Community Mental Health Services
Health Services Needs and Demand
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Community Mental Health Centers
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United States Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
Rural Health Services
Health Care Surveys
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Health Care Reform
Mentally Ill Persons
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National Institute of Mental Health (U.S.)
Delivery of Health Care, Integrated
Emergency Services, Psychiatric
Health Services for the Aged
Social Work, Psychiatric
Urban Health Services
Interviews as Topic
Health Services, Indigenous
Occupational Health Services
Referral and Consultation
Attitude of Health Personnel
Health Services Administration
National Health Programs
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic
Women's Health Services
Family Planning Services
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Commitment of Mentally Ill
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
School Health Services
United States Public Health Service
Home Care Services
State Health Plans
Health Care Rationing
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United States Indian Health Service
Health Status Disparities
Quality Assurance, Health Care
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United States Department of Veterans Affairs
Psychiatric Department, Hospital
Public Health Practice
Health Maintenance Organizations
Managed Care Programs
Child Behavior Disorders
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Health Plan Implementation
Health Care Sector
Community Health Planning
Emigrants and Immigrants
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United States Dept. of Health and Human Services
Student Health Services
Continuity of Patient Care
Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care)
World Health Organization
Substance Abuse Treatment Centers
Quality Indicators, Health Care
Emigration and Immigration
Medically Underserved Area
Costs and Cost Analysis
Afghan Campaign 2001-
Dilemmas of medical ethics in the Canadian Penitentiary Service. (1/1841)There is a unique hospital in Canada-and perhaps in the world-because it is built outside prison walls and it exists specifically for the psychiatric treatment of prisoners. It is on the one hand a hospital and on the other a prison. Moreover it has to provide the same quality and standard of care which is expected of a hospital associated with a university. From the time the hospital was established moral dilemmas appeared which were concerned with conflicts between the medical and custodial treatment of prisoners, and also with the attitudes of those having the status of prisoner-patient. Dr Roy describes these dilemmas and attitudes, and in particular a special conference which was convened to discuss them. Not only doctors and prison officials took part in this meeting but also general practitioners, theologians, philosophers, ex-prisoners, judges, lawyers, Members of Parliament and Senators. This must have been a unique occasion and Dr Roy's description may provide the impetus to examine these prison problems in other settings. (+info)
Behavioral health benefits in employer-sponsored health plans, 1997. (2/1841)Data for 1997 show that three-quarters or more of employer-sponsored health plans continue to place greater restrictions on behavioral health coverage than on general medical coverage. The nature of these restrictions varies by plan type. Some improvement in the treatment of mental health/substance abuse (MH/SA) benefits in employer plans may be occurring, however. Comparisons with data from 1996 show that the proportion of plans with benefits for "alternative" types of MH/SA services, such as nonhospital residential care, has increased. Further, the proportion with special limitations on these benefits shows a modest decrease. (+info)
Mental health/medical care cost offsets: opportunities for managed care. (3/1841)Health services researchers have long observed that outpatient mental health treatment sometimes leads to a reduction in unnecessary or excessive general medical care expenditures. Such reductions, or cost offsets, have been found following mental health treatment of distressed elderly medical inpatients, some patients as they develop major medical illnesses, primary care outpatients with multiple unexplained somatic complaints, and nonelderly adults with alcoholism. In this paper we argue that managed care has an opportunity to capture these medical care cost savings by training utilization managers to make mental health services more accessible to patients whose excessive use of medical care is related to psychological factors. For financial reasons, such policies are most likely to develop within health care plans that integrate the financing and management of mental health and medical/surgical benefits. (+info)
Mental health care in the primary health care setting: a collaborative study in six countries of Central America. (4/1841)The results of a naturalistic epidemiological study conducted in 6 Central American countries in collaboration with the WHO/PAHO Regional Office are reported, aimed at describing the patients with mental distress presenting to the primary health care setting, the interventions enacted and the evolution of the patients over the 6 months following recruitment. A total of 812 patients were recruited by the personnel of 11 primary health care centres. A high degree of heterogeneity was observed with respect to the patients' characteristics and the patterns of care provided. The factors potentially contributing to the heterogeneity, identified through multivariate analyses, are discussed in detail against the specific background differences between countries and between areas within each country. Interestingly albeit expectedly, besides the differences in health care provision and availability, social needs appear to influence both interventions and outcomes. (+info)
Looking beyond the formulary budget in cost-benefit analysis. (5/1841)With the introduction of newer, more expensive psychotropic medications, healthcare providers and managed care administrators must consider whether these drugs offer "value for the money." A true picture of the benefits of these drugs emerges only when all the costs of treatment are considered. Focusing exclusively on the acquisition cost of the drug can result in a misleading impression of the drug's worth. Although the medication costs associated with treating a patient with a newer drug increase, use of these agents may actually result in an overall decrease in healthcare costs, through reductions in hospitalization and length of stay, use of mental health services, and prescriptions for adjunctive drugs. In one study of the newer antipsychotic agent risperidone, the overall annual costs of treating a patient with schizophrenia were reduced by nearly $8,000 (Canadian dollars), even though medication costs increased by approximately $1,200 (Canadian dollars). Retrospective and prospective pharmacoeconomic studies can provide valuable data on the cost effectiveness of treatment with newer psychotropic medications. (+info)
Behavioral health services: carved out and managed. (6/1841)This article highlights the financial pressures that led to an examination of how mental healthcare was provided and paid for, and discusses the rise, characteristics, and functioning of carved-out behavioral healthcare. The typical characteristics of managed behavioral health carve outs (MBHCOs), including contracts, payment arrangements, provider networks, and data collection are discussed and illustrated using the example of United Behavioral Health. The article details the function of the MBHCO on cost and utilization, access, quality, and the relationship of behavioral health services to general medical care and other human services, but cautions that further research is needed to evaluate the qualitative aspects of care. (+info)
Mental disorders in the primary care sector: a potential role for managed care. (7/1841)This activity is designed for leaders and managers of managed care organizations and for primary care physicians involved in evaluating, treating, and caring for patients with mental disorders. GOAL: To provide a better understanding of primary care patients' needs for mental health services and how managed care companies might best address these needs. OBJECTIVES: 1. Describe problems in detection of mental disorders 2. Discuss the specific ways in which treatments can be improved for mental disorders under managed care systems. (+info)
A conflict of strategies: Medicaid managed care and Medicaid maximization. (8/1841)OBJECTIVE: To examine the influence of state strategies aimed at increasing federal Medicaid matching dollars on the design of states' Medicaid managed care programs. STUDY DESIGN: Data obtained from the 1996-1997 case studies of 13 states to examine how states have adapted the design of their Medicaid managed care programs in part because of maximization strategies, to accommodate the many roles and responsibilities that Medicaid has assumed over the years. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our study showed that as states made the shift to managed care, some found that the responsibilities undertaken in part through maximization strategies proved to be in conflict with their Medicaid managed care initiatives. Among other things, the study revealed that most states included provisions that preserved the health care safety net, such as adapting the managed care benefit package and promoting the participation of safety net providers in managed care programs. In addition, most of the study states continued to pay special subsidies to safety net providers, including hospitals and clinics. CONCLUSIONS: States have made real progress in moving a large number of Medicaid beneficiaries into managed care. At the same time, many states have specially crafted their managed care programs to accommodate safety net providers and existing funding mechanisms. By making these adaptations states, in the long run, may compromise the central goals of managed care: controlling costs and improving Medicaid beneficiaries' access to and quality of care. (+info)
Some common types of mental disorders include:
1. Anxiety disorders: These conditions cause excessive worry, fear, or anxiety that interferes with daily life. Examples include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder.
2. Mood disorders: These conditions affect a person's mood, causing feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or anger that persist for weeks or months. Examples include depression, bipolar disorder, and seasonal affective disorder.
3. Personality disorders: These conditions involve patterns of thought and behavior that deviate from the norm of the average person. Examples include borderline personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and antisocial personality disorder.
4. Psychotic disorders: These conditions cause a person to lose touch with reality, resulting in delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized thinking. Examples include schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and brief psychotic disorder.
5. Trauma and stressor-related disorders: These conditions develop after a person experiences a traumatic event, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
6. Dissociative disorders: These conditions involve a disconnection or separation from one's body, thoughts, or emotions. Examples include dissociative identity disorder (formerly known as multiple personality disorder) and depersonalization disorder.
7. Neurodevelopmental disorders: These conditions affect the development of the brain and nervous system, leading to symptoms such as difficulty with social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors. Examples include autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Rett syndrome.
Mental disorders can be diagnosed by a mental health professional using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which provides criteria for each condition. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication and therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy or psychodynamic therapy, depending on the specific disorder and individual needs.
The symptoms of PTSD can vary widely and may include:
1. Flashbacks or intrusive memories of the traumatic event
2. Nightmares or disturbed sleep
3. Avoidance of people, places, or activities that remind them of the event
4. Hypervigilance or an exaggerated startle response
5. Difficulty concentrating or memory problems
6. Irritability, anger, or other mood changes
7. Physical symptoms such as headaches, stomachaches, or muscle tension
The exact cause of PTSD is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve changes in the brain's response to stress and the release of chemical messengers (neurotransmitters) that help regulate emotions and memory.
PTSD can be diagnosed by a mental health professional using a combination of psychological evaluation and medical history. Treatment for PTSD typically involves therapy, medication, or a combination of both. Therapy may include exposure therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), or other forms of talk therapy. Medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and antidepressants may be used to help manage symptoms.
Prevention is an important aspect of managing PTSD, and this includes seeking support from friends, family, or mental health professionals soon after the traumatic event. Self-care practices such as exercise, meditation, or relaxation techniques can also be helpful in reducing stress and promoting emotional well-being.
Types of Substance-Related Disorders:
1. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): A chronic disease characterized by the excessive consumption of alcohol, leading to impaired control over drinking, social or personal problems, and increased risk of health issues.
2. Opioid Use Disorder (OUD): A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of opioids, such as prescription painkillers or heroin, leading to withdrawal symptoms when the substance is not available.
