The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Proteins that are preferentially expressed or upregulated during FETAL DEVELOPMENT.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.
Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
Goosecoid protein is a homeodomain protein that was first identified in XENOPUS. It is found in the SPEMANN ORGANIZER of VERTEBRATES and plays an important role in neuronal CELL DIFFERENTIATION and ORGANOGENESIS.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.
Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Members of the transforming growth factor superfamily that play a role in pattern formation and differentiation during the pregastrulation and GASTRULATION stages of chordate development. Several nodal signaling ligands are specifically involved in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during development. The protein group is named after a critical region of the vertebrate embryo PRIMITIVE STREAK referred to as HENSEN'S NODE.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that was originally identified in DROSOPHILA as essential for proper gastrulation and MESODERM formation. It plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MUSCLE CELLS, and is found in a wide variety of organisms.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A linear band of rapidly proliferating cells that begins near the posterior end of an embryo and grows cranially. Primitive streak is formed during GASTRULATION by the convergent migration of primary ectodermal cells (EPIBLAST). The knot at the tip of the streak is called HENSEN NODE.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
The three primary germinal layers (ECTODERM; ENDODERM; and MESODERM) developed during GASTRULATION that provide tissues and body plan of a mature organism. They derive from two early layers, hypoblast and epiblast.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
Distinct regions of mesenchymal outgrowth at both flanks of an embryo during the SOMITE period. Limb buds, covered by ECTODERM, give rise to forelimb, hindlimb, and eventual functional limb structures. Limb bud cultures are used to study CELL DIFFERENTIATION; ORGANOGENESIS; and MORPHOGENESIS.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
Transference of tissue within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
A region, of SOMITE development period, that contains a number of paired arches, each with a mesodermal core lined by ectoderm and endoderm on the two sides. In lower aquatic vertebrates, branchial arches develop into GILLS. In higher vertebrates, the arches forms outpouchings and develop into structures of the head and neck. Separating the arches are the branchial clefts or grooves.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.
Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Signaling ligands that act in opposition to NODAL PROTEIN. During vertebrate development they regulate the degree of left-right asymmetry by controlling the spatiotemporal influence of NODAL PROTEIN.
Specific molecular sites or structures on cell membranes that react with FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS (both the basic and acidic forms), their analogs, or their antagonists to elicit or to inhibit the specific response of the cell to these factors. These receptors frequently possess tyrosine kinase activity.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
A SKELETAL MUSCLE-specific transcription factor that contains a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF. It plays an essential role in MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT.
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
An early non-mammalian embryo that follows the MORULA stage. A blastula resembles a hollow ball with the layer of cells surrounding a fluid-filled cavity (blastocele). The layer of cells is called BLASTODERM.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.
A proto-oncogene protein and member of the Wnt family of proteins. It is expressed in the caudal MIDBRAIN and is essential for proper development of the entire mid-/hindbrain region.
A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE. Defects in Wnt3 protein are associated with autosomal recessive tetra-AMELIA in humans.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.
A family of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS that bind BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that mediate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS through SMAD PROTEINS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.
The region in the dorsal ECTODERM of a chordate embryo that gives rise to the future CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Tissue in the neural plate is called the neuroectoderm, often used as a synonym of neural plate.
Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.
A paired box transcription factor that is essential for ORGANOGENESIS of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and KIDNEY.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of this subclass are expressed in VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and may play a role in vasculogenesis.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Receptors for ACTIVINS are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES, thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALK's). Activin receptors also bind TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. As those transmembrane receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily (RECEPTORS, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA), ALK's consist of two different but related protein kinases, Type I and Type II. Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which then recruit and phosphorylate the type I receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I ) with subsequent activation of the type I kinase activity.
The first of four extra-embryonic membranes to form during EMBRYOGENESIS. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it arises from endoderm and mesoderm to incorporate the EGG YOLK into the DIGESTIVE TRACT for nourishing the embryo. In placental MAMMALS, its nutritional function is vestigial; however, it is the source of INTESTINAL MUCOSA; BLOOD CELLS; and GERM CELLS. It is sometimes called the vitelline sac, which should not be confused with the VITELLINE MEMBRANE of the egg.
Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.
The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE.
A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.
A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).
The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
An extra-embryonic membranous sac derived from the YOLK SAC of REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. It lies between two other extra-embryonic membranes, the AMNION and the CHORION. The allantois serves to store urinary wastes and mediate exchange of gas and nutrients for the developing embryo.
Phylum in the domain Eukarya, comprised of animals either with fully developed backbones (VERTEBRATES), or those with notochords only during some developmental stage (CHORDATA, NONVERTEBRATE).
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A HEPARIN binding fibroblast growth factor that may play a role in LIMB BUDS development.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and is involved in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. In the developing heart, GATA5 becomes restricted to the ENDOCARDIUM and regulates transcription of genes such as cardiac TROPONIN C.
A family of sequence-related proteins similar to HMGB1 PROTEIN that contains specific HMG-BOX DOMAINS.
An eph family receptor found in variety of tissues including BRAIN. During embryogenesis, EphA4 receptor exhibits a diverse spatial and temporal patterns of expression suggesting its role in multiple developmental processes.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
A subclass of LIM domain proteins that include an additional centrally-located homeodomain region that binds AT-rich sites on DNA. Many LIM-homeodomain proteins play a role as transcriptional regulators that direct cell fate.
One of a pair of excretory organs (mesonephroi) which grows caudally to the first pair (PRONEPHROI) during development. Mesonephroi are the permanent kidneys in adult amphibians and fish. In higher vertebrates, proneprhoi and most of mesonephroi degenerate with the appearance of metanephroi. The remaining ducts become WOLFFIAN DUCTS.
A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE.
A portion of the animal phylum Chordata comprised of the subphyla CEPHALOCHORDATA; UROCHORDATA, and HYPEROTRETI, but not including the Vertebrata (VERTEBRATES). It includes nonvertebrate animals having a NOTOCHORD during some developmental stage.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
Synthetic analogs of NUCLEIC ACIDS composed of morpholine ring derivatives (MORPHOLINES) linked by phosphorodimidates. One standard DNA nucleic acid base (ADENINE; GUANINE; CYTOSINE; OR THYMINE) is bound to each morpholine ring.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A salamander found in Mexican mountain lakes and accounting for about 30 percent of the urodeles used in research. The axolotl remains in larval form throughout its life, a phenomenon known as neoteny.
The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.

The surface ectoderm is essential for nephric duct formation in intermediate mesoderm. (1/6512)

The nephric duct is the first epithelial tubule to differentiate from intermediate mesoderm that is essential for all further urogenital development. In this study we identify the domain of intermediate mesoderm that gives rise to the nephric duct and demonstrate that the surface ectoderm is required for its differentiation. Removal of the surface ectoderm resulted in decreased levels of Sim-1 and Pax-2 mRNA expression in mesenchymal nephric duct progenitors, and caused inhibition of nephric duct formation and subsequent kidney development. The surface ectoderm expresses BMP-4 and we show that it is required for the maintenance of high-level BMP-4 expression in lateral plate mesoderm. Addition of a BMP-4-coated bead to embryos lacking the surface ectoderm restored normal levels of Sim-1 and Pax-2 mRNA expression in nephric duct progenitors, nephric duct formation and the initiation of nephrogenesis. Thus, BMP-4 signaling can substitute for the surface ectoderm in supporting nephric duct morphogenesis. Collectively, these data suggest that inductive interactions between the surface ectoderm, lateral mesoderm and intermediate mesoderm are essential for nephric duct formation and the initiation of urogenital development.  (+info)

Stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. (2/6512)

The essential role of vitamin A and its metabolites, retinoids, in kidney development has been demonstrated in vitamin A deficiency and gene targeting studies. Retinoids signal via nuclear transcription factors belonging to the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) families. Inactivation of RARaplpha and RARbeta2 receptors together, but not singly, resulted in renal malformations, suggesting that within a given renal cell type, their concerted function is required for renal morphogenesis. At birth, RARalpha beta2(-) mutants displayed small kidneys, containing few ureteric bud branches, reduced numbers of nephrons and lacking the nephrogenic zone where new nephrons are continuously added. These observations have prompted us to investigate the role of RARalpha and RARbeta2 in renal development in detail. We have found that within the embryonic kidney, RARalpha and RARbeta2 are colocalized in stromal cells, but not in other renal cell types, suggesting that stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. Analysis of RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys at embryonic stages revealed that nephrons were formed and revealed no changes in the intensity or distribution of molecular markers specific for different metanephric mesenchymal cell types. In contrast the development of the collecting duct system was greatly impaired in RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys. Fewer ureteric bud branches were present, and ureteric bud ends were positioned abnormally, at a distance from the renal capsule. Analysis of genes important for ureteric bud morphogenesis revealed that the proto-oncogene c-ret was downregulated. Our results suggest that RARalpha and RARbeta2 are required for generating stromal cell signals that maintain c-ret expression in the embryonic kidney. Since c-ret signaling is required for ureteric bud morphogenesis, loss of c-ret expression is a likely cause of impaired ureteric bud branching in RARalpha beta2(-) mutants.  (+info)

A Wnt5a pathway underlies outgrowth of multiple structures in the vertebrate embryo. (3/6512)

Morphogenesis depends on the precise control of basic cellular processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation. Wnt5a may regulate these processes since it is expressed in a gradient at the caudal end of the growing embryo during gastrulation, and later in the distal-most aspect of several structures that extend from the body. A loss-of-function mutation of Wnt5a leads to an inability to extend the A-P axis due to a progressive reduction in the size of caudal structures. In the limbs, truncation of the proximal skeleton and absence of distal digits correlates with reduced proliferation of putative progenitor cells within the progress zone. However, expression of progress zone markers, and several genes implicated in distal outgrowth and patterning including Distalless, Hoxd and Fgf family members was not altered. Taken together with the outgrowth defects observed in the developing face, ears and genitals, our data indicates that Wnt5a regulates a pathway common to many structures whose development requires extension from the primary body axis. The reduced number of proliferating cells in both the progress zone and the primitive streak mesoderm suggests that one function of Wnt5a is to regulate the proliferation of progenitor cells.  (+info)

Regulation of neurotrophin-3 expression by epithelial-mesenchymal interactions: the role of Wnt factors. (4/6512)

Neurotrophins regulate survival, axonal growth, and target innervation of sensory and other neurons. Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) is expressed specifically in cells adjacent to extending axons of dorsal root ganglia neurons, and its absence results in loss of most of these neurons before their axons reach their targets. However, axons are not required for NT-3 expression in limbs; instead, local signals from ectoderm induce NT-3 expression in adjacent mesenchyme. Wnt factors expressed in limb ectoderm induce NT-3 in the underlying mesenchyme. Thus, epithelial-mesenchymal interactions mediated by Wnt factors control NT-3 expression and may regulate axonal growth and guidance.  (+info)

Role of the angiotensin type 2 receptor gene in congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, CAKUT, of mice and men. (5/6512)

Angiotensin type 2 receptor gene null mutant mice display congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). Various features of mouse CAKUT impressively mimic human CAKUT. Studies of the human type 2 receptor (AGTR2) gene in two independent cohorts found that a significant association exists between CAKUT and a nucleotide transition within the lariat branchpoint motif of intron 1, which perturbs AGTR2 mRNA splicing efficiency. AGTR2, therefore, has a significant ontogenic role for the kidney and urinary tract system. Studies revealed that the establishment of CAKUT is preceded by delayed apoptosis of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells surrounding the urinary tract during key ontogenic events, from the ureteral budding to the expansive growth of the kidney and ureter.  (+info)

Characterization of beta cells developed in vitro from rat embryonic pancreatic epithelium. (6/6512)

The present study evaluates the development and functional properties of beta cells differentiated in vitro. The authors have previously demonstrated that when E12.5 rat pancreatic rudiments are cultured in vitro in the absence of mesenchyme, the majority of the epithelial cells differentiate into endocrine beta cells. Thus, depletion of the mesenchyme provokes the expansion of endocrine tissue at the expense of exocrine tissue. The potential use of this procedure for the production of beta cells led the authors to characterize the beta cells differentiated in this model and to compare their properties with those of the endocrine cells of the embryonic and adult pancreas. This study shows that the beta cells that differentiate in vitro in the absence of mesenchyme express the homeodomain protein Nkx6.1, a transcription factor that is characteristic of adult mature beta cells. Further, electron microscopy analysis shows that these beta cells are highly granulated, and the ultrastructural analysis of the granules shows that they are characteristic of mature beta cells. The maturity of these granules was confirmed by a double-immunofluorescence study that demonstrated that Rab3A and SNAP-25, two proteins associated with the secretory pathway of insulin, are strongly expressed. Finally, the maturity of the differentiated beta cells in this model was confirmed when the cells responded to stimulation with 16 mM glucose by a 5-fold increase in insulin release. The authors conclude that the beta cells differentiated in vitro from rat embryonic pancreatic rudiments devoid of mesenchyme are mature beta cells.  (+info)

Ectopic expression of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor disrupts mesoderm organisation during mouse gastrulation. (7/6512)

Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) regulates the cell cycle and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition of many cells in vitro. We have analysed chimaeric mouse embryos generated from embryonic stem cells with abnormal receptor expression to study the effect of TGFbeta on these processes in vivo and the consequences for normal development. The binding receptor for TGFbeta, TbetaRII, is first detected in the embryo proper around day 8.5 in the heart. Ectopic expression of TbetaRII from the blastocyst stage onward resulted in an embryonic lethal around 9.5 dpc. Analysis of earlier stages revealed that the primitive streak of TbetaRII chimaeras failed to elongate. Furthermore, although cells passed through the streak and initially formed mesoderm, they tended to accumulate within the streak. These defects temporally and spatially paralleled the expression of the TGFbeta type I receptor, which is first expressed in the node and primitive streak. We present evidence that classical TGFbeta-induced growth inhibition was probably the cause of insufficient mesoderm being available for paraxial and axial structures. The results demonstrate that (1) TGFbeta mRNA and protein detected previously in early postimplantation embryos is present as a biologically active ligand; and (2) assuming that ectopic expression of TbetaRII results in no other changes in ES cells, the absence of TbetaRII is the principle reason why the embryo proper is unresponsive to TGFbeta ligand until after gastrulation.  (+info)

Fish swimbladder: an excellent mesodermal inductor in primary embryonic induction. (8/6512)

Swimbladder of the crucian carp, Carassius auratus, was found to be better as a vegatalizing tissue than other tissues, such as guinea-pig bone marrow, when presumptive ectoderm of Triturus gastrulae was used as reacting tissue. Swimbladder usually induced assemblies of highly organized mesodermal tissues, such as notochord, somites and pronephric tubules, some of which were covered by mesodermal epithelium without any epidermal covering. A special character of the effect of swimbladder was the rather frequent induction of solid balls of undifferentiated cells, which were identified as mesodermal or mesodermal and probably endodermal. These findings show that swimbladder has a strong and fast spreading vegetalizing effect on the responding presumptive ectoderm.  (+info)

