Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases: A collective term for nutritional disorders resulting from poor absorption or nutritional imbalance, and metabolic disorders resulting from defects in biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) or breakdown (CATABOLISM) of endogenous substances.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Disorders affecting amino acid metabolism. The majority of these disorders are inherited and present in the neonatal period with metabolic disturbances (e.g., ACIDOSIS) and neurologic manifestations. They are present at birth, although they may not become symptomatic until later in life.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.Carbohydrate Metabolism, Inborn ErrorsSirtuin 1: A sirtuin family member found primarily in the CELL NUCLEUS. It is an NAD-dependent deacetylase with specificity towards HISTONES and a variety of proteins involved in gene regulation.Tyrosinemias: A group of disorders which have in common elevations of tyrosine in the blood and urine secondary to an enzyme deficiency. Type I tyrosinemia features episodic weakness, self-mutilation, hepatic necrosis, renal tubular injury, and seizures and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme fumarylacetoacetase. Type II tyrosinemia features INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY, painful corneal ulcers, and keratoses of the palms and plantar surfaces and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme TYROSINE TRANSAMINASE. Type III tyrosinemia features INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme 4-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp42-3)Xeroradiography: A photoelectric method of recording an X-ray image on a coated metal plate, using low-energy photon beams, long exposure time and dry chemical developers.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors: TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that are activated by ligands and heterodimerize with RETINOID X RECEPTORS and bind to peroxisome proliferator response elements in the promoter regions of target genes.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Neonatal Screening: The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.Lipid Metabolism Disorders: Pathological conditions resulting from abnormal anabolism or catabolism of lipids in the body.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Adipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.Chronobiology Disorders: Disruptions of the rhythmic cycle of bodily functions or activities.Eye Manifestations: Ocular disorders attendant upon non-ocular disease or injury.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Group III Histone Deacetylases: A subclass of histone deacetylases that are NAD-dependent. Several members of the SIRTUINS family are included in this subclass.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Phenylketonurias: A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).Rare Diseases: A large group of diseases which are characterized by a low prevalence in the population. They frequently are associated with problems in diagnosis and treatment.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.TriglyceridesAdipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Mice, Inbred C57BLPseudoxanthoma Elasticum: An inherited disorder of connective tissue with extensive degeneration and calcification of ELASTIC TISSUE primarily in the skin, eye, and vasculature. At least two forms exist, autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant. This disorder is caused by mutations of one of the ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. Patients are predisposed to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION and GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.Brain Diseases, Metabolic: Acquired or inborn metabolic diseases that produce brain dysfunction or damage. These include primary (i.e., disorders intrinsic to the brain) and secondary (i.e., extracranial) metabolic conditions that adversely affect cerebral function.Thermogenesis: The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Heptanoates: Salts and esters of the 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid heptanoic acid.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Lipid Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Errors in the metabolism of LIPIDS resulting from inborn genetic MUTATIONS that are heritable.Sirtuins: A homologous family of regulatory enzymes that are structurally related to the protein silent mating type information regulator 2 (Sir2) found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sirtuins contain a central catalytic core region which binds NAD. Several of the sirtuins utilize NAD to deacetylate proteins such as HISTONES and are categorized as GROUP III HISTONE DEACETYLASES. Several other sirtuin members utilize NAD to transfer ADP-RIBOSE to proteins and are categorized as MONO ADP-RIBOSE TRANSFERASES, while a third group of sirtuins appears to have both deacetylase and ADP ribose transferase activities.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.PPAR delta: A nuclear transcription factor. It is activated by PROSTACYCLIN.Subcutaneous Fat: Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.Stilbenes: Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.Lipogenesis: De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Intra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.Retinoid X Receptor alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with PPAR GAMMA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Ketosis: A condition characterized by an abnormally elevated concentration of KETONE BODIES in the blood (acetonemia) or urine (acetonuria). It is a sign of DIABETES COMPLICATION, starvation, alcoholism or a mitochondrial metabolic disturbance (e.g., MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE).Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress: Various physiological or molecular disturbances that impair ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM function. It triggers many responses, including UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE, which may lead to APOPTOSIS; and AUTOPHAGY.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Adipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Taurochenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of chenodeoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as detergent to solubilize fats in the small intestine and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Metabolism: The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Hep G2 Cells: A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Sphingolipids: A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1: A low-affinity 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase found in a variety of tissues, most notably in LIVER; LUNG; ADIPOSE TISSUE; vascular tissue; OVARY; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The enzyme acts reversibly and can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors.Adipocytes, Brown: Fat cells with dark coloration due to the densely packed MITOCHONDRIA. They contain numerous small lipid droplets or vacuoles. Their stored lipids can be converted directly to energy as heat by the mitochondria.Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Mitochondrial Diseases: Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.Fetal Growth Retardation: The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Obesity, Abdominal: A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.Molecular Targeted Therapy: Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.Palmitates: Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Adipose Tissue, Brown: A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Adenylate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC 2.7.4.3.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Anti-Obesity Agents: Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Orphan Nuclear Receptors: A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.PPAR alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Hyperglycemia: Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Physical Conditioning, Animal: Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.