3. Stimulant Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of stimulants, such as cocaine or amphetamines, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.
4. Cannabis Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of cannabis, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.
5. Hallucinogen Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of hallucinogens, such as LSD or psilocybin mushrooms, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.
Causes and Risk Factors:
1. Genetics: Individuals with a family history of substance-related disorders are more likely to develop these conditions.
2. Mental health: Individuals with mental health conditions, such as depression or anxiety, may be more likely to use substances as a form of self-medication.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to substances at an early age, peer pressure, and social environment can increase the risk of developing a substance-related disorder.
4. Brain chemistry: Substance use can alter brain chemistry, leading to dependence and addiction.
1. Increased tolerance: The need to use more of the substance to achieve the desired effect.
2. Withdrawal: Experiencing symptoms such as anxiety, irritability, or nausea when the substance is not present.
3. Loss of control: Using more substance than intended or for longer than intended.
4. Neglecting responsibilities: Neglecting responsibilities at home, work, or school due to substance use.
5. Continued use despite negative consequences: Continuing to use the substance despite physical, emotional, or financial consequences.
1. Physical examination: A doctor may perform a physical examination to look for signs of substance use, such as track marks or changes in heart rate and blood pressure.
2. Laboratory tests: Blood or urine tests can confirm the presence of substances in the body.
3. Psychological evaluation: A mental health professional may conduct a psychological evaluation to assess symptoms of substance-related disorders and determine the presence of co-occurring conditions.
1. Detoxification: A medically-supervised detox program can help manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce the risk of complications.
2. Medications: Medications such as methadone or buprenorphine may be prescribed to manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce cravings.
3. Behavioral therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and contingency management are effective behavioral therapies for treating substance use disorders.
4. Support groups: Joining a support group such as Narcotics Anonymous can provide a sense of community and support for individuals in recovery.
5. Lifestyle changes: Making healthy lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, healthy eating, and getting enough sleep can help manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce cravings.
It's important to note that diagnosis and treatment of substance-related disorders is a complex process and should be individualized based on the specific needs and circumstances of each patient.
The exact cause of depressive disorder is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. Some common risk factors for developing depressive disorder include:
* Family history of depression
* Traumatic events, such as abuse or loss
* Chronic stress
* Substance abuse
* Chronic illness or chronic pain
There are several different types of depressive disorders, including:
* Major depressive disorder (MDD): This is the most common type of depression, characterized by one or more major depressive episodes in a person's lifetime.
* Persistent depressive disorder (PDD): This type of depression is characterized by persistent, low-grade symptoms that last for two years or more.
* Bipolar disorder: This is a mood disorder that involves periods of both depression and mania or hypomania.
* Postpartum depression (PPD): This is a type of depression that occurs in women after childbirth.
* Severe depression: This is a severe and debilitating form of depression that can interfere with daily life and relationships.
Treatment for depressive disorder typically involves a combination of medication and therapy, such as antidepressant medications and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Other forms of therapy, such as psychodynamic therapy or interpersonal therapy, may also be effective. Lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise, healthy eating, and getting enough sleep, can also help manage symptoms.
It's important to seek professional help if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of depressive disorder. With proper treatment, many people are able to recover from depression and lead fulfilling lives.
* Emotional distress, such as anxiety, sadness, or irritability
* Difficulty sleeping or concentrating
* Changes in appetite or eating habits
* Social withdrawal or avoidance of social situations
* Physical symptoms, such as headaches or muscle tension
Adjustment disorder can be diagnosed by a mental health professional based on the presence of these symptoms and their duration. Treatment for adjustment disorder may involve therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or medication, such as antidepressants.
It is important to note that adjustment disorder is not a sign of weakness, and it is not something that a person can simply "snap out of." It is a real condition that requires professional treatment in order to recover fully. With appropriate treatment and support, individuals with adjustment disorder can learn to cope with the stresses in their life and regain their emotional balance.
There are several types of adjustment disorders, including:
* Adjustment disorder with anxiety: This type of adjustment disorder is characterized by excessive worry or fear about the future, and may include physical symptoms such as rapid heartbeat or shortness of breath.
* Adjustment disorder with depressed mood: This type of adjustment disorder is characterized by persistent feelings of sadness or hopelessness, and may include changes in appetite or sleep patterns.
* Adjustment disorder with mixed anxiety and depressed mood: This type of adjustment disorder is characterized by both anxious and depressed symptoms, such as worrying about the future while also feeling sad or hopeless.
It is important to seek professional help if you are experiencing any of the symptoms of adjustment disorder, especially if they are interfering with your daily life or causing significant distress. With appropriate treatment, individuals with adjustment disorder can learn to cope with stress and regain their emotional balance.
It's important to note that while adjustment disorder is a real condition, it is not the same as depression or anxiety disorders. However, these conditions can often occur at the same time as adjustment disorder, and may need to be treated separately.
Treatment for adjustment disorder typically involves a combination of psychotherapy and medication, such as antidepressants or anti-anxiety drugs. Psychotherapy can help individuals with adjustment disorder learn new coping skills and strategies for managing stress, while medication can help reduce the symptoms of anxiety or depression.
In addition to professional treatment, there are several things that individuals with adjustment disorder can do at home to help manage their symptoms, such as:
* Practicing relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing or yoga
* Engaging in regular exercise, which can help reduce stress and improve mood
* Getting enough sleep and maintaining a healthy diet
* Avoiding alcohol and drugs, which can worsen symptoms of adjustment disorder
* Seeking support from friends, family, or support groups.
It's important to seek professional help if you are experiencing symptoms of adjustment disorder, as early treatment can help improve the chances of a successful recovery.
Some common types of anxiety disorders include:
1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): Excessive and persistent worry about everyday things, even when there is no apparent reason to be concerned.
2. Panic Disorder: Recurring panic attacks, which are sudden feelings of intense fear or anxiety that can occur at any time, even when there is no obvious trigger.
3. Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD): Excessive and persistent fear of social or performance situations in which the individual is exposed to possible scrutiny by others.
4. Specific Phobias: Persistent and excessive fear of a specific object, situation, or activity that is out of proportion to the actual danger posed.
5. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD): Recurring, intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive behaviors (compulsions) that are distressing and disruptive to daily life.
6. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): Persistent symptoms of anxiety, fear, and avoidance after experiencing a traumatic event.
Anxiety disorders can be treated with a combination of psychotherapy, medication, or both, depending on the specific diagnosis and severity of symptoms. With appropriate treatment, many people with anxiety disorders are able to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.
1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
2. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD): A disorder marked by a pattern of negative, hostile, and defiant behavior toward authority figures.
3. Conduct Disorder (CD): A disorder characterized by a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the child violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules.
4. Anxiety Disorders: A group of disorders that cause excessive fear, worry, or anxiety that interferes with daily life.
5. Mood Disorders: A group of disorders that affect a child's mood, causing them to feel sad, hopeless, or angry for extended periods of time.
6. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulties with social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and repetitive behaviors.
7. Tourette Syndrome: A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal tic, often involving involuntary sounds or words.
8. Selective Mutism: A disorder characterized by a persistent and excessive fear of speaking in certain situations, such as school or social events.
9. Separation Anxiety Disorder: A disorder characterized by excessive and persistent anxiety related to separation from home or loved ones.
10. Disruptive Behavior Disorders: A group of disorders that include ODD, CD, and conduct disorder, which are characterized by a pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules.
These disorders can be challenging to diagnose and treat, but early identification and intervention can make a significant difference in a child's outcome. It is important for parents and caregivers to seek professional help if they notice any signs of these disorders in their child.
There are several types of mood disorders, including:
1. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD): This is a condition characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and a loss of interest in activities that were once enjoyed. It can also involve changes in appetite, sleep patterns, and energy levels.
2. Bipolar Disorder: This is a condition that involves periods of mania or hypomania (elevated mood) alternating with episodes of depression.
3. Persistent Depressive Disorder (PDD): This is a condition characterized by persistent low mood, lasting for two years or more. It can also involve changes in appetite, sleep patterns, and energy levels.
4. Postpartum Depression (PPD): This is a condition that occurs in some women after childbirth, characterized by feelings of sadness, anxiety, and a lack of interest in activities.
5. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD): This is a condition that occurs during the winter months, when there is less sunlight. It is characterized by feelings of sadness, lethargy, and a lack of energy.
6. Anxious Distress: This is a condition characterized by excessive worry, fear, and anxiety that interferes with daily life.
7. Adjustment Disorder: This is a condition that occurs when an individual experiences a significant change or stressor in their life, such as the loss of a loved one or a job change. It is characterized by feelings of sadness, anxiety, and a lack of interest in activities.
8. Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD): This is a condition that occurs in some women during the premenstrual phase of their menstrual cycle, characterized by feelings of sadness, anxiety, and a lack of energy.
Mood disorders can be treated with a combination of medication and therapy. Antidepressant medications, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), are commonly used to treat mood disorders. These medications can help relieve symptoms of depression and anxiety by altering the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain.
Therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy (IPT), can also be effective in treating mood disorders. CBT helps individuals identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviors that contribute to their depression, while IPT focuses on improving communication skills and relationships with others.
In addition to medication and therapy, lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, healthy eating, and getting enough sleep can also be helpful in managing mood disorders. Support from family and friends, as well as self-care activities such as meditation and relaxation techniques, can also be beneficial.
It is important to seek professional help if symptoms of depression or anxiety persist or worsen over time. With appropriate treatment, individuals with mood disorders can experience significant improvement in their symptoms and overall quality of life.
Some common types of psychotic disorders include:
1. Schizophrenia: A chronic and severe mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized thinking.
2. Bipolar Disorder: A mood disorder that causes extreme changes in mood, energy, and behavior. It can lead to manic or hypomanic episodes, as well as depression.
3. Schizoaffective Disorder: A mental disorder that combines symptoms of schizophrenia and a mood disorder. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and mood swings.
4. Brief Psychotic Disorder: A short-term episode of psychosis that can be triggered by a stressful event. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and a break from reality.
