Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.Menopause, Premature: The premature cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) when the last menstrual period occurs in a woman under the age of 40. It is due to the depletion of OVARIAN FOLLICLES. Premature MENOPAUSE can be caused by diseases; OVARIECTOMY; RADIATION; chemicals; and chromosomal abnormalities.Menstruation: The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.Follicular Phase: The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.Luteal Phase: The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Menstruation Disturbances: Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Women: Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Premenstrual Syndrome: A combination of distressing physical, psychologic, or behavioral changes that occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Symptoms of PMS are diverse (such as pain, water-retention, anxiety, cravings, and depression) and they diminish markedly 2 or 3 days after the initiation of menses.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Perimenopause: The transitional period before and after MENOPAUSE. Perimenopausal symptoms are associated with irregular MENSTRUAL CYCLE and widely fluctuated hormone levels. They may appear 6 years before menopause and subside 2 to 5 years after menopause.Estrogen Replacement Therapy: The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Pregnanediol: An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.Contraceptives, Oral: Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Menarche: The first MENSTRUAL CYCLE marked by the initiation of MENSTRUATION.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Amenorrhea: Absence of menstruation.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation.Primary Ovarian Insufficiency: Cessation of ovarian function after MENARCHE but before the age of 40, without or with OVARIAN FOLLICLE depletion. It is characterized by the presence of OLIGOMENORRHEA or AMENORRHEA, elevated GONADOTROPINS, and low ESTRADIOL levels. It is a state of female HYPERGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM. Etiologies include genetic defects, autoimmune processes, chemotherapy, radiation, and infections.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Hot Flashes: A sudden, temporary sensation of heat predominantly experienced by some women during MENOPAUSE. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Climacteric: Physiologic period, characterized by endocrine, somatic, and psychic changes with the termination of ovarian function in the female. It may also accompany the normal diminution of sexual activity in the male.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Fertile Period: The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that is optimal for FERTILIZATION of the OVUM and yielding PREGNANCY. The duration of fertile period depends on the life span of male GAMETES within the female reproductive tract and the time of OVULATION. It usually begins a few days before ovulation and ends on the day of ovulation.Anovulation: Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Menstrual Hygiene Products: Personal care items used during MENSTRUATION.Hormone Replacement Therapy: Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.Ovulation Detection: Method to determine the occurrence of OVULATION by direct or indirect means. Indirect methods examine the effects of PROGESTERONE on cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), or basal body temperature. Direct ovulation detection, generally used in fertility treatment, involves analyses of circulating hormones in blood and ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Anti-Mullerian Hormone: A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Reproductive History: An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal: Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Endometriosis: A condition in which functional endometrial tissue is present outside the UTERUS. It is often confined to the PELVIS involving the OVARY, the ligaments, cul-de-sac, and the uterovesical peritoneum.Oligomenorrhea: Abnormally infrequent menstruation.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal: Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Estrone: An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Progestins: Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.Estrous Cycle: The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Hysterectomy: Excision of the uterus.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Pregnant Women: Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Battered Women: Women who are physically and mentally abused over an extended period, usually by a husband or other dominant male figure. Characteristics of the battered woman syndrome are helplessness, constant fear, and a perceived inability to escape. (From American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 3d ed)Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Corpus Luteum: The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Ovulation Prediction: Predicting the time of OVULATION can be achieved by measuring the preovulatory elevation of ESTRADIOL; LUTEINIZING HORMONE or other hormones in BLOOD or URINE. Accuracy of ovulation prediction depends on the completeness of the hormone profiles, and the ability to determine the preovulatory LH peak.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Levonorgestrel: A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.Contraceptive Agents, Female: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Gonadotropins: Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.Ovulation Induction: Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelyFallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin: A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Menorrhagia: Excessive uterine bleeding during MENSTRUATION.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Medroxyprogesterone Acetate: A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.Norethindrone: A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.Ovarian Diseases: Pathological processes of the OVARY.Genitalia, Female: The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.Decidua: The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.United StatesEmbryo Implantation: Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.Women's Rights: The rights of women to equal status pertaining to social, economic, and educational opportunities afforded by society.Cyclohexenes: Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons which contain one or more double bonds in the ring. The cyclohexadienes are not aromatic, in contrast to BENZOQUINONES which are sometimes called 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-diones.Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic: Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.Clomiphene: A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Abortion, Spontaneous: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Uterine Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.Androstenedione: A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Estrogens, Conjugated (USP): A pharmaceutical preparation containing a mixture of water-soluble, conjugated estrogens derived wholly or in part from URINE of pregnant mares or synthetically from ESTRONE and EQUILIN. It contains a sodium-salt mixture of estrone sulfate (52-62%) and equilin sulfate (22-30%) with a total of the two between 80-88%. Other concomitant conjugates include 17-alpha-dihydroequilin, 17-alpha-estradiol, and 17-beta-dihydroequilin. The potency of the preparation is expressed in terms of an equivalent quantity of sodium estrone sulfate.Pueraria: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE a common weed of the southeast US. There has been folk use for alcoholism and liver protection. It contains puerarin, kakkalide, daidzein (isoflavonoids), and kudzusaponins (oleanene-type triterpene glycosides).Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Vinyl CompoundsLibido: The psychic drive or energy associated with sexual instinct in the broad sense (pleasure and love-object seeking). It may also connote the psychic energy associated with instincts in general that motivate behavior.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Papio: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Gonadal Hormones: Hormones produced by the GONADS, including both steroid and peptide hormones. The major steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL and PROGESTERONE from the OVARY, and TESTOSTERONE from the TESTIS. The major peptide hormones include ACTIVINS and INHIBINS.Cervix Mucus: A slightly alkaline secretion of the endocervical glands. The consistency and amount are dependent on the physiological hormone changes in the menstrual cycle. It contains the glycoprotein mucin, amino acids, sugar, enzymes, and electrolytes, with a water content up to 90%. The mucus is a useful protection against the ascent of bacteria and sperm into the uterus. (From Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1988)Sweating: The process of exocrine secretion of the SWEAT GLANDS, including the aqueous sweat from the ECCRINE GLANDS and the complex viscous fluids of the APOCRINE GLANDS.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Women, Working: Women who are engaged in gainful activities usually outside the home.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Dyspareunia: Recurrent genital pain occurring during, before, or after SEXUAL INTERCOURSE in either the male or the female.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Infertility: Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Progesterone Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.Endometrial Hyperplasia: Benign proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM in the UTERUS. Endometrial hyperplasia is classified by its cytology and glandular tissue. There are simple, complex (adenomatous without atypia), and atypical hyperplasia representing also the ascending risk of becoming malignant.Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate: The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.Contraceptives, Oral, Combined: Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.Estriol: A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Human: A major gonadotropin secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and the LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. The alpha subunit is common in the three human pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Leiomyoma: A benign tumor derived from smooth muscle tissue, also known as a fibroid tumor. They rarely occur outside of the UTERUS and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT but can occur in the SKIN and SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE, probably arising from the smooth muscle of small blood vessels in these tissues.Uterine Hemorrhage: Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Coitus: The sexual union of a male and a female, a term used for human only.Testicular Hormones: Hormones produced in the testis.Isoflavones: 3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of FLAVONOIDS in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.Mestranol: The 3-methyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. It must be demethylated to be biologically active. It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.Phytoestrogens: PLANT EXTRACTS and compounds, primarily ISOFLAVONES, that mimic or modulate endogenous estrogens, usually by binding to ESTROGEN RECEPTORS.Macaca radiata: A species of macaque monkey that mainly inhabits the forest of southern India. They are also called bonnet macaques or bonnet monkeys.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Myometrium: The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Physicians, Women: Women licensed to practice medicine.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Medroxyprogesterone: (6 alpha)-17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A synthetic progestational hormone used in veterinary practice as an estrus regulator.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Vaginal Smears: Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.Natural Family Planning Methods: A class of natural contraceptive methods in which SEXUAL ABSTINENCE is practiced a few days before and after the estimated day of ovulation, during the fertile phase. Methods for determining the fertile period or OVULATION DETECTION are based on various physiological indicators, such as circulating hormones, changes in cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), and the basal body temperature.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Periodicity: The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Uterine Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the UTERUS.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Gonadotropins, Pituitary: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).Fertility Agents, Female: Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.JapanAnthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Pregnancy Trimester, First: The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.Papio anubis: A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE with a somewhat different social structure than PAPIO HAMADRYAS. They inhabit several areas in Africa south of the Sahara.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Ethinyl Estradiol: A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Hirsutism: A condition observed in WOMEN and CHILDREN when there is excess coarse body hair of an adult male distribution pattern, such as facial and chest areas. It is the result of elevated ANDROGENS from the OVARIES, the ADRENAL GLANDS, or exogenous sources. The concept does not include HYPERTRICHOSIS, which is an androgen-independent excessive hair growth.
