal biological clock and the new local time.

Treatment for chronobiology disorders may include lifestyle changes, such as adjusting sleep schedules and exposure to light, as well as medications that can help regulate sleep-wake cycles. In some cases, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) may also be helpful in managing these conditions.

Eye manifestations refer to any changes or abnormalities in the eye that can be observed or detected. These manifestations can be related to various medical conditions, diseases, or disorders affecting the eye or other parts of the body. They can include structural changes, such as swelling or bulging of the eye, as well as functional changes, such as impaired vision or sensitivity to light. Examples of eye manifestations include cataracts, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, and uveitis.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Group III histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a subfamily of enzymes that remove acetyl groups from lysine residues on histone proteins, which make up the structural core of chromatin in eukaryotic cells. This deacetylation results in a more compact and condensed chromatin structure, which typically leads to transcriptional repression of genes.

Group III HDACs specifically include HDACs 8 and 10. These enzymes are characterized by their unique domain organization and sequence homology. Unlike other HDAC families, Group III HDACs do not require zinc for their catalytic activity and instead utilize a conserved NAD+-binding site. This distinctive feature allows them to be inhibited by NAD+ analogs, which has led to the development of potential therapeutic strategies for various diseases, including cancer.

HDAC8 is widely expressed in different tissues and has been implicated in several cellular processes, such as transcriptional regulation, chromatin remodeling, and cell cycle progression. Mutations in HDAC8 have been associated with developmental disorders, such as Cornelia de Lange syndrome.

HDAC10 is also expressed in various tissues and has been shown to play roles in regulating autophagy, DNA damage response, and inflammation. Dysregulation of Group III HDACs has been linked to the pathogenesis of several diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.

Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by elevated levels of glucose in the blood (hyperglycemia) due to absolute or relative deficiency in insulin secretion and/or insulin action. There are two main types: Type 1 diabetes, which results from the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells leading to insulin deficiency, and Type 2 diabetes, which is associated with insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency.

Type 1 diabetes typically presents in childhood or young adulthood, while Type 2 diabetes tends to occur later in life, often in association with obesity and physical inactivity. Both types of diabetes can lead to long-term complications such as damage to the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and cardiovascular system if left untreated or not well controlled.

The diagnosis of diabetes is usually made based on fasting plasma glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance tests, or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels. Treatment typically involves lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise, along with medications to lower blood glucose levels and manage associated conditions.

Phenylketonurias (PKU) is a genetic disorder characterized by the body's inability to properly metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine, due to a deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. This results in a buildup of phenylalanine in the blood and other tissues, which can cause serious neurological problems if left untreated.

The condition is typically detected through newborn screening and can be managed through a strict diet that limits the intake of phenylalanine. If left untreated, PKU can lead to intellectual disability, seizures, behavioral problems, and other serious health issues. In some cases, medication or a liver transplant may also be necessary to manage the condition.

A rare disease, also known as an orphan disease, is a health condition that affects fewer than 200,000 people in the United States or fewer than 1 in 2,000 people in Europe. There are over 7,000 rare diseases identified, and many of them are severe, chronic, and often life-threatening. The causes of rare diseases can be genetic, infectious, environmental, or degenerative. Due to their rarity, research on rare diseases is often underfunded, and treatments may not be available or well-studied. Additionally, the diagnosis of rare diseases can be challenging due to a lack of awareness and understanding among healthcare professionals.

Glucose is a simple monosaccharide (or single sugar) that serves as the primary source of energy for living organisms. It's a fundamental molecule in biology, often referred to as "dextrose" or "grape sugar." Glucose has the molecular formula C6H12O6 and is vital to the functioning of cells, especially those in the brain and nervous system.

In the body, glucose is derived from the digestion of carbohydrates in food, and it's transported around the body via the bloodstream to cells where it can be used for energy. Cells convert glucose into a usable form through a process called cellular respiration, which involves a series of metabolic reactions that generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—the main currency of energy in cells.

Glucose is also stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, a polysaccharide (multiple sugar) that can be broken down back into glucose when needed for energy between meals or during physical activity. Maintaining appropriate blood glucose levels is crucial for overall health, and imbalances can lead to conditions such as diabetes mellitus.

Triglycerides are the most common type of fat in the body, and they're found in the food we eat. They're carried in the bloodstream to provide energy to the cells in our body. High levels of triglycerides in the blood can increase the risk of heart disease, especially in combination with other risk factors such as high LDL (bad) cholesterol, low HDL (good) cholesterol, and high blood pressure.

It's important to note that while triglycerides are a type of fat, they should not be confused with cholesterol, which is a waxy substance found in the cells of our body. Both triglycerides and cholesterol are important for maintaining good health, but high levels of either can increase the risk of heart disease.

Triglyceride levels are measured through a blood test called a lipid panel or lipid profile. A normal triglyceride level is less than 150 mg/dL. Borderline-high levels range from 150 to 199 mg/dL, high levels range from 200 to 499 mg/dL, and very high levels are 500 mg/dL or higher.

Elevated triglycerides can be caused by various factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, and certain medical conditions like diabetes, hypothyroidism, and kidney disease. Medications such as beta-blockers, steroids, and diuretics can also raise triglyceride levels.

Lifestyle changes such as losing weight, exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet low in saturated and trans fats, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, and quitting smoking can help lower triglyceride levels. In some cases, medication may be necessary to reduce triglycerides to recommended levels.

Adipogenesis is the process by which precursor cells differentiate into mature adipocytes, or fat cells. This complex biological process involves a series of molecular and cellular events that are regulated by various genetic and epigenetic factors.

During adipogenesis, preadipocytes undergo a series of changes that include cell cycle arrest, morphological alterations, and the expression of specific genes that are involved in lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. These changes ultimately result in the formation of mature adipocytes that are capable of storing energy in the form of lipids.

Abnormalities in adipogenesis have been linked to various health conditions, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate adipogenesis is an active area of research, as it may lead to the development of new therapies for these and other related diseases.

Blood glucose, also known as blood sugar, is the concentration of glucose in the blood. Glucose is a simple sugar that serves as the main source of energy for the body's cells. It is carried to each cell through the bloodstream and is absorbed into the cells with the help of insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas.

The normal range for blood glucose levels in humans is typically between 70 and 130 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) when fasting, and less than 180 mg/dL after meals. Levels that are consistently higher than this may indicate diabetes or other metabolic disorders.

Blood glucose levels can be measured through a variety of methods, including fingerstick blood tests, continuous glucose monitoring systems, and laboratory tests. Regular monitoring of blood glucose levels is important for people with diabetes to help manage their condition and prevent complications.

Maternal nutritional physiological phenomena refer to the various changes and processes that occur in a woman's body during pregnancy, lactation, and postpartum periods to meet the increased nutritional demands and support the growth and development of the fetus or infant. These phenomena involve complex interactions between maternal nutrition, hormonal regulation, metabolism, and physiological functions to ensure optimal pregnancy outcomes and offspring health.

Examples of maternal nutritional physiological phenomena include:

1. Adaptations in maternal nutrient metabolism: During pregnancy, the mother's body undergoes various adaptations to increase the availability of essential nutrients for fetal growth and development. For instance, there are increased absorption and utilization of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids, as well as enhanced storage of glycogen and lipids in maternal tissues.
2. Placental transfer of nutrients: The placenta plays a crucial role in facilitating the exchange of nutrients between the mother and fetus. It selectively transports essential nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals from the maternal circulation to the fetal compartment while removing waste products.
3. Maternal weight gain: Pregnant women typically experience an increase in body weight due to the growth of the fetus, placenta, amniotic fluid, and maternal tissues such as the uterus and breasts. Adequate gestational weight gain is essential for ensuring optimal pregnancy outcomes and reducing the risk of adverse perinatal complications.
4. Changes in maternal hormonal regulation: Pregnancy is associated with significant changes in hormonal profiles, including increased levels of estrogen, progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and other hormones that regulate various physiological functions such as glucose metabolism, appetite regulation, and maternal-fetal immune tolerance.
5. Lactation: Following childbirth, the mother's body undergoes further adaptations to support lactation and breastfeeding. This involves the production and secretion of milk, which contains essential nutrients and bioactive components that promote infant growth, development, and immunity.
6. Nutrient requirements: Pregnancy and lactation increase women's nutritional demands for various micronutrients such as iron, calcium, folate, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids. Meeting these increased nutritional needs is crucial for ensuring optimal pregnancy outcomes and supporting maternal health during the postpartum period.

Understanding these physiological adaptations and their implications for maternal and fetal health is essential for developing evidence-based interventions to promote positive pregnancy outcomes, reduce the risk of adverse perinatal complications, and support women's health throughout the reproductive lifespan.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum (PXE) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the calcification and fragmentation of elastic fibers in the skin, eyes, and cardiovascular system. This causes changes in these tissues, leading to the clinical features of the disease. In the skin, this manifests as yellowish papules and plaques, often located on the neck, axillae, and flexural areas. In the eyes, it can cause angioid streaks, peau d'orange, and choroidal neovascularization, potentially leading to visual loss. In the cardiovascular system, calcification of the elastic fibers in the arterial walls can lead to premature atherosclerosis and increased risk of cardiovascular events. The disease is caused by mutations in the ABCC6 gene.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a class of diseases that affect the heart and blood vessels. They are the leading cause of death globally, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The term "cardiovascular disease" refers to a group of conditions that include:

1. Coronary artery disease (CAD): This is the most common type of heart disease and occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of cholesterol, fat, and other substances in the walls of the arteries. This can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, or a heart attack.
2. Heart failure: This occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs. It can be caused by various conditions, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and cardiomyopathy.
3. Stroke: A stroke occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is interrupted or reduced, often due to a clot or a ruptured blood vessel. This can cause brain damage or death.
4. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): This occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the limbs become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain, numbness, or weakness in the legs or arms.
5. Rheumatic heart disease: This is a complication of untreated strep throat and can cause damage to the heart valves, leading to heart failure or other complications.
6. Congenital heart defects: These are structural problems with the heart that are present at birth. They can range from mild to severe and may require medical intervention.
7. Cardiomyopathy: This is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for the heart to pump blood efficiently. It can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, and certain medications.
8. Heart arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms that can cause the heart to beat too fast, too slow, or irregularly. They can lead to symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, or fainting.
9. Valvular heart disease: This occurs when one or more of the heart valves become damaged or diseased, leading to problems with blood flow through the heart.
10. Aortic aneurysm and dissection: These are conditions that affect the aorta, the largest artery in the body. An aneurysm is a bulge in the aorta, while a dissection is a tear in the inner layer of the aorta. Both can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

It's important to note that many of these conditions can be managed or treated with medical interventions such as medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes. If you have any concerns about your heart health, it's important to speak with a healthcare provider.

Dyslipidemia is a condition characterized by an abnormal amount of cholesterol and/or triglycerides in the blood. It can be caused by genetic factors, lifestyle habits such as poor diet and lack of exercise, or other medical conditions such as diabetes or hypothyroidism.

There are several types of dyslipidemias, including:

1. Hypercholesterolemia: This is an excess of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, also known as "bad" cholesterol, in the blood. High levels of LDL cholesterol can lead to the formation of plaque in the arteries, increasing the risk of heart disease and stroke.
2. Hypertriglyceridemia: This is an excess of triglycerides, a type of fat found in the blood, which can also contribute to the development of plaque in the arteries.
3. Mixed dyslipidemia: This is a combination of high LDL cholesterol and high triglycerides.
4. Low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol: HDL cholesterol, also known as "good" cholesterol, helps remove LDL cholesterol from the blood. Low levels of HDL cholesterol can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke.

Dyslipidemias often do not cause any symptoms but can be detected through a blood test that measures cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Treatment typically involves lifestyle changes such as eating a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, and quitting smoking. In some cases, medication may also be necessary to lower cholesterol or triglyceride levels.

"Adiposity" is a medical term that refers to the condition of having an excessive amount of fat in the body. It is often used to describe obesity or being significantly overweight. Adipose tissue, which is the technical name for body fat, is important for many bodily functions, such as storing energy and insulating the body. However, an excess of adipose tissue can lead to a range of health problems, including heart disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancer.

There are different ways to measure adiposity, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and skinfold thickness. BMI is the most commonly used method and is calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by their height in meters squared. A BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese, while a BMI between 25 and 29.9 is considered overweight. However, it's important to note that BMI may not accurately reflect adiposity in some individuals, such as those with a lot of muscle mass.

In summary, adiposity refers to the condition of having too much body fat, which can increase the risk of various health problems.

PPAR gamma, or Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma, is a nuclear receptor protein that functions as a transcription factor. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of genes involved in adipogenesis (the process of forming mature fat cells), lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and glucose homeostasis. PPAR gamma is primarily expressed in adipose tissue but can also be found in other tissues such as the immune system, large intestine, and brain.

PPAR gamma forms a heterodimer with another nuclear receptor protein, RXR (Retinoid X Receptor), and binds to specific DNA sequences called PPREs (Peroxisome Proliferator Response Elements) in the promoter regions of target genes. Upon binding, PPAR gamma modulates the transcription of these genes, either activating or repressing their expression.

Agonists of PPAR gamma, such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs), are used clinically to treat type 2 diabetes due to their insulin-sensitizing effects. These drugs work by binding to and activating PPAR gamma, which in turn leads to the upregulation of genes involved in glucose uptake and metabolism in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle.

In summary, PPAR gamma is a nuclear receptor protein that regulates gene expression related to adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and glucose homeostasis. Its activation has therapeutic implications for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic disorders.

Metabolic brain diseases refer to a group of conditions that are caused by disruptions in the body's metabolic processes, which affect the brain. These disorders can be inherited or acquired and can result from problems with the way the body produces, breaks down, or uses energy and nutrients.

Examples of metabolic brain diseases include:

1. Mitochondrial encephalomyopathies: These are a group of genetic disorders that affect the mitochondria, which are the energy-producing structures in cells. When the mitochondria don't function properly, it can lead to muscle weakness, neurological problems, and developmental delays.
2. Leukodystrophies: These are a group of genetic disorders that affect the white matter of the brain, which is made up of nerve fibers covered in myelin, a fatty substance that insulates the fibers and helps them transmit signals. When the myelin breaks down or is not produced properly, it can lead to cognitive decline, motor problems, and other neurological symptoms.
3. Lysosomal storage disorders: These are genetic disorders that affect the lysosomes, which are structures in cells that break down waste products and recycle cellular materials. When the lysosomes don't function properly, it can lead to the accumulation of waste products in cells, including brain cells, causing damage and neurological symptoms.
4. Maple syrup urine disease: This is a genetic disorder that affects the way the body breaks down certain amino acids, leading to a buildup of toxic levels of these substances in the blood and urine. If left untreated, it can cause brain damage, developmental delays, and other neurological problems.
5. Homocystinuria: This is a genetic disorder that affects the way the body processes an amino acid called methionine, leading to a buildup of homocysteine in the blood. High levels of homocysteine can cause damage to the blood vessels and lead to neurological problems, including seizures, developmental delays, and cognitive decline.

Treatment for metabolic brain diseases may involve dietary changes, supplements, medications, or other therapies aimed at managing symptoms and preventing further damage to the brain. In some cases, a stem cell transplant may be recommended as a treatment option.

Thermogenesis is the process of heat production in organisms. In a medical context, it often refers to the generation of body heat by metabolic processes, especially those that increase the rate of metabolism to produce energy and release it as heat. This can be induced by various factors such as cold exposure, certain medications, or by consuming food, particularly foods high in thermogenic nutrients like protein and certain spices. It's also a key component of weight loss strategies, as increasing thermogenesis can help burn more calories.

3T3-L1 cells are a widely used cell line in biomedical research, particularly in the study of adipocytes (fat cells) and adipose tissue. These cells are derived from mouse embryo fibroblasts and have the ability to differentiate into adipocytes under specific culture conditions.

