The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.
A combination of distressing physical, psychologic, or behavioral changes that occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Symptoms of PMS are diverse (such as pain, water-retention, anxiety, cravings, and depression) and they diminish markedly 2 or 3 days after the initiation of menses.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.
Painful menstruation.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.
The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that is optimal for FERTILIZATION of the OVUM and yielding PREGNANCY. The duration of fertile period depends on the life span of male GAMETES within the female reproductive tract and the time of OVULATION. It usually begins a few days before ovulation and ends on the day of ovulation.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
Absence of menstruation.
Method to determine the occurrence of OVULATION by direct or indirect means. Indirect methods examine the effects of PROGESTERONE on cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), or basal body temperature. Direct ovulation detection, generally used in fertility treatment, involves analyses of circulating hormones in blood and ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
Personal care items used during MENSTRUATION.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.
The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Abnormally infrequent menstruation.
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.
A condition in which functional endometrial tissue is present outside the UTERUS. It is often confined to the PELVIS involving the OVARY, the ligaments, cul-de-sac, and the uterovesical peritoneum.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
Predicting the time of OVULATION can be achieved by measuring the preovulatory elevation of ESTRADIOL; LUTEINIZING HORMONE or other hormones in BLOOD or URINE. Accuracy of ovulation prediction depends on the completeness of the hormone profiles, and the ability to determine the preovulatory LH peak.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
The first MENSTRUAL CYCLE marked by the initiation of MENSTRUATION.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.
The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.
A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.
Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.
The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Excessive uterine bleeding during MENSTRUATION.
A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
A slightly alkaline secretion of the endocervical glands. The consistency and amount are dependent on the physiological hormone changes in the menstrual cycle. It contains the glycoprotein mucin, amino acids, sugar, enzymes, and electrolytes, with a water content up to 90%. The mucus is a useful protection against the ascent of bacteria and sperm into the uterus. (From Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1988)
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
A species of macaque monkey that mainly inhabits the forest of southern India. They are also called bonnet macaques or bonnet monkeys.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.
Hormones produced in the testis.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Pathological processes of the OVARY.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.
The 3-methyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. It must be demethylated to be biologically active. It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).
The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.
A class of natural contraceptive methods in which SEXUAL ABSTINENCE is practiced a few days before and after the estimated day of ovulation, during the fertile phase. Methods for determining the fertile period or OVULATION DETECTION are based on various physiological indicators, such as circulating hormones, changes in cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), and the basal body temperature.
The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE a common weed of the southeast US. There has been folk use for alcoholism and liver protection. It contains puerarin, kakkalide, daidzein (isoflavonoids), and kudzusaponins (oleanene-type triterpene glycosides).
A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE with a somewhat different social structure than PAPIO HAMADRYAS. They inhabit several areas in Africa south of the Sahara.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.
A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.
The transitional period before and after MENOPAUSE. Perimenopausal symptoms are associated with irregular MENSTRUAL CYCLE and widely fluctuated hormone levels. They may appear 6 years before menopause and subside 2 to 5 years after menopause.

Novel insights into human endometrial paracrinology and embryo-maternal communication by intrauterine microdialysis. (1/1799)

The regulation of human implantation is still unknown. Evidence from mice suggests an essential role for several paracrine mediators but species differences with implantation in the human preclude the extrapolation of these concepts to humans. An intrauterine microdialysis device (IUMD), consisting of microdialysis tubing glued into a balloon catheter on one side and into a polypropylene tube on the other, allows a dynamic and accurate in-vivo measurement of uterine paracrine interactions in humans. Inserted into the uterine cavity in the form of a loop, it can be continuously perfused with saline to reveal a number of relevant cytokines and growth factors in uterine effluents of non-pregnant women in both follicular and luteal phases. These included interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF), macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), epidermal growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), prolactin, and human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG). The source of intrauterine HCG is unclear since endometrial mRNA for the HCG beta-subunit is not revealed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. Applying urinary HCG locally via the IUMD profoundly alters endometrial secretory parameters. Prolactin, IGFBP-1, and M-CSF are significantly inhibited and VEGF is regulated in a biphasic manner involving early stimulation followed by inhibition of intrauterine levels. Use of the IUMD has thus shown that the urinary HCG preparations routinely used for ovulation induction and luteal support may directly alter endometrial function.  (+info)

Marker molecules of human endometrial differentiation can be hormonally regulated under in-vitro conditions as in-vivo. (2/1799)

An established cell culture system of isolated human endometrial stromal and epithelial cells has been used to study the effects of oestrogen and progesterone, as well as their antagonists, upon endometrial cells. Normal hormonal regulation in vivo was investigated simultaneously in endometrial tissue samples taken at different phases of the menstrual cycle. Several marker molecules analysed by immunohistochemistry appeared to depend strongly on endocrine regulation and could be traced in culture. Immunohistochemically, basic parameters of cell biology were identified in vitro, e.g. cell proliferation (Ki-67), adhesion molecules (beta3 integrin) and paracrine factors (leukaemia inhibitory factor). The most reliable parameters to assess hormonal influences were oestrogen and progesterone receptor molecules. Immunohistochemical localization could be improved by molecular biological analysis using RT-PCR. In the presence of oestrogen, a significant expression of hormone receptors was also shown by RT-PCR, and withdrawal of oestrogens and addition of gestagen, i.e. medroxyprogesterone acetate, caused receptor downregulation. Addition of the anti-oestrogen ICI 182.780 to cell-culture medium significantly decreased the synthesis of progesterone receptors.  (+info)

Utero-ovarian interaction in the regulation of reproductive function. (3/1799)

The physiological regulation of fertile reproductive cycle in mammals depends on interactions between hypothalamus-pituitary, ovarian and uterine stimuli. Over the past 20 years, much has been learned about the interrelation between the affluent and effluent lymph and vascular drainage in and around both ovarian and uterine tissues. An essential feature in the regulation of the fertile cycle is the functional status of the ovary, particularly the corpus luteum. During the time of implantation and the early pregnancy, an active corpus luteum is essential. As human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) is important in the maintenance of the corpus luteum, we investigated if it was produced by the cyclic endometrium. Immunohistochemical and in-situ hybridization reactions were performed but neither identified the presence of HCG during the proliferative phase. Positive staining and beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-HCG) mRNA were observed during the secretory phase in the glandular cells of the endometrium. The results were confirmed by Western blotting of secretory phase endometrium extracts and assessment of the functional secretory capacity of primary endometrial cultures. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) investigations showed a positive result in the secretory phase. We postulate that, based on the very close morphological interrelation between the uterus and the ovary, the beta-HCG of the endometrium is the primary factor for the maintenance of the corpus luteum and early pregnancy.  (+info)

Endometrial oestrogen and progesterone receptors and their relationship to sonographic appearance of the endometrium. (4/1799)

The rapid development of ultrasonographic equipment now permits instantaneous assessment of follicles and endometrium. The sonographic appearance of the endometrium has been discussed in relation to in-vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. However, a generally agreed view of the relationship of the sonographic appearance to fecundity in IVF cycles has not emerged. We have studied the relationship between steroid receptors and the sonographic appearance of the preovulatory endometrium in natural cycles and ovulation induction cycles. Preovulatory endometrial thickness was not found to be indicative of fecundity, although a preovulatory endometrial thickness of <9 mm related to an elevated miscarriage rate. The preovulatory endometrial echo pattern did not predict fecundity. No relationships were found among endometrial appearance, endometrial steroid receptors and steroid hormone concentrations in serum. Oestrogen or progesterone receptor concentrations were not related to endometrial thickness or to concentrations of serum oestradiol, the only significant correlation being found between the endometrial concentrations of oestrogen and progesterone receptors. The ratio of progesterone:oestrogen receptor concentration was somewhat less in echo pattern B (not triple line) endometrium compared with pattern A (triple line) endometrium. Oestrogen and progesterone receptor concentrations appeared stable on gonadotrophin induction, though fewer numbers were found during clomiphene cycles than in natural cycles. With regard to the distribution of receptor concentration between clomiphene and natural cycles, most women using clomiphene had very low oestrogen receptor populations. Pregnancy rates were low, in spite of high ovulatory rates during clomiphene treatment and were mainly related to low oestrogen receptor concentrations in preovulatory endometrium.  (+info)

Oxytocin and vasopressin receptors in human and uterine myomas during menstrual cycle and early pregnancy. (5/1799)

The purpose of this study was to determine the specificity and concentration of oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) binding sites in non-pregnant (NP) human and rhesus monkey endometrium, myometrium and fibromyomas, and to determine the cellular localization of OT receptor (OTR). Besides [3H]AVP, [125I]LVA, a specific VP1 receptor subtype antagonist, was used to determine vasopressin receptor (VPR) concentrations. Samples were obtained from 42 pre-menopausal and three pregnant women (5, 13 and 35 weeks gestation), and several NP and pregnant monkeys. Specificity of binding was assessed in competition experiments with unlabelled agonists and antagonists of known pharmacological potency. Cellular localization of OTR was determined by immunohistochemistry. In NP human uterine tissues, [3H]AVP was bound with higher affinity and greater binding capacity than [3H]OT, whereas in pregnant women and in NP and pregnant rhesus monkeys, uterine OT binding capacity was greater. OT and AVP binding sites discriminated very poorly between OT and AVP; [125I]LVA binding sites were more selective than [3H]AVP. Their ligand specificity and binding kinetics indicated the presence of two distinct populations of binding sites for OT and AVP in primate uterus. Endometrium of NP women and monkeys had low OTR and VPR concentrations. Myometrial and endometrial OTR and VPR were down-regulated in midcycle and in early human pregnancy, they were up-regulated in the secretory phase and second half of pregnancy. Immunoreactive OTR in NP uterus was localized in patches of myometrial muscle cells and small numbers of endometrial epithelial cells.  (+info)

Expression of the oxytocin receptor in relation to steroid receptors in the uterus of a primate model, the marmoset monkey. (6/1799)

The dynamics of the receptors for oestrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and oxytocin (OTR) in the marmoset uterus have been analysed throughout the entire cycle and early pregnancy. Uteri obtained during the early, mid/late and late proliferative phase, and the early, mid and late secretory phase and early pregnancy were examined by immunohistochemistry (OTR, ER, PR) and autoradiography (OTR). A massive upregulation of the ER in the cell nuclei of glandular epithelium and stromal cells during the mid proliferative phase was succeeded by a declining staining intensity and positively stained cell number in the secretory phase. PR immunoreactivity increased in the late proliferative phase and early secretory phase, mainly within the cell nuclei, and then declined in both intensity and cell number towards the mid to late secretory phase. Myometrium showed a similar staining pattern for the steroid receptors. OTR were expressed weakly in stroma throughout the entire cycle, increasing slightly in the secretory phase. Glandular epithelium showed positive staining only during the periovulatory period. Myometrial OTR expression was weak during the proliferative phase, increased towards the secretory phase, and was maximal in the late secretory phase. Myometrial tissue adjacent to endometrium was most strongly stained. A cyclic shift evidently occurred in the pattern of steroid receptors, perhaps reflecting the steroid environment or the luteinizing hormone increase associated with ovulation.  (+info)

Sonographic evidence for the involvement of the utero-ovarian counter-current system in the ovarian control of directed uterine sperm transport. (7/1799)

Sperm transport from the cervix into the tube is an important uterine function within the process of reproduction. This function is exerted by uterine peristalsis and is controlled by the dominant ovarian structure via a cascade of endocrine events. The uterine peristaltic activity involves only the stratum subvasculare of the myometrium, which exhibits a predominantly circular arrangement of muscular fibres that separate at the fundal level into the fibres of the cornua and continue into the circular muscles of the respective tubes. Since spermatozoa are transported preferentially into the tube ipsilateral to the dominant follicle, this asymmetric uterine function may be controlled by the ovary via direct effects utilizing the utero-ovarian counter-current system, in addition to the systemic circulation. To test this possibility the sonographic characteristics of the uterine vascular bed were studied during different phases of the menstrual cycle. Vaginal sonography with the measurement of Doppler flow characteristics of both uterine arteries and of the arterial anastomoses of the uterine and ovarian arteries (junctional vessels) in the cornual region of both sides of the uterus during the menstrual phase of regular-cycling women demonstrated significant lower resistance indices of the junctional vessels ipsilateral to the side of the dominant ovarian structure as compared with the corresponding arteries contralaterally. By the use of the perfusion mode technique, it could be observed that vascular perfusion of the fundal myometrium was significantly increased ipsilateral to the dominant follicle during the late follicular phase of the cycle. These results show that the endocrine control of the dominant ovarian structure over uterine function is not only exerted via the systemic circulation but also directly, most probably utilizing the utero-ovarian counter-current system.  (+info)

Phenotypic and functional studies of leukocytes in human endometrium and endometriosis. (8/1799)

The aetiology of endometriosis, a common and disabling disorder, is presently unknown, although immune dysfunction could allow ectopic endometrial fragments to survive outside the uterine cavity. These studies investigate the relationship between leukocyte populations, steroid hormone receptor expression, proliferative activity, bcl-2 expression and apoptosis in eutopic and ectopic endometrium from women with endometriosis or adenomyosis at different phases of the menstrual cycle. Significantly increased oestrogen receptor expression, bcl-2 expression and numbers of CD8+ leukocytes were found in ectopic compared with eutopic endometrium in endometriosis, and CD56+ endometrial granulated lymphocytes (eGLs) were significantly reduced in ectopic endometrium. Apoptotic cells were rarely found in control and subject endometria. In contrast with endometriosis, adenomyotic lesions showed identical steroid hormone receptor expression, proliferative activity, bcl-2 expression and leukocyte subpopulations to eutopic endometrium, indicating different aetiologies for these disorders. The unusual CD56+ CD16- eGLs present in large numbers in late secretory phase eutopic endometrium were highly purified (>98%) by immunomagnetic separation. Except for a negligible cytotoxic activity of eGLs from early proliferative samples, cytotoxic activity of eGLs from non-pregnant endometrium during the menstrual cycle was comparable with those in peripheral blood, predominantly CD56+ CD16+ natural killer cells. eGLs from non-pregnant endometrium and early pregnancy showed a variable proliferative response to 5 and 100 U/ml interleukin-2 over 48-h and 120-h time courses. eGLs are evidently functionally important in the eutopic endometrium. Their absence in endometriotic lesions together with increased CD+8 T-cell numbers and increased oestrogen receptor and bcl-2 expression may have significant effects on the development and progression of endometriosis.  (+info)

The menstrual cycle is a series of natural changes that occur in the female reproductive system over an approximate 28-day interval, marking the body's preparation for potential pregnancy. It involves the interplay of hormones that regulate the growth and disintegration of the uterine lining (endometrium) and the release of an egg (ovulation) from the ovaries.

The menstrual cycle can be divided into three main phases:

1. Menstrual phase: The cycle begins with the onset of menstruation, where the thickened uterine lining is shed through the vagina, lasting typically for 3-7 days. This shedding occurs due to a decrease in estrogen and progesterone levels, which are hormones essential for maintaining the endometrium during the previous cycle.

2. Follicular phase: After menstruation, the follicular phase commences with the pituitary gland releasing follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH stimulates the growth of several ovarian follicles, each containing an immature egg. One dominant follicle usually becomes selected to mature and release an egg during ovulation. Estrogen levels rise as the dominant follicle grows, causing the endometrium to thicken in preparation for a potential pregnancy.

3. Luteal phase: Following ovulation, the ruptured follicle transforms into the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and estrogen to further support the endometrial thickening. If fertilization does not occur within approximately 24 hours after ovulation, the corpus luteum will degenerate, leading to a decline in hormone levels. This drop triggers the onset of menstruation, initiating a new menstrual cycle.