During gastrulation, the Drosophila mesoderm invaginates and forms a single cell layer in close juxtaposition to the overlying ectoderm. Subsequently, particular cell types within the mesoderm are specified along the anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes. The exact developmental pathways that guide the specification of different cell types within the mesoderm are not well understood. We have analyzed the developmental relationship between two mesodermal tissues in the Drosophila embryo, the gonadal mesoderm and the fat body. Both tissues arise from lateral mesoderm within the eve domain. Whereas in the eve domain of parasegments 10-12 gonadal mesoderm develops from dorsolateral mesoderm and fat body from ventrolateral mesoderm, in parasegments 4-9 only fat body is specified. Our results demonstrate that the cell fate decision between gonadal mesoderm and fat body identity within dorsolateral mesoderm along the anteroposterior axis is determined by the combined actions of genes including abdA, ...
Head and trunk muscles have discrete embryological origins and are governed by distinct regulatory programmes. Whereas the developmental route of trunk muscles from mesoderm is well studied, that of head muscles is ill defined. Here, we show that, unlike the myogenic trunk paraxial mesoderm, head mesoderm development is independent of the T/Tbx6 network in mouse. We reveal that, in contrast to Wnt and FGF-driven trunk mesoderm, dual inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin and Nodal specifies head mesoderm. Remarkably, the progenitors derived from embryonic stem cells by dual inhibition efficiently differentiate into cardiac and skeletal muscle cells. This twin potential is the defining feature of cardiopharyngeal mesoderm: the head subtype giving rise to heart and branchiomeric head muscles. Therefore, our findings provide compelling evidence that dual inhibition specifies head mesoderm and unravel the mechanism that diversifies head and trunk muscle programmes during early mesoderm fate commitment. ...
Gastrulation is the process in which the three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm) are formed by successive waves of epiblast cells migrating through the primitive streak. Formation of the primitive streak, on day 15, marks the first event of gastrulation. Cells from the epiblast migrate into the interior of the embryo, via the primitive streak, in a process termed ingression, which involves a cellular epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The initial wave of migrating cells (day 16) streams through the primitive streak, displacing the hypoblast cells to become definitive endoderm, which ultimately produces the future gut derivatives and gut linings.. The second wave of migrating cells (also on day 16) populate a layer between the epiblast and the definitive endoderm, thereby forming the mesoderm layer. The intraembryonic mesoderm cells later give rise to five subpopulations of cells: paraxial mesoderm, intermediate mesoderm, lateral plate mesoderm, cardiogenic mesoderm and a ...
The lateral mesoderm extends on periphery of embryo, it is divisible into extra embryonic and embryonic mesoderms. This lateral mesoderm will split into two layers. The upper layer is called somatic mesoderm and inner layer is called splanchnic mesoderm. Ectoderm and somatic mesoderm will be called somatopleure. The splanchnic layer and endoderm will be called splanchnopleure. In between the two layers of mesoderm the space is called coelome ...
Many mesodermal cell types, including pharynx and body muscle cells, are derived from a single cell, the MS blastomere, in Caenorhabditis elegans. Mesoderm specification involves the activation of the T-box factor gene tbx-35; tbx-35 mutation results in a severe decrease in MS-derived tissue. On p. 2735, Morris Maduro and co-workers now identify the NK-2 homeobox gene ceh-51 as a novel regulator of mesoderm development. The researchers report that ceh-51 is expressed in mesoderm cells and is a direct target of TBX-35. Its overexpression causes embryonic arrest and promotes MS-derived tissue specification, whereas a null mutation results in larval arrest and pharyngeal defects. Embryos with loss-of-function mutations in both ceh-51 and tbx-35 have a more severe phenotype than do single mutants, indicating that the functions of TBX-35 and CEH-51 in mesoderm development partially overlap. Given that T-box and NK-2 factors are also crucial for heart development in flies and vertebrates, their role ...
Historically the three germ layer of the body: endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm, were considered to diverge early in development with the derivatives of each to progress along differentiation routes independent of one another. However, it is now known that neuromesodermal progenitors (NMPs) are present during axial elongation, after the basic formation of the three germ layers during gastrulation. These bipotent cells generate neurectodermal tissue in the form of the neural tube, giving rise to the central nervous system, and mesoderm in the formation of somites. NMPs are located within the anterior of the primitive streak, in the node streak border and the adjacent caudal lateral epiblast in the E8.5 mouse embryo. As axial elongation continues they are found in the chordoneural hinge within the tailbud until E13.5. Another progenitor population, denoted lateral and paraxial mesoderm progenitors (LPMPs) are found within the posterior of the primitive streak and the adjacent caudal lateral ...
Definition of Lateral mesoderm in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Lateral mesoderm? Meaning of Lateral mesoderm as a finance term. What does Lateral mesoderm mean in finance?
In the gastrulating chick embryo, the mesoderm cells arise from the epiblast layer by ingression through the linear accumulation of cells called the primitive streak. The mesoderm cells emerge from the streak with a fibroblastic morphology and proceed to move away from the mid-line of the embryo using, as a substratum, the basement membrane of the overlying epiblast and the extracellular matrix. We have investigated the roles of fibronectin and laminin as putative substrata for mesoderm cells using complementary in vivo and in vitro methods. We have microinjected agents into the tissue space adjacent to the primitive streak of living embryos and, after further incubation, we have examined the embryos for perturbation of the mesoderm tissue. These agents were: cell-binding regions from fibronectin (RGDS) and laminin (YIGSR), antibodies to these glycoproteins, and a Fab fragment of the antibody to fibronectin. We find that RGDS, antibody to fibronectin, and the Fab fragment cause a decrease in ...
FGF signaling is very important to the forming of mesoderm in vertebrates, so when it really is perturbed in manifestation furthermore to its well-characterized part in maintaining manifestation. 1996; Horb and Thomsen, 1997; Zhang et al., 1998; Clements et al., 1999; Kofron et al., 1999; Xanthos et al., 2001). Many studies show that these indicators are essential for mesoderm development in Xenopus. Dominant unfavorable Activin receptors or inhibitory mRNA inhibit mesoderm development (Hemmati-Brivanlou and Melton, 1992; Chang et al., 1997; Bhushan et al., 1998; Casellas and Brivanlou, 1998). Likewise, inhibition of TGF ligands with non-cleavable precursors or by manifestation of nodal antagonists also prevent mesoderm development (Sunlight et al., 1999; Agius et al., 2000; Cheng et al., 2000; Tanegashima et al., 2000; Eimon and Harland, 2002; White et al., 2002). While nodal signaling is vital, FGF signaling also takes on a crucial GW 5074 part GW 5074 in mesoderm development, and an FGF ...
In amphibians, certain growth factor antagonists are secreted by the most dorsal cells (i.e., Chordin, Noggin, Follistatin, Frzb). Mesoderm cells at different dorsal-ventral positions are committed to become different types of mesoderm based on their exposure to different levels of the dorsal-promoting Chordin, Noggin, Follistatin and Frzb proteins, which function by antagonizing the ventral-promoting growth factors BMPs and Wnts.. The most dorsal tissue (axial mesoderm, or notochord) forms from cells exposed to the highest levels of Chordin, Noggin, Follistatin and Frzb (and thus lowest effective levels of BMPs and Wnts) while the most ventral tissue (heart, which develops from lateral mesoderm) forms from mesoderm cells exposed to the lowest levels of Chordin, Noggin and Follistatin and hence the highest effective levels of BMPs and Wnts.. ...
STRIP1, a core component of STRIPAK complexes, is essential for normal mesoderm migration in the mouse embryo[4] Regulated mesoderm migration is necessary for the proper morphogenesis and organ formation during embryonic development. Cell migration and its dependence on the cytoskeleton and signaling machines have been studied extensively in cultured cells; in contrast, remarkably little is known about the mechanisms that regulate mesoderm cell migration in vivo. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a mouse mutation in striatin-interacting protein 1 (Strip1) that disrupts migration of the mesoderm after the gastrulation epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). STRIP1 is a core component of the biochemically defined mammalian striatin-interacting phosphatases and kinase (STRIPAK) complexes that appear to act through regulation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), but their functions in mammals in vivo have not been examined. Strip1-null mutants arrest development at ...
STRIP1, a core component of STRIPAK complexes, is essential for normal mesoderm migration in the mouse embryo[4] Regulated mesoderm migration is necessary for the proper morphogenesis and organ formation during embryonic development. Cell migration and its dependence on the cytoskeleton and signaling machines have been studied extensively in cultured cells; in contrast, remarkably little is known about the mechanisms that regulate mesoderm cell migration in vivo. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a mouse mutation in striatin-interacting protein 1 (Strip1) that disrupts migration of the mesoderm after the gastrulation epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). STRIP1 is a core component of the biochemically defined mammalian striatin-interacting phosphatases and kinase (STRIPAK) complexes that appear to act through regulation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), but their functions in mammals in vivo have not been examined. Strip1-null mutants arrest development at ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fibroblast growth factor signalling controls successive cell behaviours during mesoderm layer formation in Drosophila. AU - Clark, Ivan B. N.. AU - Muha, Villo. AU - Klingseisen, Anna. AU - Leptin, Maria. AU - Muller, Hans-Arno J.. PY - 2011/7/1. Y1 - 2011/7/1. N2 - Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-dependent epithelial-mesenchymal transitions and cell migration contribute to the establishment of germ layers in vertebrates and other animals, but a comprehensive demonstration of the cellular activities that FGF controls to mediate these events has not been provided for any system. The establishment of the Drosophila mesoderm layer from an epithelial primordium involves a transition to a mesenchymal state and the dispersal of cells away from the site of internalisation in a FGF-dependent fashion. We show here that FGF plays multiple roles at successive stages of mesoderm morphogenesis in Drosophila. It is first required for the mesoderm primordium to lose its epithelial polarity. An ...
The mesoderm arises from pluripotent epiblasts and differentiates into multiple lineages; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Tbx6 is enriched in the paraxial mesoderm and is implicated in somite formation, but its function in other mesoderms remains elusive. Here, using direct …
Antibodies for proteins involved in paraxial mesodermal cell fate commitment pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
BACKGROUND: The Brachyury (T) gene is required for the formation of posterior mesoderm and for axial development in both mouse and zebrafish embryos. In these species, and in Xenopus, the gene is expressed transiently throughout the presumptive mesoderm, and transcripts then persiste in notochord and posterior tissues. In Xenopus embryos, expression of the Xenopus homologue of Brachyury, Xbra, can be induced in presumptive ectoderm by basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and activin; in the absence of functional FGF or activin signalling pathways, expression of the gene is severely reduced. Ectopic expression of Xbra in presumptive ectoderm causes mesoderm to be formed. As Brachyury and its homologues encode sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins, it is likely that each functions by directly activating downstream mesoderm-specific genes. RESULTS: We show that expression in Xenopus embryos of RNA encoding a dominant-negative FGF receptor inhibits the mesoderm-inducing activity of Xbra. We ...
Second heart field (SHF) progenitors perform essential functions during mammalian cardiogenesis. We recently identified a population of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) in zebrafish expressing latent TGF?-binding protein 3 (ltbp3) that exhibits several defining characteristics of the anterior SHF in mammals. However, ltbp3 transcripts are conspicuously absent in anterior lateral plate mesoderm (ALPM), where SHF progenitors are specified in higher vertebrates. Instead, ltbp3 expression initiates at the arterial pole of the developing heart tube. Because the mechanisms of cardiac development are conserved evolutionarily, we hypothesized that zebrafish SHF specification also occurs in the ALPM. To test this hypothesis, we Cre/loxP lineage traced gata4(+) and nkx2.5(+) ALPM populations predicted to contain SHF progenitors, based on evolutionary conservation of ALPM patterning. Traced cells were identified in SHF-derived distal ventricular myocardium and in three lineages in the outflow tract (OFT). ...
UNSPECIFIED. (1987) THE DEVELOPMENT OF ANIMAL CAP CELLS IN XENOPUS - A MEASURE OF THE START OF ANIMAL CAP COMPETENCE TO FORM MESODERM. DEVELOPMENT, 101 (3). pp. 557-563. ISSN 0950-1991 ...
Axial mesoderm: | |Axial mesoderm|, also known as |Chordamesoderm|, is a type of |mesoderm| that lies along... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ecsit is required for Bmp signaling and mesoderm formation during mouse embryogenesis. AU - Xiao, Changchun. AU - Shim, Jae Hyuck. AU - Klüppel, Michael. AU - Zhang, Samuel Shao Min. AU - Dong, Chen. AU - Flavell, Richard A.. AU - Fu, Xin Yuan. AU - Wrana, Jeffrey L.. AU - Hogan, Brigid L M. AU - Ghosh, Sankar. PY - 2003/12/1. Y1 - 2003/12/1. N2 - Bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps) are members of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily that play critical roles during mouse embryogenesis. Signaling by Bmp receptors is mediated mainly by Smad proteins. In this study, we show that a targeted null mutation of Ecsit, encoding a signaling intermediate of the Toll pathway, leads to reduced cell proliferation, altered epiblast patterning, impairment of mesoderm formation, and embryonic lethality at embryonic day 7.5 (E7.5), phenotypes that mimic the Bmp receptor type1a (Bmpr1a) null mutant. In addition, specific Bmp target gene expression is abolished in the absence of ...
Somatic muscle is derived from a subset of embryonic mesoderm. In Drosophila, Twist (Twi), a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is a candidate regulator of mesodermal differentiation and myogenesis. Altering amounts of Twist after gastrulation revealed that high levels of Twist are required for somatic myogenesis and block the formation of other mesodermal derivatives. Expression of twist in the ectoderm drives these cells into myogenesis. Thus, after an initial role in gastrulation, twist regulates mesodermal differentiation and propels a specific subset of mesodermal cells into somatic myogenesis. Vertebrate homologs of twist may also participate in the subdivision of mesoderm.. ...
Mesoderm: The mesoderm forms mesenchyme, mesothelium, non-epithelial blood cells, and coelomocytes. Mesothelium lines coeloms. Mesoderm forms the muscles in a process known as myogenesis, septa (cross-wise partitions), and mesenteries (length-wise partitions); and... Read more » ...
Mesoderm: The mesoderm forms mesenchyme, mesothelium, non-epithelial blood cells, and coelomocytes. Mesothelium lines coeloms. Mesoderm forms the muscles in a process known as myogenesis, septa (cross-wise partitions), and mesenteries (length-wise partitions); and... Read more » ...
The primary patterning event in early vertebrate development is the formation of the mesoderm and its subsequent induction of the neural tube. Classic experiments suggest that the vegetal region signals the animal hemisphere to diverge from the pathway of forming ectoderm to form mesoderm such as mu …
The spatial and temporal pattern of mitoses during the fourteenth nuclear cycle in a Drosophila embryo reflects differences in cell identities. We have analysed the domains of mitotic division in zygotic mutants that exhibit defects in larval cuticular pattern along the dorsoventral axis. This is a powerful means of fate mapping mutant embryos, as the altered position of mitotic domains in the dorsoventral pattern mutants correlate with their late cuticular phenotypes. In the mutants twist and snail, which fail to differentiate the ventrally derived mesoderm, mitoses specific to the mesoderm are absent. The lateral mesectodermal domain shows a partial ventral shift in twist mutants but a proportion of ventral cells do not behave characteristically, suggesting that twist has a positive role in the establishment of the mesoderm. In contrast, snail is required to repress mesectodermal fates in cells of the presumptive mesoderm. In the absence of both genes, the mesodermal and the mesectodermal ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Mihoko Tame.. Abstract not available. This talk is part of the Developmental Biology Seminar Series series.. ...