When 3T3-L1 cells are exposed to a cocktail of hormones and growth factors, they undergo a process called adipogenesis, during which they differentiate into mature adipocytes. These differentiated cells exhibit many characteristics of fat cells, including the accumulation of lipid droplets, expression of adipocyte-specific genes and proteins, and the ability to respond to hormones such as insulin.

Researchers use 3T3-L1 cells to study various aspects of adipocyte biology, including the regulation of fat metabolism, the development of obesity and related metabolic disorders, and the effects of drugs or other compounds on adipose tissue function. However, it is important to note that because these cells are derived from mice, they may not always behave exactly the same way as human adipocytes, so results obtained using 3T3-L1 cells must be validated in human cell lines or animal models before they can be applied to human health.

Heptanoates are chemical compounds that contain the functional group of heptanoic acid. Heptanoic acid, also known as n-caproic acid, is a type of carboxylic acid with a 7-carbon chain and the molecular formula C7H15COOH.

Heptanoates are commonly used in the production of various chemicals, including flavors, fragrances, and pharmaceuticals. In medicine, heptanoates may be used as esters in the formulation of drugs to improve their solubility, absorption, and stability. For example, some injectable forms of medications may use heptanoate salts or esters to enhance their delivery into the body.

It's important to note that specific medical definitions for "heptanoates" may vary depending on the context and application.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Inborn errors of lipid metabolism refer to genetic disorders that affect the body's ability to break down and process lipids (fats) properly. These disorders are caused by defects in genes that code for enzymes or proteins involved in lipid metabolism. As a result, toxic levels of lipids or their intermediates may accumulate in the body, leading to various health issues, which can include neurological problems, liver dysfunction, muscle weakness, and cardiovascular disease.

There are several types of inborn errors of lipid metabolism, including:

1. Disorders of fatty acid oxidation: These disorders affect the body's ability to convert long-chain fatty acids into energy, leading to muscle weakness, hypoglycemia, and cardiomyopathy. Examples include medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD) and very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCAD).
2. Disorders of cholesterol metabolism: These disorders affect the body's ability to process cholesterol, leading to an accumulation of cholesterol or its intermediates in various tissues. Examples include Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome and lathosterolosis.
3. Disorders of sphingolipid metabolism: These disorders affect the body's ability to break down sphingolipids, leading to an accumulation of these lipids in various tissues. Examples include Gaucher disease, Niemann-Pick disease, and Fabry disease.
4. Disorders of glycerophospholipid metabolism: These disorders affect the body's ability to break down glycerophospholipids, leading to an accumulation of these lipids in various tissues. Examples include rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata and abetalipoproteinemia.

Inborn errors of lipid metabolism are typically diagnosed through genetic testing and biochemical tests that measure the activity of specific enzymes or the levels of specific lipids in the body. Treatment may include dietary modifications, supplements, enzyme replacement therapy, or gene therapy, depending on the specific disorder and its severity.

Sirtuins are a family of proteins that possess NAD+-dependent deacetylase or ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. They play crucial roles in regulating various cellular processes, such as aging, transcription, apoptosis, inflammation, and stress resistance. In humans, there are seven known sirtuins (SIRT1-7), each with distinct subcellular localizations and functions. SIRT1, the most well-studied sirtuin, is a nuclear protein involved in chromatin remodeling, DNA repair, and metabolic regulation. Other sirtuins are found in various cellular compartments, including the nucleus, cytoplasm, and mitochondria, where they modulate specific targets to maintain cellular homeostasis. Dysregulation of sirtuins has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders.

"Prenatal exposure delayed effects" refer to the adverse health outcomes or symptoms that become apparent in an individual during their development or later in life, which are caused by exposure to certain environmental factors or substances while they were still in the womb. These effects may not be immediately observable at birth and can take weeks, months, years, or even decades to manifest. They can result from maternal exposure to various agents such as infectious diseases, medications, illicit drugs, tobacco smoke, alcohol, or environmental pollutants during pregnancy. The delayed effects can impact multiple organ systems and may include physical, cognitive, behavioral, and developmental abnormalities. It is important to note that the risk and severity of these effects can depend on several factors, including the timing, duration, and intensity of the exposure, as well as the individual's genetic susceptibility.

I cannot precisely define "obese mice" from a medical perspective because "obesity" is typically defined for humans and companion animals based on body weight relative to body size. However, I can provide you with relevant information regarding obese mice in a research or laboratory context.

Obesity in mice is often induced by providing them with a high-fat diet (HFD) to promote excessive weight gain and metabolic dysfunction. This allows researchers to study the effects of obesity on various health parameters, such as insulin resistance, inflammation, and cardiovascular function.

In laboratory settings, mice are often considered obese if their body weight is 10-20% higher than the average for their strain, age, and sex. Researchers also use body mass index (BMI) or body fat percentage to determine obesity in mice. For example:

* Body Mass Index (BMI): Mice with a BMI greater than 0.69 g/cm² are considered obese. To calculate BMI, divide the body weight in grams by the square of the nose-to-anus length in centimeters.
* Body Fat Percentage: Obesity can also be determined based on body fat percentage using non-invasive methods like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scans. Mice with more than 45% body fat are generally considered obese.

It is important to note that these thresholds may vary depending on the mouse strain, age, and sex. Researchers should consult relevant literature for their specific experimental setup when defining obesity in mice.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta (PPAR-δ) is a subtype of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, PPARs. It plays a crucial role in regulating genes involved in lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and inflammation.

PPAR-δ is widely expressed in various tissues, including skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, liver, heart, and brain. In the skeletal muscle, PPAR-δ activation promotes fatty acid oxidation, improves insulin sensitivity, and increases exercise endurance. In adipose tissue, it enhances lipolysis and reduces lipogenesis. In the liver, PPAR-δ activation decreases triglyceride levels and improves glucose tolerance.

PPAR-δ agonists have been studied for their potential therapeutic benefits in treating metabolic disorders such as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, further research is needed to fully understand the implications of PPAR-δ modulation in human health and disease.

Subcutaneous fat, also known as hypodermic fat, is the layer of fat found beneath the skin and above the muscle fascia, which is the fibrous connective tissue covering the muscles. It serves as an energy reserve, insulation to maintain body temperature, and a cushion to protect underlying structures. Subcutaneous fat is distinct from visceral fat, which is found surrounding internal organs in the abdominal cavity.

Stilbenes are a type of chemical compound that consists of a 1,2-diphenylethylene backbone. They are phenolic compounds and can be found in various plants, where they play a role in the defense against pathogens and stress conditions. Some stilbenes have been studied for their potential health benefits, including their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. One well-known example of a stilbene is resveratrol, which is found in the skin of grapes and in red wine.

It's important to note that while some stilbenes have been shown to have potential health benefits in laboratory studies, more research is needed to determine their safety and effectiveness in humans. It's always a good idea to talk to a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

Lipogenesis is the biological process by which fatty acids are synthesized and stored as lipids or fat in living organisms. This process occurs primarily in the liver and adipose tissue, with excess glucose being converted into fatty acids and then esterified to form triglycerides. These triglycerides are then packaged with proteins and cholesterol to form lipoproteins, which are transported throughout the body for energy storage or use. Lipogenesis is a complex process involving multiple enzymes and metabolic pathways, and it is tightly regulated by hormones such as insulin, glucagon, and adrenaline. Disorders of lipogenesis can lead to conditions such as obesity, fatty liver disease, and metabolic disorders.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

Intra-abdominal fat, also known as visceral fat, is the fat that is stored within the abdominal cavity and surrounds the internal organs such as the liver, pancreas, and intestines. It's different from subcutaneous fat, which is the fat found just under the skin. Intra-abdominal fat is metabolically active and has been linked to an increased risk of various health conditions, including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, and stroke. The accumulation of intra-abdominal fat can be influenced by factors such as diet, physical activity, genetics, and age. Waist circumference and imaging tests, such as CT scans and MRIs, are commonly used to measure intra-abdominal fat.

Retinoid X Receptor alpha (RXR-alpha) is a type of nuclear receptor protein that plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene transcription. It binds to specific sequences of DNA, known as response elements, and regulates the expression of target genes involved in various biological processes such as cell differentiation, development, and homeostasis.

RXR-alpha can form heterodimers with other nuclear receptors, including retinoic acid receptors (RARs), vitamin D receptor (VDR), thyroid hormone receptor (THR), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). The formation of these heterodimers allows RXR-alpha to modulate the transcriptional activity of its partner nuclear receptors, thereby regulating a wide range of physiological functions.

Retinoid X Receptor alpha is widely expressed in various tissues and organs, including the liver, kidney, heart, brain, and retina. Mutations in the RXR-alpha gene have been associated with several human diseases, such as metabolic disorders, developmental abnormalities, and cancer. Therefore, RXR-alpha is an important therapeutic target for the treatment of various diseases.

Skeletal muscle, also known as striated or voluntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is attached to bones by tendons or aponeuroses and functions to produce movements and support the posture of the body. It is composed of long, multinucleated fibers that are arranged in parallel bundles and are characterized by alternating light and dark bands, giving them a striped appearance under a microscope. Skeletal muscle is under voluntary control, meaning that it is consciously activated through signals from the nervous system. It is responsible for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and lifting objects.

Cytoplasmic receptors and nuclear receptors are two types of intracellular receptors that play crucial roles in signal transduction pathways and regulation of gene expression. They are classified based on their location within the cell. Here are the medical definitions for each:

1. Cytoplasmic Receptors: These are a group of intracellular receptors primarily found in the cytoplasm of cells, which bind to specific hormones, growth factors, or other signaling molecules. Upon binding, these receptors undergo conformational changes that allow them to interact with various partners, such as adapter proteins and enzymes, leading to activation of downstream signaling cascades. These pathways ultimately result in modulation of cellular processes like proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Examples of cytoplasmic receptors include receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), serine/threonine kinase receptors, and cytokine receptors.
2. Nuclear Receptors: These are a distinct class of intracellular receptors that reside primarily in the nucleus of cells. They bind to specific ligands, such as steroid hormones, thyroid hormones, vitamin D, retinoic acid, and various other lipophilic molecules. Upon binding, nuclear receptors undergo conformational changes that facilitate their interaction with co-regulatory proteins and the DNA. This interaction results in the modulation of gene transcription, ultimately leading to alterations in protein expression and cellular responses. Examples of nuclear receptors include estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), thyroid hormone receptor (TR), vitamin D receptor (VDR), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs).

Both cytoplasmic and nuclear receptors are essential components of cellular communication networks, allowing cells to respond appropriately to extracellular signals and maintain homeostasis. Dysregulation of these receptors has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and autoimmune disorders.

Ketosis is a metabolic state characterized by an elevated level of ketone bodies in the blood or tissues. Ketone bodies are alternative energy sources that are produced when the body breaks down fat for fuel, particularly when glucose levels are low or when carbohydrate intake is restricted. This condition often occurs during fasting, starvation, or high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets like the ketogenic diet. In a clinical setting, ketosis may be associated with diabetes management and monitoring. However, it's important to note that extreme or uncontrolled ketosis can lead to a dangerous condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), which requires immediate medical attention.

A Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT) is a medical test used to diagnose prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. It measures how well your body is able to process glucose, which is a type of sugar.

During the test, you will be asked to fast (not eat or drink anything except water) for at least eight hours before the test. Then, a healthcare professional will take a blood sample to measure your fasting blood sugar level. After that, you will be given a sugary drink containing a specific amount of glucose. Your blood sugar levels will be measured again after two hours and sometimes also after one hour.

The results of the test will indicate how well your body is able to process the glucose and whether you have normal, impaired, or diabetic glucose tolerance. If your blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed with diabetes, you may have prediabetes, which means that you are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the future.

It is important to note that a Glucose Tolerance Test should be performed under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as high blood sugar levels can be dangerous if not properly managed.

Caloric restriction refers to a dietary regimen that involves reducing the total calorie intake while still maintaining adequate nutrition and micronutrient intake. This is often achieved by limiting the consumption of high-calorie, nutrient-poor foods and increasing the intake of nutrient-dense, low-calorie foods such as fruits, vegetables, and lean proteins.

Caloric restriction has been shown to have numerous health benefits, including increased lifespan, improved insulin sensitivity, reduced inflammation, and decreased risk of chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. It is important to note that caloric restriction should not be confused with starvation or malnutrition, which can have negative effects on health. Instead, it involves a careful balance of reducing calorie intake while still ensuring adequate nutrition and energy needs are met.

It is recommended that individuals who are considering caloric restriction consult with a healthcare professional or registered dietitian to ensure that they are following a safe and effective plan that meets their individual nutritional needs.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

AMP-activated protein kinases (AMPK) are a group of heterotrimeric enzymes that play a crucial role in cellular energy homeostasis. They are composed of a catalytic subunit (α) and two regulatory subunits (β and γ). AMPK is activated under conditions of low energy charge, such as ATP depletion, hypoxia, or exercise, through an increase in the AMP:ATP ratio.

Once activated, AMPK phosphorylates and regulates various downstream targets involved in metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, and protein synthesis. This results in the inhibition of energy-consuming processes and the promotion of energy-producing processes, ultimately helping to restore cellular energy balance.

AMPK has been implicated in a variety of physiological processes, including glucose and lipid metabolism, autophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis, and inflammation. Dysregulation of AMPK activity has been linked to several diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, AMPK is an attractive target for therapeutic interventions in these conditions.

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress refers to a cellular condition characterized by the accumulation of misfolded or unfolded proteins within the ER lumen, leading to disruption of its normal functions. The ER is a membrane-bound organelle responsible for protein folding, modification, and transport, as well as lipid synthesis and calcium homeostasis. Various physiological and pathological conditions can cause an imbalance between the rate of protein entry into the ER and its folding capacity, resulting in ER stress.

To cope with this stress, cells have evolved a set of signaling pathways called the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR aims to restore ER homeostasis by reducing global protein synthesis, enhancing ER-associated degradation (ERAD) of misfolded proteins, and upregulating the expression of genes involved in protein folding, modification, and quality control.

The UPR is mediated by three major signaling branches:

1. Inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α): IRE1α is an ER transmembrane protein with endoribonuclease activity that catalyzes the splicing of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA, leading to the expression of a potent transcription factor, spliced XBP1 (sXBP1). sXBP1 upregulates genes involved in ERAD and protein folding.
2. Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6): ATF6 is an ER transmembrane protein that, upon ER stress, undergoes proteolytic cleavage to release its cytoplasmic domain, which acts as a potent transcription factor. ATF6 upregulates genes involved in protein folding and degradation.
3. Protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK): PERK is an ER transmembrane protein that phosphorylates the α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) upon ER stress, leading to a global reduction in protein synthesis and preferential translation of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). ATF4 upregulates genes involved in amino acid metabolism, redox homeostasis, and apoptosis.

These three branches of the UPR work together to restore ER homeostasis by increasing protein folding capacity, reducing global protein synthesis, and promoting degradation of misfolded proteins. However, if the stress persists or becomes too severe, the UPR can trigger cell death through apoptosis.

In summary, the unfolded protein response (UPR) is a complex signaling network that helps maintain ER homeostasis by detecting and responding to the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER lumen. The UPR involves three main branches: IRE1α, ATF6, and PERK, which work together to restore ER homeostasis through increased protein folding capacity, reduced global protein synthesis, and enhanced degradation of misfolded proteins. Persistent or severe ER stress can lead to the activation of cell death pathways by the UPR.

A diet, in medical terms, refers to the planned and regular consumption of food and drinks. It is a balanced selection of nutrient-rich foods that an individual eats on a daily or periodic basis to meet their energy needs and maintain good health. A well-balanced diet typically includes a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and low-fat dairy products.

A diet may also be prescribed for therapeutic purposes, such as in the management of certain medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, or obesity. In these cases, a healthcare professional may recommend specific restrictions or modifications to an individual's regular diet to help manage their condition and improve their overall health.