Changes in hormones during the menstrual cycle seem to be an important factor; changing hormone levels affect some women more ... However, women who experience PMS or PMDD are more likely to have significant symptoms associated with menopause, such as hot ... The exact symptoms and their intensity vary significantly from woman to woman, and even somewhat from cycle to cycle and over ... a woman's physician may ask her to keep a prospective record of her symptoms on a calendar for at least two menstrual cycles. ...
Progesterone functions with estrogen by promoting menstrual cycle changes in the endometrium.[medical citation needed] As women ... Women with an inherited mutation in the DNA repair gene BRCA1 undergo menopause prematurely, suggesting that naturally ... Usually, ovulation occurs in one of the two ovaries releasing an egg each menstrual cycle; however, if there was a case where ... The ovaries also secrete hormones that play a role in the menstrual cycle and fertility. The ovary progresses through many ...
In case of divorce women has to wait for three menstrual cycles. Most jurists recommend waiting for the three menstrual cycles ... If a woman has already gone through menopause, she must wait three calendar months. The waiting period for a woman who has ... 2:228 "And divorced women should keep themselves in waiting for three menstrual cycles; and it is not lawful for them to hide ... During this period, a woman is not allowed to remarry for one menstrual cycle[citation needed]to ensure that she is not ...
These scores vary in direct proportion to estrogen levels throughout the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and menopause. Furthermore ... also suggested that there is an interaction between hormone levels and eating at different points in the female menstrual cycle ... These effects produce menstrual cycle changes, which result in hormone release leading to behavioral changes, notably binge and ... It is hypothesized that these changes occur due to brain changes across the menstrual cycle that are likely a genomic effect of ...
However, a woman who does not ovulate at each menstrual cycle is not necessarily going through menopause. Chronic anovulation ... menstrual cycle >35 days) or amenorrea (menstrual cycle > 6 months) in combination with concentration of prolactin, follicle ... For most women, alteration of menstrual periods is the principal indication of chronic anovulation. Ovulatory menstrual periods ... which might restart her menstrual cycle. Conversely, a young overweight woman who manages to lose weight could also relieve the ...
Breasts are usually lumpy or nodular as a result of the hormonal changes that women go through during their menstrual cycle. ... They are most common in pre-menopausal women in their 30s or 40s. They usually disappear after menopause, but may persist or ... The pain and swelling is usually worse in the second half of the menstrual cycle or during pregnancy. Treating breast cysts is ... It is estimated that 7% of women in the western world develop palpable breast cysts. There is preliminary evidence that women ...
... problems or irregularity of the menstrual cycle, and early menopause. Alcoholic ketoacidosis can occur in individuals who ... This is more of a barrier for women than men. Fear of stigmatization may lead women to deny that they are suffering from a ... Women develop long-term complications of alcohol dependence more rapidly than do men. Additionally, women have a higher ... Equal dosages of alcohol consumed by men and women generally result in women having higher blood alcohol concentrations (BACs ...