5. Postpartum Psychosis: A rare condition that occurs in some new mothers after childbirth. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and a break from reality.
6. Drug-Induced Psychosis: A psychotic episode caused by taking certain medications or drugs. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and a break from reality.
7. Alcohol-Related Psychosis: A psychotic episode caused by alcohol use disorder. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and a break from reality.
8. Trauma-Related Psychosis: A psychotic episode caused by a traumatic event. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and a break from reality.
9. Psychotic Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (NOS): A catch-all diagnosis for psychotic episodes that do not meet the criteria for any other specific psychotic disorder.
Symptoms of psychotic disorders can vary depending on the individual and the specific disorder. Common symptoms include:
1. Hallucinations: Seeing, hearing, or feeling things that are not there.
2. Delusions: False beliefs that are not based in reality.
3. Disorganized thinking and speech: Difficulty organizing thoughts and expressing them in a clear and logical manner.
4. Disorganized behavior: Incoherent or bizarre behavior, such as dressing inappropriately for the weather or neglecting personal hygiene.
5. Catatonia: A state of immobility or abnormal movement, such as rigidity or agitation.
6. Negative symptoms: A decrease in emotional expression or motivation, such as a flat affect or a lack of interest in activities.
7. Cognitive impairment: Difficulty with attention, memory, and other cognitive functions.
8. Social withdrawal: Avoidance of social interactions and relationships.
9. Lack of self-care: Neglecting personal hygiene, nutrition, and other basic needs.
10. Suicidal or homicidal ideation: Thoughts of harming oneself or others.
It's important to note that not everyone with schizophrenia will experience all of these symptoms, and some people may experience additional symptoms not listed here. Additionally, the severity and frequency of symptoms can vary widely from person to person. With proper treatment and support, many people with schizophrenia are able to manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives.
The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.
In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.
What is a Chronic Disease?
A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:
2. Heart disease
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
Impact of Chronic Diseases
The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.
Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.
Addressing Chronic Diseases
Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:
1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.
Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.
The term "schizophrenia" was first used by the Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler in 1908 to describe the splitting of mental functions, which he believed was a key feature of the disorder. The word is derived from the Greek words "schizein," meaning "to split," and "phrenos," meaning "mind."
There are several subtypes of schizophrenia, including:
1. Paranoid Schizophrenia: Characterized by delusions of persecution and suspicion, and a tendency to be hostile and defensive.
2. Hallucinatory Schizophrenia: Characterized by hearing voices or seeing things that are not there.
3. Disorganized Schizophrenia: Characterized by disorganized thinking and behavior, and a lack of motivation or interest in activities.
4. Catatonic Schizophrenia: Characterized by immobility, mutism, and other unusual movements or postures.
5. Undifferentiated Schizophrenia: Characterized by a combination of symptoms from the above subtypes.
The exact cause of schizophrenia is still not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurochemical factors. It is important to note that schizophrenia is not caused by poor parenting or a person's upbringing.
There are several risk factors for developing schizophrenia, including:
1. Genetics: A person with a family history of schizophrenia is more likely to develop the disorder.
2. Brain chemistry: Imbalances in neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin have been linked to schizophrenia.
3. Prenatal factors: Factors such as maternal malnutrition or exposure to certain viruses during pregnancy may increase the risk of schizophrenia in offspring.
4. Childhood trauma: Traumatic events during childhood, such as abuse or neglect, have been linked to an increased risk of developing schizophrenia.
5. Substance use: Substance use has been linked to an increased risk of developing schizophrenia, particularly cannabis and other psychotic substances.
There is no cure for schizophrenia, but treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life. Treatment options include:
1. Medications: Antipsychotic medications are the primary treatment for schizophrenia. They can help reduce positive symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions, and negative symptoms such as a lack of motivation or interest in activities.
2. Therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of talk therapy can help individuals with schizophrenia manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.
3. Social support: Support from family, friends, and support groups can be an important part of the treatment plan for individuals with schizophrenia.
4. Self-care: Engaging in activities that bring pleasure and fulfillment, such as hobbies or exercise, can help individuals with schizophrenia improve their overall well-being.
It is important to note that schizophrenia is a complex condition, and treatment should be tailored to the individual's specific needs and circumstances. With appropriate treatment and support, many people with schizophrenia are able to lead fulfilling lives and achieve their goals.
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.
There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:
1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)
The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
8. Weight loss
If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:
1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)
HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.
Prevention methods for HIV infection include:
1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.
It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) defines alcohol use disorder as a maladaptive pattern of alcohol use that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress in at least three of the following areas:
1. Drinking more or for longer than intended.
2. Desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control drinking.
3. Spending a lot of time drinking or recovering from its effects.
4. Craving or strong desire to drink.
5. Drinking interferes with work, school, or home responsibilities.
6. Continuing to drink despite social or personal problems caused by alcohol use.
7. Giving up important activities in order to drink.
8. Drinking in hazardous situations (e.g., while driving).
9. Continued drinking despite physical or psychological problems caused or worsened by alcohol use.
10. Developing tolerance (i.e., needing to drink more to achieve the desired effect).
11. Experiencing withdrawal symptoms when alcohol use is stopped or reduced.
The severity of alcoholism is categorized into three subtypes based on the number of criteria met: mild, moderate, and severe. Treatment for alcoholism typically involves a combination of behavioral interventions (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing) and medications (e.g., disulfiram, naltrexone, acamprosate) to manage withdrawal symptoms and cravings.
In conclusion, alcoholism is a chronic and often progressive disease characterized by excessive and compulsive consumption of alcohol despite negative consequences to physical and mental health, relationships, and social functioning. The diagnostic criteria for alcoholism include a combination of physiological, behavioral, and subjective symptoms, and treatment typically involves a combination of behavioral interventions and medications to manage withdrawal symptoms and cravings.
Some examples of central auditory diseases include:
1. Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD): A condition where the brain has difficulty processing sounds, leading to difficulties with speech and language development, reading, and social interactions.
2. Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD): A condition that affects the transmission of sound from the inner ear to the brain, leading to difficulties with hearing and understanding speech.
3. Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM): A condition that causes chronic inflammation and infection of the middle ear, which can lead to hearing loss and difficulty processing sound.
4. Meniere's disease: A condition that affects the inner ear and causes vertigo, tinnitus, and hearing loss.
5. Acoustic neuroma: A benign tumor that grows on the nerve that connects the inner ear to the brain, leading to hearing loss, tinnitus, and balance difficulties.
6. Stroke or traumatic brain injury: These conditions can damage the auditory system and cause hearing loss or difficulty understanding speech.
7. Cochlear implant complications: Complications related to the surgical implantation of a cochlear implant, such as infection or device malfunction, can affect the central auditory system.
8. Chronic tinnitus: A condition characterized by persistent ringing or other sounds in the ears that can lead to hearing loss and difficulty understanding speech.
9. Ototoxicity: Exposure to certain medications or chemicals can damage the inner ear and cause hearing loss or tinnitus.
10. Meningitis or encephalitis: Infections of the brain and its membranes can affect the auditory system and cause hearing loss, tinnitus, and balance difficulties.
These are just a few examples of central auditory diseases. The diagnosis and treatment of these conditions typically involve a team of healthcare professionals, including otolaryngologists (ENT specialists), neurologists, audiologists, and speech-language pathologists.
Acute wounds and injuries are those that occur suddenly and heal within a relatively short period of time, usually within a few days or weeks. Examples of acute wounds include cuts, scrapes, and burns. Chronic wounds and injuries, on the other hand, are those that persist over a longer period of time and may not heal properly, leading to long-term complications. Examples of chronic wounds include diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, and chronic back pain.
Wounds and injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including accidents, sports injuries, violence, and medical conditions such as diabetes or circulatory problems. Treatment for wounds and injuries depends on the severity of the injury and may include cleaning and dressing the wound, applying antibiotics, immobilizing broken bones, and providing pain management. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissues or restore function.
Preventive measures for wounds and injuries include wearing appropriate protective gear during activities such as sports or work, following safety protocols to avoid accidents, maintaining proper hygiene and nutrition to prevent infection, and seeking medical attention promptly if an injury occurs.
Overall, wounds and injuries can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, and it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Proper treatment and management of wounds and injuries can help to promote healing, reduce the risk of complications, and improve long-term outcomes.
The exact cause of MDD is not known, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. Some risk factors for developing MDD include:
* Family history of depression or other mental health conditions
* History of trauma or stressful life events
* Chronic illness or chronic pain
* Substance abuse or addiction
* Personality traits such as low self-esteem or perfectionism
Symptoms of MDD can vary from person to person, but typically include:
* Persistent feelings of sadness, emptiness, or hopelessness
* Loss of interest in activities that were once enjoyed
* Changes in appetite or sleep patterns
* Fatigue or loss of energy
* Difficulty concentrating or making decisions
* Thoughts of death or suicide
MDD can be diagnosed by a mental health professional, such as a psychiatrist or psychologist, based on the symptoms and their duration. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication and therapy, and may include:
* Antidepressant medications to relieve symptoms of depression
* Psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), to help identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviors
* Interpersonal therapy (IPT) to improve communication skills and relationships with others
* Other forms of therapy, such as mindfulness-based therapies or relaxation techniques
It is important to seek professional help if symptoms of depression are severe or persistent, as MDD can have a significant impact on daily life and can increase the risk of suicide. With appropriate treatment, however, many people with MDD are able to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.
Bipolar Disorder Types:
There are several types of bipolar disorder, including:
1. Bipolar I Disorder: One or more manic episodes with or without depressive episodes.
2. Bipolar II Disorder: At least one major depressive episode and one hypomanic episode (a less severe form of mania).
3. Cyclothymic Disorder: Periods of hypomania and depression that last at least 2 years.
4. Other Specified Bipolar and Related Disorders: Symptoms that do not meet the criteria for any of the above types.
5. Unspecified Bipolar and Related Disorders: Symptoms that do not meet the criteria for any of the above types, but there is still a noticeable impact on daily life.