Understanding the menstrual cycle is crucial for monitoring reproductive health and planning or preventing pregnancies. Variations in cycle length and symptoms are common among women, but persistent irregularities may indicate underlying medical conditions requiring further evaluation by a healthcare professional.

The follicular phase is a term used in reproductive endocrinology, which refers to the first part of the menstrual cycle. This phase begins on the first day of menstruation and lasts until ovulation. During this phase, several follicles in the ovaries begin to mature under the influence of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) released by the pituitary gland.

Typically, one follicle becomes dominant and continues to mature, while the others regress. The dominant follicle produces increasing amounts of estrogen, which causes the lining of the uterus to thicken in preparation for a possible pregnancy. The follicular phase can vary in length, but on average it lasts about 14 days.

It's important to note that the length and characteristics of the follicular phase can provide valuable information in diagnosing various reproductive disorders, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or thyroid dysfunction.

Menstruation is the regular, cyclical shedding of the uterine lining (endometrium) in women and female individuals of reproductive age, accompanied by the discharge of blood and other materials from the vagina. It typically occurs every 21 to 35 days and lasts for approximately 2-7 days. This process is a part of the menstrual cycle, which is under the control of hormonal fluctuations involving follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estrogen, and progesterone.

The menstrual cycle can be divided into three main phases:

1. Menstruation phase: The beginning of the cycle is marked by the start of menstrual bleeding, which signals the breakdown and shedding of the endometrium due to the absence of pregnancy and low levels of estrogen and progesterone. This phase typically lasts for 2-7 days.

2. Proliferative phase: After menstruation, under the influence of rising estrogen levels, the endometrium starts to thicken and regenerate. The uterine lining becomes rich in blood vessels and glands, preparing for a potential pregnancy. This phase lasts from day 5 until around day 14 of an average 28-day cycle.

3. Secretory phase: Following ovulation (release of an egg from the ovaries), which usually occurs around day 14, increased levels of progesterone cause further thickening and maturation of the endometrium. The glands in the lining produce nutrients to support a fertilized egg. If pregnancy does not occur, both estrogen and progesterone levels will drop, leading to menstruation and the start of a new cycle.

Understanding menstruation is essential for monitoring reproductive health, identifying potential issues such as irregular periods or menstrual disorders, and planning family planning strategies.

The luteal phase is the second half of the menstrual cycle, starting from ovulation (release of an egg from the ovaries) and lasting until the start of the next menstruation. This phase typically lasts around 12-14 days in a regular 28-day menstrual cycle. During this phase, the remains of the dominant follicle that released the egg transform into the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and some estrogen to support the implantation of a fertilized egg and maintain the early stages of pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum degenerates, leading to a drop in hormone levels and the start of a new menstrual cycle.

The cell cycle is a series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication. It consists of four main phases: G1 phase, S phase, G2 phase, and M phase.

During the G1 phase, the cell grows in size and synthesizes mRNA and proteins in preparation for DNA replication. In the S phase, the cell's DNA is copied, resulting in two complete sets of chromosomes. During the G2 phase, the cell continues to grow and produces more proteins and organelles necessary for cell division.

The M phase is the final stage of the cell cycle and consists of mitosis (nuclear division) and cytokinesis (cytoplasmic division). Mitosis results in two genetically identical daughter nuclei, while cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm and creates two separate daughter cells.

The cell cycle is regulated by various checkpoints that ensure the proper completion of each phase before progressing to the next. These checkpoints help prevent errors in DNA replication and division, which can lead to mutations and cancer.

The endometrium is the innermost layer of the uterus, which lines the uterine cavity and has a critical role in the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. It is composed of glands and blood vessels that undergo cyclic changes under the influence of hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone. During the menstrual cycle, the endometrium thickens in preparation for a potential pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, it will break down and be shed, resulting in menstruation. In contrast, if implantation takes place, the endometrium provides essential nutrients to support the developing embryo and placenta throughout pregnancy.

Progesterone is a steroid hormone that is primarily produced in the ovaries during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy. It plays an essential role in preparing the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. Progesterone works to thicken the lining of the uterus, creating a nurturing environment for the developing embryo.

During the menstrual cycle, progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum, a temporary structure formed in the ovary after an egg has been released from a follicle during ovulation. If pregnancy does not occur, the levels of progesterone will decrease, leading to the shedding of the uterine lining and menstruation.

In addition to its reproductive functions, progesterone also has various other effects on the body, such as helping to regulate the immune system, supporting bone health, and potentially influencing mood and cognition. Progesterone can be administered medically in the form of oral pills, intramuscular injections, or vaginal suppositories for various purposes, including hormone replacement therapy, contraception, and managing certain gynecological conditions.

Menstruation disturbances, also known as menstrual disorders, refer to any irregularities or abnormalities in a woman's menstrual cycle. These disturbances can manifest in various ways, including:

1. Amenorrhea: The absence of menstrual periods for three consecutive cycles or more in women of reproductive age.
2. Oligomenorrhea: Infrequent or light menstrual periods that occur at intervals greater than 35 days.
3. Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation, often accompanied by cramping, pelvic pain, and other symptoms that can interfere with daily activities.
4. Menorrhagia: Heavy or prolonged menstrual periods that last longer than seven days or result in excessive blood loss, leading to anemia or other health complications.
5. Polymenorrhea: Abnormally frequent menstrual periods that occur at intervals of 21 days or less.
6. Metrorrhagia: Irregular and unpredictable vaginal bleeding between expected menstrual periods, which can be caused by various factors such as hormonal imbalances, infections, or structural abnormalities.

Menstruation disturbances can have significant impacts on a woman's quality of life, fertility, and overall health. They may result from various underlying conditions, including hormonal imbalances, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, uterine fibroids, endometriosis, or sexually transmitted infections. Proper diagnosis and treatment of the underlying cause are essential for managing menstruation disturbances effectively.

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) is a complex of symptoms that occur in the latter part of the luteal phase (the second half) of the menstrual cycle, typically starting 5-11 days before the onset of menses, and remitting shortly after the onset of menstruation. The symptoms can be physical, psychological, or behavioral and vary from mild to severe. They include but are not limited to: bloating, breast tenderness, cramps, headaches, mood swings, irritability, depression, anxiety, fatigue, changes in appetite, and difficulty concentrating.

The exact cause of PMS is not known, but it appears to be related to hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle, particularly fluctuations in estrogen and progesterone levels. Some women may be more susceptible to these hormonal shifts due to genetic factors, neurotransmitter imbalances, or other health conditions.

Treatment for PMS often involves a combination of lifestyle changes (such as regular exercise, stress management, and dietary modifications), over-the-counter pain relievers, and, in some cases, hormonal medications or antidepressants. It's important to consult with a healthcare provider for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan.

Estradiol is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone. It is the most potent and dominant form of estrogen in humans. Estradiol plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in women, such as breast development and regulation of the menstrual cycle. It also helps maintain bone density, protect the lining of the uterus, and is involved in cognition and mood regulation.

Estradiol is produced primarily by the ovaries, but it can also be synthesized in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estradiol is produced from testosterone through a process called aromatization. Abnormal levels of estradiol can contribute to various health issues, such as hormonal imbalances, infertility, osteoporosis, and certain types of cancer.

Ovulation is the medical term for the release of a mature egg from an ovary during a woman's menstrual cycle. The released egg travels through the fallopian tube where it may be fertilized by sperm if sexual intercourse has occurred recently. If the egg is not fertilized, it will break down and leave the body along with the uterine lining during menstruation. Ovulation typically occurs around day 14 of a 28-day menstrual cycle, but the timing can vary widely from woman to woman and even from cycle to cycle in the same woman.

During ovulation, there are several physical changes that may occur in a woman's body, such as an increase in basal body temperature, changes in cervical mucus, and mild cramping or discomfort on one side of the lower abdomen (known as mittelschmerz). These symptoms can be used to help predict ovulation and improve the chances of conception.

It's worth noting that some medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or premature ovarian failure, may affect ovulation and make it difficult for a woman to become pregnant. In these cases, medical intervention may be necessary to help promote ovulation and increase the chances of conception.

Pregnanediol is a steroid hormone that is produced as a metabolite of progesterone. It is primarily used as a biomarker to measure the exposure to progesterone, particularly in cases where progesterone levels need to be monitored, such as during pregnancy or in certain medical conditions. Pregnanediol can be measured in urine, blood, or other bodily fluids and is often used in clinical and research settings to assess hormonal status. It is important to note that pregnanediol itself does not have any known physiological effects on the body, but rather serves as an indicator of progesterone levels.

Dysmenorrhea is a medical term that refers to painful menstrual cramps and discomfort during menstruation. It's one of the most common gynecological complaints among women of reproductive age. There are two types of dysmenorrhea: primary and secondary.

1. Primary Dysmenorrhea: This type is more common and occurs in women who have had normal, pelvic anatomy. The pain is caused by strong contractions of the uterus due to the production of prostaglandins (hormone-like substances that are involved in inflammation and pain). Primary dysmenorrhea usually starts soon after menarche (the beginning of menstruation) and tends to improve with age, particularly after childbirth.
2. Secondary Dysmenorrhea: This type is less common and occurs due to an underlying medical condition affecting the reproductive organs, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), or adenomyosis. The pain associated with secondary dysmenorrhea tends to worsen over time and may be accompanied by other symptoms like irregular menstrual bleeding, pain during intercourse, or chronic pelvic pain.

Treatment for dysmenorrhea depends on the type and underlying cause. For primary dysmenorrhea, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen or naproxen can help alleviate pain by reducing prostaglandin production. Hormonal birth control methods like oral contraceptives and intrauterine devices (IUDs) may also be prescribed to reduce menstrual pain. For secondary dysmenorrhea, treatment typically involves addressing the underlying medical condition causing the pain.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone, which is primarily produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In women, a surge of LH triggers ovulation, the release of an egg from the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, LH stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone. In men, LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone. It plays a crucial role in sexual development, reproduction, and maintaining the reproductive system.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In females, it promotes the growth and development of ovarian follicles in the ovary, which ultimately leads to the maturation and release of an egg (ovulation). In males, FSH stimulates the testes to produce sperm. It works in conjunction with luteinizing hormone (LH) to regulate reproductive processes. The secretion of FSH is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and its release is influenced by the levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), estrogen, inhibin, and androgens.

Premenopause is not a formal medical term, but it's often informally used to refer to the time period in a woman's life leading up to menopause. During this stage, which can last for several years, hormonal changes begin to occur in preparation for menopause. The ovaries start to produce less estrogen and progesterone, which can lead to various symptoms such as irregular periods, hot flashes, mood swings, and sleep disturbances. However, it's important to note that not all women will experience these symptoms.

The official medical term for the stage when a woman's period becomes irregular and less frequent, but hasn't stopped completely, is perimenopause. This stage typically lasts from two to eight years and ends with menopause, which is defined as the point when a woman has not had a period for 12 consecutive months. After menopause, women enter postmenopause.

The fertile period, also known as the fertile window, refers to the time during a woman's menstrual cycle when she is most likely to conceive. This period typically begins 5 days before ovulation and ends on the day of ovulation. Ovulation is the process by which a mature egg is released from the ovaries and travels down the fallopian tubes, where it may be fertilized by sperm.

During the fertile period, the cervical mucus becomes more receptive to sperm, making it easier for them to survive and travel through the reproductive tract to reach the egg. Additionally, the lining of the uterus thickens in preparation for a potential pregnancy.

It is important to note that while the fertile period is the time when conception is most likely to occur, it is still possible to become pregnant outside of this window. Sperm can survive in the female reproductive tract for up to 5 days, and ovulation may occasionally occur earlier or later than expected.

Couples who are trying to conceive may benefit from tracking their menstrual cycles and monitoring signs of ovulation, such as changes in cervical mucus or basal body temperature, to help identify their fertile period.

Gonadal steroid hormones, also known as gonadal sex steroids, are hormones that are produced and released by the gonads (i.e., ovaries in women and testes in men). These hormones play a critical role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics, reproductive function, and overall health.

The three main classes of gonadal steroid hormones are:

1. Androgens: These are male sex hormones that are primarily produced by the testes but also produced in smaller amounts by the ovaries and adrenal glands. The most well-known androgen is testosterone, which plays a key role in the development of male secondary sexual characteristics such as facial hair, deepening of the voice, and increased muscle mass.
2. Estrogens: These are female sex hormones that are primarily produced by the ovaries but also produced in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands. The most well-known estrogen is estradiol, which plays a key role in the development of female secondary sexual characteristics such as breast development and the menstrual cycle.
3. Progestogens: These are hormones that are produced by the ovaries during the second half of the menstrual cycle and play a key role in preparing the uterus for pregnancy. The most well-known progestogen is progesterone, which also plays a role in maintaining pregnancy and regulating the menstrual cycle.

Gonadal steroid hormones can have significant effects on various physiological processes, including bone density, cognitive function, mood, and sexual behavior. Disorders of gonadal steroid hormone production or action can lead to a range of health problems, including infertility, osteoporosis, and sexual dysfunction.

Oral contraceptives, also known as "birth control pills," are medications taken by mouth to prevent pregnancy. They contain synthetic hormones that mimic the effects of natural hormones estrogen and progesterone in a woman's body, thereby preventing ovulation, fertilization, or implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus.

There are two main types of oral contraceptives: combined pills, which contain both estrogen and progestin, and mini-pills, which contain only progestin. Combined pills work by preventing ovulation, thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant. Mini-pills work mainly by thickening cervical mucus and changing the lining of the uterus.

Oral contraceptives are highly effective when used correctly, but they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It is important to use them consistently and as directed by a healthcare provider. Side effects may include nausea, breast tenderness, headaches, mood changes, and irregular menstrual bleeding. In rare cases, oral contraceptives may increase the risk of serious health problems such as blood clots, stroke, or liver tumors. However, for most women, the benefits of using oral contraceptives outweigh the risks.

Amenorrhea is a medical condition characterized by the absence or cessation of menstrual periods in women of reproductive age. It can be categorized as primary amenorrhea, when a woman who has not yet had her first period at the expected age (usually around 16 years old), or secondary amenorrhea, when a woman who has previously had regular periods stops getting them for six months or more.

There are various causes of amenorrhea, including hormonal imbalances, pregnancy, breastfeeding, menopause, extreme weight loss or gain, eating disorders, intense exercise, stress, chronic illness, tumors, and certain medications or medical treatments. In some cases, amenorrhea may indicate an underlying medical condition that requires further evaluation and treatment.

Amenorrhea can have significant impacts on a woman's health and quality of life, including infertility, bone loss, and emotional distress. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider if you experience amenorrhea or missed periods to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Ovulation detection refers to the process of identifying the time period during which an ovary releases an oocyte (mature egg) from its follicle, ready for fertilization. This is a crucial aspect of reproductive health and assisted reproduction technologies (ART), such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).

There are several methods to detect ovulation, including:

1. Ovulation Predictor Kits (OPKs): These are home-use test kits that detect the surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) in urine, which occurs 24-36 hours prior to ovulation.
2. Basal Body Temperature (BBT) Charting: This involves tracking and recording daily basal body temperature (the lowest temperature attained by the body during rest), as it tends to rise slightly after ovulation due to increased progesterone levels.
3. Hormonal Monitoring: Blood tests can be used to measure hormone levels, such as estrogen and progesterone, throughout a menstrual cycle to detect ovulation.
4. Transvaginal Ultrasound: This imaging technique is often used in clinical settings to monitor follicular development and determine the exact time of ovulation by observing changes in the ovarian follicle and endometrial lining.
5. Saliva Ferning Tests: A microscope is used to examine the patterns formed by dried saliva, which can indicate increased estrogen levels prior to ovulation.