It is important to note that a healthy and balanced diet should be tailored to an individual's age, gender, body size, activity level, and any underlying medical conditions. Consulting with a healthcare professional, such as a registered dietitian or nutritionist, can help ensure that an individual's dietary needs are being met in a safe and effective way.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Body weight is the measure of the force exerted on a scale or balance by an object's mass, most commonly expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg). In the context of medical definitions, body weight typically refers to an individual's total weight, which includes their skeletal muscle, fat, organs, and bodily fluids.

Healthcare professionals often use body weight as a basic indicator of overall health status, as it can provide insights into various aspects of a person's health, such as nutritional status, metabolic function, and risk factors for certain diseases. For example, being significantly underweight or overweight can increase the risk of developing conditions like malnutrition, diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

It is important to note that body weight alone may not provide a complete picture of an individual's health, as it does not account for factors such as muscle mass, bone density, or body composition. Therefore, healthcare professionals often use additional measures, such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and blood tests, to assess overall health status more comprehensively.

Lipolysis is the process by which fat cells (adipocytes) break down stored triglycerides into glycerol and free fatty acids. This process occurs when the body needs to use stored fat as a source of energy, such as during fasting, exercise, or in response to certain hormonal signals. The breakdown products of lipolysis can be used directly by cells for energy production or can be released into the bloodstream and transported to other tissues for use. Lipolysis is regulated by several hormones, including adrenaline (epinephrine), noradrenaline (norepinephrine), cortisol, glucagon, and growth hormone, which act on lipases, enzymes that mediate the breakdown of triglycerides.

Metabolic networks and pathways refer to the complex interconnected series of biochemical reactions that occur within cells to maintain life. These reactions are catalyzed by enzymes and are responsible for the conversion of nutrients into energy, as well as the synthesis and breakdown of various molecules required for cellular function.

A metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions that occur in a specific order, with each reaction being catalyzed by a different enzyme. These pathways are often interconnected, forming a larger network of interactions known as a metabolic network.

Metabolic networks can be represented as complex diagrams or models, which show the relationships between different pathways and the flow of matter and energy through the system. These networks can help researchers to understand how cells regulate their metabolism in response to changes in their environment, and how disruptions to these networks can lead to disease.

Some common examples of metabolic pathways include glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), and the pentose phosphate pathway. Each of these pathways plays a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and providing energy for cellular functions.

Adipokines are hormones and signaling molecules produced by adipose tissue, which is composed of adipocytes (fat cells) and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) that includes preadipocytes, fibroblasts, immune cells, and endothelial cells. Adipokines play crucial roles in various biological processes such as energy metabolism, insulin sensitivity, inflammation, immunity, angiogenesis, and neuroendocrine regulation.

Some well-known adipokines include:

1. Leptin - regulates appetite, energy expenditure, and glucose homeostasis
2. Adiponectin - improves insulin sensitivity, reduces inflammation, and has anti-atherogenic properties
3. Resistin - impairs insulin sensitivity and is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes
4. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) - contributes to chronic low-grade inflammation in obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic dysfunction
5. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) - involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, immune response, and inflammation
6. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) - associated with cardiovascular risk by impairing fibrinolysis and promoting thrombosis
7. Visfatin - has insulin-mimetic properties and contributes to inflammation and insulin resistance
8. Chemerin - regulates adipogenesis, energy metabolism, and immune response
9. Apelin - involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, cardiovascular function, and fluid balance
10. Omentin - improves insulin sensitivity and has anti-inflammatory properties

The dysregulation of adipokine production and secretion is associated with various pathological conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) is a bile acid that is conjugated with the amino acid taurine. Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and released into the small intestine to aid in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins. TCDCA, along with other bile acids, is reabsorbed in the terminal ileum and transported back to the liver through the enterohepatic circulation. It plays a role in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis and has been studied for its potential therapeutic effects in various medical conditions, including gallstones, cholestatic liver diseases, and neurological disorders.

Fatty acids are carboxylic acids with a long aliphatic chain, which are important components of lipids and are widely distributed in living organisms. They can be classified based on the length of their carbon chain, saturation level (presence or absence of double bonds), and other structural features.

The two main types of fatty acids are:

1. Saturated fatty acids: These have no double bonds in their carbon chain and are typically solid at room temperature. Examples include palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0).
2. Unsaturated fatty acids: These contain one or more double bonds in their carbon chain and can be further classified into monounsaturated (one double bond) and polyunsaturated (two or more double bonds) fatty acids. Examples of unsaturated fatty acids include oleic acid (C18:1, monounsaturated), linoleic acid (C18:2, polyunsaturated), and alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3, polyunsaturated).

Fatty acids play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as energy storage, membrane structure, and cell signaling. Some essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources.

Metabolism is the complex network of chemical reactions that occur within our bodies to maintain life. It involves two main types of processes: catabolism, which is the breaking down of molecules to release energy, and anabolism, which is the building up of molecules using energy. These reactions are necessary for the body to grow, reproduce, respond to environmental changes, and repair itself. Metabolism is a continuous process that occurs at the cellular level and is regulated by enzymes, hormones, and other signaling molecules. It is influenced by various factors such as age, genetics, diet, physical activity, and overall health status.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Mitochondria are specialized structures located inside cells that convert the energy from food into ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the primary form of energy used by cells. They are often referred to as the "powerhouses" of the cell because they generate most of the cell's supply of chemical energy. Mitochondria are also involved in various other cellular processes, such as signaling, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Mitochondria have their own DNA, known as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is inherited maternally. This means that mtDNA is passed down from the mother to her offspring through the egg cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to a variety of diseases and conditions, including neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, and aging.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

Hep G2 cells are a type of human liver cancer cell line that were isolated from a well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a patient with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. These cells have the ability to grow and divide indefinitely in culture, making them useful for research purposes. Hep G2 cells express many of the same markers and functions as normal human hepatocytes, including the ability to take up and process lipids and produce bile. They are often used in studies related to hepatitis viruses, liver metabolism, drug toxicity, and cancer biology. It is important to note that Hep G2 cells are tumorigenic and should be handled with care in a laboratory setting.

Adiponectin is a hormone that is produced and secreted by adipose tissue, which is another name for body fat. This hormone plays an important role in regulating metabolism and energy homeostasis. It helps to regulate glucose levels, break down fatty acids, and has anti-inflammatory effects.

Adiponectin is unique because it is exclusively produced by adipose tissue, and its levels are inversely related to body fat mass. This means that lean individuals tend to have higher levels of adiponectin than obese individuals. Low levels of adiponectin have been associated with an increased risk of developing various metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Overall, adiponectin is an important hormone that plays a crucial role in maintaining metabolic health, and its levels may serve as a useful biomarker for assessing metabolic risk.

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure used to assess whether a person has a healthy weight for their height. It's calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of their height in meters. Here is the medical definition:

Body Mass Index (BMI) = weight(kg) / [height(m)]^2

According to the World Health Organization, BMI categories are defined as follows:

* Less than 18.5: Underweight
* 18.5-24.9: Normal or healthy weight
* 25.0-29.9: Overweight
* 30.0 and above: Obese

It is important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying weight issues in populations, it does have limitations when applied to individuals. For example, it may not accurately reflect body fat distribution or muscle mass, which can affect health risks associated with excess weight. Therefore, BMI should be used as one of several factors when evaluating an individual's health status and risk for chronic diseases.

Dietary fats, also known as fatty acids, are a major nutrient that the body needs for energy and various functions. They are an essential component of cell membranes and hormones, and they help the body absorb certain vitamins. There are several types of dietary fats:

1. Saturated fats: These are typically solid at room temperature and are found in animal products such as meat, butter, and cheese, as well as tropical oils like coconut and palm oil. Consuming a high amount of saturated fats can raise levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol and increase the risk of heart disease.
2. Unsaturated fats: These are typically liquid at room temperature and can be further divided into monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. Monounsaturated fats, found in foods such as olive oil, avocados, and nuts, can help lower levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol while maintaining levels of healthy HDL cholesterol. Polyunsaturated fats, found in foods such as fatty fish, flaxseeds, and walnuts, have similar effects on cholesterol levels and also provide essential omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids that the body cannot produce on its own.
3. Trans fats: These are unsaturated fats that have been chemically modified to be solid at room temperature. They are often found in processed foods such as baked goods, fried foods, and snack foods. Consuming trans fats can raise levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol and lower levels of healthy HDL cholesterol, increasing the risk of heart disease.

It is recommended to limit intake of saturated and trans fats and to consume more unsaturated fats as part of a healthy diet.

Sphingolipids are a class of lipids that contain a sphingosine base, which is a long-chain amino alcohol with an unsaturated bond and an amino group. They are important components of animal cell membranes, particularly in the nervous system. Sphingolipids include ceramides, sphingomyelins, and glycosphingolipids.

Ceramides consist of a sphingosine base linked to a fatty acid through an amide bond. They play important roles in cell signaling, membrane structure, and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Sphingomyelins are formed when ceramides combine with phosphorylcholine, resulting in the formation of a polar head group. Sphingomyelins are major components of the myelin sheath that surrounds nerve cells and are involved in signal transduction and membrane structure.

Glycosphingolipids contain one or more sugar residues attached to the ceramide backbone, forming complex structures that play important roles in cell recognition, adhesion, and signaling. Abnormalities in sphingolipid metabolism have been linked to various diseases, including neurological disorders, cancer, and cardiovascular disease.

11-Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 (11β-HSD1) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of steroid hormones, particularly cortisol, in the body. Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone produced by the adrenal glands that helps regulate various physiological processes such as metabolism, immune response, and stress response.

11β-HSD1 is primarily expressed in liver, fat, and muscle tissues, where it catalyzes the conversion of cortisone to cortisol. Cortisone is a biologically inactive form of cortisol that is produced when cortisol levels are high, and it needs to be converted back to cortisol for the hormone to exert its effects.

By increasing the availability of active cortisol in these tissues, 11β-HSD1 has been implicated in several metabolic disorders, including obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Inhibitors of 11β-HSD1 are currently being investigated as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of these conditions.

Adipocytes, brown, also known as brown adipose cells or brown fat cells, are specialized types of cells found in mammals that play a crucial role in thermoregulation and energy expenditure. Unlike white adipocytes, which primarily store energy in the form of lipids, brown adipocytes contain numerous small lipid droplets and a high concentration of mitochondria, giving them a characteristic brown color.

The primary function of brown adipocytes is to generate heat through non-shivering thermogenesis, a process that involves the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. This process generates heat instead of producing ATP, helping to maintain body temperature during cold exposure or other physiological stressors.

Brown adipocytes are found in specific depots throughout the body, such as the interscapular region in rodents and along the spinal cord in humans. They can also be present within white adipose tissue, where they are referred to as beige or brite (brown-in-white) adipocytes. The development and activity of brown and beige adipocytes can be influenced by various factors, including cold exposure, exercise, and certain pharmacological agents, making them potential targets for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders.

Insulin-secreting cells, also known as beta cells, are a type of cell found in the pancreas. They are responsible for producing and releasing insulin, a hormone that regulates blood glucose levels by allowing cells in the body to take in glucose from the bloodstream. Insulin-secreting cells are clustered together in the pancreatic islets, along with other types of cells that produce other hormones such as glucagon and somatostatin. In people with diabetes, these cells may not function properly, leading to an impaired ability to regulate blood sugar levels.

Leptin is a hormone primarily produced and released by adipocytes, which are the fat cells in our body. It plays a crucial role in regulating energy balance and appetite by sending signals to the brain when the body has had enough food. This helps control body weight by suppressing hunger and increasing energy expenditure. Leptin also influences various metabolic processes, including glucose homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, and immune response. Defects in leptin signaling can lead to obesity and other metabolic disorders.

Mitochondrial diseases are a group of disorders caused by dysfunctions in the mitochondria, which are the energy-producing structures in cells. These diseases can affect people of any age and can manifest in various ways, depending on which organs or systems are affected. Common symptoms include muscle weakness, neurological problems, cardiac disease, diabetes, and vision/hearing loss. Mitochondrial diseases can be inherited from either the mother's or father's side, or they can occur spontaneously due to genetic mutations. They can range from mild to severe and can even be life-threatening in some cases.

Fetal growth retardation, also known as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), is a condition in which a fetus fails to grow at the expected rate during pregnancy. This can be caused by various factors such as maternal health problems, placental insufficiency, chromosomal abnormalities, and genetic disorders. The fetus may be smaller than expected for its gestational age, have reduced movement, and may be at risk for complications during labor and delivery. It is important to monitor fetal growth and development closely throughout pregnancy to detect any potential issues early on and provide appropriate medical interventions.

Lipids are a broad group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. They include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, and phospholipids. Lipids serve many important functions in the body, including energy storage, acting as structural components of cell membranes, and serving as signaling molecules. High levels of certain lipids, particularly cholesterol and triglycerides, in the blood are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that occur without a change in the underlying DNA sequence. These changes can be caused by various mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNA molecules. Epigenetic changes can be influenced by various factors including age, environment, lifestyle, and disease state.

Genetic epigenesis specifically refers to the study of how genetic factors influence these epigenetic modifications. Genetic variations between individuals can lead to differences in epigenetic patterns, which in turn can contribute to phenotypic variation and susceptibility to diseases. For example, certain genetic variants may predispose an individual to develop cancer, and environmental factors such as smoking or exposure to chemicals can interact with these genetic variants to trigger epigenetic changes that promote tumor growth.

Overall, the field of genetic epigenesis aims to understand how genetic and environmental factors interact to regulate gene expression and contribute to disease susceptibility.

Abdominal obesity is a type of obesity that is defined by an excessive accumulation of fat in the abdominal region. It is often assessed through the measurement of waist circumference or the waist-to-hip ratio. Abdominal obesity has been linked to an increased risk of various health conditions, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer.

In medical terms, abdominal obesity is also known as central obesity or visceral obesity. It is characterized by the accumulation of fat around internal organs in the abdomen, such as the liver and pancreas, rather than just beneath the skin (subcutaneous fat). This type of fat distribution is thought to be more harmful to health than the accumulation of fat in other areas of the body.

Abdominal obesity can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices, and certain medical conditions. Treatment typically involves making lifestyle changes, such as eating a healthy diet and getting regular exercise, as well as addressing any underlying medical conditions that may be contributing to the problem. In some cases, medication or surgery may also be recommended.

Molecular targeted therapy is a type of treatment that targets specific molecules involved in the growth, progression, and spread of cancer. These molecules can be proteins, genes, or other molecules that contribute to the development of cancer. By targeting these specific molecules, molecular targeted therapy aims to block the abnormal signals that promote cancer growth and progression, thereby inhibiting or slowing down the growth of cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells.

Examples of molecular targeted therapies include monoclonal antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, angiogenesis inhibitors, and immunotherapies that target specific immune checkpoints. These therapies can be used alone or in combination with other cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery. The goal of molecular targeted therapy is to improve the effectiveness of cancer treatment while reducing side effects and improving quality of life for patients.

"Palmitates" are salts or esters of palmitic acid, a saturated fatty acid that is commonly found in animals and plants. Palmitates can be found in various substances, including cosmetics, food additives, and medications. For example, sodium palmitate is a common ingredient in soaps and detergents, while retinyl palmitate is a form of vitamin A used in skin care products and dietary supplements.

In a medical context, "palmitates" may be mentioned in the results of laboratory tests that measure lipid metabolism or in discussions of nutrition and dietary fats. However, it is important to note that "palmitates" themselves are not typically a focus of medical diagnosis or treatment, but rather serve as components of various substances that may have medical relevance.

Hypoglycemic agents are a class of medications that are used to lower blood glucose levels in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. These medications work by increasing insulin sensitivity, stimulating insulin release from the pancreas, or inhibiting glucose production in the liver. Examples of hypoglycemic agents include sulfonylureas, meglitinides, biguanides, thiazolidinediones, DPP-4 inhibitors, SGLT2 inhibitors, and GLP-1 receptor agonists. It's important to note that the term "hypoglycemic" refers to a condition of abnormally low blood glucose levels, but in this context, the term is used to describe agents that are used to treat high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) associated with diabetes.