The initial distribution of Decapentaplegic in the dorsal ectoderm of the developing fly is established by a gradient of the maternal Dorsal protein, which is asymmetrically distributed to the ventral portion of the fly. The Dorsal protein regulatory gradient initiates the differentiation of the mesoderm, neuroectoderm and dorsal ectoderm in the early Drosophila embryo. There are two primary Dorsal target genes: snail and dpp, which define the limits of the presumptive mesoderm and dorsal ectoderm, respectively. After gastrulation the Dorsal regulatory gradient defines the limits of inductive interactions between germ layers. Thus dorsal controls the subdivision of the mesoderm and dorsal ectoderm (Maggert, 1995). The contributions made by maternal and zygotic genes to the establishment of the expression patterns of four zygotic patterning genes have been examined: decapentaplegic (dpp), zerknüllt (zen), twist (twi), and snail (sna). All of these genes are initially expressed at the poles and ...
As we have discussed, the Nieuwkoop center is apparently established by activation of a Wnt signaling pathway, of which ß-catenin is a critical component. Recently, evidence has been presented that a consequence of activation of the Wnt pathway is activation of the transcription factor Siamois, which is located downstream of ß-catenin (Carnac et al., 1996). One implication of these results may be that the signaling properties of cells of the Nieuwkoop center depend upon regulation of gene expression by Siamois. This would imply that Nieuwkoop signaling is dependent upon zygotic gene transcription, whereas earlier events, including dorsalization and initiation of mesoderm induction, would be dependent upon maternal messengers. This is a new way of thinking about mesoderm induction. Time will tell whether this dichotomy holds ...
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Involved in the transcriptional regulation of genes required for mesoderm formation and differentiation. Causes dorsal mesodermal differentiation of animal cap ectoderm when co-expressed with wnt8 and noggin. None of these molecules causes dorsal mesoderm formation when expressed alone. Establishes the left/right axis at early gastrula stage by directly up-regulating mesodermal expression of zic3. [-] ...
Formation and Differentiation of Early Embryonic Mesoderm - Mesodenn is a key tissue in early development It is involved in the differentiation of almost every organ in the bod (EAN:9781461534587)
This unit describes a robust protocol for producing multipotent Kdr‐expressing mesoderm progenitor cells in serum‐free conditions, and for functional genomics screening using these cells
Looking for online definition of paraxial mesoderm in the Medical Dictionary? paraxial mesoderm explanation free. What is paraxial mesoderm? Meaning of paraxial mesoderm medical term. What does paraxial mesoderm mean?
Figure 4: Prolonged Nitric Oxide Exposure Enhances Anoikis Resistance and Migration through Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Caveolin-1 Upregulation
article{63622856-3178-483f-a762-c592e0b05bcc, abstract = {PURPOSE. Structures derived from periocular mesenchyme arise by complex interactions between neural crest and mesoderm. Defects in development or function of structures derived from periocular mesenchyme result in debilitating vision loss, including glaucoma. The determination of long-term fates for neural crest and mesoderm in mammals has been inhibited by the lack of suitable marking systems. In the present study, the first long-term fate maps are presented for neural crest and mesoderm in a mammalian eye. METHODS. Complementary binary genetic approaches were used to mark indelibly the neural crest and mesoderm in the developing eye. Component one is a transgene expressing Cre recombinase under the control of an appropriate tissue-specific promoter. The second component is the conditional Cre reporter R26R, which is activated by the Cre recombinase expressed from the transgene. Lineage-marked cells were counterstained for expression of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - FGF Can Induce Outgrowth of Somatic Mesoderm both Inside and Outside of Limb-Forming Regions. AU - Mima, Tatsuo. AU - Ohuchi, Hideyo. AU - Noji, Sumihare. AU - Mikawa, Takashi. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1995/2. Y1 - 1995/2. N2 - In the vertebrate embryo, only somatopleural cells in the limb-forming region are released from the mesodermal layer and undergo outgrowth from the embryonic body to form the limb bud. Molecular signals which regulate limb bud induction are unknown to date. In the present study we examined the ability of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) to induce limb bud formation in chicken embryos. A replication-defective retrovirus encoding FGF type 4 with a reporter, bacterial β-galactosidase, was microinjected into lateral plate mesoderm inside and outside limb-forming regions. Effects of the ectopic and precocious expression of FGF were assessed at various stages after infection. Here we report that somatic mesodermal ...
Gliosarcoma is a rare variant of glioblastoma characterized by a biphasic pattern of glial and mesenchymal differentiation. It is unclear whether mesenchymal differentiation in gliosarcomas is because of extensive genomic instability and/or to a mechanism similar to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In the present study, we assessed 40 gliosarcomas for immunoreactivity of Slug, Twist, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which are involved in EMT in epithelial tumors. Nuclear Slug expression was observed in ,50% of neoplastic cells in mesenchymal tumor areas of 33 (83%) gliosarcomas, but not in glial areas (P , 0.0001). Nuclear Twist expression was observed in ,50% of neoplastic cells in mesenchymal tumor areas of 35 (88%) gliosarcomas, but glial tumor areas were largely negative except in four cases (P , 0.0001). Expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was also significantly more extensive in mesenchymal than in glial tumor areas. None of 20 ordinary ...
Somitogenesis is the earliest sign of segmentation in the developing vertebrate embryo. This process starts very early, soon after gastrulation has initiated and proceeds in an anterior-to-posterior direction during body axis elongation. It is widely accepted that somitogenesis is controlled by a molecular oscillator with the same periodicity as somite formation. This periodic mechanism is repeated a specific number of times until the embryo acquires a defined specie-specific final number of somites at the end of the process of axis elongation. This final number of somites varies widely between vertebrate species. How termination of the process of somitogenesis is determined is still unknown. Here we show that during development there is an imbalance between the speed of somite formation and growth of the presomitic mesoderm (PSM)/tail bud. This decrease in the PSM size of the chick embryo is not due to an acceleration of the speed of somite formation because it remains constant until the last stages of
Objectives: Mechanisms underpinning Gram-negative bacterial vaginosis-induced birth anomalies are obscure. Ethical issues limit such studies on peri-implantation-stage human embryos. Here we have used embryoid bodies (EBs) as an in vitro model to examine the effect of Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins/lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on the faithful induction of germ lineages during embryogenesis. The role of LPS-inducible cytokine and pluripotency-related DNA-binding protein HMGB1 was also studied in these EBs. Methods: EBs derived from the human embryonic stem cell line HUES9 were exposed to 12.5 pg/ml of LPS for 48 h. The expression profile of the ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm and trophectoderm lineage markers, such as βIII-tubulin, GATA4, BMP2, Brachury and β-hCG, were studied, by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Inhibition of mesoderm induction was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis for hANP, cTnT, ABCG2, GATA2, BMP4 and HAND1. Osteoblast differentiation was induced in the EBs, and confirmed by von Kosa ...
Epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) drive the generation of cell diversity during both evolution and development. More and more evidence has pointed to a model where EMT is not a binary switch but a reversible process that can be stabilized at intermediate states. Despite our vast knowledge on the signaling pathways that trigger EMT, we know very little about how EMT happens in a step-wise manner. Live imaging of cells that are undergoing EMT in intact, living, animals will provide us valuable insights into how EMT is executed at both the cellular and molecular levels and help us identify and understand the intermediate states. Here, we describe how to image early stages of EMT in the mesoderm cells of live Drosophila melanogaster embryos and how to image contractile myosin that suspends EMT progression.
Ver más] GATA transcription factors are expressed in the mesoderm and endoderm during development. GATA1-3, but not GATA4, are critically involved in hematopoiesis. An enhancer (G2) of the mouse Gata4 gene directs its expression throughout the lateral mesoderm and the allantois, beginning at embryonic day 7.5, becoming restricted to the septum transversum by embryonic day 10.5, and disappearing by midgestation. We have studied the developmental fate of the G2-Gata4 cell lineage using a G2-Gata4Cre;R26REYFP mouse line. We found a substantial number of YFP+ hematopoietic cells of lymphoid, myeloid and erythroid lineages in embryos. Fetal CD41+ /cKit+ /CD34+ and Lin- /cKit+ /CD31+ YFP+ hematopoietic progenitors were much more abundant in the placenta than in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros area. They were clonogenic in the MethoCult assay and fully reconstituted hematopoiesis in myeloablated mice. YFP+ cells represented about 20% of the hematopoietic system of adult mice. Adult YFP+ hematopoietic stem ...
Summary My lab is interested in the development of the tissue that gives rise to vertebrae and skeletal muscles called the paraxial mesoderm. A striking feature of this tissue is its segmental organization and we have made major contributions to the understanding of the molecular control of the segmentation process. We identified a molecular oscillator associated to the rhythmic production of somites and proposed a model for vertebrate segmentation based on the integration of a rhythmic signaling pulse gated spatially by a system of traveling FGF and Wnt signaling gradients. We are also studying the differentiation of paraxial mesoderm precursors into the muscle, cartilage and dermis lineages. Our work identified the Wnt, FGF and Notch pathways as playing a prominent role in the patterning and differentiation of paraxial mesoderm. In this application, we largely focus on the molecular control of paraxial mesoderm development. Using microarray and high throughput sequencing-based approaches and ...
Mesenchyme. Coalescence of the mesenchyme at the level where the dorsal pancreas will form is the first morphological sign of pancreatic development. Removal of the mesoderm, or the fibroblasts within the mesoderm, prior to pancreatic specification results in pancreatic agenesis (53, 107, 164). Mesoderm removal following specification results in a reduction of the total pancreatic size indicating an ongoing requirement for mesoderm signaling to attain complete organ development (94). Interestingly, culturing of pancreatic mesenchyme with other sections of the dorsal endoderm can promote pancreatic differentiation, while mesenchyme from other regions of the anterior-posterior axis does not have this ability (10). This suggests that the mesenchyme provides signals that promote pancreatic specification, yet limits differentiation, thereby allowing expansion of the organ. These signals come in a variety of sources.. Physical interactions between the mesoderm and developing pancreatic bud affect ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - BMP7 dose-dependently stimulates proliferation and cadherin-11 expression via ERK and p38 in a murine metanephric mesenchymal cell line. AU - Awazu, Midori. AU - Nagata, Michio. AU - Hida, Mariko. N1 - Funding Information: This study was supported by JSPS KAKENHI grant numbers JP17591115, JP26461620, and JP17K10152.. PY - 2017/8. Y1 - 2017/8. N2 - BMP7 is expressed in ureteric buds and cap mesenchyme of the fetal kidney, mediating branching morphogenesis and survival and priming of metanephric mesenchyme. Although dose-dependent effects of BMP7 in collecting duct cells have been reported, studies in metanephric mesenchymal cells are lacking. We examined the effects of BMP7 on MAP kinase activation, proliferation, and expression of cadherins in a metanephric mesenchymal cell line MS7 by thymidine incorporation, immunoblot analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR. The levels of phosphorylated ERK (P-ERK) and phosphorylated p38 (P-p38) were not altered at 10 min, 1 h, and 6 h with ...
Smad2 role in mesoderm formation, left-right patterning and craniofacial development. Female infertility in mice lacking connexin 37
Summary Mesoderm, the embryonic germ layer between ectoderm and endoderm, gives rise to major organs within the circulatory and excretory systems and to stabilizing tissues (muscles, bones, connective tissue). Although mesoderm is a key-innovation in evolutionary history, its origin and further diversification into the different organs and cell types of a broad range of animals has not been elucidated. Our knowledge of mesoderm development is mainly based on work performed in prominent model systems including vertebrates (fish, frog and mouse) and invertebrates that are distantly-related and considered to be highly derived (Drosophila and C. elegans). The project proposed herein aims to study mesoderm development in a variety of highly informative animal taxa and trace its differentiation into cell types and organs, with the ultimate aim of reconstructing the history of mesoderm during animal evolution. Our approach combines advanced bioinformatics, live-imaging and molecular methods, and will ...
Angerer, L. M., et al. (2001). Sea urchin goosecoid function links fate specification along the animal-vegetal and oral-aboral embryonic axes. Development 128: 4393-4404. 11714666 Armes, N. A. and Smith, J. C. (1997). The ALK-2 and ALK-4 activin receptors transduce distinct mesoderm-inducing signals during early Xenopus development but do not co-operate to establish thresholds. Development 124(19): 3797-3804. PubMed ID: 9367435 Artinger, M., et al. (1997). Interaction of goosecoid and brachyury in Xenopus mesoderm patterning. Mech. Dev. 65(1-2): 187-196. PubMed ID: 9256355 Belo, J. A., et al. (1998). The prechordal midline of the chondrocranium is defective in Goosecoid-1 mouse mutants. Mech. Dev. 72(1-2): 15-25. PubMed ID: 9533949 Broun, M., Sokol, S. and Bode, H. R. (1999). Cngsc, a homologue of goosecoid, participates in the patterning of the head, and is expressed in the organizer region of Hydra. Development 126: 5245-5254. PubMed ID: 10556050 Bruce, A. E. E., et al. (2003). The maternally ...
The use of adult hepatic stem cells for the treatment of diabetes, based both on the close embryological association of the pancreas and liver, and on a putative shared tissue stem cell, has been proposed by a number of studies. This study investigated the capacity of hepatic oval cells to differentiate into pancreatic endocrine cells in the presence of pancreatic mesoderm. The GaIN model of hepatic injury was used to induce oval cell activation in Male Sprague-Dawley rats. A viable and significant oval cell population could not however, be isolated and propagated in culture. In order to continue experimentation, a PHeSC-A2 cell line, derived from normal adult porcine liver, was cultured with quail pancreatic mesoderm in the GFRM-Ham s F12.ITS culture system. Cells demonstrating positive immulocalization of the pancreatic markers, insulin and glucagon, were identified as PHeSC-A2-derived, by visual assessment of their nuclear morphology. Techniques used to confirm these results and preclude the ...
There has been a long debate in the scientific community over the oldest surviving metazoan lineage. Traditionally it has been taught that Porifera, the sponges, occupy that nitche possessing a diploblastic body plan without true organs; however recent phylogentic analysis has suggests that Ctenophora may truly be the oldest lineage, free floating animals with a possible mesoderm layer and complex organs. In this study we searched for the presence of mesoderm in Ctenophora by examining the genome of Pleurobrachia bachei for the presence of tropomyosin, calponin, and β-catenin. Gene expression for all three were found not only in the muscular regions of P. bachei, but in the epidermal tissues as well, indicating there is an unknown function in the metazoan common ancestor. Homology comparisons to the rest of Metazoa reveal little about tropomyosin and calponin, however the ctenophore β-catenin protein appears to be to least derived of all metazoans and suggests Ctenophora may be the most basal ...
Can you name the Paraxial Mesoderm and Musculoskeletal Development? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by hellcat