Accurate ovulation detection helps individuals or couples trying to conceive optimize their chances of success and provides valuable information for healthcare providers in managing reproductive health issues.

Menstrual hygiene products are items used by menstruating individuals to absorb or collect blood and maintain cleanliness and comfort during menstruation. These products typically include sanitary napkins, tampons, menstrual cups, and reusable cloth pads. They are designed to be safe, comfortable, and effective in managing menstrual flow and preventing leakage, while also being convenient and discreet to use. It is essential to maintain proper menstrual hygiene to prevent discomfort, skin irritation, and infection during menstruation.

Estrogens are a group of steroid hormones that are primarily responsible for the development and regulation of female sexual characteristics and reproductive functions. They are also present in lower levels in males. The main estrogen hormone is estradiol, which plays a key role in promoting the growth and development of the female reproductive system, including the uterus, fallopian tubes, and breasts. Estrogens also help regulate the menstrual cycle, maintain bone density, and have important effects on the cardiovascular system, skin, hair, and cognitive function.

Estrogens are produced primarily by the ovaries in women, but they can also be produced in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estrogens are produced from the conversion of testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, through a process called aromatization.

Estrogen levels vary throughout a woman's life, with higher levels during reproductive years and lower levels after menopause. Estrogen therapy is sometimes used to treat symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness, or to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. However, estrogen therapy also carries risks, including an increased risk of certain cancers, blood clots, and stroke, so it is typically recommended only for women who have a high risk of these conditions.

An ovary is a part of the female reproductive system in which ova or eggs are produced through the process of oogenesis. They are a pair of solid, almond-shaped structures located one on each side of the uterus within the pelvic cavity. Each ovary measures about 3 to 5 centimeters in length and weighs around 14 grams.

The ovaries have two main functions: endocrine (hormonal) function and reproductive function. They produce and release eggs (ovulation) responsible for potential fertilization and development of an embryo/fetus during pregnancy. Additionally, they are essential in the production of female sex hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone, which regulate menstrual cycles, sexual development, and reproduction.

During each menstrual cycle, a mature egg is released from one of the ovaries into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm. If not fertilized, the egg, along with the uterine lining, will be shed, leading to menstruation.

Anovulation is a medical condition in which there is a failure to ovulate, or release a mature egg from the ovaries, during a menstrual cycle. This can occur due to various reasons such as hormonal imbalances, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure, excessive exercise, stress, low body weight, or certain medications. Anovulation is common in women with irregular menstrual cycles and can cause infertility if left untreated. In some cases, anovulation may be treated with medication to stimulate ovulation.

The estrous cycle is the reproductive cycle in certain mammals, characterized by regular changes in the reproductive tract and behavior, which are regulated by hormonal fluctuations. It is most commonly observed in non-primate mammals such as dogs, cats, cows, pigs, and horses.

The estrous cycle consists of several stages:

1. Proestrus: This stage lasts for a few days and is characterized by the development of follicles in the ovaries and an increase in estrogen levels. During this time, the female may show signs of sexual receptivity, but will not allow mating to occur.
2. Estrus: This is the period of sexual receptivity, during which the female allows mating to take place. It typically lasts for a few days and is marked by a surge in luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which triggers ovulation.
3. Metestrus: This stage follows ovulation and is characterized by the formation of a corpus luteum, a structure that produces progesterone to support pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum will eventually regress, leading to the next phase.
4. Diestrus: This is the final stage of the estrous cycle and can last for several weeks or months. During this time, the female's reproductive tract returns to its resting state, and she is not sexually receptive. If pregnancy has occurred, the corpus luteum will continue to produce progesterone until the placenta takes over this function later in pregnancy.

It's important to note that the human menstrual cycle is different from the estrous cycle. While both cycles involve hormonal fluctuations and changes in the reproductive tract, the menstrual cycle includes a shedding of the uterine lining (menstruation) if fertilization does not occur, which is not a feature of the estrous cycle.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Oligomenorrhea is a medical term used to describe infrequent menstrual periods, where the cycle length is more than 35 days but less than 68 days. It's considered a menstrual disorder and can affect people of reproductive age. The causes of oligomenorrhea are varied, including hormonal imbalances, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, excessive exercise, significant weight loss or gain, and stress. In some cases, it may not cause any other symptoms, but in others, it can be associated with infertility, hirsutism (excessive hair growth), acne, or obesity. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle modifications, hormonal medications, or surgery in rare cases.

Female infertility is a condition characterized by the inability to conceive after 12 months or more of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse or the inability to carry a pregnancy to a live birth. The causes of female infertility can be multifactorial and may include issues with ovulation, damage to the fallopian tubes or uterus, endometriosis, hormonal imbalances, age-related factors, and other medical conditions.

Some common causes of female infertility include:

1. Ovulation disorders: Conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, premature ovarian failure, and hyperprolactinemia can affect ovulation and lead to infertility.
2. Damage to the fallopian tubes: Pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, or previous surgeries can cause scarring and blockages in the fallopian tubes, preventing the egg and sperm from meeting.
3. Uterine abnormalities: Structural issues with the uterus, such as fibroids, polyps, or congenital defects, can interfere with implantation and pregnancy.
4. Age-related factors: As women age, their fertility declines due to a decrease in the number and quality of eggs.
5. Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, celiac disease, and autoimmune disorders, can contribute to infertility.

In some cases, female infertility can be treated with medications, surgery, or assisted reproductive technologies (ART) like in vitro fertilization (IVF). A thorough evaluation by a healthcare professional is necessary to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Endometriosis is a medical condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus (endometrium) grows outside the uterine cavity, most commonly on the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and the pelvic peritoneum. This misplaced endometrial tissue continues to act as it would inside the uterus, thickening, breaking down, and bleeding with each menstrual cycle. However, because it is outside the uterus, this blood and tissue have no way to exit the body and can lead to inflammation, scarring, and the formation of adhesions (tissue bands that bind organs together).

The symptoms of endometriosis may include pelvic pain, heavy menstrual periods, painful intercourse, and infertility. The exact cause of endometriosis is not known, but several theories have been proposed, including retrograde menstruation (the backflow of menstrual blood through the fallopian tubes into the pelvic cavity), genetic factors, and immune system dysfunction.

Endometriosis can be diagnosed through a combination of methods, such as medical history, physical examination, imaging tests like ultrasound or MRI, and laparoscopic surgery with tissue biopsy. Treatment options for endometriosis include pain management, hormonal therapies, and surgical intervention to remove the misplaced endometrial tissue. In severe cases, a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) may be recommended, but this is typically considered a last resort due to its impact on fertility and quality of life.

Cell cycle proteins are a group of regulatory proteins that control the progression of the cell cycle, which is the series of events that take place in a eukaryotic cell leading to its division and duplication. These proteins can be classified into several categories based on their functions during different stages of the cell cycle.

The major groups of cell cycle proteins include:

1. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs): CDKs are serine/threonine protein kinases that regulate key transitions in the cell cycle. They require binding to a regulatory subunit called cyclin to become active. Different CDK-cyclin complexes are activated at different stages of the cell cycle.
2. Cyclins: Cyclins are a family of regulatory proteins that bind and activate CDKs. Their levels fluctuate throughout the cell cycle, with specific cyclins expressed during particular phases. For example, cyclin D is important for the G1 to S phase transition, while cyclin B is required for the G2 to M phase transition.
3. CDK inhibitors (CKIs): CKIs are regulatory proteins that bind to and inhibit CDKs, thereby preventing their activation. CKIs can be divided into two main families: the INK4 family and the Cip/Kip family. INK4 family members specifically inhibit CDK4 and CDK6, while Cip/Kip family members inhibit a broader range of CDKs.
4. Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C): APC/C is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets specific proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome. During the cell cycle, APC/C regulates the metaphase to anaphase transition and the exit from mitosis by targeting securin and cyclin B for degradation.
5. Other regulatory proteins: Several other proteins play crucial roles in regulating the cell cycle, such as p53, a transcription factor that responds to DNA damage and arrests the cell cycle, and the polo-like kinases (PLKs), which are involved in various aspects of mitosis.

Overall, cell cycle proteins work together to ensure the proper progression of the cell cycle, maintain genomic stability, and prevent uncontrolled cell growth, which can lead to cancer.

Estrone is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone. It's one of the three major naturally occurring estrogens in women, along with estradiol and estriol. Estrone is weaker than estradiol but has a longer half-life, meaning it remains active in the body for a longer period of time.

Estrone is produced primarily in the ovaries, adrenal glands, and fat tissue. In postmenopausal women, when the ovaries stop producing estradiol, estrone becomes the dominant form of estrogen. It plays a role in maintaining bone density, regulating the menstrual cycle, and supporting the development and maintenance of female sexual characteristics.

Like other forms of estrogen, estrone can also have effects on various tissues throughout the body, including the brain, heart, and breast tissue. Abnormal levels of estrone, either too high or too low, can contribute to a variety of health issues, such as osteoporosis, menstrual irregularities, and increased risk of certain types of cancer.

The corpus luteum is a temporary endocrine structure that forms in the ovary after an oocyte (egg) has been released from a follicle during ovulation. It's formed by the remaining cells of the ruptured follicle, which transform into large, hormone-secreting cells.

The primary function of the corpus luteum is to produce progesterone and, to a lesser extent, estrogen during the menstrual cycle or pregnancy. Progesterone plays a crucial role in preparing the uterus for potential implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum will typically degenerate and stop producing hormones after approximately 10-14 days, leading to menstruation.

However, if pregnancy occurs, the developing embryo starts to produce human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which signals the corpus luteum to continue secreting progesterone and estrogen until the placenta takes over hormonal production, usually around the end of the first trimester.

Ovulation prediction is the process of determining the most fertile period during a woman's menstrual cycle, specifically the time when ovulation is likely to occur. This is typically done through various methods and tests that detect the surge in luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, which occurs 24-36 hours prior to ovulation. These methods may include urine test kits, saliva ferning tests, or electronic fertility monitors. Accurately predicting ovulation can help individuals or couples trying to conceive or avoid pregnancy through natural family planning methods.

Hormones are defined as chemical messengers that are produced by endocrine glands or specialized cells and are transported through the bloodstream to tissues and organs, where they elicit specific responses. They play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes such as growth, development, metabolism, reproduction, and mood. Examples of hormones include insulin, estrogen, testosterone, adrenaline, and thyroxine.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

The Fallopian tubes, also known as uterine tubes or oviducts, are a pair of slender tubular structures in the female reproductive system. They play a crucial role in human reproduction by providing a passageway for the egg (ovum) from the ovary to the uterus (womb).

Each Fallopian tube is typically around 7.6 to 10 centimeters long and consists of four parts: the interstitial part, the isthmus, the ampulla, and the infundibulum. The fimbriated end of the infundibulum, which resembles a fringe or frill, surrounds and captures the released egg from the ovary during ovulation.

Fertilization usually occurs in the ampulla when sperm meets the egg after sexual intercourse. Once fertilized, the zygote (fertilized egg) travels through the Fallopian tube toward the uterus for implantation and further development. The cilia lining the inner surface of the Fallopian tubes help propel the egg and the zygote along their journey.

In some cases, abnormalities or blockages in the Fallopian tubes can lead to infertility or ectopic pregnancies, which are pregnancies that develop outside the uterus, typically within the Fallopian tube itself.

The uterus, also known as the womb, is a hollow, muscular organ located in the female pelvic cavity, between the bladder and the rectum. It has a thick, middle layer called the myometrium, which is composed of smooth muscle tissue, and an inner lining called the endometrium, which provides a nurturing environment for the fertilized egg to develop into a fetus during pregnancy.

The uterus is where the baby grows and develops until it is ready for birth through the cervix, which is the lower, narrow part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. The uterus plays a critical role in the menstrual cycle as well, by shedding its lining each month if pregnancy does not occur.

An ovarian follicle is a fluid-filled sac in the ovary that contains an immature egg or ovum (oocyte). It's a part of the female reproductive system and plays a crucial role in the process of ovulation.

Ovarian follicles start developing in the ovaries during fetal development, but only a small number of them will mature and release an egg during a woman's reproductive years. The maturation process is stimulated by hormones like follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).

There are different types of ovarian follicles, including primordial, primary, secondary, and tertiary or Graafian follicles. The Graafian follicle is the mature follicle that ruptures during ovulation to release the egg into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm.

It's important to note that abnormal growth or development of ovarian follicles can lead to conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and ovarian cancer.

Fertility is the natural ability to conceive or to cause conception of offspring. In humans, it is the capacity of a woman and a man to reproduce through sexual reproduction. For women, fertility usually takes place during their reproductive years, which is from adolescence until menopause. A woman's fertility depends on various factors including her age, overall health, and the health of her reproductive system.

For men, fertility can be affected by a variety of factors such as age, genetics, general health, sexual function, and environmental factors that may affect sperm production or quality. Factors that can negatively impact male fertility include exposure to certain chemicals, radiation, smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Infertility is a common medical condition affecting about 10-15% of couples trying to conceive. Infertility can be primary or secondary. Primary infertility refers to the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse, while secondary infertility refers to the inability to conceive following a previous pregnancy.

Infertility can be treated with various medical and surgical interventions depending on the underlying cause. These may include medications to stimulate ovulation, intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), or surgery to correct anatomical abnormalities.

Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) is a glycoprotein hormone that belongs to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) family. It is primarily produced by the granulosa cells of developing follicles in the ovaries of females. AMH plays an essential role in female reproductive physiology, as it inhibits the recruitment and further development of primordial follicles, thereby regulating the size of the primordial follicle pool and the onset of puberty.

AMH levels are often used as a biomarker for ovarian reserve assessment in women. High AMH levels indicate a larger ovarian reserve, while low levels suggest a decreased reserve, which may be associated with reduced fertility or an earlier onset of menopause. Additionally, measuring AMH levels can help predict the response to ovarian stimulation during assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).

The vagina is the canal that joins the cervix (the lower part of the uterus) to the outside of the body. It also is known as the birth canal because babies pass through it during childbirth. The vagina is where sexual intercourse occurs and where menstrual blood exits the body. It has a flexible wall that can expand and retract. During sexual arousal, the vaginal walls swell with blood to become more elastic in order to accommodate penetration.

It's important to note that sometimes people use the term "vagina" to refer to the entire female genital area, including the external structures like the labia and clitoris. But technically, these are considered part of the vulva, not the vagina.

"Macaca mulatta" is the scientific name for the Rhesus macaque, a species of monkey that is native to South, Central, and Southeast Asia. They are often used in biomedical research due to their genetic similarity to humans.

Menarche is the first occurrence of menstruation in a female adolescent, indicating the onset of reproductive capability. It usually happens between the ages of 10 and 16, with an average age of around 12-13 years old, but it can vary widely from one individual to another due to various factors such as genetics, nutrition, and overall health.

Achieving menarche is a significant milestone in a girl's life, signaling the transition from childhood to adolescence. It is also an essential indicator of sexual maturation, often used in conjunction with other physical changes to assess pubertal development. However, it does not necessarily mean that a girl is psychologically or emotionally prepared for menstruation and sexual activity; therefore, appropriate education and support are crucial during this period.

Levonorgestrel is a synthetic form of the natural hormone progesterone, which is used in various forms of birth control and emergency contraceptives. It works by preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Medically, Levonorgestrel is classified as a progestin and is available in various forms, including oral tablets, intrauterine devices (IUDs), and emergency contraceptive pills. It may also be used to treat endometriosis, irregular menstrual cycles, and heavy menstrual bleeding.

It's important to note that while Levonorgestrel is a highly effective form of birth control when used correctly, it does not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, condoms should still be used during sexual activity if there is any risk of STI transmission.