Fasting is defined in medical terms as the abstinence from food or drink for a period of time. This practice is often recommended before certain medical tests or procedures, as it helps to ensure that the results are not affected by recent eating or drinking.

In some cases, fasting may also be used as a therapeutic intervention, such as in the management of seizures or other neurological conditions. Fasting can help to lower blood sugar and insulin levels, which can have a variety of health benefits. However, it is important to note that prolonged fasting can also have negative effects on the body, including malnutrition, dehydration, and electrolyte imbalances.

Fasting is also a spiritual practice in many religions, including Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism. In these contexts, fasting is often seen as a way to purify the mind and body, to focus on spiritual practices, or to express devotion or mourning.

Adipose tissue, brown, also known as brown adipose tissue (BAT), is a type of fat in mammals that plays a crucial role in non-shivering thermogenesis, which is the process of generating heat and maintaining body temperature through the burning of calories. Unlike white adipose tissue, which primarily stores energy in the form of lipids, brown adipose tissue contains numerous mitochondria rich in iron, giving it a brown appearance. These mitochondria contain a protein called uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which allows for the efficient conversion of stored energy into heat rather than ATP production.

Brown adipose tissue is typically found in newborns and hibernating animals, but recent studies have shown that adults also possess functional brown adipose tissue, particularly around the neck, shoulders, and spine. The activation of brown adipose tissue has been suggested as a potential strategy for combating obesity and related metabolic disorders due to its ability to burn calories and increase energy expenditure. However, further research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms underlying brown adipose tissue function and its therapeutic potential in treating these conditions.

Mitochondrial proteins are any proteins that are encoded by the nuclear genome or mitochondrial genome and are located within the mitochondria, an organelle found in eukaryotic cells. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes including energy production, metabolism of lipids, amino acids, and steroids, regulation of calcium homeostasis, and programmed cell death or apoptosis.

Mitochondrial proteins can be classified into two main categories based on their origin:

1. Nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins (NEMPs): These are proteins that are encoded by genes located in the nucleus, synthesized in the cytoplasm, and then imported into the mitochondria through specific import pathways. NEMPs make up about 99% of all mitochondrial proteins and are involved in various functions such as oxidative phosphorylation, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, fatty acid oxidation, and mitochondrial dynamics.

2. Mitochondrial DNA-encoded proteins (MEPs): These are proteins that are encoded by the mitochondrial genome, synthesized within the mitochondria, and play essential roles in the electron transport chain (ETC), a key component of oxidative phosphorylation. The human mitochondrial genome encodes only 13 proteins, all of which are subunits of complexes I, III, IV, and V of the ETC.

Defects in mitochondrial proteins can lead to various mitochondrial disorders, which often manifest as neurological, muscular, or metabolic symptoms due to impaired energy production. These disorders are usually caused by mutations in either nuclear or mitochondrial genes that encode mitochondrial proteins.

A biological marker, often referred to as a biomarker, is a measurable indicator that reflects the presence or severity of a disease state, or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be found in various materials such as blood, tissues, or bodily fluids, and they can take many forms, including molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiological measurements.

In the context of medical research and clinical practice, biomarkers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Diagnosis: Biomarkers can help diagnose a disease by indicating the presence or absence of a particular condition. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker used to detect prostate cancer.
2. Monitoring: Biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression or regression of a disease over time. For instance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are monitored in diabetes patients to assess long-term blood glucose control.
3. Predicting: Biomarkers can help predict the likelihood of developing a particular disease or the risk of a negative outcome. For example, the presence of certain genetic mutations can indicate an increased risk for breast cancer.
4. Response to treatment: Biomarkers can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific treatment by measuring changes in the biomarker levels before and after the intervention. This is particularly useful in personalized medicine, where treatments are tailored to individual patients based on their unique biomarker profiles.

It's important to note that for a biomarker to be considered clinically valid and useful, it must undergo rigorous validation through well-designed studies, including demonstrating sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical relevance.

Adenylate kinase is an enzyme (EC 2.7.4.3) that catalyzes the reversible transfer of a phosphate group between adenine nucleotides, specifically between ATP and AMP to form two ADP molecules. This reaction plays a crucial role in maintaining the energy charge of the cell by interconverting these important energy currency molecules.

The general reaction catalyzed by adenylate kinase is:

AMP + ATP ↔ 2ADP

This enzyme is widely distributed in various organisms and tissues, including mammalian cells. In humans, there are several isoforms of adenylate kinase, located in different cellular compartments such as the cytosol, mitochondria, and nucleus. These isoforms have distinct roles in maintaining energy homeostasis and protecting cells under stress conditions. Dysregulation of adenylate kinase activity has been implicated in several pathological processes, including neurodegenerative diseases, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and cancer.

Glucose intolerance is a condition in which the body has difficulty processing and using glucose, or blood sugar, effectively. This results in higher than normal levels of glucose in the blood after eating, particularly after meals that are high in carbohydrates. Glucose intolerance can be an early sign of developing diabetes, specifically type 2 diabetes, and it may also indicate other metabolic disorders such as prediabetes or insulin resistance.

In a healthy individual, the pancreas produces insulin to help regulate blood sugar levels by facilitating glucose uptake in muscles, fat tissue, and the liver. When someone has glucose intolerance, their body may not produce enough insulin, or their cells may have become less responsive to insulin (insulin resistance), leading to impaired glucose metabolism.

Glucose intolerance can be diagnosed through various tests, including the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test. Treatment for glucose intolerance often involves lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, increased physical activity, and a balanced diet with reduced sugar and refined carbohydrate intake. In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help manage blood sugar levels more effectively.

Anti-obesity agents are medications that are used to treat obesity and overweight. They work by reducing appetite, increasing feelings of fullness, decreasing fat absorption, or increasing metabolism. Some examples of anti-obesity agents include orlistat, lorcaserin, phentermine, and topiramate. These medications are typically used in conjunction with diet and exercise to help people lose weight and maintain a healthy body weight. It's important to note that these medications can have side effects and should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Hepatocytes are the predominant type of cells in the liver, accounting for about 80% of its cytoplasmic mass. They play a key role in protein synthesis, protein storage, transformation of carbohydrates, synthesis of cholesterol, bile salts and phospholipids, detoxification, modification, and excretion of exogenous and endogenous substances, initiation of formation and secretion of bile, and enzyme production. Hepatocytes are essential for the maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

Atherosclerosis is a medical condition characterized by the buildup of plaques, made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in the blood, on the inner walls of the arteries. This process gradually narrows and hardens the arteries, reducing the flow of oxygen-rich blood to various parts of the body. Atherosclerosis can affect any artery in the body, including those that supply blood to the heart (coronary arteries), brain, limbs, and other organs. The progressive narrowing and hardening of the arteries can lead to serious complications such as coronary artery disease, carotid artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and aneurysms, which can result in heart attacks, strokes, or even death if left untreated.

The exact cause of atherosclerosis is not fully understood, but it is believed to be associated with several risk factors, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, smoking, diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity, and a family history of the condition. Atherosclerosis can often progress without any symptoms for many years, but as the disease advances, it can lead to various signs and symptoms depending on which arteries are affected. Treatment typically involves lifestyle changes, medications, and, in some cases, surgical procedures to restore blood flow.

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, also known as the digestive tract, is a continuous tube that starts at the mouth and ends at the anus. It is responsible for ingesting, digesting, absorbing, and excreting food and waste materials. The GI tract includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), large intestine (cecum, colon, rectum, anus), and accessory organs such as the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. The primary function of this system is to process and extract nutrients from food while also protecting the body from harmful substances, pathogens, and toxins.

Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), also known as gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, is an enzyme found in many tissues, including the liver, bile ducts, and pancreas. GGT is involved in the metabolism of certain amino acids and plays a role in the detoxification of various substances in the body.

GGT is often measured as a part of a panel of tests used to evaluate liver function. Elevated levels of GGT in the blood may indicate liver disease or injury, bile duct obstruction, or alcohol consumption. However, it's important to note that several other factors can also affect GGT levels, so abnormal results should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and diagnostic tests.

Body composition refers to the relative proportions of different components that make up a person's body, including fat mass, lean muscle mass, bone mass, and total body water. It is an important measure of health and fitness, as changes in body composition can indicate shifts in overall health status. For example, an increase in fat mass and decrease in lean muscle mass can be indicative of poor nutrition, sedentary behavior, or certain medical conditions.

There are several methods for measuring body composition, including:

1. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This method uses low-level electrical currents to estimate body fat percentage based on the conductivity of different tissues.
2. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This method uses low-dose X-rays to measure bone density and body composition, including lean muscle mass and fat distribution.
3. Hydrostatic weighing: This method involves submerging a person in water and measuring their weight underwater to estimate body density and fat mass.
4. Air displacement plethysmography (ADP): This method uses air displacement to measure body volume and density, which can be used to estimate body composition.

Understanding body composition can help individuals make informed decisions about their health and fitness goals, as well as provide valuable information for healthcare providers in the management of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease.

The hypothalamus is a small, vital region of the brain that lies just below the thalamus and forms part of the limbic system. It plays a crucial role in many important functions including:

1. Regulation of body temperature, hunger, thirst, fatigue, sleep, and circadian rhythms.
2. Production and regulation of hormones through its connection with the pituitary gland (the hypophysis). It controls the release of various hormones by producing releasing and inhibiting factors that regulate the anterior pituitary's function.
3. Emotional responses, behavior, and memory formation through its connections with the limbic system structures like the amygdala and hippocampus.
4. Autonomic nervous system regulation, which controls involuntary physiological functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion.
5. Regulation of the immune system by interacting with the autonomic nervous system.

Damage to the hypothalamus can lead to various disorders like diabetes insipidus, growth hormone deficiency, altered temperature regulation, sleep disturbances, and emotional or behavioral changes.

Orphan nuclear receptors are a subfamily of nuclear receptor proteins that are classified as "orphans" because their specific endogenous ligands (natural activating molecules) have not yet been identified. These receptors are still functional transcription factors, which means they can bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate the expression of target genes when activated by a ligand. However, in the case of orphan nuclear receptors, the identity of these ligands remains unknown or unconfirmed.

These receptors play crucial roles in various biological processes, including development, metabolism, and homeostasis. Some orphan nuclear receptors have been found to bind to synthetic ligands (man-made molecules), which has led to the development of potential therapeutic agents for various diseases. Over time, as research progresses, some orphan nuclear receptors may eventually have their endogenous ligands identified and be reclassified as non-orphan nuclear receptors.

The metabolome is the complete set of small molecule metabolites, such as carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and amino acids, present in a biological sample at a given moment. It reflects the physiological state of a cell, tissue, or organism and provides information about the biochemical processes that are taking place. The metabolome is dynamic and constantly changing due to various factors such as genetics, environment, diet, and disease. Studying the metabolome can help researchers understand the underlying mechanisms of health and disease and develop diagnostic tools and treatments for various medical conditions.

Cholesterol is a type of lipid (fat) molecule that is an essential component of cell membranes and is also used to make certain hormones and vitamins in the body. It is produced by the liver and is also obtained from animal-derived foods such as meat, dairy products, and eggs.

Cholesterol does not mix with blood, so it is transported through the bloodstream by lipoproteins, which are particles made up of both lipids and proteins. There are two main types of lipoproteins that carry cholesterol: low-density lipoproteins (LDL), also known as "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoproteins (HDL), also known as "good" cholesterol.

High levels of LDL cholesterol in the blood can lead to a buildup of cholesterol in the walls of the arteries, increasing the risk of heart disease and stroke. On the other hand, high levels of HDL cholesterol are associated with a lower risk of these conditions because HDL helps remove LDL cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it back to the liver for disposal.

It is important to maintain healthy levels of cholesterol through a balanced diet, regular exercise, and sometimes medication if necessary. Regular screening is also recommended to monitor cholesterol levels and prevent health complications.

PPAR-alpha (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha) is a type of nuclear receptor protein that functions as a transcription factor, regulating the expression of specific genes involved in lipid metabolism. It plays a crucial role in the breakdown of fatty acids and the synthesis of high-density lipoproteins (HDL or "good" cholesterol) in the liver. PPAR-alpha activation also has anti-inflammatory effects, making it a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

Oxidation-Reduction (redox) reactions are a type of chemical reaction involving a transfer of electrons between two species. The substance that loses electrons in the reaction is oxidized, and the substance that gains electrons is reduced. Oxidation and reduction always occur together in a redox reaction, hence the term "oxidation-reduction."

In biological systems, redox reactions play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including energy production, metabolism, and signaling. The transfer of electrons in these reactions is often facilitated by specialized molecules called electron carriers, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2).

The oxidation state of an element in a compound is a measure of the number of electrons that have been gained or lost relative to its neutral state. In redox reactions, the oxidation state of one or more elements changes as they gain or lose electrons. The substance that is oxidized has a higher oxidation state, while the substance that is reduced has a lower oxidation state.

Overall, oxidation-reduction reactions are fundamental to the functioning of living organisms and are involved in many important biological processes.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Liver diseases refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the normal functioning of the liver. The liver is a vital organ responsible for various critical functions such as detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion.

Liver diseases can be categorized into acute and chronic forms. Acute liver disease comes on rapidly and can be caused by factors like viral infections (hepatitis A, B, C, D, E), drug-induced liver injury, or exposure to toxic substances. Chronic liver disease develops slowly over time, often due to long-term exposure to harmful agents or inherent disorders of the liver.

Common examples of liver diseases include hepatitis, cirrhosis (scarring of the liver tissue), fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases, genetic/hereditary liver disorders (like Wilson's disease and hemochromatosis), and liver cancers. Symptoms may vary widely depending on the type and stage of the disease but could include jaundice, abdominal pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, and weight loss.

Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent progression and potential complications associated with liver diseases.

Weight gain is defined as an increase in body weight over time, which can be attributed to various factors such as an increase in muscle mass, fat mass, or total body water. It is typically measured in terms of pounds or kilograms and can be intentional or unintentional. Unintentional weight gain may be a cause for concern if it's significant or accompanied by other symptoms, as it could indicate an underlying medical condition such as hypothyroidism, diabetes, or heart disease.

It is important to note that while body mass index (BMI) can be used as a general guideline for weight status, it does not differentiate between muscle mass and fat mass. Therefore, an increase in muscle mass through activities like strength training could result in a higher BMI, but this may not necessarily be indicative of increased health risks associated with excess body fat.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Aging is a complex, progressive and inevitable process of bodily changes over time, characterized by the accumulation of cellular damage and degenerative changes that eventually lead to increased vulnerability to disease and death. It involves various biological, genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that contribute to the decline in physical and mental functions. The medical field studies aging through the discipline of gerontology, which aims to understand the underlying mechanisms of aging and develop interventions to promote healthy aging and extend the human healthspan.

Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 (SREBP-1) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the regulation of lipid metabolism, primarily cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthesis. It binds to specific DNA sequences called sterol regulatory elements (SREs), which are present in the promoter regions of genes involved in lipid synthesis.

SREBP-1 exists in two isoforms, SREBP-1a and SREBP-1c, encoded by a single gene through alternative splicing. SREBP-1a is a stronger transcriptional activator than SREBP-1c and can activate both cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis genes. In contrast, SREBP-1c primarily regulates fatty acid synthesis genes.

Under normal conditions, SREBP-1 is found in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane as an inactive precursor bound to another protein called SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP). When cells detect low levels of cholesterol or fatty acids, SCAP escorts SREBP-1 to the Golgi apparatus, where it undergoes proteolytic processing to release the active transcription factor. The active SREBP-1 then translocates to the nucleus and binds to SREs, promoting the expression of genes involved in lipid synthesis.

Overall, SREBP-1 is a critical regulator of lipid homeostasis, and its dysregulation has been implicated in various diseases, including obesity, insulin resistance, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and atherosclerosis.