Bipolar Disorder Causes:
The exact cause of bipolar disorder is unknown, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurobiological factors. Some potential causes include:
1. Genetics: Individuals with a family history of bipolar disorder are more likely to develop the condition.
2. Brain structure and function: Imbalances in neurotransmitters and abnormalities in brain structure have been found in individuals with bipolar disorder.
3. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances in hormones such as serotonin, dopamine, and cortisol have been linked to bipolar disorder.
4. Life events: Traumatic events or significant changes in life circumstances can trigger episodes of mania or depression.
5. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as multiple sclerosis or stroke, can increase the risk of developing bipolar disorder.
Bipolar Disorder Symptoms:
The symptoms of bipolar disorder can vary depending on the individual and the specific type of episode they are experiencing. Some common symptoms include:
1. Manic episodes: Increased energy, reduced need for sleep, impulsivity, and grandiosity.
2. Depressive episodes: Feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities.
3. Mixed episodes: A combination of manic and depressive symptoms.
4. Hypomanic episodes: Less severe than full-blown mania, but still disrupt daily life.
5. Rapid cycling: Experiencing four or more episodes within a year.
6. Melancholic features: Feeling sad, hopeless, and worthless.
7. Atypical features: Experiencing mania without elevated mood or grandiosity.
8. Mood instability: Rapid changes in mood throughout the day.
9. Anxiety symptoms: Restlessness, feeling on edge, and difficulty concentrating.
10. Sleep disturbances: Difficulty falling or staying asleep, or oversleeping.
11. Substance abuse: Using drugs or alcohol to cope with symptoms.
12. Suicidal thoughts or behaviors: Having thoughts of harming oneself or taking actions that could lead to death.
It's important to note that not everyone with bipolar disorder will experience all of these symptoms, and some people may experience additional symptoms not listed here. Additionally, the severity and frequency of symptoms can vary widely between individuals.
Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.
Types of Neoplasms
There are many different types of neoplasms, including:
1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.
Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms
The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:
1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.
Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms
The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:
1. Unusual lumps or swelling
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms
The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.
The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:
1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
Prevention of Neoplasms
While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:
1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.
It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.
1. Asbestosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling asbestos fibers.
2. Carpal tunnel syndrome: a nerve disorder caused by repetitive motion and pressure on the wrist.
3. Mesothelioma: a type of cancer caused by exposure to asbestos.
4. Pneumoconiosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling dust from mining or other heavy industries.
5. Repetitive strain injuries: injuries caused by repetitive motions, such as typing or using vibrating tools.
6. Skin conditions: such as skin irritation and dermatitis caused by exposure to chemicals or other substances in the workplace.
7. Hearing loss: caused by loud noises in the workplace.
8. Back injuries: caused by lifting, bending, or twisting.
9. Respiratory problems: such as asthma and other breathing difficulties caused by exposure to chemicals or dust in the workplace.
10. Cancer: caused by exposure to carcinogens such as radiation, certain chemicals, or heavy metals in the workplace.
Occupational diseases can be difficult to diagnose and treat, as they often develop gradually over time and may not be immediately attributed to the work environment. In some cases, these diseases may not appear until years after exposure has ended. It is important for workers to be aware of the potential health risks associated with their job and take steps to protect themselves, such as wearing protective gear, following safety protocols, and seeking regular medical check-ups. Employers also have a responsibility to provide a safe work environment and follow strict regulations to prevent the spread of occupational diseases.
Postpartum depression is estimated to affect up to 15% of new mothers, although the actual number may be higher due to underreporting. It usually develops within the first few months after delivery, but can sometimes last longer.
The exact cause of postpartum depression is not known, but it is believed to be related to changes in hormone levels and other physical and emotional factors associated with childbirth. Risk factors include a history of depression or anxiety, lack of support, and stressful life events.
Symptoms of postpartum depression can vary from mild to severe and may include:
* Persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and helplessness
* Loss of interest in activities that were once enjoyed
* Changes in appetite and sleep patterns
* Difficulty concentrating or making decisions
* Thoughts of harming oneself or the baby
If you are experiencing any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical help as soon as possible. Postpartum depression can be treated with therapy, medication, or a combination of both. With proper treatment, most women with postpartum depression can recover and go on to lead healthy and fulfilling lives.
STDs can cause a range of symptoms, including genital itching, burning during urination, unusual discharge, and painful sex. Some STDs can also lead to long-term health problems, such as infertility, chronic pain, and an increased risk of certain types of cancer.
STDs are usually diagnosed through a physical exam, blood tests, or other diagnostic tests. Treatment for STDs varies depending on the specific infection and can include antibiotics, antiviral medication, or other therapies. It's important to practice safe sex, such as using condoms, to reduce the risk of getting an STD.
Some of the most common STDs include:
* Chlamydia: A bacterial infection that can cause genital itching, burning during urination, and unusual discharge.
* Gonorrhea: A bacterial infection that can cause similar symptoms to chlamydia.
* Syphilis: A bacterial infection that can cause a painless sore on the genitals, followed by a rash and other symptoms.
* Herpes: A viral infection that can cause genital itching, burning during urination, and painful sex.
* HPV: A viral infection that can cause genital warts and increase the risk of cervical cancer.
* HIV/AIDS: A viral infection that can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, fatigue, and weight loss, and can lead to AIDS if left untreated.
It's important to note that some STDs can be spread through non-sexual contact, such as sharing needles or mother-to-child transmission during childbirth. It's also important to know that many STDs can be asymptomatic, meaning you may not have any symptoms even if you are infected.
If you think you may have been exposed to an STD, it's important to get tested as soon as possible. Many STDs can be easily treated with antibiotics or other medications, but if left untreated, they can lead to serious complications and long-term health problems.
It's also important to practice safe sex to reduce the risk of getting an STD. This includes using condoms, as well as getting vaccinated against HPV and Hepatitis B, which are both common causes of STDs.
In addition to getting tested and practicing safe sex, it's important to be aware of your sexual health and the risks associated with sex. This includes being aware of any symptoms you may experience, as well as being aware of your partner's sexual history and any STDs they may have. By being informed and proactive about your sexual health, you can help reduce the risk of getting an STD and maintain good sexual health.
Combat disorders refer to a range of mental health conditions that can develop as a result of exposure to traumatic events during military service. These disorders can include post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety disorders, depression, substance abuse, and other conditions that can impact an individual's ability to function in daily life.
Combat disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including the experience of combat itself, exposure to violence and trauma, and the stress of military service. These disorders can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, as well as their relationships and ability to perform their duties.
Treatment for combat disorders often involves a combination of psychotherapy and medication, and may also involve other forms of therapy such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). It is important for individuals with combat disorders to seek medical attention if they are experiencing symptoms, as early treatment can help to improve outcomes and reduce the risk of long-term complications.
Examples of Combat Disorders
Some examples of combat disorders include:
1. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): This condition can develop after an individual experiences a traumatic event, such as combat or sexual assault. Symptoms may include flashbacks, nightmares, anxiety, and avoidance of triggers that remind the individual of the traumatic event.
2. Anxiety disorders: These conditions can cause excessive worry, fear, or anxiety that interferes with daily life. Examples include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder.
3. Depression: This condition can cause feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and a loss of interest in activities that were once enjoyed. It can also lead to changes in appetite, sleep patterns, and energy levels.
4. Substance abuse: This can include the misuse of alcohol or drugs as a way to cope with stress or trauma. Substance abuse can have serious consequences for an individual's physical and mental health, relationships, and career.
5. Traumatic brain injury (TBI): This occurs when the brain is injured as a result of a blow or jolt to the head, such as from an explosion or a fall. Symptoms may include memory problems, difficulty with concentration, and changes in mood or behavior.
Effects of Combat Disorders on Individuals and Families
Combat disorders can have a significant impact on individuals and their families. Some of the effects may include:
1. Emotional distress: Combat disorders can cause significant emotional distress, including anxiety, depression, and anger. This can affect not only the individual but also their family members and loved ones.
2. Relationship problems: The symptoms of combat disorders can strain relationships with family and friends, leading to feelings of isolation and loneliness.
3. Career difficulties: Combat disorders can make it difficult for individuals to maintain a career or job, leading to financial stress and instability.
4. Social challenges: The symptoms of combat disorders can make social interactions difficult, leading to feelings of embarrassment and stigma.
5. Health problems: Combat disorders can increase the risk of physical health problems, such as chronic pain, sleep disturbances, and gastrointestinal issues.
6. Financial stress: The cost of treatment and lost income due to career difficulties can lead to financial stress and instability for individuals and their families.
7. Legal issues: Some combat disorders, such as PTSD, may be accompanied by legal issues related to criminal behavior or other forms of self-destructive behavior.
8. Stigma: Combat disorders can carry a stigma, leading to feelings of shame and guilt for individuals and their families.
9. Lack of support: Some combat disorders may not receive sufficient support from society or the medical community, leading to feelings of isolation and neglect.
Treatment Options for Combat Disorders
There are a variety of treatment options available for combat disorders, including:
1. Medications: Medications such as antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs may be prescribed to help manage the symptoms of combat disorders.
2. Psychotherapy: Talk therapies such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and psychodynamic therapy can be effective in treating combat disorders.
3. Group therapy: Group therapy can provide a sense of community and support for individuals with combat disorders.
4. Family therapy: Family therapy can help family members understand the combat disorder and learn how to support their loved one.
5. Alternative therapies: Alternative therapies such as acupuncture, yoga, and meditation may be helpful in managing the symptoms of combat disorders.
6. Residential treatment: In severe cases, residential treatment may be necessary to provide a structured and supportive environment for individuals with combat disorders.
7. Support groups: Joining a support group can provide a sense of community and understanding for individuals with combat disorders.
Combat disorders are a serious issue that can have long-lasting effects on the physical, emotional, and financial well-being of those who serve in the military. It is important to recognize the signs and symptoms of combat disorders and seek treatment as soon as possible. With proper treatment and support, individuals with combat disorders can lead fulfilling lives and achieve their goals.