Snail, a zinc finger protein, is required for the formation of the ventral furrow and the mesoderm during gastrulation of the Drosophila embryo. snail homologues have been cloned from Xenopus and mouse. We have isolated a zebrafish homologue of snail, designated sna-1. Like its Drosophila counterpart, Sna-1 protein is nuclear. Maternal and zygotic sna-1 transcripts are ubiquitously distributed in zebrafish embryos of cleavage and blastula stages. In gastrulating embryos, sna-1 is expressed in involuting cells of the germ ring, but not in those at the dorsal midline, the presumptive notochordal region. After involution, the expression is maintained in the paraxial mesoderm and becomes prominent in the muscle pioneer precursors, followed by expression at the posterior somite boundaries. Later, sna-1 is expressed in neural crest and mesodermal derivatives of the head region. Sna-1 expression is induced in animal cap cells by activin A. The early sna-1 expression pattern in gastrulating zebrafish no ...
EndoMT and EMT share many of the same regulators, with members of the TGFβ superfamily being arguably the most prominent players. TGFβ signaling through Smad-dependent and independent pathways leads to direct transcriptional regulation of multiple genes, including several EMT/EndoMT-inducing transcription factors.31 Expression of these transcription factors subsequently drives loss of cell-cell adhesion by repression of epithelial/endothelial genes encoding junction proteins, regulation of cytoskeletal rearrangement, and increased expression and activity of both MT-MMPs and secreted MMPs.32 Moreover, during EndoMT, upregulation of EC Slug by TGFβ and other growth factors results in increased migration and invasion into extracellular matrices of diverse composition, and this is due in part to the indirect activation of membrane type-1-MMP, MMP-2, and MMP-9.26 Interestingly, nuclear Smads form multiprotein complexes with EMT/EndoMT-transcription factors, including Snail, Zeb1, and Zeb2, ...
EndoMT and EMT share many of the same regulators, with members of the TGFβ superfamily being arguably the most prominent players. TGFβ signaling through Smad-dependent and independent pathways leads to direct transcriptional regulation of multiple genes, including several EMT/EndoMT-inducing transcription factors.31 Expression of these transcription factors subsequently drives loss of cell-cell adhesion by repression of epithelial/endothelial genes encoding junction proteins, regulation of cytoskeletal rearrangement, and increased expression and activity of both MT-MMPs and secreted MMPs.32 Moreover, during EndoMT, upregulation of EC Slug by TGFβ and other growth factors results in increased migration and invasion into extracellular matrices of diverse composition, and this is due in part to the indirect activation of membrane type-1-MMP, MMP-2, and MMP-9.26 Interestingly, nuclear Smads form multiprotein complexes with EMT/EndoMT-transcription factors, including Snail, Zeb1, and Zeb2, ...
Gastrulation of the Drosophila embryo is a premier model system for tissue morphogenesis. Particular efforts have focused on the formation of the ventral furrow, whereby ~1,000 presumptive mesoderm cells exhibit coordinated apical constrictions that mediate invagination. Apical constriction depends on a Rho GTPase signaling pathway (Fog/T48) deployed by the developmental regulatory genes twist and snail. The consensus states that coordinate mesoderm constriction depends on high levels of myosin along the ventral midline, although the basis for this myosin localization activity is uncertain. Using the newly developed quantitative live imaging methods, we showed that two key cellular effectors of the Rho signaling pathway, T48 and Fog, exhibit dynamic temporal changes in de novo transcription. Their transcription begins as a narrow strip of 2-3 cells along the ventral midline and coherently expanding into more ventral-lateral regions. Quantitative image analyses suggest these temporal gradients ...
ES Cell Lines and Targeting of ERK2. ERK2-specific primers (forward 5′-TTA TTT ACT CTA CAA AGT GAC CAA GC-3′ and reverse 5′-AGG TTC AGC ATC TGC TGC TAC TTT AC-3′) were used to amplify a 400-bp probe from EST 709653 that was used to screen a lambda FixII 129Sv genomic library (Stratagene). A 5.2-kb BamHI/KpnI fragment and a 4.5-kb XbaI/XbaI fragment were cloned into TK2-PKJ1 as 5′ and 3′ arms of homology, respectively, to create the targeting construct. Alternatively, the PGK-neo cassette was removed and replaced with PGK-hygro for targeting the second erk2 allele for the creation of erk2 null ES lines.. The TC1 ES line (gift of Philip Leder, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA) was maintained in ES medium (13) and electroporated with 25 μg of linearized construct. Electroporated cells underwent selection in ES medium supplemented with G418 (Geneticin G418 sulfate, GIBCO) and ganciclovir. Genomic DNA was isolated, digested with AflII, run on a 0.8% agarose gel, and blotted onto nylon ...
The embryonic disc (green) and embryonic mesoderm (pink). The amnion has been cut.. Keywords: cephalic end of embryonic disc, cephalic end of epiblast, dorsal surface of epiblast, embryonic mesoderm, gastrulation (primitive) groove, gastrulation (primitive) node, gastrulation (primitive) streak, head mesenchyme, junction of amnion and epiblast, notochordal process, outer surface of epiblast, presumptive cloacal membrane, presumptive neural plate, primordium of cloacal membrane, ventral surface of epiblast Source: The Virtual Human Embryo.. ...
In the heart, cells that form the valves are induced to develop by interaction between endothelial cells and adjacent muscle. As a result, cardiac endothelial cells transform into mesenchyme and become the constituents of the valves and walls of the heart. This process is known as an epithelial-mesenchymal transition or EMT. The objective of my research program is to understand the molecular mechanisms that mediate cell transformation in the heart.Using a tissue culture assay, we showed that cardiac endothelia would only transform after stimulation by adjacent muscle. My laboratory has continued to examine the events which take place during this epithelial-mesenchymal cell transformation. Our studies focus upon three basic questions. 1) What is the nature of the signal produced by the muscle? 2) How do the target cells recognize the signal? 3) What events occur in the target cells in response to the stimulus? Answers to these questions will identify potential causes of congenital heart ...
3 Department of Molecular Biology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA * Author for correspondence (e-mail: [email protected] ) The hematopoietic and endothelial lineages derive from mesoderm and are thought to develop through the maturation of a common progenitor, the hemangioblast. To investigate the developmental processes that regulate mesoderm induction and specification to the hemangioblast, we generated an embryonic stem cell line with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) targeted to the mesodermal gene, brachyury. After the in vitro differentiation of these embryonic stem cells to embryoid bodies, developing mesodermal progenitors could be separated from those with neuroectoderm potential based on GFP expression. Co-expression of GFP with the receptor tyrosine kinase Flk1 revealed the emergence of three distinct cell populations, GFP-Flk1-, GFP+Flk1- and GFP+Flk1+ cells, which represent a developmental progression ranging from pre-mesoderm to prehemangioblast ...
Abstract-since the advent of high throughput methodologies, like microarrays, the load of genomic data has increased geometrically and along with that the need for computational methods which will interpret these data. In the present work we have studied the common gene expression patterns between two tumor cell types of mesodermal origin. In particular, we have attempted to find causal relations between gene expression levels with respect to chromosomal location. We have found that several genes manifested significant relations, using regression analysis and as such they could pose interesting targets for further investigations. This type of analysis can lead to the understanding of the common mechanisms that transform physiological cells to malignant, as well as it reveals a new holistic way to understand the dynamics of tumor onset as well as the mechanistic of oncogenic drivers. Such approaches could prove to be useful in the prediction of genomic targets that could be further studied in ...
Dr Lesley Forresters group at the MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University of Edinburgh, works on Mesoderm and haematopoietic differentiation
Little is known about how the sizes of animal tissues are controlled. A prominent example is somite size which varies widely both within an individual and across species. Despite intense study of the segmentation clock governing the timing of somite generation, how it relates to somite size is poorly understood. Here we examine somite scaling and find that somite size at specification scales with the length of the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) despite considerable variation in PSM length across developmental stages and in surgically size-reduced embryos. Measurement of clock period, axis elongation speed, and clock gene expression patterns demonstrate that existing models fail to explain scaling. We posit a clock and scaled gradient model, in which somite boundaries are set by a dynamically scaling signaling gradient across the PSM. Our model not only explains existing data, but also makes a unique prediction that we experimentally confirm-the formation of periodic echoes in somite size ...
Mammalian Nck1 and Nck2 are closely related adaptor proteins that possess three SH3 domains, followed by an SH2 domain, and are implicated in coupling phosphotyrosine signals to polypeptides that regulate the actin cytoskeleton. However, the in vivo functions of Nck1 and Nck2 have not been defined. We have mutated the murine Nck1 and Nck2 genes and incorporated β-galactosidase reporters into the mutant loci. In mouse embryos, the two Nck genes have broad and overlapping expression patterns. They are functionally redundant in the sense that mice deficient for either Nck1 or Nck2 are viable, whereas inactivation of both Nck1 and Nck2 results in profound defects in mesoderm-derived notochord and embryonic lethality at embryonic day 9.5. Fibroblast cell lines derived from Nck1−/− Nck2−/− embryos have defects in cell motility and in the organization of the lamellipodial actin network. These data suggest that the Nck SH2/SH3 adaptors have important functions in the development of mesodermal ...
The term Phocomelia was first used by Etienne Geoffroy Saint in 1836 and its prevalence is 0.62 in 1,00,000 births [2]. This malformation was seen with thalidomide embryopathy. In light of the different related clinical patterns of defects, Phocomelia was further classified in to Al-Awadi/Raas-Rothschild Syndrome syndrome (AARR syndrome), Roberts/SC phocomelia, Schinzel phocomelia and Zimmer phocomelia [3]. After fertilization, development of limb bud begins from lateral (paraxial and somatic) plate mesoderm at 26th day and stretches out until day 56 [4]. The exact mechanism underlying the development of phocomelia remains unclear. Nevertheless, it could be hypothesized that during the defined critical period, between days 24 and 33, defects in angiogenesis could produce a loss of mesenchyme and distal fate of limbs [5]. Limb formation begins within the morphogenetic limb field. The mesenchymal cells from the lateral plate mesoderm proliferate causing the ectoderm above to project out thus ...
Definition of branchial mesoderm. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
In this article, we successfully isolate Sca-1+ cells from postnatal mice hearts with the MACS system, using a microbead-labeled anti-Sca-1 antibody. The isolated Sca-1+ cells express the stemness markers Nanog and TERT, the cardiac mesoderm markers ISL-1, TBX5, and the cardiac specific transcription factors GATA4, Nkx2.5, and MEF2C. They can be propagated in vitro for a long time without any significant changes in marker expression. Moreover, the isolated Sca-1+ cells and their long-term descendants exhibit multipotent differentiation to cardiac cell lineages, including smooth muscle, endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes. So, the Sca-1+ cells we isolated from mouse heart tissue should be identified as CPCs.. Isolation of a cardiac progenitor cell (CPC) population from the heart is challenging, particularly because of a lack of specific surface markers. Though Sca-1+ cells, c-kit+ cells, Isl-1+ cells, WT1+ cells, SP cells and CDCs have been extracted from postnatal cardiac tissue [8-14], it ...
Early tube represents tube just after fusion of neural fold crests. In the late neural tube, the ectoderm is separated from the neural tube, splanchnic mesoderm, and somatic mesoderm.
For example, the ectoderm will give rise to the skin epidermis and the nervous system, the mesoderm will give rise to the ... "Mesoderm , The Embryo Project Encyclopedia". embryo.asu.edu. Retrieved 2019-11-07. Zorn, Aaron M.; Wells, James M. (2009). " ... During gastrulation of triploblastic animals, the three germinal layers that form are called the ectoderm, mesoderm, and ...
It develops from the mesoderm. Connective tissue is found in between other tissues everywhere in the body, including the ...
Herrmann BG, Labeit S, Poustka A, King TR, Lehrach H (February 1990). "Cloning of the T gene required in mesoderm formation in ... In frogs, the PGCs migrate along the mesentery to the gonadal mesoderm facilitated by orientated extracellular matrix with ... June 2014). "Stochastic specification of primordial germ cells from mesoderm precursors in axolotl embryos". Development. 141 ( ... ectoderm and mesoderm. The specification of primordial germ cells in mammals is mainly attributed to the downstream functions ...
Very early in embryonic development, the embryonic stem cells differentiate into three types of cells: the ectoderm, mesoderm, ... There are two layers of mesoderm; intraembryonic and extraembryonic. As the intraembryonic layer grows laterally, it becomes ... their development and morphogenesis depends on the signaling between specialized ectodermal cells and the underlying mesoderm. ...
The mesenchyme originates from the mesoderm. From the mesoderm, the mesenchyme appears as an embryologically primitive "soup". ... In the epiblast, it is induced by the primitive streak through Wnt signaling, and produces endoderm and mesoderm from a ... Other deficiencies in signaling pathways, such as in Nodal (a TGF-beta protein), will lead to defective mesoderm formation. The ... This kind of mesenchyme is called ectomesodermal, and is not considered true mesoderm. In triploblastic acoelomates (such as ...
These cells are derived from mesoderm. ICC serve as electrical pacemakers and generate spontaneous electrical slow waves in the ...
The neurocranium arises from paraxial mesoderm. There is also some contribution of ectomesenchyme. In Chondrichthyes and other ...
It is derived from extraembryonic mesoderm. Progressive expansion of the amnion from the umbilical ring (surrounding the roots ...
The heart is a mesoderm-derived organ; Mesoderm is the middle germ layer of an embryo, whose formation is regulated by various ...
The new mesoderm then splits, creating the pocket-like cavity of the coelom. Deuterostome Development of the digestive system ... In mollusks, annelids, and arthropods, the mesoderm (the middle germ layer) forms as a solid mass of migrated cells from the ... Technau, Ulrich; Scholz, Corinna B. (2003). "Origin and evolution of endoderm and mesoderm". The International Journal of ...
The mammalian kidney develops from intermediate mesoderm. Kidney development, also called nephrogenesis, proceeds through a ...
His discovery of a mesoderm-inducing factor secreted by a cell line and establishing its identity as activin transformed the ... Smith, J. C. (1 December 1993). "Mesoderm-inducing factors in early vertebrate development". The EMBO Journal. 12 (12): 4463- ...
All the more complex animals (from flat worms to humans) are triploblastic with three germ layers (a mesoderm as well as ... ectoderm and endoderm). The mesoderm allows them to develop true organs. Groups of diploblastic animals alive today include ...
The mesoderm invaginates from the ventral furrow (VF), as does the ectoderm that will give rise to the midgut. The pole cells ... This results in the formation of the mesoderm. In the lateral regions of the embryo, low nuclear concentrations of Dorsal lead ... Like other triploblastic metazoa, gastrulation leads to the formation of three germ layers: the endoderm, mesoderm, and ... mainly mesoderm). One of the best understood examples of pattern formation is the patterning along the future head to tail ( ...
Its expression is restricted to embryonic mesoderm precursors. Also known as: Mix; Mix1; Mild1 Mixl1 plays a role in mesoderm ... It marks cells destined to be mesoderm and endoderm. Mixl1 expression is required for both mesoderm development and ... Mixl1 homologues are also a necessary intermediate for BMP4-induced ventral mesoderm patterning and differentiating ES cells. ... The primitive streak gene Mixl1 is required for efficient haematopoiesis and BMP4-induced ventral mesoderm patterning in ...
Failure in mesoderm cell migration results in epispadia. Diphallia is a rare abnormal external genitalia. The cause is ... Further, as mesenchyme migrate from more than one area, failure in migration and in the fusion of mesoderm results in formation ... or malfunctioning homeobox genes hamper proper function of the caudal cell mass of the fetal mesoderm as the urogenital sinus ... when caudal cell mass of mesoderm is affected by various external environmental factors including drugs, infections and ...
During cleavage, mesoderm and small micromeres are specified. At the end of gastrulation, cells of these two types form ... primary mesenchyme cells move into the blastocoel and become mesoderm. It has been suggested that epithelial polarity together ...