... which includes women whose seizures are exacerbated by their menstrual cycle. Women with catamenial epilepsy are unusually ... which is characteristic of the lack of menstrual cycle during menopause. Häggström, Mikael (2014). "Reference ranges for ... In normally menstruating women, serum estradiol levels are typically present by day 10 of the menstrual cycle, and persist ... Backstrom T (1976). "Epileptic seizures in women related to plasma estrogen and progesterone during the menstrual cycle". Acta ...
Menopause is the term that is used to refer to the stretch of both before and after a woman's last menstrual cycle. There are ... Prior to and during menopause as the female body changes there can be physical, physiological or internal changes to the body. ... These changes include: Prevention of weight gain: around menopause women tend to experience a reduction in muscle mass and an ... Eschbach, Chris (January 12, 2012). "Exercise Recommendations for Menopause-Aged Women". American College of Sports Medicine. ...
About 90% of DUB events occur when ovulation is not occurring (Anovulatory DUB). Anovulatory menstrual cycles are common at the ... extremes of reproductive age, such as early puberty and perimenopause (period around menopause). In such cases, women do not ... though mid-cycle estrogen and late-cycle progestin can be used for mid- and late-cycle bleeding respectively. Also, non- ... Mid-cycle bleeding may indicate a transient estrogen decline, while late-cycle bleeding may indicate progesterone deficiency. ...
Woods has researched issues relating to women's health since the 1970s. Her research has shed light on menstrual cycle symptoms ... Woods also improved the understanding of the transition to menopause. Her research is credited with having "led the development ... Woods is the author of several important books on women's healthcare including Culture, Society, and Menstruation, Women's ... President of the Society for Menstrual Cycle Research, and as Dean of the University of Washington's nursing program. She was ...
It seems likely that early menopause occurs for women with low populations at birth, and late menopause occurs for women with ... These follicles enter the end of the twelfth menstrual cycle and transition into the follicular phase of the thirteenth cycle. ... At birth, women have all their follicles for folliculogenesis, and they steadily decline until menopause. As women (and mice) ... The endocrine system coincides with the menstrual cycle and goes through thirteen cycles (and thus thirteen LH spikes) during ...
... particularly when menopause is believed to be happening. These levels change during a woman's normal menstrual cycle, so the ... In any case, the LH and FSH levels will rise in cases of primary hypogonadism or menopause, while they will be low in women ... Contrast with a young woman or teen, who would have hypogonadism rather than menopause. This is because hypogonadism is an ... Women with hypogonadism do not begin menstruating and it may affect their height and breast development. Onset in women after ...
Abnormal menstrual cycles or extremely long, heavy, or frequent episodes of bleeding in women before menopause may also be a ... A longer period of fertility-either from an early first menstrual period or late menopause-is also a risk factor. Unopposed ... Vaginal bleeding or spotting in women after menopause occurs in 90% of endometrial cancer. Bleeding is especially common with ... Instead, women, particularly menopausal women, should be aware of the symptoms and risk factors of endometrial cancer. A ...
Canadian endocrinologist and medical doctor specializing in menstrual cycles and the effects of hormones on women's health. She ... PMC 2465772 . Woolley, Pieta (9 Jan 2008). "Doc offers new view of menopause pills". Georgia Straight. Retrieved 18 April 2013 ... and a past president of the Society for Menstrual Cycle Research. Prior is the author of three books, has over 200 publications ... founder and scientific director of the Centre for Menstrual Cycle and Ovulation Research (CeMCOR), director of the BC Center of ...
Primary amenorrhoea (menstrual cycles never starting) may be caused by developmental problems, such as the congenital absence ... from premature menopause or intrauterine scar formation. It is defined as the absence of menses for three months in a woman ... Secondary amenorrhoea (menstrual cycles ceasing) is often caused by hormonal disturbances from the hypothalamus and the ... Amenorrhoea is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age. Physiological states of amenorrhoea are seen, ...
... with the younger female test subject's menstrual cycles and the fact that elderly women no longer go through menopause. Also ... There were more females than males in the study, but there were approximately equal proportions of males and females in the two ... The study observed that younger females had stronger cravings for sweets than elderly females. They related this difference in ... "ninety-one percent of the cycle-associated cravings were said to occur in the second half of the cycle (between ovulation and ...