1. Predominantly Inattentive Type: This type is characterized by symptoms of inattention, such as difficulty paying attention to details or making careless mistakes. Individuals with this type may have trouble sustaining their focus during tasks and may appear daydreamy or easily distracted.
2. Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type: This type is characterized by symptoms of hyperactivity, such as fidgeting, restlessness, and an inability to sit still. Individuals with this type may also exhibit impulsivity, such as interrupting others or speaking out of turn.
3. Combined Type: This type is characterized by both symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity.
The symptoms of ADHD can vary from person to person and may change over time. Some common symptoms include:
* Difficulty sustaining attention during tasks
* Easily distracted or interrupted
* Difficulty completing tasks
* Fidgeting or restlessness
* Difficulty sitting still or remaining quiet
* Interrupting others or speaking out of turn
* Impulsivity, such as acting without thinking
The exact cause of ADHD is not fully understood, but research suggests that it may be related to differences in brain structure and function, as well as genetic factors. There is no cure for ADHD, but medication and behavioral therapy can help manage symptoms and improve functioning.
ADHD can have significant impacts on daily life, including academic and social difficulties. However, with proper treatment and support, many individuals with ADHD are able to lead successful and fulfilling lives.
Conduct disorder is a mental health condition that is characterized by a pattern of behavior in children and adolescents that violates the rights of others, as well as age-appropriate societal norms and rules. This condition can involve behaviors such as aggression to people or animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness, theft, and serious violations of rules.
Conduct disorder is also characterized by a lack of empathy, guilt, or remorse for one's actions, as well as a tendency towards impulsivity.
Symptoms of conduct disorder can include:
* Aggression to people or animals
* Destruction of property
* Serious violations of rules
* Disrespect for authority figures
* Lack of empathy, guilt, or remorse for one's actions
* Difficulty with self-control
* Antisocial behavior
Conduct disorder is diagnosed based on a combination of the child's symptoms and behavior, as well as an evaluation of their social and family history. Treatment for conduct disorder typically involves a combination of psychotherapy and medication.
Psychotherapy may involve:
* Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to help the child identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviors
* Family therapy to address any family dynamics that may be contributing to the child's behavior
* Social skills training to help the child learn appropriate social interactions and communication skills.
Medications that may be used to treat conduct disorder include:
* Stimulants, such as Ritalin (methylphenidate), to help with impulse control and attention
* Antipsychotics, such as Risperdal (risperidone), to help with aggression and irritability
* Antidepressants, such as Prozac (fluoxetine), to help with mood regulation.
It's important to note that conduct disorder is a mental health condition that can have serious consequences if left untreated. Children with conduct disorder are at an increased risk of developing other mental health conditions, such as depression and anxiety, as well as engaging in risky behaviors, such as substance abuse and delinquency. With appropriate treatment and support, however, it is possible for children with conduct disorder to learn healthy coping mechanisms, improve their social skills, and lead successful lives as adults.
The three main types of stress disorders, traumatic are:
1. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) - This is a condition that can develop after a person experiences a traumatic event. Symptoms may include flashbacks, nightmares, anxiety, avoidance of triggers that remind the person of the event, and changes in emotional reactivity and arousal.
2. Acute stress disorder (ASD) - This is a condition that can develop within one month of a traumatic event. Symptoms are similar to those of PTSD, but they are more severe and last for longer than two days.
3. Adjustment disorder (AD) - This is a condition that can develop after a person experiences a stressful event, such as the loss of a loved one or a job. Symptoms may include anxiety, sadness, and changes in behavior and mood.
Traumatic stress disorders can be treated with psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both. The goal of treatment is to help the person manage their symptoms and improve their ability to function in daily life.
There are several types of diabetes mellitus, including:
1. Type 1 DM: This is an autoimmune condition in which the body's immune system attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, resulting in a complete deficiency of insulin production. It typically develops in childhood or adolescence, and patients with this condition require lifelong insulin therapy.
2. Type 2 DM: This is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for around 90% of all cases. It is caused by a combination of insulin resistance (where the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin) and impaired insulin secretion. It is often associated with obesity, physical inactivity, and a diet high in sugar and unhealthy fats.
3. Gestational DM: This type of diabetes develops during pregnancy, usually in the second or third trimester. Hormonal changes and insulin resistance can cause blood sugar levels to rise, putting both the mother and baby at risk.
4. LADA (Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults): This is a form of type 1 DM that develops in adults, typically after the age of 30. It shares features with both type 1 and type 2 DM.
5. MODY (Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young): This is a rare form of diabetes caused by genetic mutations that affect insulin production. It typically develops in young adulthood and can be managed with lifestyle changes and/or medication.
The symptoms of diabetes mellitus can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:
1. Increased thirst and urination
3. Blurred vision
4. Cuts or bruises that are slow to heal
5. Tingling or numbness in hands and feet
6. Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections
7. Flu-like symptoms such as weakness, dizziness, and stomach pain
8. Dark, velvety skin patches (acanthosis nigricans)
9. Yellowish color of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
10. Delayed healing of cuts and wounds
If left untreated, diabetes mellitus can lead to a range of complications, including:
1. Heart disease and stroke
2. Kidney damage and failure
3. Nerve damage (neuropathy)
4. Eye damage (retinopathy)
5. Foot damage (neuropathic ulcers)
6. Cognitive impairment and dementia
7. Increased risk of infections and other diseases, such as pneumonia, gum disease, and urinary tract infections.
It is important to note that not all individuals with diabetes will experience these complications, and that proper management of the condition can greatly reduce the risk of developing these complications.
In the medical field, emergencies are situations that require immediate medical attention to prevent serious harm or death. These situations may include:
1. Life-threatening injuries, such as gunshot wounds, stab wounds, or severe head trauma.
2. Severe illnesses, such as heart attacks, strokes, or respiratory distress.
3. Acute and severe pain, such as from a broken bone or severe burns.
4. Mental health emergencies, such as suicidal thoughts or behaviors, or psychosis.
5. Obstetric emergencies, such as preterm labor or placental abruption.
6. Pediatric emergencies, such as respiratory distress or dehydration in infants and children.
7. Trauma, such as from a car accident or fall.
8. Natural disasters, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, or floods.
9. Environmental emergencies, such as carbon monoxide poisoning or exposure to toxic substances.
10. Mass casualty incidents, such as a terrorist attack or plane crash.
In all of these situations, prompt and appropriate medical care is essential to prevent further harm and save lives. Emergency responders, including paramedics, emergency medical technicians (EMTs), and other healthcare providers, are trained to quickly assess the situation, provide immediate care, and transport patients to a hospital if necessary.
The term "somatoform" refers to the fact that these disorders involve somatic (physical) symptoms, rather than psychotic or mood-related symptoms. Somatoform disorders can include conditions such as:
* Somatization disorder: characterized by multiple physical symptoms that are not easily explained by a medical condition, and which cause significant distress or impairment in daily life.
* Hypochondriasis: excessive preoccupation with the fear of having or acquiring a serious illness, despite medical reassurance that no such illness exists.
* Conversion disorder: characterized by physical symptoms that are thought to be related to an unconscious psychological conflict or stress.
* Factitious disorder: characterized by intentionally producing or feigning physical symptoms in order to gain attention, sympathy, or other benefits.
Somatoform disorders can be challenging to diagnose and treat, as they often involve complex interplay between psychological and physical factors. Treatment may involve a combination of psychotherapy and medication, and may require a multidisciplinary approach involving mental health professionals and medical specialists.
1. Somatic symptom disorder: This condition is characterized by persistent and excessive thoughts or concerns about physical symptoms, such as pain or gastrointestinal issues, despite medical evaluation and reassurance that no underlying medical condition exists.
2. Illness anxiety disorder: Formerly known as hypochondriasis, this disorder is characterized by an excessive preoccupation with the fear of having or acquiring a serious illness, despite evidence to the contrary.
3. Conversion disorder: This condition is characterized by symptoms that are not readily explainable by a medical or neurological condition, such as paralysis, blindness, or difficulty speaking. The symptoms are thought to be a manifestation of psychological conflicts or stressors.
4. Factitious disorder: Also known as Munchausen syndrome, this condition is characterized by the deliberate production or feigning of symptoms in order to gain attention, sympathy, or other forms of support.
5. Hypochondriasis: This condition is characterized by an excessive preoccupation with the fear of having or acquiring a serious illness, despite evidence to the contrary.
6. Health anxiety disorder: This condition is characterized by an excessive preoccupation with the fear of having or acquiring a serious illness, despite evidence to the contrary.
7. Medical phobia: This condition is characterized by an excessive fear of medical procedures or healthcare settings, which can lead to avoidance of necessary medical care and potential harm as a result.
8. Pain disorder: This condition is characterized by persistent and excessive pain that cannot be fully explained by a medical condition or injury. The pain can have a significant impact on an individual's daily life and functioning.
9. Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures: These are seizures that are not caused by a medical or neurological condition, but rather by psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, or other forms of emotional distress.
10. Somatic symptom disorder: This condition is characterized by persistent and excessive preoccupation with physical symptoms, such as pain, fatigue, or gastrointestinal issues, despite medical evidence that the symptoms are not caused by a medical condition or injury.
It's important to note that while these conditions are distinct from one another, they can sometimes overlap or co-occur, and it may be necessary to rule out other potential causes of the patient's symptoms before making a diagnosis. Additionally, individuals with mental health conditions may be at higher risk for developing somatoform disorders due to the emotional distress and maladaptive coping strategies that can accompany these conditions.
1. Preeclampsia: A condition characterized by high blood pressure during pregnancy, which can lead to complications such as stroke or premature birth.
2. Gestational diabetes: A type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy, which can cause complications for both the mother and the baby if left untreated.
3. Placenta previa: A condition in which the placenta is located low in the uterus, covering the cervix, which can cause bleeding and other complications.
4. Premature labor: Labor that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, which can increase the risk of health problems for the baby.
5. Fetal distress: A condition in which the fetus is not getting enough oxygen, which can lead to serious health problems or even death.