Hyperglycemia is a medical term that refers to an abnormally high level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Fasting hyperglycemia is defined as a fasting blood glucose level greater than or equal to 126 mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter) on two separate occasions. Alternatively, a random blood glucose level greater than or equal to 200 mg/dL in combination with symptoms of hyperglycemia (such as increased thirst, frequent urination, blurred vision, and fatigue) can also indicate hyperglycemia.

Hyperglycemia is often associated with diabetes mellitus, a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by high blood glucose levels due to insulin resistance or insufficient insulin production. However, hyperglycemia can also occur in other conditions such as stress, surgery, infection, certain medications, and hormonal imbalances.

Prolonged or untreated hyperglycemia can lead to serious complications such as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS), and long-term damage to various organs such as the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. Therefore, it is essential to monitor blood glucose levels regularly and maintain them within normal ranges through proper diet, exercise, medication, and lifestyle modifications.

Hyperlipidemias are a group of disorders characterized by an excess of lipids (fats) or lipoproteins in the blood. These include elevated levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, or both. Hyperlipidemias can be inherited (primary) or caused by other medical conditions (secondary). They are a significant risk factor for developing cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease.

There are two main types of lipids that are commonly measured in the blood: low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, often referred to as "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, known as "good" cholesterol. High levels of LDL cholesterol can lead to the formation of plaques in the arteries, which can narrow or block them and increase the risk of heart attack or stroke. On the other hand, high levels of HDL cholesterol are protective because they help remove LDL cholesterol from the bloodstream.

Triglycerides are another type of lipid that can be measured in the blood. Elevated triglyceride levels can also contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease, particularly when combined with high LDL cholesterol and low HDL cholesterol levels.

Hyperlipidemias are typically diagnosed through a blood test that measures the levels of various lipids and lipoproteins in the blood. Treatment may include lifestyle changes, such as following a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, losing weight, and quitting smoking, as well as medication to lower lipid levels if necessary.

Anthropometry is the scientific study of measurements and proportions of the human body. It involves the systematic measurement and analysis of various physical characteristics, such as height, weight, blood pressure, waist circumference, and other body measurements. These measurements are used in a variety of fields, including medicine, ergonomics, forensics, and fashion design, to assess health status, fitness level, or to design products and environments that fit the human body. In a medical context, anthropometry is often used to assess growth and development, health status, and disease risk factors in individuals and populations.

Bile acids and salts are naturally occurring steroidal compounds that play a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of lipids (fats) in the body. They are produced in the liver from cholesterol and then conjugated with glycine or taurine to form bile acids, which are subsequently converted into bile salts by the addition of a sodium or potassium ion.

Bile acids and salts are stored in the gallbladder and released into the small intestine during digestion, where they help emulsify fats, allowing them to be broken down into smaller molecules that can be absorbed by the body. They also aid in the elimination of waste products from the liver and help regulate cholesterol metabolism.

Abnormalities in bile acid synthesis or transport can lead to various medical conditions, such as cholestatic liver diseases, gallstones, and diarrhea. Therefore, understanding the role of bile acids and salts in the body is essential for diagnosing and treating these disorders.

The intestines, also known as the bowel, are a part of the digestive system that extends from the stomach to the anus. They are responsible for the further breakdown and absorption of nutrients from food, as well as the elimination of waste products. The intestines can be divided into two main sections: the small intestine and the large intestine.

The small intestine is a long, coiled tube that measures about 20 feet in length and is lined with tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase its surface area and enhance nutrient absorption. The small intestine is where most of the digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place.

The large intestine, also known as the colon, is a wider tube that measures about 5 feet in length and is responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes from digested food, forming stool, and eliminating waste products from the body. The large intestine includes several regions, including the cecum, colon, rectum, and anus.

Together, the intestines play a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being by ensuring that the body receives the nutrients it needs to function properly.

An animal model in medicine refers to the use of non-human animals in experiments to understand, predict, and test responses and effects of various biological and chemical interactions that may also occur in humans. These models are used when studying complex systems or processes that cannot be easily replicated or studied in human subjects, such as genetic manipulation or exposure to harmful substances. The choice of animal model depends on the specific research question being asked and the similarities between the animal's and human's biological and physiological responses. Examples of commonly used animal models include mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and non-human primates.

Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the body's function is not maintained. It can also refer to a deficiency or excess of vitamins, minerals, protein, energy, and/or water. This condition can have negative effects on physical and mental health. Malnutrition includes undernutrition (wasting, stunting, underweight), overnutrition (overweight, obesity) and micronutrient deficiencies or excesses.

It's important to note that malnutrition is different from malabsorption, which is the inability to absorb nutrients from food. Malabsorption can also lead to malnutrition if it results in a lack of necessary nutrients for the body's function.

Mitochondria in muscle, also known as the "powerhouses" of the cell, are organelles that play a crucial role in generating energy for muscle cells through a process called cellular respiration. They convert the chemical energy found in glucose and oxygen into ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the main source of energy used by cells.

Muscle cells contain a high number of mitochondria due to their high energy demands for muscle contraction and relaxation. The number and size of mitochondria in muscle fibers can vary depending on the type of muscle fiber, with slow-twitch, aerobic fibers having more numerous and larger mitochondria than fast-twitch, anaerobic fibers.

Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to various muscle disorders, including mitochondrial myopathies, which are characterized by muscle weakness, exercise intolerance, and other symptoms related to impaired energy production in the muscle cells.

I apologize for the confusion, but "physical conditioning" is not a term that is typically used in the context of animals in veterinary medicine or animal sciences. The term "physical conditioning" is more commonly used to describe the process of improving an individual's physical fitness through exercise and training.

However, in animal science, the concept of "training" or "exercising" animals may refer to the process of teaching them specific behaviors or skills, improving their physical abilities, or promoting their overall health and well-being. This might involve activities such as providing opportunities for regular exercise, engaging in play, or using positive reinforcement techniques to teach animals new skills or modify their behavior.

If you have any further questions about animal care or training, I would be happy to try to help!

Oxidative stress is defined as an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (free radicals) and the body's ability to detoxify them or repair the damage they cause. This imbalance can lead to cellular damage, oxidation of proteins, lipids, and DNA, disruption of cellular functions, and activation of inflammatory responses. Prolonged or excessive oxidative stress has been linked to various health conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and aging-related diseases.

Carbohydrate metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, which is then used for energy or stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. This process involves several enzymes and chemical reactions that convert carbohydrates from food into glucose, fructose, or galactose, which are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to cells throughout the body.

The hormones insulin and glucagon regulate carbohydrate metabolism by controlling the uptake and storage of glucose in cells. Insulin is released from the pancreas when blood sugar levels are high, such as after a meal, and promotes the uptake and storage of glucose in cells. Glucagon, on the other hand, is released when blood sugar levels are low and signals the liver to convert stored glycogen back into glucose and release it into the bloodstream.

Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism can result from genetic defects or acquired conditions that affect the enzymes or hormones involved in this process. Examples include diabetes, hypoglycemia, and galactosemia. Proper management of these disorders typically involves dietary modifications, medication, and regular monitoring of blood sugar levels.