Viral gene delivery selectively restores feeding and prevents lethality of dopamine-deficient mice. (1/1017)

Dopamine-deficient mice (DA-/- ), lacking tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in dopaminergic neurons, become hypoactive and aphagic and die by 4 weeks of age. They are rescued by daily treatment with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA); each dose restores dopamine (DA) and feeding for less than 24 hr. Recombinant adeno-associated viruses expressing human TH or GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH1) were injected into the striatum of DA-/- mice. Bilateral coinjection of both viruses restored feeding behavior for several months. However, locomotor activity and coordination were partially improved. A virus expressing only TH was less effective, and one expressing GTPCH1 alone was ineffective. TH immunoreactivity and DA were detected in the ventral striatum and adjacent posterior regions of rescued mice, suggesting that these regions mediate a critical DA-dependent aspect of feeding behavior.  (+info)

Human molybdopterin synthase gene: genomic structure and mutations in molybdenum cofactor deficiency type B. (2/1017)

Biosynthesis of the molybdenum cofactor (MoCo) can be divided into (1) the formation of a precursor and (2) the latter's subsequent conversion, by molybdopterin synthase, into the organic moiety of MoCo. These two steps are reflected by the complementation groups A and B and the two formally distinguished types of MoCo deficiency that have an identical phenotype. Both types of MoCo deficiency result in a pleiotropic loss of all molybdoenzyme activities and cause severe neurological damage. MOCS1 is defective in patients with group A deficiency and has been shown to encode two enzymes for early synthesis via a bicistronic transcript with two consecutive open reading frames (ORFs). MOCS2 encodes the small and large subunits of molybdopterin synthase via a single transcript with two overlapping reading frames. This gene was mapped to 5q and comprises seven exons. The coding sequence and all splice site-junction sequences were screened for mutations, in MoCo-deficient patients in whom a previous search for MOCS1 mutations had been negative. In seven of the eight patients whom we investigated, we identified MOCS2 mutations that, by their nature, are most likely responsible for the deficiency. Three different frameshift mutations were observed, with one of them found on 7 of 14 identified alleles. Furthermore, a start-codon mutation and a missense mutation of a highly conserved amino acid residue were found. The locations of the mutations confirm the functional role of both ORFs. One of the patients with identified MOCS2 mutations had been classified as type B, in complementation studies. These findings support the hypothetical mechanism, for both forms of MoCo deficiency, that formerly had been established by cell-culture experiments.  (+info)

Does a high peritoneal transport rate reflect a state of chronic inflammation? (3/1017)