These scores vary in direct proportion to estrogen levels throughout the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and menopause. Furthermore ... Due to hypoestrogenism, the risk of osteoporosis increases during menopause. Cardiovascular system[edit]. Women suffer less ... The associations between binge eating, menstrual-cycle phase and ovarian hormones correlated.[56][58][58][59] ... These effects produce menstrual cycle changes, which result in hormone release leading to behavioral changes, notably binge and ...
... syndrome is associated with high hormone levels and the failure of the ovaries to release an egg during the menstrual cycle, a ... symptom more often associated with menopause. The high levels of hormones in polycystic ovary syndrome seem to predispose women ... Women with a luteoma of pregnancy typically don't show any symptoms. Only 36% of women actually show signs of masculinization. ... Out of the 36% of women who show male characteristics from the luteoma, 75% of female fetuses will also show signs of ...
In women, estrogen levels fluctuate during the menstrual cycle but reach a steady decline and then remain at low levels ... Postmenopausal confusion is a symptom of menopause; women face problems with cognition during and after menopause due to ... Research on menopause as a whole declined with the end of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) studies, but research on the ... "Association of oxidative stress and memory performance in postmenopausal women receiving estrogen progestin therapy". Menopause ...
... is interpreted by some to also mean the infertile portion of a woman's menstrual cycle. The practice of avoiding pregnancy by ... The 'natural reasons of time or of certain defects' are universally accepted as meaning menopause and infertility. This ... the woman is the heart, and as he occupies the chief place in ruling, so she may and ought to claim for herself the chief place ... does not deny or take away the liberty which fully belongs to the woman both in view of her dignity as a human person, and in ...
... as the condition usually subsides after menopause and is also related to the menstrual cycle. Post-menopausal women placed on ... Symptoms follow a periodic trend tied closely to the menstrual cycle. Symptoms tend to peak in the days and, in severe cases, ... of women and at least 50% of women of childbearing age. Some studies indicate that the lifetime prevalence of FBC may be as ... caused partly by the normal hormonal variation during a woman's monthly cycle. The most important of these hormones are ...
... regulate irregular menstrual cycles, treat yeast infections, decrease the menstrual blood flow, increase fertility, relieve ... Conversely, of the Asian women 26% reported their "feminine identity" was a reason, compared to 0% of the African women. ... symptoms of menopause, treat endometriosis, speed up the after-birth healing process, help with toning, and the herb mugwort is ... woman, a woman who, free of outside influences, seeks to optimize herself and her health (see Healthism). Within that theme, ...
... see childbirth lactation live birth menstrual cycle natural childbirth navel ovum or egg oxytocin or pitocin pediatrics ... American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists OBGYNHealth.net Seven Hills Women's Health Centers - Leaders in Women's ... Gynecology Menopause (journal) Obstetrics & Gynecology (journal) Placenta (journal) Reproduction (journal) Reproductive ... a woman who has raised a child, given birth to a child, and/or supplied the ovum that united with a sperm which grew into a ...
... female sexual receptivity encompassing most of the menstrual cycle (including days of infertility), female but not male ... menopause, and distinctive secondary sexual characteristics. Diamond's next book, Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or ...
Hormonal activity, such as occurs during menstrual cycles and puberty, may contribute to the formation of acne. During puberty ... "International Journal of Women's Dermatology. 3 (1): 44-52. doi:10.1016/j.ijwd.2017.02.018. PMC 5419026. PMID 28492054.. ... "Przeglad Menopauzalny = Menopause Review. 17 (1): 1-4. doi:10.5114/pm.2018.74895. PMC 5925193. PMID 29725277.. ... "International Journal of Women's Dermatology (Review). 4 (2): 56-71. doi:10.1016/j.ijwd.2017.10.006. PMC 5986265. PMID 29872679 ...