The decidua is a specialized type of tissue that lines the uterus during pregnancy. It forms after the implantation of a fertilized egg (embryo) into the uterine lining, and it plays an important role in supporting the growth and development of the embryo and fetus.

The decidua is composed of several layers, including the decidual capsularis, which surrounds the embryo, and the decidual parietalis, which lines the rest of the uterus. The tissue is rich in blood vessels and contains a variety of immune cells that help to protect the developing fetus from infection.

During pregnancy, the decidua produces various hormones and growth factors that support the growth of the placenta, which provides nutrients and oxygen to the fetus. After the birth of the baby, the decidua is shed along with the placenta in a process called childbirth or parturition.

It's worth noting that abnormalities in the decidua can contribute to pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia, preterm labor, and miscarriage.

Ovulation induction is a medical procedure that involves the stimulation of ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries) in women who have difficulties conceiving due to ovulatory disorders. This is typically achieved through the use of medications such as clomiphene citrate or gonadotropins, which promote the development and maturation of follicles in the ovaries containing eggs. The process is closely monitored through regular ultrasounds and hormone tests to ensure appropriate response and minimize the risk of complications like multiple pregnancies. Ovulation induction may be used as a standalone treatment or in conjunction with other assisted reproductive technologies (ART), such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Menopause is a natural biological process that typically occurs in women in their mid-40s to mid-50s. It marks the end of menstrual cycles and fertility, defined as the absence of menstruation for 12 consecutive months. This transition period can last several years and is often accompanied by various physical and emotional symptoms such as hot flashes, night sweats, mood changes, sleep disturbances, and vaginal dryness. The hormonal fluctuations during this time, particularly the decrease in estrogen levels, contribute to these symptoms. It's essential to monitor and manage these symptoms to maintain overall health and well-being during this phase of life.

Oral hormonal contraceptives, also known as "birth control pills," are a type of medication that contains synthetic hormones (estrogen and/or progestin) that are taken by mouth to prevent pregnancy. They work by preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

There are several different types of oral hormonal contraceptives, including combined pills that contain both estrogen and progestin, and mini-pills that only contain progestin. These medications are usually taken daily for 21 days, followed by a seven-day break during which menstruation occurs. Some newer formulations may be taken continuously with no break.

It's important to note that while oral hormonal contraceptives are highly effective at preventing pregnancy when used correctly, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, it is still important to use barrier methods of protection, such as condoms, during sexual activity to reduce the risk of STIs.

As with any medication, oral hormonal contraceptives can have side effects and may not be suitable for everyone. It's important to discuss any medical conditions, allergies, or medications you are taking with your healthcare provider before starting to take oral hormonal contraceptives.

Gonadotropins are hormones that stimulate the gonads (sex glands) to produce sex steroids and gametes (sex cells). In humans, there are two main types of gonadotropins: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which are produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland.

FSH plays a crucial role in the development and maturation of ovarian follicles in females and sperm production in males. LH triggers ovulation in females, causing the release of a mature egg from the ovary, and stimulates testosterone production in males.

Gonadotropins are often used in medical treatments to stimulate the gonads, such as in infertility therapies where FSH and LH are administered to induce ovulation or increase sperm production.

Polycyctic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine-metabolic disorder characterized by the presence of hyperandrogenism (excess male hormones), ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. The Rotterdam criteria are commonly used for diagnosis, which require at least two of the following three features:

1. Oligo- or anovulation (irregular menstrual cycles)
2. Clinical and/or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism (e.g., hirsutism, acne, or high levels of androgens in the blood)
3. Polycystic ovaries on ultrasound examination (presence of 12 or more follicles measuring 2-9 mm in diameter, or increased ovarian volume >10 mL)

The exact cause of PCOS remains unclear, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Insulin resistance and obesity are common findings in women with PCOS, which can contribute to the development of metabolic complications such as type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease.

Management of PCOS typically involves a multidisciplinary approach that includes lifestyle modifications (diet, exercise, weight loss), medications to regulate menstrual cycles and reduce hyperandrogenism (e.g., oral contraceptives, metformin, anti-androgens), and fertility treatments if desired. Regular monitoring of metabolic parameters and long-term follow-up are essential for optimal management and prevention of complications.

Embryo implantation is the process by which a fertilized egg, or embryo, becomes attached to the wall of the uterus (endometrium) and begins to receive nutrients from the mother's blood supply. This process typically occurs about 6-10 days after fertilization and is a critical step in the establishment of a successful pregnancy.

During implantation, the embryo secretes enzymes that help it to burrow into the endometrium, while the endometrium responds by producing receptors for the embryo's enzymes and increasing blood flow to the area. The embryo then begins to grow and develop, eventually forming the placenta, which will provide nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus throughout pregnancy.

Implantation is a complex process that requires precise timing and coordination between the embryo and the mother's body. Factors such as age, hormonal imbalances, and uterine abnormalities can affect implantation and increase the risk of miscarriage or difficulty becoming pregnant.

Female genitalia refer to the reproductive and sexual organs located in the female pelvic region. They are primarily involved in reproduction, menstruation, and sexual activity. The external female genitalia, also known as the vulva, include the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and the external openings of the urethra and vagina. The internal female genitalia consist of the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. These structures work together to facilitate menstruation, fertilization, pregnancy, and childbirth.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH), also known as Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH), is a hormonal peptide consisting of 10 amino acids. It is produced and released by the hypothalamus, an area in the brain that links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.

GnRH plays a crucial role in regulating reproduction and sexual development through its control of two gonadotropins: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). These gonadotropins, in turn, stimulate the gonads (ovaries or testes) to produce sex steroids and eggs or sperm.

GnRH acts on the anterior pituitary gland by binding to its specific receptors, leading to the release of FSH and LH. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is under negative feedback control, meaning that when sex steroid levels are high, they inhibit the release of GnRH, which subsequently decreases FSH and LH secretion.

GnRH agonists and antagonists have clinical applications in various medical conditions, such as infertility treatments, precocious puberty, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, prostate cancer, and hormone-responsive breast cancer.

Reference values, also known as reference ranges or reference intervals, are the set of values that are considered normal or typical for a particular population or group of people. These values are often used in laboratory tests to help interpret test results and determine whether a patient's value falls within the expected range.

The process of establishing reference values typically involves measuring a particular biomarker or parameter in a large, healthy population and then calculating the mean and standard deviation of the measurements. Based on these statistics, a range is established that includes a certain percentage of the population (often 95%) and excludes extreme outliers.

It's important to note that reference values can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, race, and other demographic characteristics. Therefore, it's essential to use reference values that are specific to the relevant population when interpreting laboratory test results. Additionally, reference values may change over time due to advances in measurement technology or changes in the population being studied.

"Papio" is a term used in the field of primatology, specifically for a genus of Old World monkeys known as baboons. It's not typically used in human or medical contexts. Baboons are large monkeys with robust bodies and distinctive dog-like faces. They are native to various parts of Africa and are known for their complex social structures and behaviors.

The Citric Acid Cycle, also known as the Krebs cycle or tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, is a crucial metabolic pathway in the cell's powerhouse, the mitochondria. It plays a central role in the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, into carbon dioxide and high-energy electrons. This process generates energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), reducing equivalents (NADH and FADH2), and water.

The cycle begins with the condensation of acetyl-CoA with oxaloacetate, forming citrate. Through a series of enzyme-catalyzed reactions, citrate is converted back to oxaloacetate, releasing two molecules of carbon dioxide, one GTP (guanosine triphosphate), three NADH, one FADH2, and regenerating oxaloacetate to continue the cycle. The reduced coenzymes (NADH and FADH2) then donate their electrons to the electron transport chain, driving ATP synthesis through chemiosmosis. Overall, the Citric Acid Cycle is a vital part of cellular respiration, connecting various catabolic pathways and generating energy for the cell's metabolic needs.

Oral contraceptives, also known as "birth control pills," are synthetic hormonal medications that are taken by mouth to prevent pregnancy. They typically contain a combination of synthetic versions of the female hormones estrogen and progesterone, which work together to inhibit ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thicken cervical mucus (making it harder for sperm to reach the egg), and thin the lining of the uterus (making it less likely that a fertilized egg will implant).

There are several different types of oral contraceptives, including combination pills, progestin-only pills, and extended-cycle pills. Combination pills contain both estrogen and progestin, while progestin-only pills contain only progestin. Extended-cycle pills are a type of combination pill that are taken for 12 weeks followed by one week of placebo pills, which can help reduce the frequency of menstrual periods.

It's important to note that oral contraceptives do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), so it's still important to use barrier methods like condoms if you are at risk for STIs. Additionally, oral contraceptives can have side effects and may not be suitable for everyone, so it's important to talk to your healthcare provider about the potential risks and benefits before starting to take them.

Menorrhagia is a medical term used to describe abnormally heavy or prolonged menstrual periods. It's often characterized by the loss of an excessive amount of menstrual blood (usually more than 80 ml) and can last longer than normal, typically over seven days. This condition can have significant impacts on a woman's quality of life, causing fatigue, distress, and restrictions in daily activities due to the need for frequent pad or tampon changes.

The causes of menorrhagia are varied and can include hormonal imbalances, uterine fibroids or polyps, endometrial hyperplasia, pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy complications, certain medications, and underlying medical conditions such as coagulopathies or thyroid disorders. In some cases, the cause may remain undetermined even after a thorough evaluation.

Treatment options for menorrhagia depend on the underlying cause and range from medication management with hormonal therapies, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or tranexamic acid to procedural interventions like endometrial ablation, hysteroscopic resection of polyps or fibroids, or ultimately hysterectomy in severe cases. It is essential for individuals experiencing menorrhagia to consult with their healthcare provider to determine the best course of action based on their specific situation and medical history.

Clomiphene is a medication that is primarily used to treat infertility in women. It is an ovulatory stimulant, which means that it works by stimulating the development and release of mature eggs from the ovaries (a process known as ovulation). Clomiphene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), which means that it binds to estrogen receptors in the body and blocks the effects of estrogen in certain tissues, while enhancing the effects of estrogen in others.

In the ovary, clomiphene works by blocking the negative feedback effect of estrogen on the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, which results in an increase in the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). These hormones stimulate the growth and development of ovarian follicles, which contain eggs. As the follicles grow and mature, they produce increasing amounts of estrogen, which eventually triggers a surge in LH that leads to ovulation.

Clomiphene is typically taken orally for 5 days, starting on the 3rd, 4th, or 5th day of the menstrual cycle. The dosage may be adjusted based on the patient's response to treatment. Common side effects of clomiphene include hot flashes, mood changes, breast tenderness, and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), which is a potentially serious complication characterized by the enlargement of the ovaries and the accumulation of fluid in the abdomen.

It's important to note that clomiphene may not be suitable for everyone, and its use should be carefully monitored by a healthcare provider. Women with certain medical conditions, such as liver disease, thyroid disorders, or uterine fibroids, may not be able to take clomiphene. Additionally, women who become pregnant while taking clomiphene have an increased risk of multiple pregnancies (e.g., twins or triplets), which can pose additional risks to both the mother and the fetuses.

Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone that is produced during pregnancy. It is produced by the placenta after implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterus. The main function of hCG is to prevent the disintegration of the corpus luteum, which is a temporary endocrine structure that forms in the ovary after ovulation and produces progesterone during early pregnancy. Progesterone is essential for maintaining the lining of the uterus and supporting the pregnancy.

hCG can be detected in the blood or urine as early as 10 days after conception, and its levels continue to rise throughout the first trimester of pregnancy. In addition to its role in maintaining pregnancy, hCG is also used as a clinical marker for pregnancy and to monitor certain medical conditions such as gestational trophoblastic diseases.

Inhibins are a group of protein hormones that play a crucial role in regulating the function of the reproductive system, specifically by inhibiting the production of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in the pituitary gland. They are produced and secreted primarily by the granulosa cells in the ovaries of females and Sertoli cells in the testes of males.

Inhibins consist of two subunits, an alpha subunit, and a beta subunit, which can be further divided into two types: inhibin A and inhibin B. Inhibin A is primarily produced by the granulosa cells of developing follicles in the ovary, while inhibin B is mainly produced by the Sertoli cells in the testes.

By regulating FSH production, inhibins help control the development and maturation of ovarian follicles in females and spermatogenesis in males. Abnormal levels of inhibins have been associated with various reproductive disorders, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and certain types of cancer.

Saliva is a complex mixture of primarily water, but also electrolytes, enzymes, antibacterial compounds, and various other substances. It is produced by the salivary glands located in the mouth. Saliva plays an essential role in maintaining oral health by moistening the mouth, helping to digest food, and protecting the teeth from decay by neutralizing acids produced by bacteria.

The medical definition of saliva can be stated as:

"A clear, watery, slightly alkaline fluid secreted by the salivary glands, consisting mainly of water, with small amounts of electrolytes, enzymes (such as amylase), mucus, and antibacterial compounds. Saliva aids in digestion, lubrication of oral tissues, and provides an oral barrier against microorganisms."

The cervix is the lower, narrow part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. Cervical mucus is a clear or cloudy secretion produced by glands in the cervix. The amount and consistency of cervical mucus changes throughout a woman's menstrual cycle, influenced by hormonal fluctuations.

During the fertile window (approximately mid-cycle), estrogen levels rise, causing the cervical mucus to become more abundant, clear, and stretchy (often described as resembling raw egg whites). This "fertile" mucus facilitates the movement of sperm through the cervix and into the uterus, increasing the chances of fertilization.

As the menstrual cycle progresses and progesterone levels rise after ovulation, cervical mucus becomes thicker, cloudier, and less abundant, making it more difficult for sperm to penetrate. This change in cervical mucus helps prevent additional sperm from entering and fertilizing an already-fertilized egg.

Changes in cervical mucus can be used as a method of natural family planning or fertility awareness, with women checking their cervical mucus daily to identify their most fertile days. However, this method should be combined with other tracking methods for increased accuracy and reliability.

Fertilization in vitro, also known as in-vitro fertilization (IVF), is a medical procedure where an egg (oocyte) and sperm are combined in a laboratory dish to facilitate fertilization. The fertilized egg (embryo) is then transferred to a uterus with the hope of establishing a successful pregnancy. This procedure is often used when other assisted reproductive technologies have been unsuccessful or are not applicable, such as in cases of blocked fallopian tubes, severe male factor infertility, and unexplained infertility. The process involves ovarian stimulation, egg retrieval, fertilization, embryo culture, and embryo transfer. In some cases, additional techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) may be used to increase the chances of success.

"Macaca radiata" is a species of monkey that is native to India. It is often referred to as the "bonnet macaque" due to the distinctive cap of hair on its head. This species is widely studied in the field of primatology and has been an important model organism in biomedical research, particularly in the areas of neuroscience and infectious disease. However, I couldn't find a specific medical definition for "Macaca radiata".

Contraceptive agents, female, are medications or devices specifically designed to prevent pregnancy in women. They work by interfering with the normal process of ovulation, fertilization, or implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus. Some common examples of female contraceptive agents include:

1. Hormonal methods: These include combined oral contraceptives (COCs), progestin-only pills, patches, vaginal rings, and hormonal implants. They contain synthetic forms of the female hormones estrogen and/or progesterone, which work by preventing ovulation, thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, or thinning the lining of the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg.
2. Intrauterine devices (IUDs): These are small, T-shaped devices made of plastic or copper that are inserted into the uterus by a healthcare provider. They release hormones or copper ions that interfere with sperm movement and prevent fertilization or implantation.
3. Barrier methods: These include condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and sponges. They work by physically preventing sperm from reaching the egg.
4. Emergency contraception: This includes medications such as Plan B or Ella, which can be taken up to 5 days after unprotected sex to prevent pregnancy. They work by delaying ovulation or preventing fertilization of the egg.
5. Fertility awareness-based methods (FABMs): These involve tracking a woman's menstrual cycle and avoiding sexual intercourse during her fertile window. Some FABMs also involve using barrier methods during this time.