OBJECTIVE: It has recently been reported that a high peritoneal transport rate was associated with increased mortality in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. One possible explanation is that a high peritoneal transport rate might be caused by a state of chronic inflammation, which also per se might result in increased mortality. Therefore, in this study we investigated whether high peritoneal transport rate patients are in a state of chronic inflammation. METHODS: The study included 39 clinically stable peritoneal dialysis patients (free of peritonitis) who had been on PD for more than 3 months (16.8+/-11.8 months). Seven patients were treated with continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD) and the others were on CAPD. A 4-hour standard peritoneal equilibration test (PET) using 2.27% glucose solution was performed in each patient. Dialysate samples at 4 hours and blood samples at 2 hours were measured for interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor(alpha)(TNFalpha), C-reactive protein (CRP), and hyaluronan as markers of inflammation. RESULTS: There was no significant correlation between dialysate/plasma (DIP) creatinine (0.82+/-0.15, range 0.51 - 1.15) and blood concentrations of IL-1beta (11.2 ng/L, range <5 - 65.9 ng/L),TNFalpha (12.1 ng/L, range <5 - 85.4 ng/L), CRP (<10 mg/L, range <10 - 76 mg/L), nor with the blood hyaluronan concentration (165 microg/L, range 55 - 955 microg/L). The dialysate concentrations of IL-1beta and TNFalpha were below the detectable level in most of the samples. Although dialysate hyaluronan concentration (334 microg/L, range 89 - 1100 microg/L) was correlated with D/P creatinine (r= 0.36, p< 0.05), there was no correlation between the total amount of hyaluronan in the effluent and D/P creatinine. However, a significant correlation was found between serum hyaluronan concentration and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (r = -0.49, p< 0.005); GFR also tended to be correlated with serum TNFalpha (r = -0.31, p = 0.058) but not with serum IL-1beta and serum CRP. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that a high peritoneal transport rate is not necessarily related to a state of chronic inflammation in CAPD patients. The high mortality rate observed in high transporters may relate to other issues, such as fluid balance or abnormal nutrition and metabolism, rather than to chronic inflammation.  (+info)

Acute symptomatic seizures - incidence and etiological spectrum: a hospital-based study from South India. (4/1017)

We analysed the incidence and etiological spectrum of acute symptomatic seizures in 2531 patients with seizure disorder, both in-patients and out-patients, seen in a university hospital in South India. Seizure(s) occurred in close temporal association with an acute systemic, metabolic, or toxic insult or in association with an acute central nervous system (CNS) insult in 22.5% of patients. Of the 572 patients, 8% could be grouped under the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) category 4.1 and 92% under category 1.2. The seizure type was generalized in all the patients included in category 4.1 and 78% of patients grouped in category 2.1 had simple or complex partial seizure(s) with or without secondary generalization. Sixteen (3%) patients developed status epilepticus during the acute phase of illness and 7% of patients had only single seizure. Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) and single CT enhancing lesions (SCTEL) together accounted for 77% of the provoking factors in patients grouped under category 2.1. These two etiological factors together accounted for 95% of etiologies in patients aged under 16 years. SCTEL and neurocysticercosis together accounted for 67% of the provoking factors. In 14% of patients cerebrovascular diseases were the etiological factors and 60% of the patients were aged over 40 years. In patients with cerebrovascular diseases, aged under 40 years, cortical sinovenous thrombosis accounted for 37%. SCTEL was the provoking factor in 61% of patients with isolated seizure. Infections of CNS and SCTEL together accounted for 62.5% of etiological factors for status epilepticus. This study illustrates that the etiological spectrum of acute symptomatic seizures in this part of the world is different from that described from developed countries and CNS infections account for a significant number of cases.  (+info)

Hypermetabolism in clinically stable patients with liver cirrhosis. (5/1017)