Great efforts have been made to determine the factors that specify the endoderm and mesoderm. On the other hand, only a few ... It has been proposed that Notch and/or NODAL, expressed in the vegetal/mesoderm region of the early blastula embryo, could ... Mir et al., 2005 identified FoxI1e (Xema) by selecting genes that were down-regulated under mesoderm-inducing signals in the ... In Xenopus laevis, the specification of the three germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm) occurs at the blastula stage. ...
Kofron M, Demel T, Xanthos J, Lohr J, Sun B, Sive H, Osada S, Wright C, Wylie C, Heasman J (December 1999). "Mesoderm induction ... This was an important finding as many other factors had been implicated in the formation of mesoderm in Xenopus whereas the ... In mouse, frog and fish, Dapper2, is a negative regulator of mesoderm formation acting through the down-regulation of the Wnt ... showed that the nodal genes encode a secreted signaling peptide that was sufficient to induce mesoderm cells in the mouse ...
Mesoderm extends to the midventral line for some distance behind the umbilical cord, and forms the lower part of the abdominal ... The reproductive organs are developed from the intermediate mesoderm. The permanent organs of the adult are preceded by a set ... In the outer part of the intermediate mesoderm, immediately under the ectoderm, in the region from the fifth cervical segment ... Rather, the urogenital part of the cloacal membrane separates the ingrowing sheets of mesoderm. The genital tubercle develops ...
Due to abnormal gastrulation, the mesoderm migration is disturbed. This disturbance results in symptoms varying from minor ...
The mesoderm does not form by enterocoely in phoronids and bryozoans, but does in deuterostomes, while there are disagreements ... Mesoderm is formed from mesenchyme originating from the archenteron. The coelom is formed by schizocoely, and the blastopore (a ... about whether brachiopods form the mesoderm by enterocoely. Relationships of Phoronida to other Bilateria: From 1988 onwards ...
It also acts in mesoderm induction and fracture repair. Several other proteins might also interact with C12orf60, and some are ...
Lambert, J.D. (2008). "Mesoderm in spiralians: the organizer and the 4d cell". Journal of Experimental Zoology. Wiley ... Apical tuft (cilia) Prototroch (cilia) Stomach Mouth Metatroch (cilia) Mesoderm Anus /// = cilia Most species are simultaneous ... and mesoderm develops from a specific cell labelled "4d" in the early embryo. There is no coelom at any stage. In some species ...
... both the reflector and lens are derived from mesoderm. The squid controls light production by changing the shape of its iris or ...
The ectodermal ridge grows thicker and compresses to form mesoderm. As the proliferation persists, mesodermal layer continues ... which is characterised by anomalies of underlying mesoderm and abnormal pectoral muscle respectively. Other syndromes, such as ...
"A New View of Patterning Domains in the Vertebrate Mesoderm". Developmental Cell. 4 (2): 159-165. doi:10.1016/S1534-5807(03) ...
Both the reflector and the lens are derived from mesoderm. Light escapes from the organ downwards, some of it travelling ...
It has been demonstrated that Chordin and Noggin dorsalize mesoderm. They are both found in the dorsal lip of Xenopus and ... Nodal causes the transcription of mRNAs involved in left and right axis specification, mesoderm and endoderm induction. The TGF ... Bone morphogenetic proteins cause the transcription of mRNAs involved in osteogenesis, neurogenesis, and ventral mesoderm ...
Purcell, SM; Keller, R (1993). "A different type of amphibian mesoderm morphogenesis in Ceratophrys ornata". Development. 117 ( ... "Overexpression of cadherins and underexpression of β-catenin inhibit dorsal mesoderm induction in early Xenopus embryos". Cell ...
There are three important components, the paraxial mesoderm, the intermediate mesoderm and the lateral plate mesoderm. The ... when the mesoderm cells proliferate they form the paraxial mesoderm. In each side, the mesoderm remains thin and is known as ... The mesoderm differentiates from the rest of the embryo through intercellular signaling, after which the mesoderm is polarized ... The intermediate mesoderm lies between the paraxial mesoderm and the lateral plate. Between days 13 and 15, the proliferation ...
Paraxial mesoderm, also known as presomitic or somitic mesoderm is the area of mesoderm in the neurulating embryo that flanks ... This tissue derives from the unsegmented paraxial mesoderm and prechordal mesoderm. Tissues derived from the head mesoderm ... The head mesoderm forms through a separate signaling circuit than the segmented paraxial mesoderm, though also involving BMP ... Somitomere Chordamesoderm Intermediate mesoderm Lateral plate mesoderm Mesenchyme Triploblasty List of human cell types derived ...
Mesoderm, the middle of the three germ layers, or masses of cells (lying between the ectoderm and endoderm), which appears ... the exterior ectoderm, the middle mesoderm, and the interior endoderm. The mesoderm differentiates to form most of the tissues ... layers: the ectoderm (outer layer), mesoderm (middle layer), and endoderm (inner layer). Within the mesoderm grows the ... Mesoderm, the middle of the three germ layers, or masses of cells (lying between the ectoderm and endoderm), which appears ...
Build a Mesoderm::Relationship object given a constraint. build_mapping ( $relationship, $relationship ). Build a Mesoderm:: ... Mesoderm-,new( schema =, $sqlt-,schema, schema_class =, My::Schema, ); $scaffold-,produce(\*STDOUT);. DESCRIPTION Mesoderm. ... Mesoderm. and provide overrides.. Package Hierarchy. Given a schema_class. name of Schema. and a schema containing a single ... Mesoderm. defines methods to map table names to class names, relationships and columns to accessor methods. It is also possible ...
In the amphibian Xenopus laevis, mesoderm arises in the equatorial region... ... Vertebrate mesoderm forms a diversity of tissues, including notochord, somitic muscle, pronephros, mesenchyme, and blood. ... Body Wall Muscle Animal Pole Vitelline Membrane Vegetal Pole Mesoderm Induction These keywords were added by machine and not by ... Vertebrate mesoderm forms a diversity of tissues, including notochord, somitic muscle, pronephros, mesenchyme, and blood. In ...
Definition of branchial mesoderm. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ...
Intermediate mesodermEdit. The intermediate mesoderm connects the paraxial mesoderm with the lateral plate and differentiates ... There are three important components, the paraxial mesoderm, the intermediate mesoderm and the lateral plate mesoderm. The ... when the mesoderm cells proliferate they form the paraxial mesoderm. In each side, the mesoderm remains thin and is known as ... Paraxial mesodermEdit. During the third week, the paraxial mesoderm is organized into segments. If they appear in the cephalic ...
Ohata E., Takahashi Y. (2009) In Ovo Electroporation for Targeting the Somitic Mesoderm. In: Nakamura H. (eds) Electroporation ... refers to a tissue of spherical structure that forms by pinching off from the continuous tissue called presomitic mesoderm (PSM ...
Transcriptional control of mesoderm patterning in zebrafish. Patrick Fischer, Dirk Meyer In early vertebrate development TGF- ... mesoderm and ectoderm. The aim of our research is to understand how cells read this patterning signals and how cells translate ...
These include mesoderm in the amnion, chorion, yolk sac and the connecting stalk. Mesoderm is found in the... ... Extraembryonic mesoderm is any mesoderm in the uterus that is not part of the embryo itself. ... Extraembryonic mesoderm is any mesoderm in the uterus that is not part of the embryo itself. These include mesoderm in the ... Mesoderm is found in the middle of three primary germ layers of the embryo. The embryonic mesoderm forms from the hypoblast ( ...
Mouse Genome Database (MGD), Gene Expression Database (GXD), Mouse Models of Human Cancer database (MMHCdb) (formerly Mouse Tumor Biology (MTB), Gene Ontology (GO ...
Large search returns make our pages slow to load. Therefore, some functionality has been disabled until you refine your search to bring the number of returned assay results under TBD ...
Mesoderm induction early response protein/metastasis-associated protein (IPR040138) *Mesoderm induction early response protein ... regulator identified from a screen for fibroblast growth factor early response genes that are activated during mesoderm ...
Conservation of BMP signaling in zebrafish mesoderm patterning.. Nikaido M1, Tada M, Saji T, Ueno N. ... To examine the ability of zbmp-2 to ventralize mesoderm, we injected synthetic mRNA into zebrafish embryos and found that ... consistent with the proposed function of Xenopus BMP-4 in ventral mesoderm specification. zbmp-4 expression, however, was also ...
Identification of the signalling molecules involved in mesoderm formation in amphibian embryos still presents problems. None of ... Mesoderm-inducing factors and mesodermal patterning Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1995 Dec;7(6):856-61. doi: 10.1016/0955-0674(95)80070- ... Identification of the signalling molecules involved in mesoderm formation in amphibian embryos still presents problems. None of ...
Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 is necessary for mesoderm differentiation. Yao Yao, Wei Li, Junwei Wu, Ursula A. ... Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 is necessary for mesoderm differentiation. Yao Yao, Wei Li, Junwei Wu, Ursula A. ... 1A). In contrast, erk2 presumptive mutant embryos were small, and there was no evidence of mesoderm formation at E6.5 (Fig. 1B ... 3A and 4A), it is possible that ERK1 compensates for the loss of ERK2 and transduces signals necessary for mesoderm induction. ...
Spatiotemporal sequence of mesoderm and endoderm lineage segregation during mouse gastrulation Simone Probst, Sagar , Jelena ... Summary: Brachyury is a key regulator of mesoderm, but is also found in diploblasts, which lack this tissue layer. Knockout ... Rspo2 antagonizes FGF signaling during vertebrate mesoderm formation and patterning Alice H. Reis, Sergei Y. Sokol ... Summary: R-spondin 2 signals through the thrombospondin type 1 domain to inhibit the FGF pathway during mesoderm development in ...
A general mesoderm-inducing signal from the vegetal hemisphere induces overlying marginal zone cells to become ventral mesoderm ... BMP-4 induces ventral mesoderm, suppresses induction of dorsal mesoderm by activin and inhibits dorsoanterior development of ... The fibroblast growth factors induce ventrolateral mesoderm. Expression of dominant-negative FGF receptor inhibits mesoderm ... As we have discussed, noggin is expressed in the organizer and can dorsalize ventral mesoderm. Xwnt-8 on the other hand, is ...
The Differentiation of Gastrula Ectoderm in Medium Conditioned by Axial Mesoderm Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... The Differentiation of Gastrula Ectoderm in Medium Conditioned by Axial Mesoderm. M. C. Niu and V. C. Twitty ...
Can you name the Paraxial Mesoderm and Musculoskeletal Development? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do ... Science Quiz / Paraxial Mesoderm and Musculoskeletal Development. Random Science Quiz Can you name the Paraxial Mesoderm and ...
Descriptive studies of phoronid development have concluded that the mesoderm of these animals originates from the endoderm ... Descriptive studies of phoronid development have concluded that the mesoderm of these animals originates from the endoderm ...
Antero-posterior tissue polarity links mesoderm convergent extension to axial patterning.. Ninomiya H1, Elinson RP, Winklbauer ... However, elongation of axial mesoderm must be also coordinated with the pattern of AP tissue specification to generate a normal ... Convergent extension (CE) of the axial mesoderm of vertebrates is an intensively studied model for morphogenetic processes that ... The mechanism that establishes AP polarity involves graded activin-like signalling and directly links mesoderm AP patterning to ...
Paraxial mesoderm: red, comprising the somites.. * Intermediate mesoderm: purple, which includes the Wolffian duct.. * Lateral ... The germ layer mesoderm forms in the embryos of animals more complex than cnidarians, making them triploblastic. Mesoderm forms ... Mesoderm: Chorda- - Paraxial (Somite/Somitomere/Sclerotome/Myotome/Dermatome) -. Intermediate - Lateral plate (Intraembryonic ... The formation of a mesoderm led to the formation of a coelom. Organs formed inside a coelom (body cavity) can freely move, grow ...
... J Exp Zool. 1993 Jun 1;266(2):116-31. doi: 10.1002/jez.1402660206 ... Following involution, the prospective axial mesoderm located on the dorsal surface of the late blastula (Ballard and Ginsburg: ...
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Establishment of the mesoderm-neuroectoderm boundary in the Drosophila embryo Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... Expression of snail is restricted to the presumptive mesoderm, and the sharp lateral limits of this expression help to define ... which are responsible for the differentiation of the ventral mesoderm. ... the mesoderm-neuroectoderm boundary by repressing the expression of regulatory genes that are responsible for the ...
... nor mesoderm formation on them. The invagination of the ventral furrow is caused by forces from within the prospective mesoderm ... Posterior midgut morphogenesis and germ band extension are partly independent, and neither depends on mesoderm formation, ... including ventral furrow invagination to form the mesoderm, anterior and posterior midgut invagination to create the endoderm, ...
sp,O14813,PHX2A_HUMAN Paired mesoderm homeobox protein 2A OS=Homo sapiens GN=PHOX2A PE=1 SV=2 ...
The National Center for Biomedical Ontology was founded as one of the National Centers for Biomedical Computing, supported by the NHGRI, the NHLBI, and the NIH Common Fund under grant U54-HG004028 ...
Notify me of updates to Key Players in the Gene Networks Guiding ESCs toward Mesoderm pp. 147-160. ... Key Players in the Gene Networks Guiding ESCs toward Mesoderm pp. 147-160. $0.00 ... of the signaling mechanisms and transcriptional regulation of differentiation of murine and human ESCs into the mesoderm. ...
  • There are three important components, the paraxial mesoderm, the intermediate mesoderm and the lateral plate mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The paraxial mesoderm forms the somitomeres, which give rise to mesenchyme of the head and organize into somites in occipital and caudal segments, and give rise to sclerotomes (cartilage and bone), and dermatomes (subcutaneous tissue of the skin). (wikipedia.org)
  • The intermediate mesoderm connects the paraxial mesoderm with the lateral plate, eventually it differentiates into urogenital structures consisting of the kidneys, gonads, their associated ducts, and the adrenal glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mesoderm moves to the midline until it covers the notochord, when the mesoderm cells proliferate they form the paraxial mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intermediate mesoderm lies between the paraxial mesoderm and the lateral plate. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the third week, the paraxial mesoderm is organized into segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paraxial mesoderm, also known as presomitic or somitic mesoderm is the area of mesoderm in the neurulating embryo that flanks and forms simultaneously with the neural tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • The paraxial and other regions of the mesoderm are thought to be specified by bone morphogenetic proteins, or BMPs, along an axis spanning from the center to the sides of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together, these pathways provide the initial specification of the paraxial mesoderm and maintain this identity. (wikipedia.org)
  • This specification process has now been fully recapitulated in vitro with the formation of paraxial mesoderm progenitors from pluripotent stem cells, using a directed differentiation approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • with it extend thick bands of paraxial mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the primitive streak continues to regress, somites form from the paraxial mesoderm by "budding off" rostrally. (wikipedia.org)
  • In certain model systems, it has been shown that the daughter cells of stem cell-like progenitor cells which come from the primitive streak or site of gastrulation migrate out and localize in the posterior paraxial mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the primitive streak regresses and somites bud off anteriorly, new cells derived from these stem-cell like precursors constantly enter the posterior end of the paraxial mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many kinds of tissue derive from the segmented paraxial mesoderm by means of the somite. (wikipedia.org)
  • A particular kind of tissue deriving from the paraxial mesoderm is the head mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • This tissue derives from the unsegmented paraxial mesoderm and prechordal mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The head mesoderm forms through a separate signaling circuit than the segmented paraxial mesoderm, though also involving BMP and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Can you name the Paraxial Mesoderm and Musculoskeletal Development? (sporcle.com)
  • Here, we show that, unlike the myogenic trunk paraxial mesoderm, head mesoderm development is independent of the T/Tbx6 network in mouse. (ncbs.res.in)