It is important to note that different contraceptive agents have varying levels of effectiveness, side effects, and risks. Women should consult with their healthcare provider to determine the best method for their individual needs and circumstances.

The myometrium is the middle and thickest layer of the uterine wall, composed mainly of smooth muscle cells. It is responsible for the strong contractions during labor and can also contribute to bleeding during menstruation or childbirth. The myometrium is able to stretch and expand to accommodate a growing fetus and then contract during labor to help push the baby out. It also plays a role in maintaining the structure and shape of the uterus, and in protecting the internal organs within the pelvic cavity.

Testicular hormones, also known as androgens, are a type of sex hormone primarily produced in the testes of males. The most important and well-known androgen is testosterone, which plays a crucial role in the development of male reproductive system and secondary sexual characteristics. Testosterone is responsible for the growth and maintenance of male sex organs, such as the testes and prostate, and it also promotes the development of secondary sexual characteristics like facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass.

Testicular hormones are produced and regulated by a feedback system involving the hypothalamus and pituitary gland in the brain. The hypothalamus produces gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which stimulates the pituitary gland to release follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone, while FSH works together with testosterone to promote sperm production.

In addition to their role in male sexual development and function, testicular hormones also have important effects on other bodily functions, such as bone density, muscle mass, red blood cell production, mood, and cognitive function.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG) is a protein produced mainly in the liver that plays a crucial role in regulating the active forms of the sex hormones, testosterone and estradiol, in the body. SHBG binds to these hormones in the bloodstream, creating a reservoir of bound hormones. Only the unbound (or "free") fraction of testosterone and estradiol is considered biologically active and can easily enter cells to exert its effects.

By binding to sex hormones, SHBG helps control their availability and transport in the body. Factors such as age, sex, infection with certain viruses (like hepatitis or HIV), liver disease, obesity, and various medications can influence SHBG levels and, consequently, impact the amount of free testosterone and estradiol in circulation.

SHBG is an essential factor in maintaining hormonal balance and has implications for several physiological processes, including sexual development, reproduction, bone health, muscle mass, and overall well-being. Abnormal SHBG levels can contribute to various medical conditions, such as hypogonadism (low testosterone levels), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and certain types of cancer.

Stromal cells, also known as stromal/stroma cells, are a type of cell found in various tissues and organs throughout the body. They are often referred to as the "connective tissue" or "supporting framework" of an organ because they play a crucial role in maintaining the structure and function of the tissue. Stromal cells include fibroblasts, adipocytes (fat cells), and various types of progenitor/stem cells. They produce and maintain the extracellular matrix, which is the non-cellular component of tissues that provides structural support and biochemical cues for other cells. Stromal cells also interact with immune cells and participate in the regulation of the immune response. In some contexts, "stromal cells" can also refer to cells found in the microenvironment of tumors, which can influence cancer growth and progression.

"Sex characteristics" refer to the anatomical, chromosomal, and genetic features that define males and females. These include both primary sex characteristics (such as reproductive organs like ovaries or testes) and secondary sex characteristics (such as breasts or facial hair) that typically develop during puberty. Sex characteristics are primarily determined by the presence of either X or Y chromosomes, with XX individuals usually developing as females and XY individuals usually developing as males, although variations and exceptions to this rule do occur.

Ovarian diseases refer to a range of conditions that affect the function and health of the ovaries, which are the female reproductive organs responsible for producing eggs (oocytes) and female hormones estrogen and progesterone. These diseases can be categorized into functional disorders, infectious and inflammatory diseases, neoplastic diseases, and other conditions that impact ovarian function. Here's a brief overview of some common ovarian diseases:

1. Functional Disorders: These are conditions where the ovaries experience hormonal imbalances or abnormal functioning, leading to issues such as:
* Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A condition characterized by hormonal imbalances that can cause irregular periods, cysts in the ovaries, and symptoms like acne, weight gain, and infertility.
* Functional Cysts: Fluid-filled sacs that develop within the ovary, usually as a result of normal ovulation (follicular or corpus luteum cysts). They're typically harmless and resolve on their own within a few weeks or months.
2. Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases: These conditions are caused by infections or inflammation affecting the ovaries, such as:
* Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID): An infection that spreads to the reproductive organs, including the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and uterus. It's often caused by sexually transmitted bacteria like Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
* Tuberculosis (TB): A bacterial infection that can spread to the ovaries and cause inflammation, abscesses, or scarring.
3. Neoplastic Diseases: These are conditions where abnormal growths or tumors develop in the ovaries, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Examples include:
* Ovarian Cysts: While some cysts are functional and harmless, others can be neoplastic. Benign tumors like fibromas, dermoids, or cystadenomas can grow significantly larger and cause symptoms like pain or bloating. Malignant tumors include epithelial ovarian cancer, germ cell tumors, and sex cord-stromal tumors.
4. Other Conditions: Various other conditions can affect the ovaries, such as:
* Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A hormonal disorder that causes enlarged ovaries with small cysts. It's associated with irregular periods, infertility, and increased risk of diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease.
* Premature Ovarian Failure (POF): Also known as primary ovarian insufficiency, it occurs when the ovaries stop functioning before age 40, leading to menstrual irregularities, infertility, and early onset of menopause.

It's essential to consult a healthcare professional if you experience any symptoms related to your reproductive system or suspect an issue with your ovaries. Early detection and treatment can significantly improve the prognosis for many conditions affecting the ovaries.

Norethindrone is a synthetic form of progesterone, a female hormone that is produced naturally in the ovaries. It is used as a medication for various purposes such as:

* Preventing pregnancy when used as a birth control pill
* Treating endometriosis
* Managing symptoms associated with menopause
* Treating abnormal menstrual bleeding

Norethindrone works by thinning the lining of the uterus, preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovary), and changing the cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg. It is important to note that norethindrone should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have side effects and may interact with other medications.

Mestranol is a synthetic form of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone used in oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy. It works by preventing the release of an egg from the ovary (ovulation) and altering the cervical mucus and the lining of the uterus to make it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg or for an already established pregnancy to be implanted.

Mestranol is typically combined with a progestin in birth control pills, such as those known as the "combined oral contraceptives." It's important to note that mestranol has largely been replaced by ethinyl estradiol, which is a more commonly used form of synthetic estrogen in hormonal medications.

As with any medication, there are potential risks and side effects associated with the use of mestranol, including an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, and certain types of cancer. It's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before starting or changing any hormonal medication.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Gonadotropins are hormones produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. These hormones play crucial roles in regulating reproduction and sexual development. There are two main types of gonadotropins:

1. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH): FSH is essential for the growth and development of follicles in the ovaries (in females) or sperm production in the testes (in males). In females, FSH stimulates the maturation of eggs within the follicles.
2. Luteinizing Hormone (LH): LH triggers ovulation in females, causing the release of a mature egg from the dominant follicle. In males, LH stimulates the production and secretion of testosterone in the testes.

Together, FSH and LH work synergistically to regulate various aspects of reproductive function and sexual development. Their secretion is controlled by the hypothalamus, which releases gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) to stimulate the production and release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary gland.

Abnormal levels of gonadotropins can lead to various reproductive disorders, such as infertility or menstrual irregularities in females and issues related to sexual development or function in both sexes. In some cases, synthetic forms of gonadotropins may be used clinically to treat these conditions or for assisted reproductive technologies (ART).

The cervix uteri, often simply referred to as the cervix, is the lower part of the uterus (womb) that connects to the vagina. It has an opening called the external os through which menstrual blood exits the uterus and sperm enters during sexual intercourse. During childbirth, the cervix dilates or opens to allow for the passage of the baby through the birth canal.

Natural family planning methods (NFP) are fertility awareness-based approaches to planned pregnancy or avoiding pregnancy that involve tracking a woman's menstrual cycle and recognizing the signs and symptoms of fertility. These methods can be used to identify the fertile window, which is the time during each menstrual cycle when conception is most likely to occur.

NFP methods are based on the observation of various physiological indicators of fertility, such as changes in basal body temperature (BBT), cervical mucus, and the position and texture of the cervix. By tracking these signs over time, a woman can learn to identify her fertile window and plan or avoid sexual intercourse accordingly.

There are several different NFP methods that have been developed and studied for their effectiveness in helping couples achieve or avoid pregnancy. Some common NFP methods include:

1. The Sympto-Thermal Method (STM): This method involves tracking changes in BBT, cervical mucus, and other fertility signs to identify the fertile window.
2. The Ovulation Method (OM): This method involves tracking changes in cervical mucus to identify the fertile window.
3. The Billings Ovulation Method: This method involves tracking changes in cervical mucus and other sensations related to fertility to identify the fertile window.
4. The Standard Days Method (SDM): This method involves using a calendar to track the length of the menstrual cycle and identifying the fertile window based on the number of days before and after ovulation.
5. The TwoDay Method: This method involves tracking changes in cervical mucus over two consecutive days to identify the fertile window.

NFP methods are generally considered safe and have few side effects, as they do not involve the use of hormones or other medications. However, NFP methods require careful tracking and interpretation of fertility signs, which can be challenging for some people. The effectiveness of NFP methods in preventing pregnancy varies depending on the method used and the consistency with which it is practiced. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), typical use failure rates for NFP methods range from 2% to 23%, while perfect use failure rates are generally lower. It's important to note that NFP methods may not be effective in preventing pregnancy for people with irregular menstrual cycles or other reproductive health issues.

In the context of medicine, "periodicity" refers to the occurrence of events or phenomena at regular intervals or cycles. This term is often used in reference to recurring symptoms or diseases that have a pattern of appearing and disappearing over time. For example, some medical conditions like menstrual cycles, sleep-wake disorders, and certain infectious diseases exhibit periodicity. It's important to note that the duration and frequency of these cycles can vary depending on the specific condition or individual.

"Pueraria" is a genus of plants in the legume family, Fabaceae. The most commonly known species is Pueraria lobata, also called kudzu or Japanese arrowroot. This plant is native to East Asia and has been used in traditional medicine for various purposes such as treating alcoholism, fever, and inflammation.

In a medical context, "Pueraria" may refer to the use of extracts from this plant in dietary supplements or alternative medicine practices. Some studies have suggested that certain compounds found in Pueraria, such as isoflavones, may have potential health benefits, but more research is needed to confirm these effects and establish safe and effective dosages.

It's important to note that while some natural products containing Pueraria extracts may be marketed for various health purposes, they should not be used as a substitute for conventional medical care or treatment. It's always best to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

"Papio anubis" is the scientific name for the Olive Baboon, which is a species of Old World monkey found in savannas, open woodlands, and hills in East Africa. The term "Papio" refers to the genus of baboons, while "anubis" is the specific name for this particular species.

The Olive Baboon is named for its distinctive olive-gray fur, which can vary in color depending on the subspecies. They have a distinct dog-like face with a pink or red area around their mouths and noses. Adult males typically have a large, rough cheek pad on either side of their faces, which they use to display dominance during social interactions.

Olive Baboons are highly social animals that live in large troops consisting of several adult males, females, and their offspring. They have a complex social hierarchy based on age, size, and rank, and engage in various behaviors such as grooming, playing, and communication to maintain social bonds.

While "Papio anubis" is a medical or scientific term, it is not typically used in clinical settings. However, understanding the behavior and ecology of primates like Olive Baboons can provide valuable insights into human evolution, behavior, and disease transmission.

Testosterone is a steroid hormone that belongs to androsten class of hormones. It is primarily secreted by the Leydig cells in the testes of males and, to a lesser extent, by the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. Testosterone is the main male sex hormone and anabolic steroid. It plays a key role in the development of masculine characteristics, such as body hair and muscle mass, and contributes to bone density, fat distribution, red cell production, and sex drive. In females, testosterone contributes to sexual desire and bone health. Testosterone is synthesized from cholesterol and its production is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

Cell cycle checkpoints are control mechanisms that regulate the cell cycle and ensure the accurate and timely progression through different phases of the cell cycle. These checkpoints monitor specific cellular events, such as DNA replication and damage, chromosome separation, and proper attachment of the mitotic spindle to the chromosomes. If any of these events fail to occur properly or are delayed, the cell cycle checkpoints trigger a response that can halt the cell cycle until the problem is resolved. This helps to prevent cells with damaged or incomplete genomes from dividing and potentially becoming cancerous.

There are three main types of cell cycle checkpoints:

1. G1 Checkpoint: Also known as the restriction point, this checkpoint controls the transition from the G1 phase to the S phase of the cell cycle. It monitors the availability of nutrients, growth factors, and the integrity of the genome before allowing the cell to proceed into DNA replication.
2. G2 Checkpoint: This checkpoint regulates the transition from the G2 phase to the M phase of the cell cycle. It checks for completion of DNA replication and absence of DNA damage before allowing the cell to enter mitosis.
3. Mitotic (M) Checkpoint: Also known as the spindle assembly checkpoint, this checkpoint ensures that all chromosomes are properly attached to the mitotic spindle before anaphase begins. It prevents the separation of sister chromatids until all kinetochores are correctly attached and tension is established between them.

Cell cycle checkpoints play a crucial role in maintaining genomic stability, preventing tumorigenesis, and ensuring proper cell division. Dysregulation of these checkpoints can lead to various diseases, including cancer.

Androstenedione is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands, ovaries, and testes. It is a precursor to both male and female sex hormones, including testosterone and estrogen. In the adrenal glands, it is produced from cholesterol through a series of biochemical reactions involving several enzymes. Androstenedione can also be converted into other steroid hormones, such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and estrone.

In the body, androstenedione plays an important role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair and a deep voice in men, and breast development and menstrual cycles in women. It also contributes to bone density, muscle mass, and overall physical strength.

Androstenedione is available as a dietary supplement and has been marketed as a way to boost athletic performance and increase muscle mass. However, its effectiveness for these purposes is not supported by scientific evidence, and it may have harmful side effects when taken in high doses or for extended periods of time. Additionally, the use of androstenedione as a dietary supplement is banned by many sports organizations, including the International Olympic Committee and the National Collegiate Athletic Association.

Perimenopause is a term used to describe the phase before menopause where the ovaries gradually begin to produce less estrogen. It's also sometimes referred to as the "menopausal transition."

This stage can last for several years, typically starting in a woman's mid-40s, but it can begin in some women as early as their mid-30s or as late as their early 50s. During this time, menstrual cycles may become longer or shorter, and periods may be lighter or heavier.

The most significant sign of perimenopause is the irregularity of periods. However, other symptoms such as hot flashes, sleep disturbances, mood changes, and vaginal dryness can also occur, similar to those experienced during menopause.

Perimenopause ends after a woman has gone 12 months without having a period, which marks the start of menopause.