BACKGROUND: Hypermetabolism has a negative effect on prognosis in patients with liver cirrhosis. Its exact prevalence and associations with clinical data, the nutritional state, and beta-adrenergic activity are unclear. OBJECTIVE: We investigated resting energy expenditure (REE) in 473 patients with biopsy-proven liver cirrhosis. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study with a controlled intervention (beta-blockade) in a subgroup of patients. RESULTS: Mean REE was 7.12 +/- 1.34 MJ/d and correlated closely with predicted values (r = 0.70, P < 0.0001). Hypermetabolism was seen in 160 patients with cirrhosis (33.8% of the study population). REE was > 30% above the predicted value in 41% of the hypermetabolic patients with cirrhosis. Hypermetabolism had no association with clinical or biochemical data on liver function. REE correlated with total body potassium content (TBP; r = 0.49, P < 0.0001). Hypermetabolic patients had lower than normal body weight and TBP (P < 0.05). About 47% of the variance in REE could be explained by body composition whereas clinical state could maximally explain 3%. Plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations were elevated in hypermetabolic cirrhotic patients (by 56% and 41%, respectively; P < 0.001 and 0.01). Differences in REE from predicted values were positively correlated with epinephrine concentration (r = 0.462, P < 0.001). Propranolol infusion resulted in a decrease in energy expenditure (by 5 +/- 3%; P < 0.05), heart rate (by 13 +/- 4%; P < 0.01), and plasma lactate concentrations (by 32 +/- 12%; P < 0.01); these effects were more pronounced in hypermetabolic patients (by 50%, 33%, and 68%, respectively; each P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Hypermetabolism has no association with clinical data and thus is an extrahepatic manifestation of liver disease. Increased beta-adrenergic activity may explain approximately 25% of hypermetabolism.  (+info)

Effect on cytokine release and graft-versus-host disease of different anti-T cell antibodies during conditioning for unrelated haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (6/1017)

Three different types of anti-T cell antibody were used in patients undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with an HLA-A, -B and -DR compatible unrelated donor: ATG-Fresenius (ATG-F) (n = 26), Thymoglobuline (TMG) (n = 61) and OKT-3 (n = 45). The groups were comparable regarding diagnosis, stage, age, conditioning and GVHD prophylaxis, Adverse events were less frequent after ATG-F treatment. Levels of IL-2, IL-6, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and GM-CSF were increased after OKT-3 infusion. In multivariate analysis OKT-3 treatment (P = 0.01), G-CSF treatment (P = 0.02) and a cell dose >/=2.7 x 108/kg (P = 0.03) gave a faster engraftment. Acute GVHD grades II-IV occurred in 25% of the ATG-F patients, 12% of the TMG-patients and 43% (P < 0.001 vs TMG) of the OKT-3 patients. OKT-3 was associated with acute GVHD in multivariate analysis. TRM was 26% using TMG as compared to 43% in the OKT-3 group (P = 0.03). Patient survival at 4 years was 63%, 50% and 45% in the ATG-F, TMG and OKT-3-treated patients, respectively (NS). Relapses were 8%, 49% and 34%, respectively (ATG-F vs TMG, P = 0.03). Relapse-free survivals were 61%, 40% and 37% (NS). Among CML patients the probability of relapse was 61% in TMG-treated patients, while no patients relapsed in the other two groups. To conclude, the type of anti-T cell antibody affects GVHD and relapse after HSCT using unrelated donors.  (+info)

Itraconazole oral solution as antifungal prophylaxis in children undergoing stem cell transplantation or intensive chemotherapy for haematological disorders. (7/1017)

This was an open study of oral antifungal prophylaxis in 103 neutropenic children aged 0-14 (median 5) years. Most (90%) were undergoing transplantation for haematological conditions (77% allogeneic BMT, 7% autologous BMT, 6% PBSC transplants and 10% chemotherapy alone). They received 5.0 mg/kg itraconazole/day (in 10 mg/ml cyclodextrin solution). Where possible, prophylaxis was started at least 7 days before the onset of neutropenia and continued until neutrophil recovery. Of the 103 who entered the study, 47 completed the course of prophylaxis, 27 withdrew because of poor compliance, 19 because of adverse events and 10 for other reasons. Two patients died during the study and another five died within the subsequent 30 days. No proven systemic fungal infections occurred, but 26 patients received i.v. amphotericin for antibiotic-unresponsive pyrexia. One patient received amphotericin for mycologically confirmed oesophageal candidosis. Three patients developed suspected oral candidosis but none was mycologically proven and no treatment was given. Serious adverse events (other than death) occurred in 21 patients, including convulsions (7), suspected drug interactions (6), abdominal pain (4) and constipation (4). The most common adverse events considered definitely or possibly related to itraconazole were vomiting (12), abnormal liver function (5) and abdominal pain (3). Tolerability of study medication at end-point was rated as good (55%), moderate (11%), poor (17%) or unacceptable (17%). Some patients had poor oral intakes due to mucositis. No unexpected problems of safety or tolerability were encountered. We conclude that itraconazole oral solution may be used as antifungal prophylaxis for neutropenic children.  (+info)