Women with premature menopause stop having periods, while women with premature ovarian failure may have sporadic periods for ... Premature Menopause Treatment, Premature Menopause Signs, Early Pre Menopause, Premature Menopause Cure, Premature Menopause ... Women having problems conceiving a child may choose to explore other means of expanding their families, Premature Menopause, ... Premature ovarian failure affects about 1 percent of U.S. women, Premature ovarian failure is sometimes referred to as ...
Myths and Realities is designed to promote a better understanding of menstruation and the myths related to the menstrual cycle ... Women in Psychiatry Edited by Donna M. Norris, M.D., Geetha Jayaram, M.D., M.B.A., and Annelle B. Primm, M.D., M.P.H. 2012 * ... Menopause Edited by Donna E. Stewart, M.D., F.R.C.P.C. 2005 *Paperback ... Sociocultural influences on womens experiences of perimenstrual symptoms. Commentary: Late Luteal Phase Dysphoric Disorder- ...
Women with premature menopause stop having periods, while women with premature ovarian failure may have sporadic periods for ... Women having problems conceiving a child may choose to explore other means of expanding their families, Premature Ovarian ... Premature ovarian failure is sometimes referred to as premature menopause, but the two conditions are not exactly the same: ... years - and may even become pregnant, Restoring estrogen levels in women with premature ovarian failure helps prevent some ...
... symptoms that occur repetitively in the second half of the menstrual cycle and interfere with some aspects of the womans life ... symptoms that occur repetitively in the second half of the menstrual cycle and interfere with some aspects of the womans life ... Affective symptoms in women attending a menopause clinic. Br J Psychiatry 1994; 164:513. ... Editor-in-Chief - Obstetrics, Gynecology and Womens Health *Section Editor - General Gynecology and Female Reproductive ...
Women, Hormones & the Menstrual Cycle: Herbal & Medical Solutions from Adolescence to Menopause has 2 available editions to buy ... the Menstrual Cycle: Herbal & Medical Solutions from Adolescence to Menopause by Ruth Trickey starting at $2.49. ... All Editions of Women, Hormones & the Menstrual Cycle: Herbal & Medical Solutions from Adolescence to Menopause 2004, Trade ... Women, Hormones & the Menstrual Cycle: Herbal & Medical Solutions from Adolescence to Menopause. by Ruth Trickey Write The ...
for women with early menopause. . The bad news from the Womens Health Initiative. simply says that women who have had 35-40 ... surgical menopause. needs hormone therapy, but natural, normally timed menopause. does not. Some women with early menopause ... Ovarian Hormone Therapy for Women with Early Menopause. Ovarian Hormone Therapy for Women with Early Menopause. We hear a lot ... menstrual cycle. pattern for estrogen. and progesterone. in women?. During flow, estrogen. levels are low (as low as in a child ...
Stacy Sims, PhD: The Everything Guide for Female Athletes - How to Navigate Your Menstrual Cycle, the Menopause Years, ... Menstrual Cycle & Support. *What happens during a cycle, the phases, hormone fluctuations, ovulation, etc, and how this ties in ... Stacy Sims, PhD, joins the show for a second time to talk all about women, and how female athletes can maximize their potential ... Body composition changes in the post-menopausal woman. *Hormones and sleep issues-60% of Post women complain of insomnia issues ...
menstrual cycles. - menopause. as well as other topics not covered elsewhere. Your site is great!. Joan Schrammeck. Development ... Abortion and birth control are powerful tools in the hands of women.. A Former Midwife Talks About Menstrual Cups. Hi!. Im ... Later on I became a member of The Society for Menstrual Cycle Research and my proudest moment was meeting Emily Martin at the ... Women put pads and tampons onto and into their bodies for decades, and we really dont know what harmful effects they may have. ...
Post menopause is the last stage in four stage process of ... Many women who are resistant towards insulin are tend to be ... Post Menopause: The Last Phase Of Your Menstrual Cycle! was last modified: April 1st, 2010 by pnreddy1 ... Post menopause is the last stage in four stage process of menstruation, which brings an end to your reproductive cycle. ... As and when your menstrual cycle stops, pituitary gland starts secreting follicle stimulating hormone. Increased levels of this ...