The menstrual cycle can be modified by hormonal birth control. The menstrual cycle encompasses the ovarian and uterine cycles. ... If this is ineffective, or when a woman's menstrual cycle is irregular, then treatment is to stop the menstrual cycle occurring ... the uterine cycle consists of the menstrual, proliferative and secretory phases. Day one of the menstrual cycle is the first ... In an ovulatory menstrual cycle, the ovarian and uterine cycles are concurrent and coordinated and last between 21 and 35 days ...
The Centre for Menstrual Cycle and Ovulation Research (CeMCOR) is a health research centre in Vancouver. According to the ... Prior has called menstrual cycles "a vital sign". CeMCOR does not conduct research funded by the pharmaceutical industry. "UBC ... "Menstrual Cycle and Ovulation (CeMCOR)". Research Centres. Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute. Archived from the ... The stated vision was to "reframe scientific knowledge of the menstrual cycle and ovulation in a woman-centered context." ...
Women recorded their menstrual cycle onsets on menstrual calendars provided to them and 181 days' worth of menstrual cycle data ... lionesses sync their fertility cycles . . . The story of menstrual synchrony and suppression "The Claim: Menstrual Cycles Can ... says that menstrual cycle synchronization happens when the menstrual cycle onsets of two or more women become closer together ... The mean menstrual cycle length was 30.5 days (SD = 4.56). Based on the mean cycle length of the women in this study, the ...
Also, the menstrual cycle averages 28 days. For partners working in developing countries, the day is not only an opportunity to ... Menstrual Hygiene Day (MHD, MH Day in short) is an annual awareness day on May 28 to highlight the importance of good menstrual ... Official page of Menstrual Hygiene Day Documents about menstrual hygiene management in library of Sustainable Sanitation ... Further partners are many national and regional NGOs as well as suppliers of menstrual hygiene products, washable menstrual ...
Normal menstrual cycle length is 22-45 days. Amenorrhea is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age. ... A menstrual disorder is characterized as any abnormal condition with regards to a woman's menstrual cycle. There are many ... especially outside the expected intervals of the menstrual cycle. If there is excessive menstrual and uterine bleeding other ... Variations of the menstrual cycle are mainly caused by the immaturity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis, and ...
Adult males have levels similar to those in women during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Blood test results should ... Reference ranges for the blood content of progesterone during the menstrual cycle Progesterone is produced in high amounts in ... 31-. ISBN 978-0-19-513021-8. Walker A (7 March 2008). The Menstrual Cycle. Routledge. pp. 49-. ISBN 978-1-134-71411-7. Piosik R ... In women, progesterone levels are relatively low during the preovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle, rise after ovulation, ...
Irregular cycles or irregular periods is an abnormal variation in length of menstrual cycles. An individual usually experiences ... A regular menstrual cycle can be set within a year of menarche. However, other studies suggest that it can take anywhere ... Treloar, A.E.; Boynton, R.E.; Behn, B.G.; Brown, B.W. (1967). "Variation of the human menstrual cycle through reproductive life ... It may depend on whether the bleeding is regarded as marking the menstrual period (favoring the term "irregular cycles") or ...
Ethology, Menstrual cycle). ... The reproductive cycle of female mice in isolation is ... Whitten, W.K. (July 1956). "Modification of the oestrous cycle of the mouse by external stimuli associated with the male". ... Journal code: 0375363 Whitten, WK (1957-12-21). "Effect of exteroceptive factors on the oestrous cycle of mice". Nature. 180 ( ... and the majority of the female mice will enter a new estrus cycle by the third day of exposure. However, there is little ...
... but they settled on a 28-day cycle that would mimic a natural menstrual cycle and produce monthly periods. The intention behind ... However, disturbance of the menstrual cycle is common with the mini-pill; one-third to one-half of women taking it will ... Thus extended cycle combined hormonal contraceptive pills are commonly used for menstrual suppression, although breakthrough ... Options for menstrual suppression include hormonal medications like extended cycle combined hormonal contraceptive pills, ...
2005). "12, Alternative Medicines, by K.Reddy". The abnormal menstrual cycle. Taylor and Francis. p. 176. ISBN 978-1-84214-212- ...
per menstrual cycle. Pschyrembel W (1968). Praktische Gynäkologie: für Studierende und Ärzte. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 598, 601. ... 554-. ISBN 978-3-642-96158-8. Horský J, Presl J (1981). "Hormonal Treatment of Disorders of the Menstrual Cycle". In Horsky J, ... Rees MC, Hope S, Ravnikar V (12 August 2005). The Abnormal Menstrual Cycle. Taylor & Francis. p. 213. ISBN 978-1-84214-212-7. ... DMPA can affect menstrual bleeding. After a year of use, 55% of women experience amenorrhea (missed periods); after two years, ...
Friedman, R.C. (ed.) (1982). Behavior and the Menstrual Cycle. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. DeFries, Z., Friedman, R.C., and ...
Menstrual-related hypersomnia is characterized by episodes of excessive sleepiness associated with the menstrual cycle. ... Brain, 128(12), 2763-2776 Manber, R., & Bootzin, R. R. (1997). Sleep and the menstrual cycle. Health Psychology, 16(3), 209. ... Actigraphy, which operates by analyzing the patient's limb movements, is used to record the sleep and wake cycles. In order to ... A few studies have attested that some hormones as prolactin and progesterone could be responsible for Menstrual-Related ...
Gangestad, S. W.; Thornhill, R. (1998). "Menstrual cycle variation in women's preferences for the scent of symmetrical men". ... "Menstrual cycle alters face preference". Nature. 399 (6738): 741-742. Bibcode:1999Natur.399..741P. doi:10.1038/21557. PMID ... Therefore, women largely showed the same level of sexual behaviour in the non-fertile phases of their ovarian cycles as in the ... Mating outside the fertile window of their ovarian cycle may incur considerable costs for females, such as in time and energy ...
Society for Menstrual Cycle Research. Retrieved 9 May 2013. Ellwood, Gregory (6 December 2009). "Recap: 'Saturday Night Live ...
... mid-cycle) during the normal menstrual cycle and paradoxically triggers a surge in LH and FSH secretion. This occurs when ... ISBN 978-3-662-00942-0. Horský J, Presl J (1981). "Hormonal Treatment of Disorders of the Menstrual Cycle". In Horsky J, Presl ... Horský, Jan; Presl, Jiří (1981). "Hormonal Treatment of Disorders of the Menstrual Cycle". In J. Horsky; J. Presl (eds.). ... 807-. ISBN 978-1-4160-4907-4. Grunwald, K.; Rabe, T.; Runnebaum, B. (1997). "Physiology of the Menstrual Cycle". Manual on ...
In female mammals, each ovulatory cycle, or menstrual cycle in humans, a set number of ovarian follicles ovulate, each follicle ... so there is usually only a single ovulation during each human menstrual cycle. The more mature follicles that are more ... and a large number follicles continue to develop each menstrual cycle Sometimes follicular dominance is manipulated to allow ... In humans, there is usually only one dominant follicle per cycle. Understanding this system allows medical practitioners to ...
"How the Pill Gave Birth to the Women's Health Movement". Society for Menstrual Cycle Research. 2010-05-25. Retrieved 2019-01-23 ... 1988.{{cite AV media}}: CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) (link)- Video which presents menstrual extraction as an ... Tanfer Emin Tunc argues that the Army of Three, the Jane collective, and Downer and Rothman's menstrual extraction technique ... Chalker, Rebecca; Downer, Carol (1992). A Woman's Book of Choices, Abortion, Menstrual Extraction, RU-486. New York: Four Walls ...
The Society for Menstrual Cycle Research holds that this use of COCPs does not have sufficient safety studies to justify ... Extended cycle use of COCPs may also be called menstrual suppression, although other hormonal medications or medication ... During the week of placebo pills, withdrawal bleeding occurs and simulates an average 28-day menstrual cycle. The placebo pills ... "Menstruation Is Not A Disease". Society for Menstrual Cycle Research. 2007-06-08. Archived from the original on 2007-10-12. ...
However, the underlying cause of the menstrual disorder is an energy imbalance, and using pills to regulate the menstrual cycle ... They may also display subtle menstrual disturbances, such as a change in menstrual cycle length, anovulation, or luteal phase ... ovulatory menstrual cycles, the female is not secreting the hormone progesterone during the luteal phase of her cycle. ... Due to low bone mineral density that declines as the number of missed menstrual cycles accumulates, and the loss of BMD may not ...
The difference in injury risk may be due to female-specific hormonal changes associated with the menstrual cycle, or due to ... University of Rochester Medical Center (November 13, 2013). "Menstrual Cycle Influences Concussion Outcomes". URMC.Rochester. ... or fluctuating hormones during menstrual cycles that make them more susceptible. Dong Jinxia: Women, Sport and Society in ... In the 19th century, women primarily participated in the "new games" which included golf, lawn tennis, cycling, and field ...
Female elephant shrews undergo a menstrual cycle similar to that of human females and the species is one of the few nonprimate ... van der Horst, Cornelius; Gillman, Joseph (1941). "The menstrual cycle in Elephantulus". The South African Journal of Medical ... Elephant shrews were used in the 1940s to study the human menstruation cycle. The elephant shrew mating period lasts for ...
... is the rotation of different edible seeds into the diet at different times in the menstrual cycle. Practitioners ... Seed cycling advocates note that the menstrual cycle is broken up into four interconnected phases. The first phase is ... Polycystic ovary syndrome - a common cause of irregular menstrual cycles Howell, Madeleine (24 April 2019). "Can 'seed cycling ... For women with irregular or absent cycle, menopause, or post-menopause, the seed cycling diet suggests starting the seed cycle ...
A woman's menstrual cycle begins, as arbitrarily assigned, with menses. Next is the follicular phase where estrogen levels ... The cycle is approximately twenty-eight days long, with a fertile period of five days per cycle, but can deviate greatly from ... Creinin MD, Keverline S, Meyn LA (October 2004). "How regular is regular? An analysis of menstrual cycle regularity". ... This fertile window varies from woman to woman, just as the ovulation date often varies from cycle to cycle for the same woman ...
Nillni, Yael I.; Rasmusson, Ann M.; Paul, Emilie L.; Pineles, Suzanne L. (2021-01-06). "The Impact of the Menstrual Cycle and ... van Iersel, Kirsten C.; Kiesner, Jeff; Pastore, Massimiliano; Scholte, Ron H.J. (2016-03-24). "The impact of menstrual cycle‐ ... Jang, Daisung; Elfenbein, Hillary Anger (2018-05-14). "Menstrual Cycle Effects on Mental Health Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis". ... Saunders, Kate E. A.; Hawton, Keith (2006-03-30). "Suicidal behaviour and the menstrual cycle". Psychological Medicine. ...
"Psychologic manifestations of the menstrual cycle." Psychosomatic medicine 12.4 (1950): 229-235. Rosen, Raymond C. "Alcohol and ...
Zellner DA, Garriga-Trillo A, Centeno S, Wadsworth E (February 2004). "Chocolate craving and the menstrual cycle". Appetite. 42 ... Handbook of diet and nutrition in the menstrual cycle, periconception and fertility. Human Health Handbooks. Vol. 7. The ...
"The Menstrual Cycle of the Primates.-Part I. General Nature and Homology". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 100 ...
In collaboration with J.K. Kim and others, he showed that the luteal phase of the human menstrual cycle is the reabsorptive ... Clemetson CA, Blair L, Brown AB (April 1962). "Capillary strength and the menstrual cycle". Annals of the New York Academy of ... 1973 "Human Uterine Fluid Potassium and the Menstrual Cycle." J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw. Jun;80(6):553-61. Member of the ... "Human uterine fluid potassium and the menstrual cycle". The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth. ...
Anovulatory cycle Corpus luteum Folliculogenesis Menstrual cycle Oogenesis Mittelschmerz Fertilisation Ovulation Test Archived ... Ovulation occurs about midway through the menstrual cycle, after the follicular phase. The days in which a woman is most ... The follicular phase (or proliferative phase) is the phase of the menstrual cycle during which the ovarian follicles mature. ... Baerwald AR, Adams GP, Pierson RA (July 2003). "A new model for ovarian follicular development during the human menstrual cycle ...
The menstrual cycle can be modified by hormonal birth control. The menstrual cycle encompasses the ovarian and uterine cycles. ... If this is ineffective, or when a womans menstrual cycle is irregular, then treatment is to stop the menstrual cycle occurring ... the uterine cycle consists of the menstrual, proliferative and secretory phases. Day one of the menstrual cycle is the first ... In an ovulatory menstrual cycle, the ovarian and uterine cycles are concurrent and coordinated and last between 21 and 35 days ...
... including asthma can be affected by her menstrual cycle, researchers from Haukeland University Hospital in Bergen, Norway, ... There were variations in the length of menstrual cycles, which may have affected the accuracy in determining menstrual cycles ... They found considerable variations over the menstrual cycle for each symptom.. *Wheezing symptoms were most severe on cycles ... The severity of a womans respiratory symptoms, including asthma can be affected by her menstrual cycle, researchers from ...
Share or comment on this article: The secret powers of a womans menstrual cycle. * ... Yet would we all be happier - and more successful - if we planned our lives around our menstrual cycles? ... an NHS doctor and personal trainer who advised on a menstrual cycle-based workout for spin studio, Psycle. ... Machete wielding thug brazenly cycles outside London DLR station * Shocking footage shows men brawling with machetes on London ...
A well-balanced diet may play a role in optimizing the various phases of the menstrual cycle-and how you feel during them. ... What to Eat During Each Menstrual Cycle Phase. The menstrual cycle is broken down into phases, and each phase serves a ... The length of the menstrual cycle can vary between individuals, but the average is 28 days from the start of one cycle to the ... A well-balanced diet may play a role in optimizing the various phases of the menstrual cycle-and how you feel during them. ...
Learn the different phases of your menstrual cycle and the types of physical activity and exercise that is best during each ... Cycle syncing is when you tailor your training schedule to match the different phases of the menstrual cycle. It can be as ... After ovulation, your menstrual cycle hormones fluctuate fast. Energy levels and power can drop and you may be feeling heavier ... As most women will know, your menstrual cycle starts on the first day of your period and ends when your next period begins. ...
Using a prospective design over three complete menstrual cycles, 147 heterosexual and 89 lesbian women made daily recordings of ... Sexual behavior in lesbian and heterosexual women: relations with menstrual cycle phase and partner availability ... Using a prospective design over three complete menstrual cycles, 147 heterosexual and 89 lesbian women made daily recordings of ... Results are discussed in terms of social variables and hormonal fluctuations associated with the menstrual cycle. ...
Tag Archives: menstrual cycle. A guide to menstrual cycles, getting pregnant and more. February 28, 2024 ...
Emerging evidence suggests that COVID-19 vaccination does impact menstrual cycle length - but the effect is minor and temporary ... Women who received one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine during a single menstrual cycle had a small increase in cycle length - ... How COVID-19 vaccines affect the menstrual cycle Emerging evidence suggests that COVID-19 vaccination does impact menstrual ... Those who received two vaccine doses within the same menstrual cycle experienced a slightly longer increase in cycle length, ...
What works particularly well in which phase of the menstrual cycle? Key facts about diet, psyche and exercise at a glance. ... Its good to know that when it comes to menstrual disorders, an irregular menstrual cycle, pre-pregnancy, menopause, ... Menstrual cycle: diet, exercise and psyche according to each phase. Do you have an urge for chocolate? This isnt always a ... Phases of the cycle. Cravings, bad moods or stomach aches arent always determined by our cycle. But with the right diet and ...
Learn more about the menstrual cycle and ovulation disorders. ... The menstrual cycle is the process of ovulation and ... Phases of the menstrual cycle. The menstrual cycle is the process of ovulation and menstruation controlled by hormonal changes ... Common menstrual cycle abnormalities and treatment. Amenorrhea. Amenorrhea is the absence of menstrual periods. The most common ... What if my cycles are irregular?. If your cycles are irregular or your cycle length varies from month to month it could be ...
Irregular and long menstrual cycles in adolescence and adulthood are associated with a greater risk of early death (before age ... Irregular and long menstrual cycles are common among women of reproductive age and have been associated with a higher risk of ... Irregular and long menstrual cycles in adolescence and adulthood are associated with a greater risk of early death (before age ... Irregular and long menstrual cycles linked to greater risk of early death. by British Medical Journal ...
Your menstrual cycle should be a time to slow down, take care and embrace your magic - Dr Jacinta Di Prinzio shares her self- ... Your menstrual cycle should not be a source a shame, but a time to slow down, take care and embrace your magic. Chiropractor, ... Dr Jacinta Di Prinzio shares self-care tips for menstrual cycle- from Cottons. by WellBeing Team November 23, 2021 ...