Adverse metabolic disorders during highly active antiretroviral treatments (HAART) of HIV disease. (8/1017)

Protease inhibitor treatment has dramatically improved rates of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients. However, it has recently been shown that this medication is associated with long-term side effects characterized by metabolic, clinical and biological alterations. These modifications have been described in patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), including nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and generally (but not always) protease inhibitors (PI). Clinical alterations are characterised by a body fat redistribution syndrome or lipodystrophy, with peripheral lipoatrophy and/or central fat accumulation. They are often associated with biological alterations, i.e. insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia, which can also be observed alone. The pathophysiology of these alterations is presently unknown. The deleterious effect of PI on adipose tissue could be direct or indirect, and is probably modulated by genetic or environmental factors. NRTI could also be involved because of their mitochondrial toxicity. The purpose of the treatment is to control metabolic disturbances in order to prevent immediate complications such as acute pancreatitis and limit possible cardiovascular and diabetic complications at longer term. Studies are in progress to evaluate the possibility of therapeutic alternatives to PI when major metabolic disturbances are present.  (+info)

  • The traditionally held view or dogma is that cancer is a genetic disease, but what Warburg discovered is that cancer is really caused by a defect in the cellular energy metabolism of the cell, primarily related to the function of the mitochondria, which are the little power stations within each cell. (mercola.com)
  • Indeed, adverse events during prenatal life may result in permanent changes in the physiology and metabolism of the offspring, which in turn lead to programming and an increased risk of a variety of metabolic diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • provide evidence of the epigenetic regulation (mainly DNA methylation and microRNAs) of the developmental programming of metabolism that may be related to the insurgence of cardiometabolic disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although individually rare, genetically inherited metabolic diseases (or Inborn Errors of Metabolism) account for over 1000 complex, life-limiting and chronic diseases, most of which present with symptoms in infancy or early childhood. (gponline.com)
  • The Climb National Information Centre for Metabolic Diseases is the only organisation dedicated to providing appropriate information and support on all inborn errors of metabolism and that occur in every age group to adults, families, patients, children, carers and professionals. (gponline.com)
  • Dr. Seyfried unmasks and unravels the mystery at the heart of the "Big C" and argues that cancer is a disease of defective metabolism. (westonaprice.org)
  • After an introduction to define and illustrate general concepts each chapter is devoted to a major metabolic system such as water, calcium and phosphorus, magnesium, nitrogen, and carbohydrate metabolism. (veterinarydiscussions.net)
  • This review explores how understanding the intrinsic metabolism of innate-like T cells could provide potential targets for treating metabolic disease, and highlights research areas needed to advance this promising therapeutic approach. (hapres.com)
  • However, a knowledge gap remains relating the effect of intrinsic immune cell metabolism-how the different substrates that immune cells are exposed to influences their development and function-and metabolic disease. (hapres.com)
  • This review explores the current literature on a specific subset of T cells, innate-like T (ILT) cells, and highlights gaps in scientific knowledge relating to the intrinsic metabolism of these cells, specifically in metabolic disease research, with the goal to advance our understanding in this area and the identification of immunotherapeutic targets. (hapres.com)
  • The overall ambition of the group of Van Eck is to identify novel targets for intervention in cardiovascular and metabolic disease and develop novel therapeutic strategies directly targeting macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions and improving lipid metabolism. (universiteitleiden.nl)
  • Altered metabolism at the cellular level contributes to several serious diseases including inborn errors of metabolism (the result of inherited genetic defects in metabolic enzymes that lead to chemical imbalances in children) and cancer. (utsw.edu)
  • In inborn errors of metabolism, we use metabolomics and genomics to identify new disease genes and deepen our understanding of metabolism's role in human health. (utsw.edu)
  • We seek to identify the processes, both intrinsic and extrinsic to the cancer cell, that affect tumor metabolism and to discover context-specific metabolic vulnerabilities that might provide a basis for new treatments. (utsw.edu)
  • Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) are childhood diseases that mutations in metabolic enzymes and nutrient transporters cause. (utsw.edu)