Women often experience depression and depression symptoms in a way different than men, because of hormones, relationships, and ... The Menstrual Cycle, Pregnancy and Menopause. Womens reproductive events include the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, the ... Many women experience certain behavioral and physical changes associated with phases of their menstrual cycles. In some women, ... Women and Abuse. Studies show that women molested as children are more likely to have clinical depression at some time in their ...
The cessation of menstrual cycles at the end of a womans reproductive period is termed menopause. The average age of menopause ... The length of a womans menstrual cycle typically varies somewhat, with some shorter cycles and some longer cycles. A woman who ... The average menstrual cycle lasts 28 days. The variability of menstrual cycle lengths is highest for women under 25 years of ... to be almost doubled for women with a menstrual cycle length of more than 34 days compared with women with a menstrual cycle ...
Fertile After Menstrual Cycle Female Infertility Treatment Ayurveda menopause are likely to have disrupted menstruation and ... Some of the earliest control trials with more than 68000 postmenopausal women enrolling Fertile After Menstrual Cycle Female ... Fertile After Menstrual Cycle Female Infertility Treatment Ayurveda. It can be accessed 24 hours a day and 7 days a week. ... of the low-fat diet and Fertile After Menstrual Cycle Female Infertility Treatment Ayurveda exercise program reduced serum- ...
Primary Care all of our providers offer womens health and gynecological services. Find out what we treat. ... Irregular Menstrual Cycles. Our healthcare providers can assist women who experience abnormal periods, such as heavy bleeding ... Menopause. Our providers can diagnose menopause and work with you to evaluate treatment options as needed. Our womens health ... Womens Wellness. Women have different medical needs from other patients. Our womens health specialists work closely with ...
Calculating Menstrual Cycle Period After Become Can ? Woman Pregnant hyperplasia and endometrial prolapsed uterus repair ... effects of menstrual cycles on prolactin levels menstruat-. *The day of ovulation menopause drugs ultrasound week abnormal 7 ... A criticl function of Hsp27 Calculating Menstrual Cycle Period After Become Can ? Woman Pregnant is the ability to increase the ... Calculating Menstrual Cycle Period After Become Can ? Woman Pregnant. Meta-analysis indicated that CHM significantly increased ...
Heres what you need to know about the transition into menopause - and life after the change takes place. ... cysts/abscesses linked to menstrual cycle? kimbrulee Hi, Im 28 years old - just for the record, since it may or may not apply ... cysts/abscesses linked to menstrual cycle?. Hi, Im 28 years old - just for the record, since it may or may not apply here - I ... Create an account to receive updates on: cysts/abscesses linked to menstrual cycle? ...
i have recently been diagnosed with vestibulodynia and have gotten my cycle. it is horrible and painful. i was prescribed an ... Heres what you need to know about the transition into menopause - and life after the change takes place. ... severe burning during menstrual cycle with vestibulodynia?. i have recently been diagnosed with vestibulodynia and have gotten ... 15 Cancer Symptoms Women Ignore From skin changes to weight loss to unusual bleeding, here are 15 cancer warning signs that ...
Some women would apparently rather work through period pains than ask for time off when their time of the month is particularly ... Vaginal Bleeding Painful Menstrual Periods Menstrual Periods Menopause and Sex Menstrual Cycle ... Menstrual Cycle. Menstrual cycle occurs every month during a woman s reproductive age. Tracking menstrual cycle helps ... Levothyroxine Treatment in Women With Thyroid Antibodies Sleep Quality Varies Throughout Menstrual Cycle in Young Women More ...
How childhood cancer affects female reproductive health function depends on many factors including age at treatment and the ... Many females will stop having monthly periods during cancer treatment. In most cases, menstrual cycles will start again ... Early Menopause. Some women who resume having monthly periods after cancer treatment are at risk for starting menopause early. ... Women at risk for early menopause who want to have children should try to do so before their mid-thirties. This is because the ...