... aim of this study was to compare the local and global sweat rates between the follicular and luteal phases of ovulatory cycles ... of menstrual cycle (p,0.05). During the post-exercise, there were no differences between the phases of menstrual cycle (2.73 ± ... between the 5th and 9th day of the cycle) and another in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. In the luteal phase, the ... ovulatory menstrual cycles participated in this study. The exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer according to the ...
Dr Jaime Lee shares how you can listen to your body and use your menstrual cycle as an inner compass that guides you towards a ... In fact, every process of transformation follows this same cycle. And every cycle is reflected in every other cycle. ... with the average length of a menstrual cycle lasting between 26 to 31 days1. By tuning into this internal cycle, you can learn ... with the average length of a menstrual cycle lasting between 26 to 31 days,sup>1,/sup>. By tuning into this internal cycle, you ...
female athletes, hormones, menstrual cycle, oral contraceptive cycle, resistance training, muscle strength, power, body ... of each cycle, or to a control group performing regular training, during four consecutive menstrual/OC cycles. The main ... Increasing training load without risking the female athlete triad: menstrual cycle based periodized training may be an answer? ... The purpose of this study was to investigate potential negative effects of high frequency periodized menstrual/OC cycle based ...
While used by women as a form of contraception, it is known to have unfavorable side effects on the menstrual cycle. ... The Effects of Nexplanon on Menstrual Cycle. Ana Jasko August 5, 2017 menstrual cycle 82 Comments ... The most common side effects of nexplanon are the ones that affect your menstrual cycle. Nexplanon can cause a change in the ... Nexplanon should be inserted within the first seven days of the menstrual cycle or while on oral contraceptives. You must do a ...
... and the avoidance of xenoestrogens helped many women reduce or eliminate their abdominal pain associated with their menstrual ... Bloating is Much Less, Sharp Ovarian Cyst Pains Gone, Menstrual Cycle was Pain-free, Lighter, and No Cramps an No Heavy ... menstrual cycle was pain-free, lighter, and no cramps or heavy bleeding/clots. Overall I feel great and intend to keep taking ... The cycles were back to back. I was a zombie, living on Advil. I went to the doctor, which was a nightmare. I went while I was ...
... and what hormones are responsible for your cycle from start to finish? Read this article to keep yourself in the know. ... What is the Menstrual Cycle?. Why do we go through a monthly cycle anyway? In short, the menstrual cycle is to prepare the ... Pop quiz! Do you know what the four phases of the menstrual cycle are? Do you know the hormones responsible for your cycle from ... Ovulation is the shortest phase of the menstrual cycle. It lasts anywhere from 16-32 hours. This is when a mature egg is ...
This is an example of the menstrual cycle course contents. ... The Menstrual Cycle. Sample of Course Materials. Credits: 8 ... Menstrual periods become very irregular after having had regular, monthly cycles.. *Menstrual periods occur outside a 21 to 35 ... Please note in some cases, a woman may have a 26 or 30 day cycle throughout her entire menstrual history, and this cycle length ... Follicular phase-The first stage of the menstrual cycle begins on Day 1 of menses and is called the follicular phase. The ...
Maria Reese on Menstrual Cycles Potential Effect on Sports Injuries. .st0{fill:#EA1C2B;} Request an appointment ... how menstrual cycles may affect risk of injury. *other physiological differences that can lead to increased injury risk in ... Furthermore, research regarding injury risk and menstrual cycle hormonal fluctuations is in its infancy. Therefore, currently ... the "Female Athlete Triad," the interconnectedness of menstrual cycle, bone health, and energy availability ...
... they also assessed womens menstrual irregularities, such as irregular menstrual cycles, heavy menstrual bleeding, and other ... Problems with the menstrual cycle may raise a womans risk of cardiovascular disease. ... The second research assesses dysmenorrhea or pain associated with menstruation, which is the most prevalent menstrual cycle ... Sessions 2023 found that teenage females with polycystic ovary syndrome-a disorder linked to irregular menstrual cycles-had a ...
Turns out, gut health affects menstrual cycle.. Know the link between gut health and periods. Image courtesy: Adobe Stock. ... Gut health affects menstrual cycle. Image courtesy: Adobe Stock. This imbalance can be due to factors like a poor diet, stress ... Irregular periods: How poor gut health may affect your menstrual cycle. Dont ignore your gut health if you want to have ... Our gut health also affects our menstrual cycle. A 2014 study published in the US National Library of Medicine showed that an ...
A new bill moving forward in the Florida House would ban the discussion of menstrual cycles with girls in elementary school. ... "So if little girls experience their menstrual cycle in 5th grade or 4th grade, will that prohibit conversations from them since ... Legislation moving in the Florida House would ban discussion of menstrual cycles and other human sexuality topics in elementary ... Educating young girls about their approaching menstrual cycle isnt "sex education." Its biology. Granted, it would be nice if ...
... especially among women that naturally have short menstrual cycle. Many people have always... ... Folasire stated this during a talk on Menstrual Hygiene, organised by Women in Rotary,... ...
Quick judgment of face beauty; variation in and appeal of womens gait across the menstrual cycle. Submitted by Admin on Mon, ... Provost et al.(2, pdf) investigated whether womens gait (how they walk) changes across the menstrual cycle and how mens ... Womens voice attractiveness varies across the menstrual cycle. Evol Hum Behav 2008; doi:10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2008.02.001. ... Provost, M. P., Quinsey, V. L., and Troje, N. F., Differences in Gait Across the Menstrual Cycle and Their Attractiveness to ...
So, you shed your lining, and thats what we call a period or menstrual cycle. The menstrual cycle is like a monthly party that ... What is menstrual cycle? So, picture this: youre a uterus, and youre feeling all sorts of things. Every month, you prepare ... Overall, the menstrual cycle is a complex process that involves a variety of hormonal changes and physical symptoms. While the ... Menstrual Cycle and Your Hormones: Understanding the Connection. 0 Comments 607 Views March 22, 2023 ...
We dive into the four phases of menstrual cycle, how they impact your energy, and the benefits of cycle-syncing workouts. ... Phases of Menstrual Cycle and How They Impact Your Energy Theres a lot going on behind the scenes of your menstrual cycle, ... Menstrual. "The most visually obvious phase of the cycle is the menstrual phase, when youre on your period," says Marie. If ... We also learn more about the best exercises for the four stages of menstrual cycle, plus some tips on how to start cycle ...
The Enna Cycle Menstrual Cup Twin Pack Large With Sterilizer contains two menstrual cups and a practical sterilizer box. Shop ... This Enna Cycle kit contains the following products:. *2x Enna Cycle Menstrual Cup Size L (cup is 46mm wide and 56mm long, ... The Enna Cycle Menstrual Cup Twin Pack Large With Sterilizer is a practical kit that contains not one, but two menstrual cups. ... The Enna Cycle Menstrual Cup Twin Pack Large With Sterilizer contains two menstrual cups in a size L (Large), along with a ...
How long is a menstrual cycle?. For menstruating women, an average menstrual cycle lasts 28 days. It starts with the first day ... The average menstrual cycle lasts 28 days. The cycle starts with the first day of one period and ends with the first day of the ... The Menstrual Cycle: An Overview. What is ovulation?. When a young woman reaches puberty, she starts to ovulate. This is when a ... Women may have cycles as short as 21 days, or as long as 45 days during the first few years. However, anything outside of this ...
  • The ovarian cycle consists of alternating follicular and luteal phases, and the uterine cycle consists of menstruation, the proliferative phase, and the secretory phase. (
  • Measured from the first day of one menstruation to the first day of the next, the length of a menstrual cycle varies but has a median length of 28 days. (
  • A menstrual cup is a soft, malleable container that is inserted into the vagina during menstruation to collect the menstrual flow. (
  • Menstruation cycle add to my. (
  • LH surge (i.e. rapid secretion of LH) during the mid-cycle of menstruation causes rupture of Graafian follicle resulting in the release of an ovum (ovulation). (
  • Hormone levels change at different stages of life and so it is expected that menstruation and the menstrual cycle changes too. (
  • The menstruation phase of our cycle is the most notorious. (
  • A menstrual period (menstruation) is the monthly bleeding from the vagina that occurs at the beginning of each menstrual cycle. (
  • During menstruation, the lining of the uterus comes off and is released as menstrual blood. (
  • A menstrual period (menstruation) is. (
  • A 2008 study confirmed that the menstrual cycle plays a crucial role in our body's responses, and a later study from 2019 concluded that 'menstruation-related symptoms cause a great deal of lost productivity' for women. (
  • About mid-cycle, some 10-12 hours after the increase in luteinizing hormone, known as the LH surge, the dominant follicle releases an oocyte, in an event called ovulation. (
  • Urine samples were analyzed for metabolites of steroid hormones to define the day of ovulation and various menstrual characteristics, including: 1) segment, follicular, luteal phase, and menses length, 2) variability, and 3) anovulation. (
  • A study of 7,600 menstrual cycles, including information on cycle length and signs of ovulation, concluded that the theoretical effectiveness of SDM is greatest for women with cycles of 26-32 days, that the method is still effective for women who occasionally have a cycle outside this range, and that it is less effective for women who consistently have cycles outside this range. (
  • A single ovum is released during the middle of each menstrual cycle (ovulation). (
  • So one question that I'm curious about is what are the different phases of the menstrual cycle, like the follicular, ovulation, luteal phase like? (
  • Some months you may notice that your menstrual bleeding lasts longer than usual, or your ovulation phase seems to be off by a few days. (
  • Folliculogenesis (or development of the follicles) begins the last few days of the preceding menstrual cycle until the release of the mature follicle at ovulation. (
  • Around day 14 of the menstrual cycle, ovulation occurs. (
  • During ovulation, the uterus reaches its largest size and weight in the entire menstrual cycle. (
  • Of these cases of AUB, about 90% are due to menstrual periods when ovulation does not occur. (
  • Nutrition absolutely impacts your hormones and menstrual cycle," says Valerie Agyeman, R.D., a women's health dietitian and host of The Flourish Heights Podcast . (
  • At the beginning of your cycle, your menstrual hormones are low while you are menstruating. (
  • Herbs that help regulate hormones and stress levels can help with menstrual disorders of all kinds. (
  • The 28 day menstrual cycle is the timing of the changes that occurs within a woman's body, and is described as the interplay of hormones. (
  • The menstrual cycle is triggered by the release of (eggs / hormones) in the female reproductive system. (
  • In this worksheet, we will practice describing the roles of hormones in controlling the menstrual cycle and explaining. (
  • On the other hand, if we are familiar with the various phases of our menstrual cycle and the hormones associated with them, we have more power to make informed decisions about our bodies. (
  • If you know how to recognize the signs that your hormones are changing in preparation for your menstrual cycle, you can avoid planning water parties or backpacking trips for the next week or so. (
  • During the second half of the cycle, hormones perform the important role of either supporting and nourishing a fertilized egg or preparing once again to shed the uterine lining during menstrual bleeding. (
  • But if we do what we can to make sure our menstrual cycle hormones are balanced, our cycle should be pretty consistent from month to month. (
  • Menstrual cycle hormones vary a lot during the different phases, and as they do, they cause the body to go through different changes. (
  • Each follicle secretes hormones that influence the menstrual cycle stages. (
  • As your hormones fluctuate throughout your cycle, so can your energy and mood. (
  • Optimising your period is accepting that some weeks are more difficult than others, and cycle syncing is beneficial as it allows you to optimise your life based on your hormones. (
  • Cycle syncing is a term coined by Alisa Vitti, a functional nutritionist and women hormones expert, who has spent the past 15 years researching menstrual cycles. (
  • Food cravings are also influenced by sex hormones, with research from 2015 showing that women experience changes in taste and diet throughout their cycle. (
  • Higher levels of sex hormones are associated with the production of prostaglandins and menstrual pain. (
  • 1 Reduced estrogen blood concentrations due to the binding of sex hormones by sex-hormone binding globulin would reduce the stimulation by estrogen of the endometrial build-up in the lining of the uterus during the menstrual cycle, thus limiting the tissues responsible for the production of inflammatory 2-series prostaglandins by the endometrium. (
  • The uterine cycle governs the preparation and maintenance of the lining of the uterus (womb) to receive an embryo. (
  • The ovarian cycle describes changes that occur in the follicles of the ovary, whereas the uterine cycle describes changes in the endometrial lining of the uterus. (
  • If pregnancy does not occur, then the thickened lining of the uterus sheds during the menstrual period. (
  • A normal menstrual cycle is 28 days long, starting counting from day 1 of bleeding. (
  • So we received a ton of questions from our community about what is a normal menstrual cycle and and what are some common red flags there, so excited to dive in. (
  • The normal menstrual cycle, characterized by sequential growth, maturation, and eventual sloughing of the endometrial mucosa, is produced by the cyclic release of estrogen and progesterone from the ovary. (
  • The menstrual cycle can be modified by hormonal birth control. (
  • Excessive weight gain or loss can disrupt hormonal balance and menstrual regularity. (
  • The authors also assessed the walking patterns of women on hormonal birth control and found that it was not distinguishable from the gait of women not on hormonal birth control and during the fertile phase of their menstrual cycle. (
  • The authors then had male raters judge the attractiveness of the gaits of the women not on hormonal birth control, without telling them what the purpose of the study was or providing information on what phase of the menstrual cycle the women were in. (
  • Information from daily hormonal measurements shows that the timing of the 6-day fertile window varies greatly, even among women with regular cycles ( 21 , 281 , 282 ). (
  • Oestrogen and progesterone are the main hormonal players during your cycle. (
  • [ 7 ] To unravel mechanistic insights into the differential eating patterns during the menstrual cycle, we tested hormonal levels and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain responses to visual food cues of lean females with a regular cycle during midfollicular and midluteal phases. (
  • We postulated that unique brain pattern activity mediated by the hormonal profile may explain the different eating behavior along the menstrual cycle. (
  • The uterus, also known as the womb, size fluctuates throughout the menstrual cycle, responding to a complex interplay between hormonal changes and preparation for pregnancy. (
  • Throughout the menstrual cycle, the uterus undergoes significant changes and can double in size and weight in response to hormonal fluctuations. (
  • Practicing cycle syncing is empowering as it allows you to maximize your hormonal power by optimising your menstrual cycle. (
  • The 28 day hormonal cycle plays a huge role in your physical, mental, and social wellbeing. (
  • Your hormonal cycle affects everything from your mood, to your physical health, as well as your energy levels. (
  • Aging is associated with a decline in the number of ovarian follicles, menstrual irregularities, ovarian hormonal deficiency, anovulation, decreased fertility, and, finally, a complete and irreversible cessation of menses known as menopause, usually occurring at a mean age of 51 years. (
  • The menstrual cycle is a series of natural changes in hormone production and the structures of the uterus and ovaries of the female reproductive system that makes pregnancy possible. (
  • Each cycle occurs in phases based on events either in the ovary (ovarian cycle) or in the uterus (uterine cycle). (
  • So the ovaries have their own cycle and the uterus has its own cycle. (
  • It's the time when we experience a variety of unpleasant symptoms, such as menstrual bleeding and cramping of the uterus. (
  • Though painful at times, this cramping is an indication that our uterus is doing its job of expelling the endometrium because we didn't get pregnant during our last cycle. (
  • During the menstrual cycle the uterus can double in size and weight, which goes a long way to explaining why some people experience a heavy sensation in the pelvic area at the beginning of their menstrual cycles. (
  • In this blog, we look at the uterus size during the different phases of the menstrual cycle, exploring the measurements and weights of the uterus at its smallest and largest points. (
  • Understanding uterus size throughout the menstrual cycle helps us gain insights into our fertility and overall reproductive well-being. (