  • We present evidence that classical TGFbeta-induced growth inhibition was probably the cause of insufficient mesoderm being available for paraxial and axial structures. (uniprot.org)
  • tbx6l and tbx16 are redundantly required for posterior paraxial mesoderm formation during zebrafish embryogenesis. (umassmed.edu)
  • Transplacental delivery of the Wnt antagonist Frzb1 inhibits development of caudal paraxial mesoderm and skeletal myogenesis in mouse embryos," Development, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Interestingly, there are 3 genes which, when mutated, not only affect paraxial mesoderm production in the mouse [109, 292, 298] but also result in an NTD phenotype in the mouse. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An amphioxus snail gene: expression in paraxial mesoderm and neural plate suggests a conserved role in patterning the chordate embryo. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • paraxial mesoderm , intermediate mesoderm , lateral plate mesoderm , cardiogenic mesoderm and a population that forms a midline tube called the notochordal process . (lifemapsc.com)
  • When the aim of the experiments is to investigate the mechanisms that set up the paraxial mesoderm, or when the fates and movements of presumptive somitic cells at or shortly after gastrulation are to be investigated, operations in the egg are very difficult. (alpfmedical.info)
  • Body skeletal muscles derive from the paraxial mesoderm, which forms in the posterior region of the embryo. (pasteur.fr)
  • The early paraxial mesoderm differentiation stages can be efficiently recapitulated using mouse and human pluripotent stem cells. (pasteur.fr)
  • The paraxial mesoderm develops into cartilage, skeletal muscle, and dermis. (answersdrive.com)
  • The other two layers are the ectoderm (outside layer) and endoderm (inside layer), with the mesoderm as the middle layer between them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the migrating cells displace the hypoblast and create the endoderm, and others migrate between the endoderm and the epiblast to create the mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mesoderm , the middle of the three germ layers, or masses of cells (lying between the ectoderm and endoderm), which appears early in the development of an animal embryo . (britannica.com)
  • In early vertebrate development TGF-beta (Transforming Growth Factor beta) signaling factors of the Nodal and BMP families have essential functions during formation and patterning of the three germ layers endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm. (uibk.ac.at)
  • Descriptive studies of phoronid development have concluded that the mesoderm of these animals originates from the endoderm during gastrulation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mesoderm forms during gastrulation when some of the cells migrating inward to form the endoderm form an additional layer between the endoderm and the ectoderm . (wikidoc.org)
  • Several morphogenetic processes occur simultaneously during Drosophila gastrulation, including ventral furrow invagination to form the mesoderm, anterior and posterior midgut invagination to create the endoderm, and germ band extension. (biologists.org)
  • Although the gene encoding SGK1 was mainly expressed in the endoderm and dorsal mesoderm, knockdown of SGK1 caused excessive apoptosis in the ectoderm. (sciencemag.org)
  • MicroRNA-200a Regulates Grb2 and Suppresses Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells into Endoderm and Mesoderm. (stembook.org)
  • The splanchnic mesoderm, which is adjacent to the endoderm and yolk sac, forms the heart as well as the visceral layer of the serous pericardium and blood vessels . (lifemapsc.com)
  • See figure) In placing the embryo outline over the iris chart, we see the areas of the ectoderm, the mesoderm , and the endoderm relate to the location of the various organs and body structures. (freethesaurus.com)
  • MSCs are cells with high in vitro self renewal capacity and ability to differentiate into multiple mesoderm ectoderm and endoderm lineages. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Gastrulation is the process in which the three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm) are formed by successive waves of epiblast cells migrating through the primitive streak. (lifemapsc.com)
  • The second wave of migrating cells (also on day 16) populate a layer between the epiblast and the definitive endoderm, thereby forming the mesoderm layer. (lifemapsc.com)
  • In protostomes (most invertebrates), the mesoderm is formed from teloblasts-large cells lying between the ectoderm and endoderm at the posterior end of the embryo that during gastrulation enter the primary body cavity, where they multiply and develop into two mesodermal bands. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Based on the incorporation of 'derm' in all three of the terms - ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm - we can understand that ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm are all related to layers, specifically germ cell layers. (moosmosis.org)
  • We have three primary germ cell layers: the ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. (moosmosis.org)
  • Here's a general summary: What Do the Ectoderm, Endoderm, and Mesoderm Develop Into? (moosmosis.org)
  • We found that BMP4 cooperates with FGF2 (via ERK) to induce mesoderm and to inhibit endoderm differentiation. (omicsdi.org)
  • The three primary germ layers of the embryo include: the ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. (datquestionoftheday.com)
  • What does the endoderm mesoderm and ectoderm become? (answersdrive.com)
  • These three layers, the endoderm, the ectoderm and the mesoderm, are called the primary germ layers. (answersdrive.com)
  • The extraembryonic portion of the ectoderm and extraembryonic somatic mesoderm form the amnion. (reference.com)
  • Three different configurations of mesoderm in relation to ectoderm form a method of categorizing animals. (wikidoc.org)
  • The surface ectoderm is essential for nephric duct formation in intermediate mesoderm. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Instead we propose that the change in the mesoderm from an invaginated epithelium to a single layer of cells spread out on the ectoderm could be a result of the mesodermal cells trying to maximize their contact with the ectoderm. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • 3.Wikipedia article on 'epiblast': 'The amnionic ectoderm and extraembryonic mesoderm also originate from the epiblast . (biology-online.org)
  • An abnormality in ectoderm adversely affects the survival of the mesoderm accompanied by disturbed SHH levels. (freethesaurus.com)
  • rosaceus pluteus likely requires relatively less ectoderm than a typical pluteus, whereas the early formation of a large left coelom likely requires relatively more mesoderm than a typical pluteus. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Once the mesoderm has formed, the remaining epiblast cells cease to ingress and form the ectoderm . (lifemapsc.com)
  • Ectoderm and somatic mesoderm will be called somatopleure. (biozoomer.com)
  • In the outer part of the intermediate mesoderm, immediately under the ectoderm, in the region from the fifth cervical segment to the third thoracic segment, a series of short evaginations from each segment grows dorsally and extends caudally, fusing successively from before backward to form the pronephric duct. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta-catenin acts as a co-factor that alters the activity of the transcription factor tcf-3 from repressing to activating, which initiates the synthesis of gene products critical for mesoderm differentiation and gastrulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • erk2 mutant embryos did not form mesoderm and showed increased apoptosis but comparable levels of BrdUrd incorporation, indicating a defect in differentiation. (pnas.org)
  • These data indicate that ERK2 plays an essential role in mesoderm differentiation during embryonic development. (pnas.org)
  • A gradient of the maternal morphogen dorsal establishes asymmetric patterns of gene expression along the dorsal-ventral axis of early embryos and activates the regulatory genes twist and snail, which are responsible for the differentiation of the ventral mesoderm. (sciencemag.org)
  • Expression of snail is restricted to the presumptive mesoderm, and the sharp lateral limits of this expression help to define the mesoderm-neuroectoderm boundary by repressing the expression of regulatory genes that are responsible for the differentiation of the neuroectoderm. (sciencemag.org)
  • In this review we analyze the current understanding of the signaling mechanisms and transcriptional regulation of differentiation of murine and human ESCs into the mesoderm. (novapublishers.com)
  • Rapid and efficient differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into intermediate mesoderm that forms tubules expressing kidney proximal tubular markers. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Lim1 activity is required for intermediate mesoderm differentiation in the mouse embryo. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Also, Tbx3 facilitates the cell fate transition from pluripotent cells to mesoderm progenitors by directly repressing Wnt pathway members required for differentiation. (fluidigm.com)
  • Wnt signaling regulates differentiation of mESCs into mesoderm progenitors and helps to maintain a naive pluripotent state. (fluidigm.com)
  • In conclusion, we identify a signaling-TF axis that controls the exit of mESCs from a self-renewing pluripotent state toward mesoderm differentiation. (fluidigm.com)
  • The control of the growth and differentiation of the mesoderm is critical for the production of a normal individual. (kisch-online.de)
  • In the absence of additional exogenous factors, CHIR99021-induced mesendodermal cells preferentially differentiated into cells expressing markers of lateral plate mesoderm with minimal IM differentiation. (asnjournals.org)
  • secondly, this potential may be due to the shared embryological origins of the pancreas and liver, and thirdly, permissive signaling from pancreatic mesoderm may have the capacity to induce the differentiation of hepatic oval cells into pancreatic endocrine cells. (wits.ac.za)
  • The researchers were able to differentiate the stem cells into expressing key markers of the intermediate mesoderm , which are the early cells that form the kidneys, and then induce diem further into expressing the marker SIX2, which is critical in kidney differentiation, according to their article in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Using microarrays, we characterize novel mouse presomitic mesoderm (PSM) markers and show that, unlike the abrupt transcriptome reorganization of the PSM, neural tube differentiation is accompanied by progressive transcriptome changes. (pasteur.fr)
  • While Wnt activation alone can induce posterior PSM markers, acquisition of a committed PSM fate and efficient differentiation into anterior PSM Pax3 identity further requires BMP inhibition to prevent progenitors from drifting to a lateral plate mesoderm fate. (pasteur.fr)
  • BMP is thought to induce hESC differentiation toward multiple lineages including mesoderm and trophoblast. (omicsdi.org)
  • In all bilaterian animals, the mesoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mesoderm differentiates from the rest of the embryo through intercellular signaling, after which the mesoderm is polarized by an organizing center. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extraembryonic mesoderm is any mesoderm in the uterus that is not part of the embryo itself. (reference.com)
  • Mesoderm is found in the middle of three primary germ layers of the embryo. (reference.com)
  • Whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis revealed that in gastrula embryo, both genes were localized in the ventral part of the embryo, consistent with the proposed function of Xenopus BMP-4 in ventral mesoderm specification. (nih.gov)
  • The invagination of the ventral furrow is caused by forces from within the prospective mesoderm (i. e. the invaginating cells) without any necessary contribution from other parts of the embryo. (biologists.org)
  • In the gastrulating chick embryo, the mesoderm cells arise from the epiblast layer by ingression through the linear accumulation of cells called the primitive streak. (biologists.org)
  • The mesoderm cells emerge from the streak with a fibroblastic morphology and proceed to move away from the mid-line of the embryo using, as a substratum, the basement membrane of the overlying epiblast and the extracellular matrix. (biologists.org)
  • In the developing embryo, CNS pericytes originate from two sources: mesoderm and neural crest. (escholarship.org)
  • In many animals, including vertebrates, the mesoderm surrounds a cavity known as the coelom coelom , fluid-filled body cavity, found in animals, which is lined by cells derived from mesoderm tissue in the embryo, and which provides for free, lubricated motion of the viscera. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the developing embryo, which of the following would be formed from the mesoderm germ layer? (datquestionoftheday.com)
  • The lateral mesoderm extends on periphery of embryo, it is divisible into extra embryonic and embryonic mesoderms. (biozoomer.com)
  • Symes, K. and Smith, J. C. (1987) Gastrulation movements provide an early marker of mesoderm induction in Xenopus laevis . (springer.com)
  • Ectopic expression of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor disrupts mesoderm organisation during mouse gastrulation. (uniprot.org)
  • The experiments identified two genes - called folded gastrulation and t48 - that seem to operate as a simple switch between the two ways that mesoderm cells migrate. (elifesciences.org)
  • were able to switch between the two types of mesoderm migration might explain why similar transitions in gastrulation have evolved repeatedly in animals. (elifesciences.org)
  • Pitx2 expression begins during gastrulation, together with Hox genes, and becomes localized to the abdominal lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) before the onset of myogenesis in somites. (oregonstate.edu)
  • This animation shows the migration of mesoderm throughout the embryonic disc during gastrulation. (edu.au)
  • The term "somite" refers to a tissue of spherical structure that forms by pinching off from the continuous tissue called presomitic mesoderm (PSM, also called segmental plate in avian embryos). (springer.com)
  • MIER1 is a transcriptional regulator identified from a screen for fibroblast growth factor early response genes that are activated during mesoderm induction in Xenopus laevis embryos [ PMID: 9325278 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • To examine the ability of zbmp-2 to ventralize mesoderm, we injected synthetic mRNA into zebrafish embryos and found that overexpression of this gene eliminated dorsal structures including notochord at both morphological and molecular level. (nih.gov)
  • Identification of the signalling molecules involved in mesoderm formation in amphibian embryos still presents problems. (nih.gov)
  • There was no evidence of mesoderm formation in mutant embryos. (pnas.org)
  • R-spondin 2 signals through the thrombospondin type 1 domain to inhibit the FGF pathway during mesoderm development in Xenopus embryos. (biologists.org)
  • BMP-4 induces ventral mesoderm, suppresses induction of dorsal mesoderm by activin and inhibits dorsoanterior development of embryos, suggesting that it is a ventralizing factor. (ucalgary.ca)
  • However, expression of a dominant-negative BMP-4 receptor blocked mesoderm induction by BMP-4 in isolated animal caps and prevented ventralization of embryos by BMP-4. (ucalgary.ca)
  • Overexpression of the receptor in embryos caused mesoderm to be dorsalized. (ucalgary.ca)
  • The germ layer mesoderm forms in the embryos of animals more complex than cnidarians , making them triploblastic . (wikidoc.org)
  • The microinjection of messenger RNA encoding the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF-4E) into early embryos of Xenopus laevis leads to the induction of mesoderm in ectodermal explants. (sciencemag.org)
  • Both of these genes are active in fruit fly embryos and are required for the group migration of mesoderm cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • Further experiments demonstrate that switching on these genes in midge embryos is sufficient to invoke group mesoderm cell migrations similar to those seen in fruit flies. (elifesciences.org)
  • We have microinjected agents into the tissue space adjacent to the primitive streak of living embryos and, after further incubation, we have examined the embryos for perturbation of the mesoderm tissue. (biologists.org)
  • Area of mesoderm at either side of the midline embryonic notochord that, on segmentation, forms the paired somites. (xenbase.org)
  • The mesoderm divides into metameric somites on both sides of the notochord. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These somites are initially connected to nonsegmented ventral portions of the mesoderm, called lateral plates (splanchnotomes), by narrow segmented stalks, or nephrotomes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • They are functionally redundant in the sense that mice deficient for either Nck1 or Nck2 are viable, whereas inactivation of both Nck1 and Nck2 results in profound defects in mesoderm-derived notochord and embryonic lethality at embryonic day 9.5. (asm.org)