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... is a quarterly peer-reviewed medical journal covering the study of metabolic brain diseases. It was ... "Metabolic Brain Disease". 2021 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Clarivate. 2022. Official website v t e ...
The Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering inherited metabolic disorders ...
... and Metabolic Diseases. NIH: Endocrine Diseases (Articles lacking reliable references from February 2010, All articles lacking ... The Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases Information Service is an information dissemination service of the National Institute of ... The Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases Information Service is a part of the NIDDK's Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology, ... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). The NIDDK is part of the National Institutes of Health, which is part of ...
This is a shortened version of the third chapter of the ICD-9: Endocrine, Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases, and Immunity ... Disorders of carbohydrate transport and metabolism 271.0 Glycogenosis Von Gierke's disease McArdle's disease Pompe's disease ... 272.6 Lipodystrophy 272.7 Lipidoses Gaucher's disease Niemann-Pick disease Sea-blue histiocyte syndrome 272.8 Other disorders ... 279.3 Unspecified immunity deficiency 279.4 Autoimmune disease not elsewhere classified 279.5 Graft-versus-host disease 279.8 ...
Metabolic syndrome Metabolic Myopathies Lysosomal storage disease Deficiency disease Hypermetabolism "MeSH Descriptor Data: ... These diseases, of which there are many subtypes, are known as inborn errors of metabolism. Metabolic diseases can also occur ... The principal classes of metabolic disorders are: Acid-base imbalance Metabolic brain diseases Disorders of calcium metabolism ... Metabolic disorders can happen when abnormal chemical reactions in the body alter the normal metabolic process. It can also be ...
Roth, Karl S. "eMedicine Specialties > Metabolic Diseases > Hyperammonemia". Retrieved 7 July 2009. Adjei, M. B.; Quesenberry, ... Ammonia is both a metabolic waste and a metabolic input throughout the biosphere. It is an important source of nitrogen for ... In birds, reptiles, and terrestrial snails, metabolic ammonium is converted into uric acid, which is solid and can therefore be ... Ammonia is also a metabolic product of amino acid deamination catalyzed by enzymes such as glutamate dehydrogenase 1. Ammonia ...
Malformations and Diseases Cardiovascular Research The Herbert and Dorothy Nadolny Cardio-Metabolic Diseases Research Hub ... "Metabolic disease". medicine.ekmd.huji.ac.il. Retrieved 2016-05-03. "The "Microbe Brain Storming Hub" (MIBS)". medicine.ekmd. ... The Kuvin Center for the Study of Infectious and Tropical Diseases; The Brain Disease Research Center - BDRC; The Autism Center ... "Brain Diseases Research Center". medicine.ekmd.huji.ac.il. Retrieved 2016-05-03. "Autism". medicine.ekmd.huji.ac.il. Retrieved ...
... leukemia and other blood diseases; immune system damage; thyroid damage; hormone imbalances; metabolic diseases; severe skin ... These contaminants can cause several different kinds of cancers; genetic damage; birth defects; miscarriage; heart disease; ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 4 (3): 169-76. doi:10.1007/bf01000293. PMID 2796871. S2CID 24524207. Bergeron, M; Swain, MS; Reader, ... Metabolic Brain Disease. 17 (4): 463-75. doi:10.1023/A:1021986624600. PMID 12602522. S2CID 19491464. Butterworth, RF (2003). " ... pathophysiology and treatment of these diseases Evaluate the clinical impact of MARS therapy on the course of the disease in ... Kim WR, Gross JB Jr, Poterucha JJ, Locke GR 3rd, Dickson ER (Jan 2001). "Outcome of hospital care of liver disease associated ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 37 (1): 197-207. doi:10.1007/s11011-021-00857-7. ISSN 0885-7490. PMID 34757579. S2CID 243939724. ... Aug 2013). "Probiotics for the treatment of Clostridium difficile associated disease". World J Gastrointest Pathophysiol. 4 (3 ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 28 (2): 151-4. doi:10.1007/s11011-012-9337-3. PMID 23010935. S2CID 11206990. Ortez, C; Jou, C; Cortès- ... Though it is often most associated with Parkinson's disease, hypokinesia can be present in a wide variety of other conditions. ... It is also associated with mental health disorders and prolonged inactivity due to illness, amongst other diseases. The other ... Vingerhoets, FJ; Schulzer, M; Calne, DB; Snow, BJ (Jan 1997). "Which clinical sign of Parkinson's disease best reflects the ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 26 (1): 79-85. doi:10.1007/s11011-011-9237-y. PMID 21327546. S2CID 19377135. Robson, D; Welch, E; ... is a disease or category of diseases that commonly causes disability and increases mortality. The causes of TAN are not ... The disease affects poor tropical populations; there are no good statistics on how many people are affected worldwide, but in ... It is possible that there are several diseases being categorized as TAN. It has been estimated that 5% of surviving World War ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 21 (2-3): 279-284. doi:10.1007/s11011-006-9024-3. PMID 16850254. S2CID 25769097. Retrieved 24 March ... Urbach-Wiethe disease (UWD) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by early damage to the basolateral amygdala. Perhaps more ... and contributed to a number of publications of the Global Burden of Disease Consortium. The Drakenstein Child Health Study is a ...
"Diseases - Metabolic Diseases - Causes/Inheritance". Muscular Dystrophy Association. 18 December 2015. Retrieved 2 March 2016. ... Hoffmann GF (1 January 2002). Inherited Metabolic Diseases. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 9780781729000. "Glycogenoses". ... Infarction, such as bowel infarction, myocardial infarction and lung infarction Acute kidney disease Acute liver disease ... Glycogen storage disease Lactate Metabolic myopathies Oxidoreductase This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam ...
Jordaan GP, Emsley R (June 2014). "Alcohol-induced psychotic disorder: a review". Metabolic Brain Disease. 29 (2): 231-243. doi ... such as Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and Parkinson's disease focal neurological disease, such as stroke, ... parasitic diseases, such as neurocysticercosis Huntington disease Various psychoactive substances (both legal and illegal) have ... He used it as a shorthand for 'psychic neurosis'. At that time neurosis meant any disease of the nervous system, and Canstatt ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 27 (1): 1-5. doi:10.1007/s11011-011-9274-6. PMC 3276770. PMID 22193538. Mashiyama ST, Courtemanche C, ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 17 (4): 375-387. doi:10.1023/a:1021970120965. ISSN 0885-7490. PMID 12602514. S2CID 23679769. Furrow, S ...
Inborn Metabolic Diseases. Germany: Springer. p. 344. ISBN 978-3-662-49771-5. Cohen I, Staretz-Chacham O, Wormser O, Perez Y, ... Jiang L, Boufersaoui A, Yang C, Ko B, Rakheja D, Guevara G, Hu Z, DeBerardinis RJ (September 2017). "Quantitative metabolic ... Patients with D-2/L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria display neonatal onset metabolic encephalopathy, infantile epilepsy, global ... Metabolic Engineering. 43 (Pt B): 198-207. doi:10.1016/j.ymben.2016.11.004. PMC 5429990. PMID 27856334. Wan-angkan, P.; et al ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 23 (1): 115-22. doi:10.1007/s11011-007-9076-z. PMID 18034292. S2CID 9020059. Watson, A. J. S.; Walker ... Metabolic Brain Disease. 10 (1): 17-24. doi:10.1007/BF01991779. PMID 7596325. S2CID 9751459. (Wikipedia articles needing page ... Metabolic Brain Disease. 14 (1): 1-20. doi:10.1023/A:1020653312697. PMID 10348310. S2CID 19954743. Navarro, Darren; Zwingmann, ... Failure in diagnosis of WE and thus treatment of the disease leads to death in approximately 20% of cases, while 75% are left ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 24 (2): 271-82. doi:10.1007/s11011-009-9136-7. PMID 19296210. S2CID 13460935. Department of Health and ... Both of the metabolic breakdown pathways shown for GHB can run in either direction, depending on the concentrations of the ... By November 1989 57 cases of illness caused by the GHB supplements had been reported to the Centers for Disease Control and ... Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency is a disease that causes GHB to accumulate in the blood. GHB is used for medical ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 31 (3): 631-641. doi:10.1007/s11011-016-9794-1. ISSN 0885-7490. PMC 4863909. PMID 26821073. Al Zarouni ...
December 2011). "Decreased expression of myelin gene regulatory factor in Niemann-Pick type C 1 mouse". Metabolic Brain Disease ... One of the lesser known gene diseases that is known to be linked to obesity is the NPC1 disease, which is otherwise known as ... NPC1 disease is an autosomal-recessive lipid storage disease. It is mostly known for cholesterol infiltration, which in turn ... July 1997). "Linkage of Niemann-Pick disease type D to the same region of human chromosome 18 as Niemann-Pick disease type C". ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 31 (4): 727-735. doi:10.1007/s11011-016-9815-0. ISSN 0885-7490. PMID 26956130. S2CID 2740172. Lintas, ... The 11th International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), released in January 2021, characterizes ASD by the associated ... "WHO releases new International Classification of Diseases (ICD 11)". www.who.int. Retrieved 2022-03-28. American Psychiatric ... CDC (2020-03-13). "Screening and Diagnosis , Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) , NCBDDD". Centers for Disease Control and ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 29 (2): 351-7. doi:10.1007/s11011-014-9496-5. PMID 24532047. S2CID 14880172. Roy-Byrne PP, Craske MG, ... "FASTSTATS - Illegal Drug Use". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 30 May 2013. Archived from the original on 5 July ... "FASTSTATS - Alcohol Use". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 8 July 2013. Retrieved 28 ... Lara DR (2010). "Caffeine, mental health, and psychiatric disorders". Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. 20 (Suppl 1): S239-48. ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 24 (1): 27-53. doi:10.1007/s11011-008-9118-1. hdl:11577/2380064. PMID 19085093. S2CID 4564675. ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 4 February 2016. Retrieved 4 February 2016. ... According to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, less than one-third of Americans taking one ... They are also used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and several other disorders. Because of potentially lethal dietary ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 30 (5): 1093-1104. doi:10.1007/s11011-015-9651-7. PMID 25624154. S2CID 17688028. Young, Rodney C.; ... Souza RM, da Silva IC, Delgado AB, da Silva PH, Costa VR (2018). "Focused ultrasound and Alzheimer's disease A systematic ... Cells of the barrier actively transport metabolic products such as glucose across the barrier using specific transport proteins ... The blood-brain barrier may become damaged in select neurological diseases, as indicated by neuroimaging studies of Alzheimer's ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 31 (1): 205-212. doi:10.1007/s11011-015-9681-1. PMID 25987537. S2CID 3234882. Dean, Shannon L.; Singer ... Huntington's disease, Wilson disease, hyperthyroidism, lupus erythematosus, pregnancy (chorea gravidarum), drug intoxication ... causing a variety of streptococcal related diseases including Sydenham's chorea but also rheumatic heart disease and nephritic ... biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease (BTBGD), Fahr disease, familial dyskinesia-facial myokymia (Bird-Raskind ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 24 (1): 95-102. doi:10.1007/s11011-008-9112-7. hdl:1866/9593. ISSN 0885-7490. PMID 19104924. S2CID ... Sleep inversion is a feature of African trypanosomiasis, after which the disease takes its common name, "African sleeping ... Disease". www.cdc.gov. 2020-04-28. Retrieved 2020-08-11. Maxfield, Luke; Bermudez, Rene (2020), "Trypanosomiasis ( ... Alteration in Circadian Rhythms in patients with liver disease. London: University College. Bosoi, Cristina R.; Rose, ...
Inborn Metabolic Diseases. Springer. pp. 233-243. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-28785-8_18. ISBN 978-3-540-28785-8. Paradis K (October ... Firstly, it prevents the toxic metabolic intermediates from accumulating as a result of the dysfunctional tyrosine metabolic ... Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease. 35 (2): 263-8. doi:10.1007/s10545-011-9394-5. PMID 22069142. S2CID 23783926. Das AM ( ... Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease. 21 (5): 498-506. doi:10.1023/a:1005458703363. PMID 9728330. S2CID 6717818. "Tyrosinemia ...
... replacement of phosphate often corrects or improves the metabolic bone disorder. Metabolic bone disease in captive reptiles is ... Metabolic bone disease is an abnormality of bones caused by a broad spectrum of disorders. Most commonly these disorders are ... McWilliams, D. A.; Leeson, S. (2001). "METABOLIC BONE DISEASE IN LIZARDS: PREVALENCE AND POTENTIAL FOR MONITORING BONE HEALTH ... For example, genetic or hereditary hypophosphatemia may cause the metabolic bone disorder osteomalacia. Although there is ...
... it may have clinical implications in the way patients could be treated for fatty liver and other metabolic diseases, which are ... The same metabolic changes reduce insulin sensitivity in muscles, raising sugar levels in the blood, and causing the pancreas ... This gene, when active, brings out your anxiety and as well as bringing about metabolic changes that tell your body to burn ... Those mix-ups can lead to glucose intolerance - the first step toward metabolic syndrome and diabetes. So,… ...
Management of the endocrine and metabolic disorders related to sickle cell disease (SCD) and testing for iron overload in SCD ... Therapy Insight: Metabolic and Endocrine Disorders in Sickle-cell Disease. Authors: Dawn Smiley, MD ; Samuel Dagogo-Jack, MD, ... diseases. Increased duration of disease requiring transfusion therapy and number of blood trans fusions (more than eight per ... Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hereditary hemoglobino pathy characterized by abnormal hemoglobin production, hemolytic anemia, ...
Now a new study says that people with metabolic abnormalities are at increased risk of developing kidney disease. ... heart disease, stroke, and premature death when they occur together. ... Metabolic syndrome comprises a group of medical disorders that increase peoples risk of diabetes, ... Metabolic syndrome may cause kidney disease. Date:. August 21, 2011. Source:. American Society of Nephrology. Summary:. ...
The presence of immune cells, such as macrophages, in metabolic tissues suggests dynamic, ongoing crosstalk between these two ... Macrophage-mediated inflammation in metabolic disease Nat Rev Immunol. 2011 Oct 10;11(11):738-49. doi: 10.1038/nri3071. ... in experimental models of obesity and metabolic disease. ... in metabolic tissues suggests dynamic, ongoing crosstalk ... Here, we discuss how changes in the recruitment and activation of macrophages contribute to metabolic homeostasis. In ...
Basic and clinical research that addresses the pathophysiology of metabolic diseases, including type 1 and type 2 diabetes. ... Metabolic Disease. Basic and clinical research that addresses the pathophysiology of metabolic diseases, including type 1 and ... and Metabolic Disease Program supports basic and clinical research that addresses the pathophysiology of metabolic diseases, ... Corinne M. Silva, Ph.D. The role of circadian rhythms and sleep in metabolic diseases; mechanisms by which the intrauterine ...
Late onset of a metabolic disease is often triggered by acute metabolic stresses, such as infection, fasting, or consumption of ... There is no specific treatment for Farbers disease. Most children with the disease die by age 2, usually from lung disease. ... A metabolic disorder is any disease or disorder that negatively affects the biochemical reactions through which individual ... Additional classes of metabolic disease. The disorders discussed above, which include disorders of carbohydrate metabolism, ...
Genetics and Metabolic Diseases articles covering symptoms, diagnosis, staging, treatment, prognosis, and follow-up. Peer ... Genetics of Tarui Disease (Glycogen-Storage Disease Type VII or Phosphofructokinase Deficiency) ... Genetics of Tarui Disease (Glycogen-Storage Disease Type VII or Phosphofructokinase Deficiency) ... Glycogen-Storage Disease Type 0 (GSD-0) (Glycogen Synthetase Deficiency) * Hereditary Fructose Intolerance (HFI) (Fructose 1- ...
... imaging and its potential in neurodegenerative disease research. ... Metabolic Imaging in Neurodegenerative Disease using CEST MRI. ... Early Detection of Metabolic Remodeling in Pressure Overload Left Ventricle Hypertrophy Using Dynamic PET Imaging ... This Webinar is of interest to researcher and professionals working in the field of neurodegenerative diseases including people ... Unlocking your clinical understanding of Post-Acute COVID Syndrome (PACS), patient recover, and risk of subsequent disease ...
Mark Liver-derived metabolites as signaling molecules in fatty liver disease Keles, Umur LU ; Ow, Jin Rong ; Kuentzel, ... Mark Pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes and the impact of altered metabolic interorgan crosstalk Sanches, Jose Marcos LU ; Zhao ... Mark Combined GLUT1 and OXPHOS inhibition eliminates acute myeloid leukemia cells by restraining their metabolic plasticity ...
3. Endocrine, Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases, and Immunity Disorders (240-279). Excludes: endocrine and metabolic ... DISEASES OF THE BLOOD AND BLOOD-FORMING ORGANS ( TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface Acknowledgments Introduction The ICD-9-CM ... Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency Glycogen storage disease McArdles disease Pompes disease von Gierkes disease 271.1 ... The Disease Classification Alphabetical Index of Diseases Table of Drugs and Chemicals Index To External Causes of Injury (E ...
High-density lipoproteins vascular protective functions in metabolic and cardiovascular disease - could extracellular vesicles ... Arba, F., Inzitari, D., Ali, M., Warach, S.J., Luby, M., Lees, K.R. (2017) Small vessel disease and clinical outcomes after IV ... Arba, F., Quinn, T., Hankey, G.J., Ali, M., Lees, K. R., Inzitari, D. (2017) Cerebral small vessel disease, medial temporal ... Boland, E., Quondamatteo, F., Van Agtmael, T. (2021) The role of basement membranes in cardiac biology and disease Bioscience ...
Research in Mayo Clinics Epigenomics of Metabolic Diseases Lab is focused on epigenetic regulation of metabolic disorders and ... Weis Epigenomics of Metabolic Disease Lab at Mayo Clinic is focused on epigenetic regulation of metabolic disorders and ... Novel epigenetic regulators in metabolic diseases and chronic inflammation. The epigenome of dysfunctional beta cells is shaped ... this finding may have broad implications in metabolic disorders and systemic inflammatory diseases. ...
Why does a fibre-fat combo fight metabolic disease? Scientists find previously unappreciated mechanism By Niamh Michail 24- ... Related tags Nutrition Metabolic syndrome Scientists have uncovered a previously unappreciated mechanism which may explain ... Metabolic syndrome is the name given to a host of related health conditions including raised blood sugar levels, excess ... The study was funded by the US-based National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and the Crohns and ...
Boshell Diabetes & Metabolic Disease Research Program. The Boshell Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases Research Program enhances ... cure and management of diabetes and metabolic diseases and their complications. Through support of diabetes and metabolic ... If you are interested in providing financial support for research in the Boshell Diabetes & Metabolic Disease Research Program ... The pathophysiological states associated with obesity-linked metabolic disease are thought to contribute to the initiation and ...
development of animal models of metabolic diseases, both to improve understanding of the diseases and to test possible ... Researchers on metabolic diseases of muscle are making progress on a number of fronts, including:. *better diagnosis to allow ... continued examination of the role of exercise and diet in metabolic diseases; ... This disease causes exercise intolerance, cramps, muscle pain and, sometimes, myoglobinuria (acute muscle breakdown leading to ...
... are typically associated with cardiovascular and metabolic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), e.g. obesity, type 2 diabetes, ... heart diseases and atherosclerosis. The extent to which these... ... with cardiovascular and metabolic non-communicable diseases ( ... The latter will include measures of DNA methylation, RNA expression and read outs of metabolic pathways. LONGITOOLS will ... NCDs), e.g. obesity, type 2 diabetes, heart diseases and atherosclerosis. The extent to which these exposures may cause their ...
Published Review Paper From VeroScience Delineates 50 Years Of Research Linking Circadian Rhythms With Metabolic Disease - read ... "We remain focused on research in this field to develop new therapies for metabolic diseases. Following FDA approval in 2009, we ... Published Review Paper From VeroScience Delineates 50 Years Of Research Linking Circadian Rhythms With Metabolic Disease. ... which then predisposes to metabolic disease. Using this knowledge, researchers were able to identify a platform to manipulate ...
Mediterranean diet can reverse metabolic disorder, lower risk of diabetes, obesity, heart disease ... Metabolic syndrome refers to a cluster of symptoms that is associated with a higher risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease ... Mediterranean diet can reverse metabolic disorder, lower risk of diabetes, obesity, heart disease. Reprinting this article: Non ... Mediterranean diet can reverse metabolic disorder, lower risk of diabetes, obesity, heart disease. Tuesday, November 11, 2014 ...
Immunological and Cellular Strategies in Metabolic Disease (ICSMD) at the Technische Universität Dresden and the Kings ... International Research Training Group (IRTG) 2251 "Immunological and Cellular Strategies in Metabolic Disease" (ICSMD) learn ... The International Research Training Group (IRTG) 2251 "Immunological and Cellular Strategies in Metabolic Disease" (ICSMD) at ... "Immunological and Cellular Strategies in Metabolic Disease" (ICSMD) ...