  • During the menstrual cycle, estrogen produced by the ovaries stimulates the endometrium (the tissue that lines the inside of the uterus) causing it to thicken. (
  • When pregnancy does not occur, the menstrual period commences and the uterus contracts to help expel the unused endometrial lining. (
  • Higher levels of prostaglandins trigger the uterus to contract more strongly and this can constrict its blood vessels, cutting off the oxygen supply and leading to more severe menstrual cramps. (
  • Analysis of the movement of these markers revealed that women in the fertile phase of their menstrual cycle (late follicular phase) could be distinguished, to some extent, from women in the non-fertile phase of the menstrual cycle, but it wasn't clear what exactly the difference was. (
  • In females with regular cycles, brain regions associated with homeostasis but also the reward system, executive frontal areas, and afferent visual areas were activated to a greater degree during the luteal compared with the follicular phase. (
  • Studies in primates and humans have shown that eating patterns vary across the menstrual cycle, reaching a peak at the midluteal phase compared with the follicular phase. (
  • Because functional follicles, which are stimulated by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) during the first part of the menstrual cycle, have declined in number, less recruitment of oocytes occurs, and the follicular phase shortens accordingly. (
  • This worksheet has 36 living environment regents questions about the menstrual cycle. (
  • Dr Quek Swee Chong, O&G specialist at Gleneagles Hospital, answers some commonly asked questions about the menstrual cycle. (
  • These pills help to regulate the menstrual cycles and reducing the heavy bleeding. (
  • Day one of the menstrual cycle is the first day of the period, which lasts for about five days. (
  • Each menstrual cycle starts with the menstrual flow which lasts for 3-5 days. (
  • A menstrual cycle usually lasts between 25 and 35 days but can vary from month to month. (
  • Usually, a menstrual period lasts 3 to 7 days. (
  • The menstrual cycle typically lasts around 28 days, although it can vary from person to person. (
  • the uterine cycle consists of the menstrual, proliferative and secretory phases. (
  • Both cycles can be divided into phases. (
  • Between menarche and menopause the ovaries regularly alternate between luteal and follicular phases during the monthly menstrual cycle. (
  • A well-balanced diet may play a role in optimizing the various phases of the menstrual cycle-and how you feel during them. (
  • Read on to learn more about the connections between personal nutrition and the various phases of the menstrual cycle. (
  • Nutrition plays a significant role in overall health, so it's not surprising that what you eat can affect how you feel during the different phases of your menstrual cycle. (
  • The more you understand the phases of your cycle, the more easily you can adapt exercise to suit your body and your mind. (
  • Cycle syncing is when you tailor your training schedule to match the different phases of the menstrual cycle. (
  • It can be as simple as shifting the intensity of your workouts as your cycle progresses, or it may involve choosing different types of exercise to match different phases of your cycle. (
  • We can break a cycle down into 4 phases. (
  • You will see everywhere, in every single social media post and every single internet article, you will see the headline there are four phases of the menstrual cycle. (
  • So to go back as like, four, like are there four phases of menstrual cycle? (
  • So there's not four phases of the menstrual cycle. (
  • Those four phases that people talk about are actually the two different organ cycles. (
  • To really understand what's going on in our bodies throughout the month, it's necessary to dive pretty deep into our cycles and their various phases. (
  • The menstrual cycle is divided up into four main phases . (
  • The menstrual cycle can be divided into 2 phases: the follicular or proliferative cycle and the luteal or secretory phase. (
  • Syncing your cycle is the practice of structuring your life around the four phases of the menstrual cycle. (
  • The menstrual cycle can cause some women to experience premenstrual syndrome with symptoms that may include tender breasts, and tiredness. (
  • Some may have a go-to remedy when their cycle has them feeling less than their best (looking at you, heating pad), but addressing these symptoms is actually a month-long job. (
  • Stress, in turn, can influence the menstrual cycle and exacerbate premenstrual symptoms. (
  • In addition, during the low-fat, vegetarian diet phase, participants experienced lower body weight and significantly less menstrual pain, a shorter duration of menstrual pain, and fewer premenstrual symptoms related to concentration, behavioural change and water retention. (
  • Research shows that about 75 percent of athletes experience negative side effects such as cramps, back pain, headaches and bloating during their cycle. (
  • Bloating is Much Less, Sharp Ovarian Cyst Pains Gone, Menstrual Cycle was Pain-free, Lighter, and No Cramps an No Heavy Bleeding/Clots. (
  • The ovarian cycle controls the production and release of eggs and the cyclic release of estrogen and progesterone. (
  • [ 12 ] An additional group of females on monophasic oral contraception pills (OCPs), characterized by a stable elevated progesterone analog level reminiscent of the luteal phase of regularly cycling females, was studied as well. (
  • This is why the second half of the cycle is dominated by progesterone! (
  • Predictable menstrual cyclicity is a hallmark of healthy ovarian function during the reproductive years. (
  • 25 days) is the most common change in menstrual cyclicity that occurs during the menstrual transition in women who have no pelvic pathology and who continue to be ovulatory. (
  • It's important to recognise that individual variations can exist and any concerns about menstrual cycle irregularities or reproductive health should be discussed with a qualified healthcare professional. (
  • In this episode of Dear (In)Fertility, Rescripted Co-Founder Kristyn Hodgdon and board-certified OBGYN Dr. Staci Tanouye discuss the menstrual cycle as a vital sign and a window into your overall health and fertility. (
  • From menstrual cycle red flags to what you need to know before you start trying, we're giving you the tools you need to take control of your overall health and fertility. (
  • As someone that has never had a regular period, I'm excited to to talk about how the menstrual cycle can be sort of a vital sign when it comes to your overall health and fertility. (
  • Persistent organohalogens (POHs) and metals have been linked to alterations in menstrual cycle function and fertility in humans. (
  • The author of this study, Serah Sannoh, analyzed peer-reviewed research, identifying multiple studies that investigated the link between dietary patterns and menstrual pain in adolescent girls. (
  • During a menstrual cycle, women should experience bleeding right at the time of periods. (
  • PCOS is one common cause of irregular periods: with PCOS, women stop ovulating, and their cycles tend to be on the long side. (
  • It is normal for girls to have irregular periods during puberty and some girls may take 2 - 3 years before getting a regular menstrual cycle. (
  • There are numerous apps available and they by and large do a good job of allowing you to input your menses dates and calculate your cycle length, predict your fertile and 'safe' periods. (
  • Women report having high levels of self esteem and wellbeing during the middle of their cycle, and high levels of anxiety and depression right before their periods. (
  • To examine the relationship between smoking and menstrual function, using biologic measures rather than self-report of menstrual cycle characteristics. (
  • METHODS: Demographic characteristics, age at menarche and menstrual duration, anthropometry (weight, height, BMI) and pubertal status (breast and pubic hair ) were evaluated. (
  • Menstrual cycle characteristics were derived from structured daily diaries and endocrine measurements from daily urine samples collected during one cycle for 42 women age 19-42. (
  • 2011). Rotating Shift Work and Menstrual Cycle Characteristics. (
  • In the early stages of your cycle, a hormone known as the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) tells your ovaries to prepare and produce the egg-containing follicles. (
  • Tuning in to your menstrual cycle helps you understand the nuances of how your body responds to exercise at different stages. (
  • Sequencing place the stages of the menstrual. (
  • Download menstrual cycle worksheet answer key: Sequencing place the stages of the menstrual. (
  • The menstrual phase marks the beginning of the menstrual cycle and involves the shedding of the uterine lining, which occurs when pregnancy does not take place. (
  • It is also sometimes referred to as the ovarian cycle because it is the ovaries that produce the eggs that are released, which in turn triggers the events of the menstrual cycle. (
  • Menstrual Cycle A menstrual cycle is the process a woman's reproductive system goes through each month to release an egg from the ovaries and make a pregnancy possible. (
  • The cycle is often less regular at the beginning and end of a woman's reproductive life. (
  • The menstrual cycle is a term to describe the sequence of events that occur in a woman's body as it prepares for the possibility of pregnancy approximately once every month. (
  • Other issues like eating disorders, thyroid disease, post-surgery recovery, antidepressant use and polycystic ovarian disease can also disrupt the menstrual cycle. (
  • Experts often say that irregular menstrual cycle is a reason to worry. (
  • As most women will know, your menstrual cycle starts on the first day of your period and ends when your next period begins. (
  • Sterilize your menstrual cup once a month, before the beginning of your menstrual period. (
  • What is a normal period for a menstrual cycle? (
  • The menstrual cycle begins on the first day of a period and is on average 28 days long . (
  • The days of a menstrual cycle are counted from the first day of one menstrual period to the start of the next menstrual period. (
  • Abstract An eleven year-old girl presented with right lower quadrant abdominal pain near menarche that coincided with the onset of her most recent menstrual period. (
  • Menstrual cups are a sustainable way to manage your period, but they require a lot of upkeep. (
  • An investigation from 2012 reported that 84.1% of women experience menstrual pain with 43.1% of them revealing that the pain occurred during every menstrual period. (
  • In contrast, a previous study had reported that the faces of women were rated more attractive while they were in the fertile phase of their menstrual cycle than when they were in the non-fertile phase. (
  • Commonly, more or less all women come up with physical disorder complaints during their menstrual cycle. (
  • In a prospective study, 408 women collected urine daily for one to seven menstrual segments (cycles), maintained daily diaries, and completed detailed interviews. (
  • Some women have cycles that are much shorter than 28 days, and if they are regular but short, it's not usually a problem. (
  • Younger women who have very long cycles might have another condition causing this as well. (
  • This incredible cycle repeats itself every single month for most women of childbearing age. (
  • CELY ANDRADE, José Leonardo and MANRIQUE-ABRIL, Fred G . Cognitive performance in college women throughout the menstrual cycle. (
  • One of the most common things I hear in practice from women after describing the menstrual cycle to them is "I had no idea that's how that worked. (
  • Menstrual pain (dysmenorrhea) is responsible for substantial interruptions in the lives of millions of women and girls. (
  • Participants of this study included 33 women who followed a low-fat vegetarian diet for two menstrual cycles and then switched back to their customary diet along with a supplemental placebo pill (4). (
  • The present study examines the interrelationships between selected POHs and elements on menstrual cycle function in these Cree women. (
  • Our observations support the hypothesis that the menstrual cycle function of these women may be altered by exposure to POHs and elements from their environment. (
  • Multiple follicles develop at once, and by day 8 of the cycle, the body recognizes the "strongest" follicle and promotes more growth of that follicle while suppressing growth of the other follicles. (
  • The first 14 days of a typical 28-day menstrual cycle (day 1 being defined as the first day of menstrual flow) are characterized by rising FSH levels, which stimulate ovarian follicle development and the subsequent production of estrogens (primarily estradiol). (
  • The effects found in this study of smoking on the menstrual cycle might explain in part associations of smoking with other reproductive endpoints, such as subfecundity and early menopause. (
  • Worksheets are topic 6 mensuration, unit 3 reproductive systems and the menstrual cycle, menstrual health. (
  • These cycles are concurrent and coordinated, normally last between 21 and 35 days, with a median length of 28 days, and continue for about 30-45 years. (
  • The length of the menstrual cycle can vary between individuals, but the average is 28 days from the start of one cycle to the next. (
  • Her cycle has been for years: 5-7 days of PMS, 36-48 hour of bloating/gastrointestinal discomfort prior to onset, a rarely regular occurrence, -then- unbearable pain and discomfort, even on 800mg of ibuprofen (esp. (
  • Each menstrual cycle should be 25 to 35 days long, and it indicates a healthy frame of the body. (
  • Menstrual cycle, ranging from 25 to 35 days, does not indicate irregularity of any form. (
  • users must avoid unprotected sexual intercourse on days 8-19 of the menstrual cycle ( 280 ). (
  • The probability of pregnancy is increased when the menstrual cycle is outside the range of 26-32 days, even if unprotected sexual intercourse is avoided on days 8-19. (
  • If your cycle is the same length each month, even if it's longer than 28 days, it might be a normal reaction to stress or other temporary change. (
  • Two or more cycles longer than 35 days in a year is abnormal, outside of the few years before menopause. (
  • On average a regular cycle will last 23-38 days and up to 40 days as a teenager. (
  • Both LH and FSH attain a peak level in the middle of the cycle (about 14 days). (
  • The average length of a cycle is 28 days, but can range from 25-30 days. (
  • Sensitivity analysis of the model to quantify likely effect sizes showed a range of menstrual cycle length from 25.3 to 28.3 days using the lower and upper 95% confidence limits of mean measured contaminant concentrations to predict cycle length. (
  • Eating varies across the menstrual cycle peaking at the midluteal phase. (
  • It's also possible for your menstrual cycle to affect the nutrient levels in your body. (
  • Nutrient deficiencies can indirectly affect menstrual health by impacting hormone production and overall body function, the expert tells Health Shots. (
  • This phase is also commonly known as the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle. (
  • This printable was uploaded at october 28, 2022 by tamble in cycle worksheet. (
  • Certain problems are there, and they indicate that you have critical menstrual disorders. (
  • Stay tuned with us to get the latest updates about the healthy menstrual cycle and hygiene products. (
  • Knowledge of the menstrual cycle and hygiene is an important topic for any female. (
  • This is halfway through your cycle when an egg is released from the ovary. (
  • The ovary releases the mature egg usually at Day 14 in a 28-day cycle. (
  • Watch Diana Archer Mills and Dr. Jackie Mills explain the benefits of syncing your exercise with your cycle. (
  • What is cycle syncing exercise? (
  • There are some things like stress and consistent heavy exercise that can affect the menstrual cycle. (
  • Yeah, I mean, that's a great point because I do see a lot of, I don't want to generalize but like nutritionists, and you know, saying you should eat differently throughout your different weeks of your menstrual cycle or you should exercise differently. (
  • What are the top signs of healthy menstrual cycle? (
  • You need to know the signs that indicate that your menstrual cycle is going healthy . (
  • In the following section, you can have a look at the signs that indicate that your menstrual cycle is going healthy. (
  • What is going on with my body during the menstrual cycle? (
  • These dimensions signify the contraction and relaxation of the uterine muscles, which aid in expelling the menstrual blood from the body. (
  • Practicing cycle syncing is a form of self care as it allows you to have a deeper understanding of your feelings and what your body needs. (
  • By adapting your life depending on what phase of your cycle you are in, you give your body the support that it needs. (
  • A study from 2000 explored the effects of a low-fat, vegetarian diet on dysmenorrhea (menstrual pain). (
  • The researchers involved in the 2000 study noted that there are many mechanisms through which diet could be affecting menstrual pain (4). (
  • The good news is that the menstrual phase doesn't always have to be painful. (
  • To test responses of females with regular cycles during midfollicular and midluteal phase and of users of monophasic oral contraception pills (OCPs) to visual food cues. (
  • Instead of using conventional pads, using this menstrual cup is always advantageous. (
  • Because it can be sterilized and reused, a menstrual cup is a safe and eco-friendly alternative to disposable menstrual products, such as tampons and pads. (
  • So if little girls experience their menstrual cycle in 5th grade or 4th grade, will that prohibit conversations from them since they are in the grade lower than sixth grade? (
  • The menstrual cycle is controlled by the hypothalamus in the brain, and the anterior pituitary gland at the base of the brain. (
  • This clinical state is characterized by elevated basal serum FSH levels in association with disordered menstrual cycles as demonstrated by oligomenorrhea, polymenorrhea, or metrorrhagia. (