  • Care has been taken to preserve a narrative style by avoiding the use of charts to describe metabolic pathways in the belief that this will improve continuity and appreciation of the general concepts. (veterinarydiscussions.net)
  • This review summarizes the emerging role of p62 on these diseases by considering its functional domains, phenotypes in genetically modified animals, clinically observed alterations, and its effects on downstream metabolic signaling pathways. (elsevier.com)
  • Cancer cells use reprogrammed metabolic pathways to grow and resist stress encountered in the tumor microenvironment. (utsw.edu)
  • A major challenge in cancer research is understanding which metabolic pathways operate in live tumors growing in a native microenvironment. (utsw.edu)
  • Reducing consumption of added sugar, even without reducing calories or losing weight, has the power to reverse a cluster of chronic metabolic diseases, including high cholesterol and blood pressure, in children in as little as 10 days, according to a study by researchers at UC San Francisco and Touro University California. (universityofcalifornia.edu)
  • They manifest with acute states of metabolic imbalance and chronic dysfunction of the brain, liver, heart and other organ systems. (utsw.edu)
  • 2016. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs317/en/ . (astrazeneca.com)
  • Following is a rerun of this popular and important article and interview with Seyfried, in which we discuss his book, "Cancer as a Metabolic Disease" - an important contribution to the field of how cancer starts and can be treated. (mercola.com)
  • In his groundbreaking book, Cancer as a Metabolic Disease , which is supported by evidence from more than one thousand scientific and clinical studies, Thomas Seyfried, PhD, explains the ins and outs of cancer development, how it metastasizes, where it goes and why. (westonaprice.org)
  • In my next blog posts, I'd like to explore why there are so many mixed messages "out there" when it comes to cancer nutrition, why being 100% evidence-based in our decisions isn't possible, which moves us on to the concept of cancer as a metabolic disease with all its implications for management of tumours. (patriciadaly.com)
  • With recent successes and a pipeline of investigational drugs, we see a renaissance on the horizon for the treatment of CV and metabolic diseases. (novartis.com)
  • it's that they cannot accept that this could be the truth behind the nature of the disease, because it changes how you approach treatment. (mercola.com)
  • Generating significant outcomes that will ultimately improve prevention and treatment of disease typically requires conducting large clinical trials to ensure efficacy and safety of the proposed intervention. (nih.gov)
  • Awareness of metabolic diseases as a possible cause when presented with a specific cluster of symptoms is vital to increase the chance of early diagnosis and potential treatment in order to alleviate suffering and premature death. (gponline.com)
  • We help with every aspect of life with a metabolic disease including diagnosis, referral to specialist care, available treatment and research, and support at critical times such as bereavement. (gponline.com)
  • With this growing unmet need in mind, we have developed a distinct approach at AstraZeneca focusing on jointly addressing patients' cardio-renal-metabolic risks to change the science and treatment landscape. (astrazeneca.com)
  • At Kidney Week, we will be sharing new real-world evidence data on the clinical and economic burden of hyperkalaemia, along with new Phase III data related to disease management. (astrazeneca.com)
  • Target PharmaSolutions Inc. is conducting longitudinal, observational studies of patients in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and three other diseases with an ultimate goal of providing clients with real-world data solutions that may help drug makers design clinical studies and commercialization plans, and streamline their compliance with FDA post-marketing requirements. (informa.com)
  • In my view, this information is the game changer that not only treats cancer but virtually every single disease known to man, because at the core of most serious ailments you find mitochondrial dysfunction. (mercola.com)
  • Participants were identified through the Weight Assessment for Teen and Child Health Clinic (WATCH) at UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital San Francisco, an interdisciplinary obesity clinic dedicated to targeting metabolic dysfunction rather than weight loss. (universityofcalifornia.edu)
  • Epidemiological evidence has revealed that health and diseases in later life are also linked to fetal origins and early life factors, such as maternal health status and diet ( Vinciguerra and Cordero Sanchez, 2020 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Instead the damaged cell undergoes glycolysis (the metabolic breakdown of glucose) without oxygen, in essence using fermentation to produce a smaller amount of energy. (westonaprice.org)
Phenylalanine | chemical compound | Britannica.com
Phenylalanine | chemical compound | Britannica.com (britannica.com)
Nervous system disease - Localization of neurological disease | Britannica.com
Nervous system disease - Localization of neurological disease | Britannica.com (britannica.com)
Healthy Cities - C-CHANGE | Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health