Cardiovascular Consequences of Metabolic Disease. INITIATION DATE. 12.01.09. ARC DIRECTORS AND CO-DIRECTORS:. Kenneth Walsh, ... Related to Cardiovascular Consequences of Metabolic Disease Programming. * Graduated ARCs * Induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) Cell ... Metabolic Disease and Adipose Tissue: Studies in Patients Undergoing Bariatric Surgery * Atrial Fibrillation Initiative (AF ARC ... We propose projects to define the molecular mechanisms by which metabolic disease impacts vascular function and vice versa. The ...
Pledge Your Support for Rare Diseases!. Rare Disease Day is held annually on the last day of February, it is celebrated to ... Launch of Newborn Screening Program for Selected Inherited Metabolic Disorders on World Rare Disease Day we invite you all to ... At AKU, we are very proud to have been the flag bearer of Rare Disease Day in Pakistan for the past 6 years. We look forward to ... On a giant canvas, you will be asked to dip your hands in paint and make hand-prints to show your support for rare diseases ...
BIMDG : British Inherited Metabolic Disease Group The BIMDG has been entered onto the Register of Charities with the Registered ...
Risk factors of Alzheimers disease and metabolic syndrome can accumulate in childhood. Sep 25, 2018 ... Study links protein, clusterin, to cardiac and metabolic diseases. by Ohio State University Medical Center ... Citation: Study links protein, clusterin, to cardiac and metabolic diseases (2019, February 4) retrieved 25 September 2023 from ... Clusterin may be a biomarker of disease, as well as a therapeutic target to potentially prevent this disease." More information ...
Metabolic Syndrome, and Not Obesity, Is Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease Subject Area: Nephrology ... The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative impact of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) on kidney disease. Methods: ... Metabolic abnormalities, but not obesity per se, associated with chronic kidney disease in a Taiwanese population ... Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common, progressive condition with a clinical spectrum ranging from mild disease to an end- ...
Common metabolic diseases can be readily diagnosed on blood work. However, others can be challenging to diagnose, and involve ... Parenchymal liver disease severely alters the normal metabolic functions such as metabolism of ammonia to urea. Portosystemic ... However, whether this represents actual peripheral nerve injury, muscle disease or simply metabolic weakness is unclear (human ... Inborn Errors of Metabolism (Storage Disease). This is a group of genetic disease with lack of or dysfunction of a key enzyme ...
Gastrointestinal Metabolic Surgery For Obesity. Weight loss and metabolic surgery programs at the Center for Advanced Digestive ... These metabolic effects are responsible for the dramatic improvement of obesity, diabetes, and lipid metabolism. ... By tailoring procedures to the metabolic characteristics of each patient, surgery results in much more than loss of body weight ... Typically, the resulting weight loss and metabolic effects that occur after this procedure are, on average, less dramatic than ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
Xenobiotic Receptors in Metabolic Diseases. Jinhang Zhang, Qingyi Jia, Yanping Li and Jinhan He ... Xenobiotic Receptors in Metabolic Diseases. Jinhang Zhang, Qingyi Jia, Yanping Li and Jinhan He ... The Function of Xenobiotic Receptors in Metabolic Diseases. Jinhang Zhang, Qingyi Jia, Yanping Li and Jinhan He ... The Function of Xenobiotic Receptors in Metabolic Diseases Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Drug ...
  • Preventing and managing metabolic syndrome -- through eating a healthy diet, exercising, losing excess body weight, and lowering cholesterol, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels -- may help prevent kidney disease. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Obesity promotes a chronic inflammatory state, which contributes to the development of insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. (bu.edu)
  • Insulin resistance is a major cause of Type 2 Diabetes, and patients with obesity commonly have both metabolic and cardiovascular complications. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Pathogenesis is poorly understood but seems to be linked to insulin resistance (eg, as in obesity or metabolic syndrome). (merckmanuals.com)
  • An unanswered question is what portion of CAD can be attributed to insulin resistance, related metabolic variables, and other known CAD risk factors. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thus, through its effects on these and other variables, insulin resistance could be the underlying cause of much of coronary artery disease (CAD) ( 1 , 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) has been defined as the presentation of traits of obesity, insulin resistance and laminitis or a predisposition to laminitis (Frank and others 2010). (virbac.com)
  • Aims: we investigate whether insulin resistance is associated with an increased prevalence for chronic kidney disease irrespective of the concurrent presence of metabolic syndrome. (scirp.org)
  • The present work was directed to analyse the information of an observational Spanish study in adult population (DESIRE study) [22] in order to investigate the association of insulin resistance with the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a non diabetic population. (scirp.org)
  • The main objective of the DESIRE study was to assess the frequency of the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in an adult population assigned to Primary Care centres. (scirp.org)
  • The metabolic syndrome is defined by the co-occurrence of obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hypertension and low grade inflammation. (universiteitleiden.nl)
  • In this large, multicentre, randomized clinical trial involving people with high cardiovascular risk, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil was associated with a smaller increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome compared with advice on following a low-fat diet," the researchers wrote. (naturalnews.com)
  • Due in large part to the increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease, it is estimated that life expectancy declines by 3 years for those with a Body Mass Index (BMI) over 30 and 10 years for those with a BMI over 40. (bu.edu)
  • Mean energy and macronutrient intakes and prevalence of risk factors including metabolic syndrome were compared between and within cases and controls. (who.int)
  • We estimate that in the US, approximately 3 million patients with CKD have metabolic acidosis, and this initiative aligns with our goal to slow CKD progression by reducing the prevalence and severity of metabolic acidosis in these patients with kidney disease. (kidneyfund.org)
  • However, the rising prevalence of NAFLD makes its coexistence with other chronic liver diseases quite possible. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, no systematic effort has lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], elevated triglycerides, and apoli- explored the effect of overweight and obesity on the prevalence of poprotein B-containing lipoproteins), elevated blood pressure, el- metabolic syndrome in India. (cdc.gov)
  • Hence, we under- and growing public health challenge worldwide resulting from took our meta-analysis to estimate the effect of anthropometric rapid urbanization, excessive energy intake, developing obesity, risk factors on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome to inform re- and sedentary lifestyle habits (2). (cdc.gov)
  • The prevalence of chronic diseases was notable. (bvsalud.org)
  • however, the increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases and associated risk factors and behaviors among all age groups limits aging as a sole explanation. (cdc.gov)
  • The Boshell Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases Research Program enhances opportunities for researchers to advance the prevention, cure and management of diabetes and metabolic diseases and their complications. (auburn.edu)
  • Complications of CKD, such as metabolic acidosis, create serious health problems, including patients' kidney disease getting worse," said LaVarne A. Burton, AKF president and CEO. (kidneyfund.org)
  • Complications from bone disease not only cause significant morbidity but also increase the cost of care hospitalization and mortality[1-3]. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • The course also addresses cardiovascular complications that arise in connection with the metabolic syndrome and highlights genetic aspects of metabolic diseases. (lu.se)
  • The goals of pharmacotherapy are to reduce disease activity and morbidity and to prevent complications. (medscape.com)
  • Complications of Paget's disease reflect the implications of bone deformity on associated soft tissues, and may be neoplastic, rheumatological, neurological and, rarely, cardiac. (pediagenosis.com)
  • The main complications of the Metabolic Syndrome are type 2 diabetes and premature cardiovascular disease and it has been predicted that the health care burden and costs associated with these complications will reach massive proportions as the currently obese population ages. (universiteitleiden.nl)
  • This condition is an aggressive form of fatty liver diseases which favors the accumulation of fibrosis in the liver and leads to cirrhosis and its associated complications. (enterosys.com)
  • Persons who escaped natural infection or were not vaccinated with toxoids or vaccines against diphtheria, tetanus, measles, mumps, rubella, and poliomyelitis may be at risk of these diseases and their complications. (cdc.gov)
  • Basic and clinical research that addresses the pathophysiology of metabolic diseases, including type 1 and type 2 diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • The Pathophysiology of Diabetes and Metabolic Disease Program supports basic and clinical research that addresses the pathophysiology of metabolic diseases, including type 1 and type 2 diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • Recent studies indicated that type 2 diabetes in midlife is associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) later in life. (auburn.edu)
  • Environmental factors, including air and noise pollution, and the built environment, are typically associated with cardiovascular and metabolic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), e.g. obesity, type 2 diabetes, heart diseases and atherosclerosis. (europa.eu)
  • Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that manipulating these rhythms through Circadian Neuroendocrine Resetting Therapy® (CNRT) can treat a number of metabolic and chronic conditions, and this work led to the development of the Company's FDA approved drug, Cycloset, for the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes. (biospace.com)
  • Through timed daily administration of Cycloset, a drug used to treat type 2 diabetes whose development was based on this platform, individuals with diabetes experience improved blood sugar control and a 42% reduction in adverse cardiovascular disease outcomes, as described in scientific articles published in Diabetes Care , Journal of American Heart Association , Endocrine Practice , and Journal of Diabetes Research , among others. (biospace.com)
  • The researchers wondered how the Mediterranean diet could affect metabolic syndrome, because the diet has previously been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, as well as lead to better health, longer life and less age-related cognitive decline. (naturalnews.com)
  • Obesity and its comorbidities, including hypertension, hyperlipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus, have a devastating impact on vascular function leading to conditions that promote cardiovascular disease. (bu.edu)
  • Many affected patients have obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (or glucose intolerance), dyslipidemia, and/or metabolic syndrome. (merckmanuals.com)
  • It has long been established that obese individuals are typically insulin resistant and predisposed to such disorders as type 2 diabetes, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, NAFLD and certain cancers. (bu.edu)
  • Obesity and disorders associated with the metabolic syndrome such as Type 2 Diabetes continue to be an epidemic in developed countries. (bu.edu)
  • Several studies show that the presence of MS is associated to an increased risk for both cardiovascular disease [2,3] and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) [4]. (scirp.org)
  • Insight in the inter-relation between the various aspects of the metabolic syndrome and their association with risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. (universiteitleiden.nl)
  • This condition results in the development of pathological conditions such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, hepatic steatosis and stroke. (enterosys.com)
  • For example, genetic or hereditary hypophosphatemia may cause the metabolic bone disorder osteomalacia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although there is currently no treatment for the genetic condition, replacement of phosphate often corrects or improves the metabolic bone disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also included are studies that use innovative technologies, such as genetic and epigenetic analyses, systems biology, and bioengineering, to understand the biological networks of underlying disease, with the goal of developing novel therapeutic strategies. (nih.gov)
  • Metabolic disorders typically result when an enzyme necessary for some step in a metabolic process is missing or improperly constructed due to a genetic defect. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Genetic and metabolic disease center, which is part of the Faculty of Medicine at Al-Quds university, in cooperation with the American foundation "Hope In Sight" started optometry project for students in the primary schools in Jerusalem and Ramallah. (alquds.edu)
  • This project aims to create awareness among students and their parents about the importance of conducting this type of test which contributes to early detection of any genetic diseases or others that may affect child's eyes during their critical period of growth. (alquds.edu)
  • In coordination with the Deanship of students affairs at Al-Quds University, the centre of the Genetic and metabolic disease had selected students from the three campuses: the main campus, Beit Hanina and Hind Al-Huseni, a number of students from different disciplines to participate in this project. (alquds.edu)
  • Their objective is to provoke the expression of different therapeutic proteins in the blood and thus enable treatments for genetic blood diseases such as hemophilia, or certain metabolic disorders. (genopole.com)
  • The Integrare team's platform can be used to treat not only a number of human genetic pathologies, for example hemophilia or certain metabolic disorders, but also a number of non-genetic illnesses as well. (genopole.com)
  • It also analyzes the link between NAFLD and psychiatric disorders, looking into common pathophysiological pathways, such as metabolic, genetic, and lifestyle factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Is Cancer a Genetic Disease, a Metabolic Disease or an Environmental Disease? (who.int)
  • Biochemical genetic testing and newborn screening are essential laboratory services for the screening, detection, diagnosis, and monitoring of inborn errors of metabolism or inherited metabolic disorders. (cdc.gov)
  • As the number of inherited metabolic diseases that are included in state-based newborn screening programs continues to increase, ensuring the quality of performance and delivery of testing services remains a continuous challenge not only for public health laboratories and other newborn screening facilities but also for biochemical genetic testing laboratories. (cdc.gov)
  • These recommendations are intended for laboratories that perform biochemical genetic testing to improve the quality of laboratory services and for newborn screening laboratories to ensure the quality of laboratory practices for inherited metabolic disorders. (cdc.gov)
  • It has been nearly a century since Dr. Garrod made his discovery, and in that time scientists have identified more than 200 genetic mutations that cause different metabolic disorders. (humanillnesses.com)
  • The disease may be familial and several genetic associations have been identified. (pediagenosis.com)
  • Genetic influences and gene-age interactions are also incomplete explanations, in light of the sudden increase in and other known causes of chronic diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Interested audience should consult other texts for in-depth description of the diagnosis and treatment of each disease. (vin.com)
  • The increased numbers of different metabolic diseases that are identifiable by tandem mass spectrometry also increases the complexity of testing required for confirmation of diagnosis. (aacc.org)
  • See also the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases [AASLD] 2018 practice guidance on the diagnosis and management of MASLD. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Fabry Registry: All patients with a confirmed diagnosis of Fabry disease who have signed the informed consent and patient authorization form(s) are eligible for inclusion. (uclahealth.org)
  • Therefore, a positive diagnosis rather than a diagnosis based on exclusion of concomitant diseases has been proposed [ 11 ], and a dual etiology for fatty liver disease is considered possible and even frequent [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This new biomarker for central nervous system (CNS) symptoms in mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) patients may help families better understand their child's diagnosis and prognosis and should help clinicians and regulatory agencies to evaluate the efficacy of new therapies," said senior author Dr James Wilson, a professor of Medicine and director of the Orphan Disease Centre (ODC). (drugtargetreview.com)
  • Alanine aminotransferase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain liver diseases (e.g. viral hepatitis and cirrhosis) and heart diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Albumin measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases involving the liver and/or kidneys, and are frequently used to assess nutritional status because plasma levels of albumin are dependent on protein intake. (cdc.gov)
  • Alkaline phosphatase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver, bone, and parathyroid disease. (cdc.gov)
  • AST measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain types of liver and heart disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Together with pH determination, bicarbonate measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of numerous potentially serious disorders associated with acid-base imbalance in the respiratory and metabolic systems. (cdc.gov)
  • BUN measurements are used in the diagnosis of certain renal and metabolic diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Calcium measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of parathyroid disease, bone diseases, chronic renal disease and tetany. (cdc.gov)
  • Measurements of creatine kinase are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction, skeletal muscle diseases, and diseases of the central nervous system. (cdc.gov)
  • Creatinine measurements are useful in the diagnosis and treatment of renal diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Iron (non-heme) measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as iron deficiency anemia, chronic renal disease, and hemochromatosis (a disease associated with widespread deposit in the tissues of two iron-containing pigments, hemosiderin and hemofuscin, and characterized by pigmentation of the skin). (cdc.gov)
  • If so, and if a unifying cause could be identified to explain what is essentially a "multi-causal enterprise" (5), the implications for the management of chronic conditions could be significant, possibly reflecting the influence of the germ theory on changes in infectious disease prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and control. (cdc.gov)
  • Their research was conducted on mice, but if found to be true for humans as well, it may have clinical implications in the way patients could be treated for fatty liver and other metabolic diseases, which are characterized by abnormally elevated levels of lipids in blood and liver cells. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Symptomatic patients might have any of the characteristic manifestations of systemic iron overload: liver disease with the eventual development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, arthropathy, increased skin pigmentation, cardiomyopathy, diabetes mellitus, gonadal insufficiency and other endocrine disorders. (medscape.com)
  • Given the number of metabolic disorders and the range of systems affected, these disorders are manifested in a wide array of symptoms of varying severity, ranging from recurrent vomiting, lethargy, and muscle weakness, to liver and heart failure, developmental delay, and mental retardation. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • It's also linked to increased cardiovascular disease risk and mortality, high blood pressure, harmful cholesterol levels and fatty liver disease. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Parenchymal liver disease severely alters the normal metabolic functions such as metabolism of ammonia to urea. (vin.com)
  • Steatotic liver disease is due to excessive accumulation of lipid in hepatocytes. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Metabolic dysfunction-associated liver disease (MASLD) includes simple fatty infiltration (a benign condition called steatotic liver disease), whereas metabolic dysfunction-associated steatohepatitis (MASH) is defined as the presence of fat leading to lipotoxicity and inflammatory damage to hepatocytes. (merckmanuals.com)
  • MASLD includes simple fatty infiltration (a benign condition called steatotic liver disease) and metabolic dysfunction-associated steatohepatitis (MASH), a less common but more important variant. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Steatotic liver disease develops for many reasons, involves many different biochemical mechanisms, and causes different types of liver damage. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic steatosis in over 5% of the parenchyma in the absence of excessive alcohol consumption. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this context, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an entity characterized by excessive hepatic fat accumulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • You can develop a metabolic disorder when some organs, such as your liver or pancreas, become diseased or do not function normally. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Severe scarring of the liver can lead to cirrhosis, which causes various symptoms characteristic of liver disease. (enterosys.com)
  • Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is defined by an excessive accumulation of lipids in hepatocytes which is not related to alcohol consumption. (enterosys.com)
  • Serum elevations of ALT activity are rarely observed, except in parenchymal liver disease, since ALT is a more liver-specific enzyme than aspartate aminotransferase (AST). (cdc.gov)
  • It is currently the most sensitive enzymatic indicator of liver disease, with normal values rarely found in the presence of hepatic disease. (cdc.gov)
  • A metabolic disorder is any disease or disorder that negatively affects the biochemical reactions through which individual animal cells process nutrient molecules (such as the components of carbohydrates , proteins , and fats ) to yield energy or perform the functions necessary to sustain life (such as building complex molecules and creating cellular structure). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • A metabolic disorder occurs when abnormal chemical reactions in your body disrupt this process. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cushing's Disease is a complex disorder where there is a dysfunction of the pituitary gland, which in turn leads to over-secretion of cortisol by the adrenal gland. (virbac.com)
  • Paget's disease ( osteitis deformans ) is a chronic bone disorder resulting in bone pain and deformity. (pediagenosis.com)
  • Paget's disease is a relatively rare disorder of bone remodelling that involves greatly accelerated rates of bone turnover, abnormal bone architecture and may lead to gross bone deformity. (pediagenosis.com)
  • It is not strictly a metabolic disorder since the disease is focal to bone. (pediagenosis.com)
  • Through support of diabetes and metabolic disease research opportunities at Auburn University, the program facilitates cross-disciplinary scientific discussion, supporting the study of new ideas, fostering the development of investigators new to the field of diabetes and expanding, the overall base of diabetes investigation. (auburn.edu)
  • Dr. Garrod called these diseases 'inborn errors of metabolism,' a name that persists to this day. (humanillnesses.com)
  • A modern diet of processed foods that are high in fat and low in fibre is linked to a reduced gut microbiota, obesity and metabolic syndrome. (nutraingredients.com)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative impact of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) on kidney disease. (karger.com)
  • Sankar Navaneethan, MD (Cleveland Clinic) and his colleagues searched the medical literature and combined data from 11 studies examining the relationship between metabolic syndrome and kidney disease. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The presence of metabolic syndrome (obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and glucose intolerance) increases the likelihood that a patient has MASH rather than simple steatosis. (merckmanuals.com)
  • The Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine in collaboration with Department of Pediatrics is planning a 'Launch of Newborn Screening Program for Selected Inherited Metabolic Disorders' on World Rare Disease Day we invite you all to come forward and get involved on the 23rd of Feb 2023. (rarediseaseday.org)
  • Maren Laughlin, Ph.D. Energy balance, thermogenesis and mitochondria biology, whole body intermediary carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism, and functional and metabolic imaging in adipose, pancreas and other metabolic organs. (nih.gov)
  • Some severe diseases, such as many of the lipid storage diseases, currently have no effective therapy. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • These metabolic effects are responsible for the dramatic improvement of obesity, diabetes, and lipid metabolism. (nyp.org)
  • Keywords: Uremic osteodystrophy Bone loss Fracture Kidney transplantation INTRODUCTION Metabolic bone diseases in kidney transplant recipients may include pre-existing uremic osteodystrophy osteoporosis bone fracture osteonecrosis and bone pain syndrome. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Introduction: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a complex pathology that combines several risk factors for cardiovascular disease. (bvsalud.org)
  • Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an autosomal, recessive hemoglobinopathy characterized by hemolytic anemia, intermittent occlusion of small vessels leading to acute and chronic tissue ischemia, and organ dysfunction. (medscape.com)
  • Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hereditary hemoglobino pathy characterized by abnormal hemoglobin production, hemolytic anemia, and intermittent occlusion of small vessels, leading to acute and chronic tissue ischemia, chronic organ damage, and organ dysfunction. (medscape.com)
  • Late onset of a metabolic disease is often triggered by acute metabolic stresses, such as infection, fasting, or consumption of a nutrient for which a metabolic intolerance exists. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • This disease causes exercise intolerance, cramps, muscle pain and, sometimes, myoglobinuria (acute muscle breakdown leading to rust-colored urine). (mda.org)
  • There is an increased risk of malignant change in pagetic bones and any change in symptoms, such as the development of acute pain, heat or fracture in a patient with long-standing disease should be investigated immediately. (pediagenosis.com)
  • These conditions can include injuries [eg, motor vehicle trauma, occupational/sports injuries] but exclude acute diseases [eg, AIDS] that have become chronic through advances in medical treatments. (cdc.gov)
  • Novel epigenetic regulators in metabolic diseases and chronic inflammation. (mayo.edu)
  • Given the significance of inflammation and steroids in a wide range of diseases, this finding may have broad implications in metabolic disorders and systemic inflammatory diseases. (mayo.edu)
  • 3) Vascular dysfunction within adipose tissue leads to inflammation and metabolic dysfunction. (bu.edu)
  • Men with metabolic syndrome had worsening symptoms after consuming the shake, including inflammation and disturbed fat metabolism. (battlediabetes.com)
  • The discovery of a form of low-grade systemic and chronic inflammation ("metaflammation"), linked to inducers (broadly termed "anthropogens") associated with modern man-made environments and lifestyles, suggests an underlying basis for chronic disease that could provide a 21st-century equivalent of the germ theory. (cdc.gov)
  • The discovery of a form of otherwise unrecognized inflammation in the early 1990s (6) and its widespread presence in many chronic diseases (7) led to the suggestion that many, if not all, such diseases may have this type of inflammatory basis (8). (cdc.gov)
  • This Webinar is of interest to researcher and professionals working in the field of neurodegenerative diseases including people using CEST imaging. (news-medical.net)
  • Previously this protein clusterin has been mostly studied for its role in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's but it now appears to have a broader role in human physiology and disease. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Specifically, these investigators are addressing many facets of both type 1 and 2 diabetes, with particular focus on the cardiac, neurologic and metabolic aspects of the disease. (auburn.edu)
  • ROCKVILLE, Md. (October 22, 2020) - The American Kidney Fund (AKF) today announced a partnership with Tricida, Inc. to increase the understanding of chronic metabolic acidosis, a common complication of kidney disease that can cause serious effects, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression, muscle atrophy and cardiac issues. (kidneyfund.org)
  • In this study, the US researchers uncovered a new mechanism to explain why, in mice at least, adding the fermentable fibre inulin to food can restore the gut microbiota, thus protecting the mice against metabolic syndrome. (nutraingredients.com)
  • In the new study, researchers randomly assigned 5,801 adults between the ages of 55 and 80 who were considered at high risk of developing heart disease to follow one of three diets: a low-fat diet (control group), a Mediterranean diet plus extra olive oil or a Mediterranean diet plus extra nuts. (naturalnews.com)
  • however, both diets were associated with a significant rate of reversion of metabolic syndrome," the researchers wrote. (naturalnews.com)
  • An important feature of our proposal will be the cross talk and tight collaborations between basic and clinical researchers and clinicians, with expertise ranging from metabolic disease, to biochemistry to immunology to Biostatistics, and to surgery. (bu.edu)
  • Now a new study says that people with metabolic abnormalities are at increased risk of developing kidney disease. (sciencedaily.com)
  • People with metabolic abnormalities are at increased risk of developing kidney disease, according to a study appearing in an upcoming issue of the Clinical Journal of the American Society Nephrology (CJASN). (sciencedaily.com)
  • Obesity and associated metabolic abnormalities are becoming major health care concerns around the world. (bu.edu)
  • The main objective of this course is to provide insight in recent developments in the link between the complex of abnormalities that comprise the "Metabolic Syndrome" and the development of premature cardiovascular disease. (universiteitleiden.nl)
  • It is our goal to establish an ARC focused on understanding the relationship between metabolic disorders and Adipose Tissue Biology by studying adipose tissues from insulin sensitive and insulin resistant patients obtained during and after Bariatric Surgery. (bu.edu)
  • as well as other metabolic or nutritional disorders. (cdc.gov)
  • Aug. 31, 2022 New research confirms that ethnicity is a risk factor for developing kidney disease in people with Type 1 diabetes. (sciencedaily.com)
  • 11, 2022 Metabolic syndrome increases a person's risk for diabetes, heart disease, and stroke, and includes conditions such as obesity, high blood pressure and high blood sugar. (sciencedaily.com)
  • www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2022/21_0231.htm Preventing Chronic Disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Accessible Version: www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2022/21_0231.htm to estimate the effect of anthropometric risk factors on the preval- ence of metabolic syndrome. (cdc.gov)
  • Steatosis due to secondary causes, such as viruses, autoimmune responses, metabolic or hereditary factors, and drugs or toxins, should be ruled out (Table 1 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In lectures delivered in 1908, Garrod described several hereditary diseases that are caused by too little or complete lack of certain enzymes (EN-zimes). (humanillnesses.com)
  • As normal nervous system function depends on a closely regulated environment, systemic metabolic disorders often affect the nervous system. (vin.com)
  • Periodontal disease (PD) is a chronic infection that produces a local and systemic inflammatory response. (bvsalud.org)
  • People with metabolic syndrome have a 55% increased risk of developing kidney problems, especially lower kidney function, indicative of kidney disease. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Published in The FASEB Journal , the study found that small overindulgences exacerbated the abnormal mechanisms related to sugar and fat metabolism that exist in people with metabolic syndrome. (battlediabetes.com)
  • People with metabolic syn- searchers in India and worldwide. (cdc.gov)
  • Manipulating dietary fibre content, particularly by adding fermentable fibre, guards against metabolic syndrome. (nutraingredients.com)
  • The presence of immune cells, such as macrophages, in metabolic tissues suggests dynamic, ongoing crosstalk between these two regulatory systems. (nih.gov)
  • The clusterin protein is a key component of the extracellular matrix , so this work opens up a new vista to understand the role of clusterin in inter-cellular crosstalk of tissue microenvironments of various diseases, including diabetes , cancer and neurodegeneration," said the co-corresponding author, Dr. Stephen T. C. Wong, professor and chair of the Department of Systems Medicine and Bioengineering at Houston Methodist. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Obese (OB) patients are at increased risk of chronic kidney disease, but it is still unclear whether this can be attributed to obesity per se or to the associated metabolic derangements. (karger.com)
  • Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common, progressive condition with a clinical spectrum ranging from mild disease to an end-stage, debilitating state [ 1 ]. (karger.com)
  • The presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent predictor of future CV events [8-11] and in the last years several studies have demonstrated that the MS increases the risk of developing microalbuminuria and renal failure [12-20]. (scirp.org)
  • Metabolic acidosis develops because of impaired renal tubular ammonia production, decreased urinary excretion of hydrogen ion and reduced renal tubular reabsorption of bicarbonate. (vin.com)
  • Differential diagnoses for metabolic acidosis include toxins, uremic acidosis, ketoacidosis, or organic acidosis (e.g. (vin.com)
  • In cats small bowel disease inhibits cobalamin uptake, and cobalamin deficiency can result in metabolic acidosis. (vin.com)
  • Tricida's support will allow AKF to develop and disseminate educational information about metabolic acidosis' role in the progression of CKD. (kidneyfund.org)
  • We are extraordinarily grateful to Tricida for its partnership in working with us to encourage patients to take metabolic acidosis management seriously. (kidneyfund.org)
  • Tricida is honored to partner with the American Kidney Fund on this critical effort to increase awareness and understanding of metabolic acidosis in those with kidney disease," said Gerrit Klaerner, PhD, Tricida CEO and president. (kidneyfund.org)
  • Metabolic acidosis is a buildup of acid in the body, which is common in people with kidney disease because their kidneys are not filtering their blood well enough. (kidneyfund.org)
  • This showed that, despite being higher in fat, the Mediterranean diet did not worsen metabolic outcomes. (naturalnews.com)
  • Women who frequently shift around their sleeping hours could have worse metabolic health outcomes than their peers who stick with a. (battlediabetes.com)
  • The Fabry Registry is an ongoing, international multi-center, strictly observational program that tracks the routine clinical outcomes for patients with Fabry disease, irrespective of treatment status. (uclahealth.org)
  • To evaluate the long-term safety and effectiveness of Fabrazyme® Fabry Pregnancy Sub-registry: This Sub-registry is a multicenter, international, longitudinal, observational, and voluntary program designed to track pregnancy outcomes for any pregnant woman enrolled in the Fabry Registry, regardless of whether she is receiving disease-specific therapy (such as enzyme replacement therapy with agalsidase beta) and irrespective of the commercial product with which she may be treated. (uclahealth.org)
  • Physicians at the Center for Advanced Digestive Care are leading international experts in bariatric surgery and have pioneered the modern concept of metabolic surgery. (nyp.org)
  • We anticipate that our proposed project will entail additional faculty at BU and perhaps other institutions joining our group, with the intent of building one of a kind Evans Center-based ARC, with potential to lead to a national initiative/center focused on Metabolic Health and Bariatric Surgery . (bu.edu)
  • The funds from this ARC will be used to 1) initiate collaborative studies in mouse models on mechanisms of obesity-linked cardiovascular diseases and 2) support research where basic science and clinical research labs perform molecular analyses on tissues and cell samples isolated from patient populations. (bu.edu)
  • Chronic sleep deprivation increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, stroke, and heart disease, as well as metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. (cdc.gov)
  • The opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. (cdc.gov)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • I'm William Koehne and I'm representing the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity, COCA, with the Emergency Risk Communication Branch at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • These studies suggest CSF spermine could be used as a biomarker to evaluate the outcome of novel therapeutics designed to treat the CNS manifestations of MPS diseases, which will greatly simplify clinical trials. (drugtargetreview.com)
  • In human subjects, studies have shown that endothelial dysfunction, recognized as impairments in flow-mediated dilation or endothelial-dependent vasodilation in response to acetylcholine, is predictive of cardiovascular events in patients with hypertension, coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, etc. (bu.edu)
  • The metabolic syndrome (MS) describes the association, in the same subject, of several traits such as central obesity, hypertension and dyslipidaemia, all of them very common conditions in developed countries. (scirp.org)
  • She trained in pediatrics and pediatric infectious diseases including an MPH at the University of Washington. (cdc.gov)
  • Ms. Budd is an epidemiologist in the Epidemiology and Prevention Branch in the Influenza Division of CDC's National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Dr. Campbell is a Medical Officer in the Epidemiology and Prevention Branch in the Influenza Division in CDC's National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • In this transition, chronic diseases and conditions (eg, heart disease, cancer, diabetes, chronic respiratory problems) - often called the "diseases of civilization" (3) - replace infections as the major source of disease. (cdc.gov)
  • NaturalNews) The Mediterranean diet doesn't just protect against heart disease: It may actually reverse metabolic syndrome, a cluster of symptoms linked to heart disease and diabetes. (naturalnews.com)
  • Metabolic syndrome refers to a cluster of symptoms that is associated with a higher risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and premature death, and affects about 25 percent of all adults globally. (naturalnews.com)
  • Osteoarthritis is a common complication of Paget's disease and bone sarcoma may develop. (pediagenosis.com)
  • Elevated levels of the transaminases can indicate myocardial infarction, hepatic disease, muscular dystrophy, or organ damage. (cdc.gov)
  • Those mix-ups can lead to glucose intolerance - the first step toward metabolic syndrome and diabetes. (scienceblogs.com)
  • At the time of publication of this document, approximately 98% of all babies born in the United States are provided with expanded newborn screening for metabolic diseases by tandem mass spectrometry. (aacc.org)
  • In addition, tandem mass spectrometry is being utilized for multiple additional metabolic conditions, which vary by state. (aacc.org)
  • Cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) is a cluster of conditions occurring together that increase a person's risk of heart disease , stroke and diabetes. (medicalxpress.com)
  • It really is associated with lack of cancellous bone tissue and abnormal nutrient metabolic activity. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Paget's disease is characterized by abnormal bone remodelling. (pediagenosis.com)
  • This is why it is important to define the mechanisms by which fermentable fibre protects against metabolic syndrome, they write. (nutraingredients.com)
  • We propose projects to define the molecular mechanisms by which metabolic disease impacts vascular function and vice versa . (bu.edu)
  • This study shows the hypothesis generation power of emerging systems biology approaches in discovering novel targets and mechanisms on complex diseases such as CMS. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Current research suggests a much broader role of the gut-brain mechanisms in physiology and disease. (enterosys.com)
  • OBJECTIVE -People with diabetes have an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The latter will include measures of DNA methylation, RNA expression and read outs of metabolic pathways. (europa.eu)
  • Both NAFLD and mental disorders share pathophysiological pathways, and also present a complex, bidirectional relationship with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and related cardiometabolic diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Metabolic bone disease is an abnormality of bones caused by a broad spectrum of disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolic bone disease in captive reptiles is also common, and is typically caused by calcium deficiency in a reptile's diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • osteoporosis osteomalacia (adults) & rickets (children) osteitis fibrosa cystica Paget's disease of bone pyramiding (turtles) Osteoporosis is due to causal factors like atrophy of disuse and gonadal deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kidney transplant recipients are now living longer than ever and thus proper management of bone disease has become an increasingly important a part of their care. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • They are osteitis fibrosa cystica adynamic bone disease osteomalacia osteoporosis and dialysis related amyloidosis. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Osteitis fibrosa cystica Prolonged secondary or tertiary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) reported in up to 30%-50% of renal transplant patients can cause osteitis fibrosa cystica a form of high turnover bone disease[4]. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Adynamic bone disease Historically excessive aluminum accumulation was a major cause of adynamic bone disease WYE-687 in dialysis patients WYE-687 before the rigid water purification and the avoidance of aluminum-containing phosphate binders were adopted[3]. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Incapability to maintain nutrient homeostasis plays a part in cardiovascular and gentle tissue calcifications which might describe the high mortality price in sufferers with adynamic bone tissue disease[5]. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • The avoidance and treatment of adynamic bone tissue disease is normally avoidance of over suppression of PTH secretion. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Bone biopsy samples also reflect reduced disease activity because decreased bone cells, marrow fibrosis, and woven bone are present. (medscape.com)
  • Paget's disease is characterized by features of high metabolic bone activity, including excessive cellularity and vascularity. (pediagenosis.com)
  • The osteoclasts, large multinucleate cells which are normally present only when bone is being resorbed, may be huge and highly multinucleate in Paget's disease, when bone is being haphazardly remodelled. (pediagenosis.com)