6. Postpartum hemorrhage: Excessive bleeding after delivery, which can be life-threatening if left untreated.
7. Cesarean section (C-section) complications: Complications that may arise during a C-section, such as infection or bleeding.
8. Maternal infections: Infections that the mother may contract during pregnancy or childbirth, such as group B strep or urinary tract infections.
9. Preterm birth: Birth that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, which can increase the risk of health problems for the baby.
10. Chromosomal abnormalities: Genetic disorders that may affect the baby's growth and development, such as Down syndrome or Turner syndrome.
It is important for pregnant women to receive regular prenatal care to monitor for any potential complications and ensure a healthy pregnancy outcome. In some cases, pregnancy complications may require medical interventions, such as hospitalization or surgery, to ensure the safety of both the mother and the baby.
Mental health service
Community mental health service
St. Patrick's Mental Health Services
California Mental Health Services Act
Pine Rest Christian Mental Health Services
Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
Oklahoma Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services
Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Services Block Grant
Obstacles to receiving mental health services among African American youth
Puerto Rico Administration of Mental Health and Anti-Addiction Services
Serious mental illness
Mississippi Department of Mental Health
Mental health in education
Mental health in Australia
National Institute of Mental Health and Hospital
Mental health of Filipino Americans
Mental health in China
Avon and Wiltshire Mental Health Partnership NHS Trust
RAID (in mental health)
New Freedom Commission on Mental Health
Mental health of Asian Americans
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Deaf mental health care
Mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic
Mental health literacy
Mental health in United States agricultural workers
Mental Health Commission of Canada
Mental health in South Korea
Deaths in December 2014
Nursing in Japan
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St. James Infirmary Clinic
Riverview Hospital (Coquitlam)
Great Kills, Staten Island
1997 Constitution of Fiji: Chapter 4
Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974
Tokyo Vice (TV series)
Mental Health Review Tribunal (NT)
Veterans benefits for post-traumatic stress disorder in the United States
Psychology of religion
Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton
Hugh Baird College
Mass shootings in the United States
Personal Independence Payment
Medical malpractice in the United States
Psychiatric Institute of Washington
History of Hartford City, Indiana
Movement for the Intellectually Disabled of Singapore
Mental Health Services for Children Policy Brief | CSELS | Rural Health | CDC
Mental Health Services - HSE.ie
Mental health services for people with learning disabilities | The BMJ
SAMHSA - Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
Mental Health & Wellbeing - House/Flatmate Conflicts | Student Services | Loughborough University
Mental Health / Public News Service
Mental Health Services Act: Then and Now, Medicaid State-Specific Fact Sheets
mental health services
Get Loud - Mental Health Awareness Week | AHS Podcasts | Alberta Health Services
Integrating mental health services into primary HIV care for women: the Whole Life project
Browsing WHA54 by Subject "Mental Health Services"
Barwon Health mental health, drugs & alcohol services - News
Crisis and acute mental health services
Mental health nurse practitioner - Mental health services - Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand
Mental Health Services Act (MHSA) Information | Mariposa County, CA - Official Website
Colorado would outlaw using jails for mental health holds, increase services under $9.5 million proposal
St. Louis County Children's Service Fund Invests $150 Million in 72 Local Mental Health Organizations
Rosecrance to take over mental health services at SwedishAmerican
Mental Health Adult Services | Chestnut Health Systems
Mental health service platform launched -Newsday Zimbabwe
Improving access to mental health services in Ghana | WHO | Regional Office for Africa
Need for Mental Health and Addiction Services in BC - Centre for Applied Research in Mental Health & Addiction (CARMHA) -...
Mental Health Services - King County
Stress : Montreal, QC : Mental Health Services, Help and Support : eMentalHealth.ca
LVHN Mental Health Clinic-17th Street - Services | Lehigh Valley Health Network
Addressing Mental Health and Wellness Through Resident Services Programming
Mental Health for Active Duty Service Members, Older Adults, and Families | Health.mil
All Job Openings - Human Services - Mental Health Program Coordinator
Medicinal Foods, Mental Health Service Learning Sub-Project Project Management Micro-leader: M4A Foundation - CrowdDoing |...
- EDITOR-Hassiotis et al highlight many difficulties in providing services for people with mild learning disability and mental illness. (bmj.com)
- Dr. Laura Calhoun, AHS Provincial Medical Director, Addiction and Mental Health, talks about overcoming the stigma of mental illness. (albertahealthservices.ca)
- Specialist support in the comfort of home is changing the way people are treated with acute mental illness, thanks to a Victoria-first Hospital in the Home (HITH) program at Barwon Health. (barwonhealth.org.au)
- In 2009 the Otago District Health Board employed her to work with adults who had received a dual diagnosis of intellectual disability and major mental illness. (teara.govt.nz)
- The legislation, combined with state human services department requests for marijuana tax funds totaling $9.5 million, describes a multilayered plan to provide better treatment for people with mental illness. (denverpost.com)
- The proposals also call for expansion of prebooking criminal justice diversion programs to treat mental illness, as well as additional training for law enforcement and other first responders. (denverpost.com)
- FIRST.IL is comprehensive, team-based treatment aimed at improving mental health and quality of life for individuals who have experienced a first episode of a psychotic illness. (chestnut.org)
- Ireland, north and south, still has no mother and baby inpatient unit for new mothers who suffer severe mental illness, this has to change without further delay. (sinnfein.ie)
- Adolescence is a key period for the development of mental health challenges and mental illness, with some 70% of mental disorders manifesting before adulthood. (bmj.com)
- If you have an AUD and a mental illness, it is important to get treatment for both. (medlineplus.gov)
- with most of the long-stay offender mental illness with poor symptom control, substance inmates remaining in these facilities till date.6 Another major dependence, homelessness and abandonment by the patients' source of long-stay patients is from the population of vagrant, relatives.3,4 Furthermore, in developing countries such as psychotic individuals in the country. (who.int)
Maternity and mental health s1
- This is not good enough as shortcomings in our maternity and mental health services have directly led to heartrending incidents involving mothers and children, including the tragic deaths of some. (sinnfein.ie)
- Young people in the Colac area have increased access to a range of specialist mental health supports and services with the opening of the community's new headspace centre in October. (barwonhealth.org.au)
- Geelong and Barwon region residents now have better access to mental health support with the completion of Barwon Health's McKellar Mental Health and Wellbeing Centre. (barwonhealth.org.au)
- St. Louis County Children's Service Fund (CSF) is pleased to announce its 2023-2026 Core Funding Opportunity recipients. (stltoday.com)
- While telemental health has been used more with adults than children, pediatric use is increasing. (cdc.gov)
- Together with 2,800 member organizations, it serves more than 10 million adults and children living with mental illnesses and addictions. (constantcontact.com)
- Mental Health First Aid has trained more than 780,000 individuals to connect youth and adults in need to mental health and addictions care in their communities. (constantcontact.com)
- Poor mental health can increase the risk for many types of physical health problems, particularly in older adults. (health.mil)
- Symptoms of mental health conditions in older adults are often mistaken for symptoms of aging, which can leave mental health conditions untreated. (health.mil)
- The impact of depression on health in older adults can be severe because it's associated with worse physical health (health disease, diabetes, stroke). (health.mil)
- Title : Trend in rural-urban disparities in access to outpatient mental health services among US adults aged 18-64 with employer-sponsored insurance: 2005-2018 Personal Author(s) : Chen, Zhuo;Roy, Kakoli;Khushalani, Jaya Shankar;Puddy, Richard W. (cdc.gov)
- The Community Guide to Preventive Services. (cdc.gov)
Behavioral health services3
- 5 ] This shortage combined with the unique socioeconomic and cultural factors associated with rural residence, including higher poverty rates and geographic isolation, make it more challenging for rural children to access behavioral health services. (cdc.gov)
- It will distribute $150 million among 72 organizations that provide mental and behavioral health services to children and families in St. Louis County. (stltoday.com)
- As its largest funding allocation, CSF's Core Funding Opportunity was created to support mental and behavioral health services like substance use treatment, transitional housing, therapeutic counseling and more. (stltoday.com)
- Across the country, people with mental health issues may struggle to get care due to a shortage of providers, and this problem is magnified in rural areas. (cdc.gov)
- 6,7 ] Transportation is also a barrier in accessing mental health care and is often cited "as one of the major concerns reported by rural residents in discussing limitations to their access to health care or their participation in health programs. (cdc.gov)
- A new report spotlighted some of the challenges to accessing behavioral health care for the one in seven Americans who live in rural areas. (publicnewsservice.org)
- sharing their stories and insights about what's happening at AHS to improve Albertans' confidence and satisfaction in their health care system. (albertahealthservices.ca)
- Terri Fortunaso is Seniors Health Director for Continuing Care, Palliative Care and Geriatric Assessment and Rehab, in AHS South Zone. (albertahealthservices.ca)
- Laura Calhoun is provincial medical director for Addiction and Mental Health in Alberta Health Services and believes mental health care should be just as easy to access as physical health care. (albertahealthservices.ca)
- The high rate of mental health problems in HIV-infected women jeopardizes the health of this vulnerable population, and constitutes a mandate for integrating mental health services into HIV primary care. (nih.gov)
- The Whole Life project-a collaboration of the departments of Psychiatry and Obstetrics/Gynecology at the University of Miami School of Medicine-successfully integrated mental health services into primary HIV care for women. (nih.gov)
- Chestnut Health Systems™ Crisis Stabilization Unit (CSU) provides 24-hour short-term supervised care for persons 18 years of age and older experiencing an acute psychiatric crisis that do not require hospitalization. (chestnut.org)
- Moyo also took the time to open the UZ Friendship Bench, which is meant to offer counselling services to students and improve access to mental health care and to help reduce suicide cases. (co.zw)
- The Friendship has trained a number of community health workers to recognise and help manage distressing mental health problems like depression and anxiety in our communities, thus helping to improve awareness and access to care," he said. (co.zw)
- In the Africa region, WHO works with countries to integrate mental health services under primary care at community level. (co.zw)
- There are only 39 psychiatrists (0.13 per 100 000 people) for the entire population of whom an estimated 2.3 million people have mental health conditions and need care. (who.int)