Healthy Cities - C-CHANGE | Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (hsph.harvard.edu)
Microbiota and metabolic diseases | SpringerLink
Microbiota and metabolic diseases | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
Hepatosplenomegaly: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, and More
Hepatosplenomegaly: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, and More (healthline.com)
Extraneal - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses
Extraneal - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses (drugs.com)
Hui Laboratory | Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health
Hui Laboratory | Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (hsph.harvard.edu)
Forteo - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses
Forteo - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses (drugs.com)
Skeletal System: Anatomy and Function, Diagram, Diseases, and More
Skeletal System: Anatomy and Function, Diagram, Diseases, and More (healthline.com)
Radiology Today | SpringerLink
Radiology Today | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
Vascular, Cardiac Valve, and Metabolic Diseases | SpringerLink
Vascular, Cardiac Valve, and Metabolic Diseases | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
Sensory Neuropathies | SpringerLink
Sensory Neuropathies | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
Liver Failure - Types, Causes, Symptoms, Complications, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention
Liver Failure - Types, Causes, Symptoms, Complications, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention (medindia.net)
Toxic and Metabolic Disease | SpringerLink
Toxic and Metabolic Disease | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
Metabolic Bone Diseases | University of Helsinki
Metabolic Bone Diseases | University of Helsinki (helsinki.fi)
Wheeless' Textbook of Orthopaedics
Wheeless' Textbook of Orthopaedics (wheelessonline.com)
Frontiers | In vitro Models of Bone Remodelling and Associated Disorders | Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Frontiers | In vitro Models of Bone Remodelling and Associated Disorders | Bioengineering and Biotechnology (frontiersin.org)
Neonatal screening for profound biotinidase deficiency in the Netherlands: consequences and considerations | European Journal...
Neonatal screening for profound biotinidase deficiency in the Netherlands: consequences and considerations | European Journal... (nature.com)
Search Results
Search Results (springer.com)
Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres (helmholtz.de)
March for Science 2018: Demonstration and Dialog - Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
March for Science 2018: Demonstration and Dialog - Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres (helmholtz.de)
Science is International - Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
Science is International - Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres (helmholtz.de)
Alternatives to organ donation - Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
Alternatives to organ donation - Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres (helmholtz.de)
The Strongest Magnetic Field - Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
The Strongest Magnetic Field - Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres (helmholtz.de)
Astrophysics in the Antarctic - Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
Astrophysics in the Antarctic - Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres (helmholtz.de)
The ice expert - Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
The ice expert - Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres (helmholtz.de)
New methods could speed up protein research considerably - Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
New methods could speed up protein research considerably - Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres (helmholtz.de)
The intelligent plant surface - Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
The intelligent plant surface - Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres (helmholtz.de)
Slide Library | American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
Slide Library | American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (aace.com)
Mysterious permafrost crater - Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
Mysterious permafrost crater - Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres (helmholtz.de)
The fastest wireless data transmission - Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
The fastest wireless data transmission - Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres (helmholtz.de)
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How to calculate emission rates? - Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres (helmholtz.de)
Interval fasting-does it really live up to the hype? - Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
Interval fasting-does it really live up to the hype? - Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres (helmholtz.de)
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"Less rain and more sunshine, would be nice" - Helmholtz Association of German Research... (helmholtz.de)
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'Could a black hole swallow the Earth?' - Helmholtz Association of German Research... (helmholtz.de)