  • Mesoderm lying immediately lateral to the neural tube and notochord. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The most dorsal tissue (axial mesoderm, or notochord) forms from cells exposed to the highest levels of Chordin, Noggin, Follistatin and Frzb (and thus lowest effective levels of BMPs and Wnts) while the most ventral tissue (heart, which develops from lateral mesoderm) forms from mesoderm cells exposed to the lowest levels of Chordin, Noggin and Follistatin and hence the highest effective levels of BMPs and Wnts. (studentreader.com)
  • The dorsal mesoderm is located on either side of notochord. (biozoomer.com)
  • Yao J., Kessler D.S. (2000) Mesoderm Induction in Xenopus. (springer.com)
  • BMP-4 regulates the dorsal-ventral differences in FGF/MAPKK-mediated mesoderm induction in Xenopus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Recent studies on Xenopus development have revealed an increasingly complex array of inductive, prepatterning, and competence signals that are necessary for proper mesoderm formation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • As an example, true flies use at least two different mechanisms to make the middle germ layer (the mesoderm). (elifesciences.org)
  • In both cases, the mesoderm is made up of cells that move inwards from the boundary of the outer germ layer. (elifesciences.org)
  • The mesoderm is the middle germ layer. (sdbcore.org)
  • The mesoderm is the germ layer that forms many muscles, the circulatory and excretory systems, and the dermis, skeleton, and other supportive and connective tissue. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In other deuterostomes (reptiles, birds, and mammals), because of secondary changes in the process of germlayer individuation, the mesodermal rudiment becomes part of the primitive ectodermal layer during the blastula stage and later becomes a third germ layer, the mesoderm. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The mesoderm is the middle germ layer that forms most organ systems. (answersdrive.com)
  • Expression of dominant-negative FGF receptor inhibits mesoderm induction in animal cap explants and causes defects in trunk and posterior development, while not affecting anterior development (Fig. 1). (ucalgary.ca)
  • This result suggests that FGF is necessary, but not sufficient, for induction of trunk and posterior mesoderm (for review, see Kessler and Melton, 1994). (ucalgary.ca)
  • Antero-posterior tissue polarity links mesoderm convergent extension to axial patterning. (nih.gov)
  • Posterior midgut morphogenesis and germ band extension are partly independent, and neither depends on mesoderm formation, nor mesoderm formation on them. (biologists.org)
  • Somitogenesis neural tube and neural crest somite segmental plate lateral mesoderm anterior posterior QuickTimeª and a Sorenson Video 3 decompressor are needed to see this picture. (coursehero.com)
  • In addition, we provide evidence supporting a role for Zic3 specifically in the perinodal region of the posterior lateral plate mesoderm for the establishment of laterality. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Kessler, D. S. and Melton, D. A. (1995) Induction of dorsal mesoderm by soluble, mature Vg1 protein. (springer.com)
  • The intermediate mesoderm connects the dorsal mesoderm with lateral mesoderm as a stalk. (biozoomer.com)
  • A large scale of events within the extraembryonic mesoderm differentiates extraembryonic mesoderm into two layers: the extraembryonic somatic mesoderm and the extraembryonic splanchnic mesoderm. (reference.com)
  • Nursing Central , nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/734644/all/splanchnic_mesoderm. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • it forms the somatic and splanchnic mesoderm between which develops the intraembryonic celom. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In it develops a cavity (coelom), separating it into layers (somatic and splanchnic mesoderm). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The upper layer is called somatic mesoderm and inner layer is called splanchnic mesoderm. (biozoomer.com)
  • After that, the epiblast and the hypoblast establish contact with the extraembryonic mesoderm until they cover the yolk sac and amnion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between days 13 and 15, the proliferation of extraembryonic mesoderm, primitive streak and embryonic mesoderm take place. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is the extraembryonic mesoderm? (reference.com)
  • Extraembryonic mesoderm is formed from the cells derived from the yolk sac, and it occupies the space between the trophoblast from the outside and the exocoelomic membrane and the amnion from the inside. (reference.com)
  • Within the Nieuwkoop center, signals are produced that induce the dorsal marginal zone cells to become axial and head mesoderm. (ucalgary.ca)
  • Convergent extension (CE) of the axial mesoderm of vertebrates is an intensively studied model for morphogenetic processes that rely on cell rearrangement. (nih.gov)
  • However, elongation of axial mesoderm must be also coordinated with the pattern of AP tissue specification to generate a normal larval morphology. (nih.gov)
  • Following involution, the prospective axial mesoderm located on the dorsal surface of the late blastula (Ballard and Ginsburg: J. Exp. (nih.gov)
  • Positioned on either side of the axial mesoderm. (studentreader.com)
  • The embryonic mesoderm forms from the hypoblast (the contribution of trophoblast is also likely), while in mice, this arises from the caudal end of the primitive streak. (reference.com)
  • The mesoderm is proliferated by primitive streak. (biozoomer.com)
  • In front of the primitive streak an area without mesoderm is present. (biozoomer.com)
  • The lateral plate mesoderm give rise to the heart, blood vessels and blood cells of the circulatory system as well as to the mesodermal components of the limbs. (wikipedia.org)
  • RARγ is indispensable for the expression of early mesoderm markers and is, therefore, an obligatory factor in mesodermal competence and/or maintenance. (biologists.org)
  • We delineate a logical model encompassing 48 components and 82 regulatory interactions controlling mesoderm specification during Drosophila development, thereby integrating all major genetic processes underlying the formation of four mesodermal tissues. (plos.org)
  • The lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) is a pair of neurula-stage mesodermal sheets located lateral to the intermediate mesoderm. (lifemapsc.com)
  • Here, we delineate a logical model encompassing 48 components and 82 regulatory interactions involved in mesoderm specification during Drosophila development, thereby providing a formal integration of all available genetic information from the literature. (plos.org)
  • This modelling study is the first to tackle the regulatory network controlling the specification of mesoderm during Drosophila development, and more broadly deals with one of the most comprehensive developmental networks that have been modelled to date. (plos.org)
  • The Drosophila fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors Heartless and Breathless are required for the morphogenesis of the mesoderm and the tracheal system. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Both genes are expressed and required for mesoderm invagination in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster but do not appear during mesoderm ingression of the midge Chironomus riparius . (elifesciences.org)
  • Tissues derived from the head mesoderm include connective tissue and the muscles of the face. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissues derived from mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • PDGFRα-PI3K/AKT signaling plays an essential role in the developing calvarial tissues of mouse by regulating endochondral ossification in cartilage anlagen underlying coronal sutures derived from neural crest and mesoderm. (biologists.org)
  • The four main tissues derived from mesoderm correspond to alternative stable states. (plos.org)
  • Indeed, disturbance of the patterning of the mesoderm or of its interaction with other tissues plays a critical part in the fonnation of most congenital anomalies. (kisch-online.de)
  • The mesoderm is the middle layer of the three germ layers and eventually develops into connective tissues (including bone), cartilage, muscle, and the blood vessels. (datquestionoftheday.com)
  • Induction of Mesoderm and Neural Crest-Derived Pericytes from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to Study Blood-Brain Barrier Interactions. (escholarship.org)
  • The mammalian metanephric kidney is derived from the intermediate mesoderm. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the third week of human development (day E7.0 in mouse), small gaps formed in the lateral plate mesoderm merge to form a larger cavity called the intraembryonic coelom. (lifemapsc.com)
  • Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, April 17) Embryology Mesoderm Movie . (edu.au)
  • We reveal that, in contrast to Wnt and FGF-driven trunk mesoderm, dual inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin and Nodal specifies head mesoderm. (ncbs.res.in)
  • Therefore, our findings provide compelling evidence that dual inhibition specifies head mesoderm and unravel the mechanism that diversifies head and trunk muscle programmes during early mesoderm fate commitment. (ncbs.res.in)
  • A general mesoderm-inducing signal from the vegetal hemisphere induces overlying marginal zone cells to become ventral mesoderm. (ucalgary.ca)
  • Brachyury is a key regulator of mesoderm, but is also found in diploblasts, which lack this tissue layer. (biologists.org)
  • The mesoderm is a complex array of tissue-types in three primary domains: dorsal, ventrolateral, and ventral. (ucalgary.ca)
  • The Spemann organizer, in turn, would induce neural tissue and also dorsalize lateral mesoderm. (ucalgary.ca)
  • I know these two phyla are diploblastic, and that acoelomorphs, ecdysozoans, lophotrochozans, and deuterostomes (the bilaterians) are all triploblastic, thus they have three primary tissue layers during embryonic development (epi, endo, and mesoderm) as opposed to two. (biology-online.org)
  • The Mesoderm-ALT is gland-like tissue, e.g. the dermis with melanoma or pimples etc. (germanische-heilkunde.at)
  • The Mesoderm-NEW is connective tissue, e.g. bone with osteoporosis or leukaemia, etc. (germanische-heilkunde.at)
  • Mesoderm also contributes to tendons, ligaments , dermis and cartilage . (lifemapsc.com)
  • however recent phylogentic analysis has suggests that Ctenophora may truly be the oldest lineage, free floating animals with a possible mesoderm layer and complex organs. (washington.edu)
  • and the reproductive and excretory organs from the intermediate mesoderm. (sdbcore.org)
  • What organs will be formed by the cells of the mesoderm? (answersdrive.com)
  • Mesoderm gives rise to bones, muscles, the heart and circulatory system, and internal sex organs. (answersdrive.com)
  • The mesothelial lining, specifically, is a membranous epithelial lining that is derived from the mesoderm cell layer, with its main functions being to line the body cavity, to cover and protect the internal organs, and to facilitate movement within the body cavity (coelom). (petmd.com)
  • The reproductive organs are developed from the intermediate mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we report a highly efficient system for differentiating human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (referred to collectively as hPSCs) into cells expressing markers of the intermediate mesoderm (IM) that subsequently form tubule-like structures. (asnjournals.org)
  • Structures derived from periocular mesenchyme arise by complex interactions between neural crest and mesoderm. (lu.se)
  • The determination of long-term fates for neural crest and mesoderm in mammals has been inhibited by the lack of suitable marking systems. (lu.se)
  • In the present study, the first long-term fate maps are presented for neural crest and mesoderm in a mammalian eye. (lu.se)
  • Complementary binary genetic approaches were used to mark indelibly the neural crest and mesoderm in the developing eye. (lu.se)
  • The results established that fates of neural crest and mesoderm in mice were similar to but not identical with those in birds. (lu.se)
  • They also showed that five early transcription factor genes are expressed in unique patterns in fate-marked neural crest and mesoderm during early ocular development. (lu.se)
  • The results also underscore the importance of confirming neural crest and mesoderm fates in a model mammalian system. (lu.se)
  • In this study, we report two protocols using mesoderm or neural crest intermediates, to generate brain-specific pericyte-like cells from induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines created from healthy and AD patients. (escholarship.org)
  • The mesoderm is one of the three germinal layers that appears in the third week of embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The central role of the mesoderm in development has long been appreciated and a wide literature exists on its activity in certain specialised situations. (kisch-online.de)
  • BMP signaling restricts hemato-vascular development from lateral mesoderm during somitogenesis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The mesoderm forms mesenchyme, mesothelium, non-epithelial blood cells and coelomocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • I know the mesoglea functions mainly in support, and read that the mesoderm gives rise to many cell types, including bone and muscle cells. (biology-online.org)
  • Furthermore, although cells passed through the streak and initially formed mesoderm, they tended to accumulate within the streak. (uniprot.org)
  • However, the genes do not appear to play a major role in the movement of individual mesoderm cells in midges. (elifesciences.org)
  • We have investigated the roles of fibronectin and laminin as putative substrata for mesoderm cells using complementary in vivo and in vitro methods. (biologists.org)
  • We find that RGDS, antibody to fibronectin, and the Fab' fragment cause a decrease in the number of mesoderm cells spread on the basement membrane, and a perturbation of cell shape suggesting locomotory impairment. (biologists.org)
  • These results were extended using in vitro methods in which mesoderm cells were cultured in fibronectin-free medium on fibronectin or laminin in the presence of various agents. (biologists.org)
  • The results suggest that although the RGDS site in fibronectin is important, it is probably not the only fibronectin cell-binding site involved in mediating the behaviour of the mesoderm cells. (biologists.org)
  • Cells growing on laminin were perturbed by YIGSR, RGDS and antibodies to laminin, suggesting that mesoderm cells are able to recognise at least two sites in the laminin molecule. (biologists.org)
  • We conclude that the in vivo dependence of mesoderm cells on fibronectin is confirmed, but that although these cells have the ability to recognise sites in laminin as mediators of attachment and spreading, the in vivo role of this molecule in mesoderm morphogenesis is not yet certain. (biologists.org)
  • This study investigated the capacity of hepatic oval cells to differentiate into pancreatic endocrine cells in the presence of pancreatic mesoderm. (wits.ac.za)
  • The differentiated cells expressed multiple genes expressed in intermediate mesoderm and could spontaneously give rise to tubular structures that expressed markers of mature kidney tubules. (freethesaurus.com)
  • A third layer, the mesoderm, is formed between the other two by growth of cells derived from a marginal zone. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Operations on the mesoderm are usually easier in the absence of trypsin because the middle layer readily separates into cells in the presence of enzyme. (alpfmedical.info)
  • Mesoderm cells at different dorsal-ventral positions are committed to become different types of mesoderm based on their exposure to different levels of the dorsal-promoting Chordin, Noggin, Follistatin and Frzb proteins, which function by antagonizing the ventral-promoting growth factors BMPs and Wnts. (studentreader.com)
  • What do mesoderm cells become? (answersdrive.com)
  • Somitomere Chordamesoderm Intermediate mesoderm Lateral plate mesoderm Mesenchyme Triploblasty List of human cell types derived from the germ layers This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 50 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918) Pourquié, O. (2001). (wikipedia.org)
  • Bmp signaling promotes intermediate mesoderm gene expression in a dose-dependent, cell-autonomous and translation-dependent manner. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In situ hybridization analyses indicate that Hox gene expression was reduced in parts of the LPM and intermediate mesoderm of mutants. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The messengers encoding the BMPs are not localized in the vegetal hemisphere, which casts some doubt on their role in mesoderm induction. (ucalgary.ca)
  • The formation of a mesoderm led to the formation of a coelom . (wikidoc.org)
  • mesoderm is a topic covered in the Taber's Medical Dictionary . (tabers.com)
  • We demonstrate that early expression of either or both of these genes in C.riparius is sufficient to invoke mesoderm invagination similar to D.melanogaster . (elifesciences.org)
  • Fruit flies and midges shared their last common ancestor 250 million years ago and although the genes that make the mesoderm in fruit flies are well understood, little is known about how the mesoderm forms in midges. (elifesciences.org)
  • Zebrafish Tbx16 regulates intermediate mesoderm cell fate by attenuating Fgf activity. (uchicago.edu)
  • a measure of the start of animal cap competence to form mesoderm. (springer.com)
  • The chordamesoderm is the central region of trunk mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)