- This means scant access to care for people like Mariama, who live with mental health conditions in rural areas where only 2% receive psychiatric treatment and support. (who.int)
- In line with this policy, WHO, with funding from the United Kingdom Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office (UK-FCDO), launched a three-year QualityRights Initiative in 2019 to improve quality of care and promote the human rights of people living with mental health conditions. (who.int)
- We need mental health care services that are not only accessible, but also respect human rights in addressing the needs of patients," says Dr Joana Ansong, Technical Officer, Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors at World Health Organization (WHO) Ghana. (who.int)
- The problem with many of us is that we think we must use all means necessary to treat mental health patients and that's why on daily basis we see aggression and coercion of service users in our facilities, pushing them to stay away from seeking care," he says. (who.int)
- Depending on circumstances and funding, the KCMHP also has limited funding to provide mental health care for people who do not have Medicaid. (kingcounty.gov)
- TRICARE Select is a fee-for-service option in the United States that allows you to get care from any TRICARE-authorized provider. (health.mil)
- Integrating mental health in primary health care: part 1. (who.int)
- This scoping review will provide an enhanced understanding of the definition, characteristics and expected impacts of youth friendliness in mental/behavioural health and addiction care settings. (bmj.com)
- The camp will provide essential health care services to affected people, and includes a reception area, an outpatient services department, a vaccination area, a small laboratory, a nutritional care service and maternal and child health areas as well as a mental health unit. (who.int)
- Facing the immense devastation brought about by the disaster and the burden of taking care of remaining family members also increases the risk of mental health issues for women. (who.int)
- Association of Integrated Mental Health Services with Physical Health Quality Among VA Primary Care Patients. (bvsalud.org)
- Integrated care for comorbid depression and chronic medical disease improved physical and mental health outcomes in randomized controlled trials. (bvsalud.org)
- The Veterans Health Administration (VA) implemented Primary Care - Mental Health Integration (PC-MHI) across all primary care clinics nationally to increase access to mental/behavioral health treatment , alongside physical health management . (bvsalud.org)
- This retrospective cohort study included 828,050 primary care patients with at least one quality metric among 396 VA clinics providing PC-MHI services between October 2013 and September 2016. (bvsalud.org)
- The explanatory variable was the proportion of primary care patients seen by integrated mental health specialists in each clinic annually. (bvsalud.org)
- CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Primary care clinics where integrated mental health care reached a greater proportion of patients achieved modest albeit statistically significant gains in key chronic care quality metrics , providing optimism about the expected effects of large-scale PC-MHI implementation on physical health . (bvsalud.org)
- Facilitating coordination of medical, mental health, and chemical dependency care can avoid duplication of services and, hopefully, assist the patient in adhering to the treatment regimen. (medscape.com)
- In addition, even small amounts of alcohol can interact with medications specifically prescribed for travel, creating adverse reactions leading to unwanted visits to unfamiliar health care providers. (cdc.gov)
- Your health care provider can help you figure out if one of these medicines is right for you. (medlineplus.gov)
- It involves working with a health care professional to identify and help change the behaviors that lead to your heavy drinking. (medlineplus.gov)
- The data obtained: socio-demographic profiles and clinical few years have shown a new era of mental health care i.e. re- details including the BPRS scores were entered into a SPSS institutionalization.2 Various factors are responsible for this. (who.int)
Chestnut Health Systems1
- Chestnut Health Systems, Inc. (stltoday.com)
- BHRD provides community mental health treatment, also known as outpatient services , to people who qualify for Medicaid . (kingcounty.gov)
- Dr. Nicholas Mitchell is the Senior Medical Director with the Alberta Health Services Addiction and Mental Health Strategic Clinical Network. (albertahealthservices.ca)
- Introduction To better reach youth in need of mental health and addiction (MHA) services, there is increasing emphasis on making MHA services 'youth friendly. (bmj.com)
- HHS, through SAMHSA, awarded $6M to states, tribes and college campuses for youth suicide prevention programs, part of the Biden-Harris commitment to addressing the mental health crisis. (samhsa.gov)
- HHS, through SAMHSA, announced more than $200 million in new funding for states, territories, and tribes to build local capacity for the 988 Suicide & Crisis Lifeline and related crisis services. (samhsa.gov)
- Health insurers of San Francisco's workers and retirees say they have significantly reduced addictive painkiller prescriptions in response to the opioid crisis gripping the nation. (constantcontact.com)
- A $9.5 million proposal would outlaw locking people in jail when they are picked up on mental health holds and bolster the state's network of crisis-response teams, walk-in treatment centers and transportation from rural Colorado. (denverpost.com)
- It only makes a person's mental health far, far worse to be not only in a state of crisis but now in jail. (denverpost.com)
- The funds would support two-person mobile crisis teams, including a law officer and a behavioral health specialist, to intervene on mental health-related police calls and de-escalate situations more appropriate for mental health treatment than arrest. (denverpost.com)
- In 2013, Gov. John Hickenlooper ramped up mental health treatment statewide with a $25 million initiative that created a crisis hotline and walk-in mental health crisis centers throughout the state. (denverpost.com)
- The latest proposals come after recommendations from the governor's task force on mental health holds, which said in January that the state should outlaw using jails to house those who are in mental health crisis, as well as recommendations from the Commission on Criminal and Juvenile Justice. (denverpost.com)
- From January 2015 to April 2016, a single county in Colorado held 117 people in mental health crisis in jail because there were no available beds at treatment centers or no available transportation to those centers, according to state Department of Human Services documents provided to lawmakers. (denverpost.com)
- From Grand Junction, which has just 11 contracted mental health beds, the nearest crisis stabilization unit is 248 miles in Littleton, a four-hour drive one way. (denverpost.com)
- Under the proposals, mobile crisis units would transport people in mental health crisis to the closest treatment option. (denverpost.com)
- Persons may refer themselves for crisis residential/stabilization services or may be referred by a hospital, police department, mental health agency, social service agency, or family member. (chestnut.org)
- If you or a loved one is actively experiencing a behavioral health crisis, King County still recommends that you call the King County Regional Crisis Line at Crisis Connections at 206-461-3222 or 1-866-427-4747 , or visit www.CrisisConnections.org . (kingcounty.gov)
- Crisis Connections is the best way to connect to local crisis response services. (kingcounty.gov)
World Health Organ2
- 9 ] Telemental health is the "use of telemedicine to provide mental health assessment and treatment at a distance. (cdc.gov)
- 11,16 ] Twenty-three states and the District of Columbia require that payments for telemental health services be equivalent to those received for in-office treatment. (cdc.gov)
- A new report underscores the challenges of getting mental health treatment when living in rural areas, like much of Montana. (publicnewsservice.org)
- National Council for Behavioral Health is the unifying voice of America's community mental health and addictions treatment organizations. (constantcontact.com)
- Both medication and nonmedication services have been found to be effective for treatment. (cdc.gov)
- Within a day, the person must go to a health facility for evaluation and treatment, but in rural areas, the nearest mental health center is often hours away. (denverpost.com)
- There have been reports of human rights violations against people with mental health conditions, with some service users suffering coercion and forced treatment. (who.int)
- The initiative is helping to address the issue of rights and access to dignified treatment for mental health conditions by making available the e-training programme with online coaching on mental health, human rights and recovery whilst ensuring the provision of holistic services that comply with recovery principles and international human rights standards. (who.int)
- We also offer supportive services that enhance the effectiveness of mental health treatment. (kingcounty.gov)
- For more than 50 years, Lehigh Valley Health Network has been caring for people who need behavioral health treatment, whether it's for counseling during a stressful time in your life or for a lifelong condition that requires medication, and anything in between. (lvhn.org)
- It has important policy implications in improving treatment access to this sizeable but understudied subgroup affected by the attack, which has a history of being the lowest mental health service users compared to other races. (cdc.gov)
- For service providers like Dr Ramata Seidu, a Resident in Psychiatry, the QualityRights Initiative is improving their service provision. (who.int)
- There is also a gap between the demand for services from child psychiatrists and psychologists and the supply of providers. (cdc.gov)
- Chestnut's psychiatrists provide expert evaluation and medical management of mental health and substance use issues. (chestnut.org)
- Zimbabwe faces a critical shortage of mental health professionals, with only 17 psychiatrists and 900 mental health nurses available to serve the whole country. (co.zw)
- Individuals unknown to a psychiatric service at the point of a first psychotic episode are, in the climate of closure of hospitals for people with learning disability, increasingly likely to be admitted to a general adult psychiatric ward. (bmj.com)
- The Friendship Bench is a community-based mental health programme that is helping to improve access to mental healthcare through a cost-effective intervention. (co.zw)
- The WHO QualityRights Initiative is a truly innovative programme for transforming lives of people with mental health conditions," notes Susan Adwoa Mensah, Social Development Adviser for FCDO. (who.int)
Severe mental health2
- It is estimated that one in four of us will experience some mental health problems in our lifetime, from a low period, to more serious depression, to a small number who will experience severe mental health problems. (hse.ie)
- This indicator represents the response to the survey question 3.14 Do you offer community services for early intervention and continuing support to young people with a first episode of a severe mental health problem? (who.int)
- Our trained Masters-level and licensed clinicians are available to assess your needs and provide therapy services for individuals of all ages and for their families. (chestnut.org)
- By offering this broad array of services, we help individuals achieve their full potential and improve their overall quality of life. (kingcounty.gov)
- Individuals can choose from a variety of different services and work with different service providers to set personal goals and achieve their full potential. (kingcounty.gov)
- These individuals may have undergone many poorly coordinated episodes of prior medical, mental health, and chemical dependency treatments by several different providers. (medscape.com)
- Lessons learned from the RDF 3 experience include the need for both clinical and public health capacity, the value of having special mental health resources, the benefits of collaboration with other federal medical responders, and recognition of the large burden of chronic disease management issues following natural disasters. (cdc.gov)