This abdominal pain can begin weeks before menstrual bleeding or midway through the... ... Women normally experience cramping as a part of the menstrual cycle. ... Women normally experience cramping as a part of the menstrual cycle. This abdominal pain can begin weeks before menstrual ... which may be a problem for women taking estrogen replacements to lessen menopause symptoms or women with menstrual ...
Women who get HIV/AIDS have unique problems and symptoms, including repeated vaginal yeast infections and higher risk of ... Menstrual cycle problems. *A higher risk of osteoporosis. *Entering menopause younger or having more severe hot flashes ... Women and HIV (Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Womens Health) Also in Spanish ... How does HIV/AIDS affect women differently from men?. About one in four people in the United States who have HIV are women. ...
How could the menopause affect my sex life adversely? ... The menopause is the time when a womans periods stop. In the ... The menstrual cycle: why do women menstruate?. Female sex hormone: our hormones undoubtedly have a huge influence on our lives. ... What is the menopause? The menopause is the time when a womans periods stop. In the UK, this usually happens between the ages ... Sex and the menopause. The menopause is the time when a womans periods stop. In the UK, this usually happens between the ages ...
Menstrual Cycle. Menstruation is a womens monthly period-and when this occurs regularly each month, we refer to it as the ... The average age for natural menopause is 51, but like menstruation, menopause can vary from woman to woman. In some women, this ... Menstrual Cycle. The rise and fall of levels of hormones during the month control the regular menstrual cycle. A cycle is ... Menopause Care Menopause means that a woman is no longer having periods, ovulating (producing eggs) and can no ... ...
... because it is thought to have minimal variability throughout the menstrual cycle. However, studies... ... Changes in serum antimüllerian hormone levels across the ovulatory menstrual cycle in late reproductive age. Menopause. 2011;18 ... Fifty females with regular menstrual cycles aged 18-45 underwent serial venipuncture every 3-5 days starting in the early ... Intra-cycle fluctuations of anti-Müllerian hormone in normal women with a regular cycle: a re-analysis. Reprod BioMed Online. ...
It happens because, as a woman ages, her ovaries make fewer female hormones. ... Menopause is when a womans menstrual periods permanently end. ... menopause, menstrual cycle problem, Urination Problem, weight ... Menopause is when a womans menstrual periods permanently end. It happens because, as a woman ages, her ovaries make fewer ... When does menopause occur?. The timing of actual menopause is different for each woman. The average age for women to have their ...
... and treatments may be different for women. Find out how gender affects this condition. ... Bipolar disorder affects both men and women, but triggers, symptoms, ... Some of the the differences in how bipolar disorder manifests in men and women may relate to the female menstrual cycle. ... Rapid cycling is more common in women than in men. Rapid cycling is the occurrence of four or more mood episodes within 12 ...
  • It also covers the specific diagnosis and treatment of disorders that affect women and recommendations for future research. (appi.org)
  • Many women's testosterone levels begin to fall during her 30s, dipping to half their initial levels by the time she reaches menopause. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • One line of discussion looked at factors leading to women's weight gain during menopause ( menopause weight gain ), and how it might be avoided. (womenhealthzone.com)
  • Public health care systems in and beyond Botswana should mobilize resources and take measures to improve older women's awareness and knowledge about menopause-related changes through educational training and guidance to maintain active, healthy lives. (scirp.org)
  • I. Kowalcek, D. Rotte, C. Banz and K. Diedrich, "Women's Attitude and Perceptions towards Menopause in Different Cultures. (scirp.org)
  • Let's learn about the role estrogen plays in women's health and how suppression of this hormone lowers the risk of breast cancer recurrence in certain women. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University collected multiple blood samples from 5,450 women participating in the Women's Health Initiative, a multicenter study that examined the effect of various factors, such as diet and supplementation on women's health. (ihavenet.com)
  • In 2002, the Women's Health Initiative found that the risks of Premarin and Provera treatment for menopause outweighed the benefits. (sharecare.com)
  • Treatments are available, but they have side effects that are important for a woman to discuss with her doctor. (medicalnewstoday.com)