- SAMHSA celebrates Pride Month and remains committed to supporting the health and well-being of the LGBTQI+ community. (samhsa.gov)
- A NEW mental health consortium will bring local agencies together to bridge gaps that have impacted access to timely support in the Geelong community. (barwonhealth.org.au)
- The e-training is now a semester course in Human Rights and Mental Health for Community Mental Health and Rehabilitation specialists of the Ghana College of Nurses and Midwives. (who.int)
- David Naboare, President of the Ghana National Association of Community Mental Health Officers, concurs. (who.int)
- Services are provided through licensed community mental health centers. (kingcounty.gov)
- Specialist community perinatal services will go along way but there needs to be access to inpatient services and beds, accessible across the island. (sinnfein.ie)
- The scoping review results will be strengthened by consultations with youth, family members and community service providers on the definition, characteristics and expected impacts of youth friendliness. (bmj.com)
- Community health assessment and health improvement planning. (cdc.gov)
- The QualityRights Initiative, rolled out on a national scale, involves face-to-face and e-training of mental health service providers, caregivers, teachers, police service personnel, social welfare officials, the judicial service and persons with lived experiences. (who.int)
- With a focus on launching a new initiative across seven Kings County communities, the grant helps to address mental and behavioral health through programming and training focused on improving the mental health of residents and staff. (mercyhousing.org)
- Paul Dockerty, Senior Health and Wellbeing Officer at Cafcass, talks about his role and our upcoming mental health initiative. (cafcass.gov.uk)
- Alabama must redraw its Congressional maps, CNN reports a former official told the feds Trump knew the process for declassifying documents, and Canadian wildfires affect the health of humans and wildlife. (publicnewsservice.org)
- Published Date : 9 2022 Source : J Rural Health. (cdc.gov)
- King County provides publicly-funded mental health services to low-income people in need. (kingcounty.gov)
- such use could be associated with negative health consequences and other risky behaviors. (cdc.gov)
- Most people are treated by the GP alone, unless more support, for example, therapy services, is required, in which case you may be referred to some of the following day and hospital services. (hse.ie)
- HHS, through SAMHSA, published the National Model Standards for Peer Support Certification for substance use, mental health and family peer workers. (samhsa.gov)
- If the conflict has progressed to a point where you feel like you need to move accommodation or wish to terminate your lease agreement early, the Student Advice and Support Service Team can talk you through the process and implications of this. (lboro.ac.uk)
- If you are experiencing bullying or harassment by your flatmates, you can receive support from a member of the Mental Wellbeing Team. (lboro.ac.uk)
- Our Core Funding Opportunity is just one of the many ways we're able to support essential services for local children and families," said Emily Koenig, executive director of CSF. (stltoday.com)
- Support Mercy Housing in our mission to create stable, vibrant and healthy communities by providing affordable, service-enriched housing. (mercyhousing.org)
- Cafcass is excited to be working in partnership with Mental Health First Aid England over the next few months to help raise awareness and support improved mental health in the workplace," Paul explains. (cafcass.gov.uk)
- Telemental health could increase access for all rural Americans by maximizing the ability of the existing mental health workforce to reach people who may not have access to in-person services. (cdc.gov)
- We, Barwon Health, acknowledge the Traditional Owners of the land, the Wadawurrung people of the Kulin Nation. (barwonhealth.org.au)
- Colorado is one of only six states that allows putting people who are suicidal or having mental health episodes behind bars. (denverpost.com)
- People can be held for up to 72 hours, though an evaluation can result in a longer commitment in a mental health facility. (denverpost.com)
- It has now been modified for young people and today, we launch the Friendship Bench here at the University of Zimbabwe to provide a tailored mental health intervention for college and university students to help young people get that access to mental healthcare. (co.zw)
- He encouraged people to visit health centres for assistance and make use of services such as the Friendship Bench. (co.zw)
- This scoping review explores (1) how youth friendliness in mental health services is defined in the literature, (2) what characteristics make MHA services youth friendly and (3) how youth friendliness is expected to impact service use by young people. (bmj.com)
- CDC policy briefs provide a summary of evidence-based best practices or policy options for a public health issue. (cdc.gov)
- We lead public health efforts to advance the behavioral health of the nation. (samhsa.gov)
- SAMHSA's mission is to lead public health and service delivery efforts that promote mental health, prevent substance misuse, and provide treatments and supports to foster recovery while ensuring equitable access and better outcomes. (samhsa.gov)
- Public Health Rep . 2004 Jan-Feb;119(1):48-59. (nih.gov)
- World Health Organisation (WHO) acting country representative Alex Gasasira said in Africa, the data on suicide was scarce and stigma was significant around suicide, though this was a serious public health problem. (co.zw)
- An emergency health camp has also been set up by the Ministry of Public Health, WHO and their partners. (who.int)
- Villagers are receiving mental health first aid from counselling teams and the Ministry of Public Health is currently conducting additional training for field teams on post-disaster mental health needs assessment. (who.int)
- Public health officials can assist in disseminating the following resources to the audiences who need them. (cdc.gov)
- The effects of a disaster, terrorist attack, or other public health emergency can be long-lasting, and the resulting trauma can affect those not directly impacted by the disaster. (cdc.gov)
- The reduction in mother-to-infant transmission of HIV is regarded as one of the most effective US public health initiatives. (medscape.com)
- Public health emergency response lessons learned by Rapid Deployment Force 3, 2006-2016. (cdc.gov)
- Following Hurricane Katrina, the uniformed US Public Health Service created an updated system through which its officers participated in emergency responses. (cdc.gov)
- The Rapid Deployment Force (RDF) concept, begun in 2006, involved five teams of officers with diverse clinical and public health skill sets organized into an incident command system led by a team commander. (cdc.gov)
- Between 2006 and 2016, the RDF 3 team deployed multiple times in response to natural disasters and public health emergencies. (cdc.gov)
- CDC's "Mass Casualty Event Preparedness and Response" website, available at http://emergency.cdc.gov/masscasualties/index.asp, is the primary location for resources for the general public and for health professionals. (cdc.gov)
- In the south, a preferred site has been chosen for a specialist perinatal mental health service in St Vincent's Hospital in Dublin, but there are no meetings scheduled to discuss this until at least September this year. (sinnfein.ie)
- In the face of recently introduced government health reform and the dwindling number of available beds for acutely ill patients, a cross sectional study was carried out on long-stay patients at the 100 years old psychiatric hospital Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria with a view to discharging most of them. (who.int)
- According to the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), 61% of areas with a mental health professional shortage are rural or partially rural. (cdc.gov)
- This means that if you're enrolled in TRICARE Prime, you can make an appointment with a TRICARE-authorized network provider for mental health services like individual or family counseling or therapy. (health.mil)
- 10 ] This brief will use the term telemedicine to refer to the general use of technology to provide health services. (cdc.gov)
- There is some evidence that when telemedicine is not reimbursed, or is reimbursed at a lower level than in-person services, doctors may not have sufficient financial incentives to provide telemedicine services. (cdc.gov)
- WHO has provided emergency medical kits, essential medicines, diarrhoea kits, and tents to provide health services at the site of the emergency. (who.int)
- Financial strain, stress, substance abuse and other life issues can lead to depression, anxiety, or other mental health issues. (health.mil)
- Untreated mental health conditions like anxiety, depression, substance use disorder, and PTSD can lead to more suffering, self-medication, and financial and relationship challenges, regardless of age. (health.mil)
- Regulation varies considerably because each state defines telemedicine services differently, and these definitions determine the services that qualify for reimbursement under Medicaid and private insurance. (cdc.gov)
- The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) encourages states to use the flexibility built into Medicaid to create innovative payment methodologies for services that incorporate telemedicine technology. (cdc.gov)
- 13 ] Thirty-nine states have some form of Medicaid coverage and reimbursement for telemental health services. (cdc.gov)
- Sinn Féin spokespersons north and south, Mark Ward TD and Órlaithí Flynn MLA, have called for a specialist perinatal mental health service on the island of Ireland. (sinnfein.ie)
- Managers across Cafcass, as well as a network of Mental Health First Aiders, will receive specialist training on understanding mental health and its different forms. (cafcass.gov.uk)
- interpreter services (through the Washington State Healthcare Authority's contract with Universal Language Service . (kingcounty.gov)
- In general, though positive aspects have been found, most of the references indicate stigma, prejudice and neglect from institutions and professionals regarding mental health users' sexuality. (bvsalud.org)
- Boston health officials are dealing with the immediate aftermath of two bombs that exploded near the finish line of the Boston Marathon on the afternoon of April 15, 2013. (cdc.gov)
- Post-traumatic mental health problems are a key concern in the area as many families have lost their loved ones as well as property and all means of income. (who.int)
Outreach and engagement1
- SAMHSA is sponsoring a Behavioral Health Equity Challenge to learn more about outreach and engagement strategies that foster behavioral health equity throughout the country. (samhsa.gov)
- There are many definitions of telemedicine, but the American Telemedicine Association defines it as the "use of medical information exchanged from one site to another via electronic communications to improve patients' health status. (cdc.gov)
- On the private payer side, thirty-two states and the District of Columbia have private payer policies in place for telehealth, but these policies differ considerably in what services are covered and how much providers are reimbursed. (cdc.gov)
- Funded by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) as a Special Program of National Significance (SPNS), Whole Life efforts have been sustained beyond the demonstration funding period as a result of the changes brought about in organizational structures, service delivery, and the providers' conceptualization of health for HIV-infected women. (nih.gov)
- Even if you do not qualify for our mental health services, you can find out about other low-cost mental health service providers . (kingcounty.gov)
- This information was combined with epidemiological estimates of cases to determine overall service volumes and resource requirements. (sfu.ca)
- Previous research using data from the National Health Interview Survey found that about 6% of adolescents have serious emotional or behavioral difficulties. (cdc.gov)
- Moyo said it was vital to raise awareness about the issues of mental health and suicide so as to prevent unnecessary loss of life. (co.zw)