The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
The premature cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) when the last menstrual period occurs in a woman under the age of 40. It is due to the depletion of OVARIAN FOLLICLES. Premature MENOPAUSE can be caused by diseases; OVARIECTOMY; RADIATION; chemicals; and chromosomal abnormalities.
The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.
The transitional period before and after MENOPAUSE. Perimenopausal symptoms are associated with irregular MENSTRUAL CYCLE and widely fluctuated hormone levels. They may appear 6 years before menopause and subside 2 to 5 years after menopause.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
A sudden, temporary sensation of heat predominantly experienced by some women during MENOPAUSE. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Cessation of ovarian function after MENARCHE but before the age of 40, without or with OVARIAN FOLLICLE depletion. It is characterized by the presence of OLIGOMENORRHEA or AMENORRHEA, elevated GONADOTROPINS, and low ESTRADIOL levels. It is a state of female HYPERGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM. Etiologies include genetic defects, autoimmune processes, chemotherapy, radiation, and infections.
Physiologic period, characterized by endocrine, somatic, and psychic changes with the termination of ovarian function in the female. It may also accompany the normal diminution of sexual activity in the male.
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
The first MENSTRUAL CYCLE marked by the initiation of MENSTRUATION.
The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.
An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
Excision of the uterus.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons which contain one or more double bonds in the ring. The cyclohexadienes are not aromatic, in contrast to BENZOQUINONES which are sometimes called 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-diones.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
Vinyl compounds, in the context of medical materials, refer to synthetic polymers made from vinyl chloride or vinyl acetate monomers, which are used in the production of various medical devices and supplies such as blood bags, intravenous (IV) bags, tubing, and gloves due to their flexibility, transparency, and resistance to chemicals and heat.
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
A pharmaceutical preparation containing a mixture of water-soluble, conjugated estrogens derived wholly or in part from URINE of pregnant mares or synthetically from ESTRONE and EQUILIN. It contains a sodium-salt mixture of estrone sulfate (52-62%) and equilin sulfate (22-30%) with a total of the two between 80-88%. Other concomitant conjugates include 17-alpha-dihydroequilin, 17-alpha-estradiol, and 17-beta-dihydroequilin. The potency of the preparation is expressed in terms of an equivalent quantity of sodium estrone sulfate.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Recurrent genital pain occurring during, before, or after SEXUAL INTERCOURSE in either the male or the female.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
Absence of menstruation.
Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.
Pathological processes of the female URINARY TRACT and the reproductive system (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
Pregnenes with one double bond or more than three double bonds which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19..
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
A form of long QT syndrome that is associated with congenital deafness. It is characterized by abnormal cardioelectrophysiology involving the VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL. It results from mutation of KCNQ1 gene (Subtype 1 or JLN1) or the KCNE1 gene (Subtype 2 or JLN2).
The psychic drive or energy associated with sexual instinct in the broad sense (pleasure and love-object seeking). It may also connote the psychic energy associated with instincts in general that motivate behavior.
PLANT EXTRACTS and compounds, primarily ISOFLAVONES, that mimic or modulate endogenous estrogens, usually by binding to ESTROGEN RECEPTORS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The process of exocrine secretion of the SWEAT GLANDS, including the aqueous sweat from the ECCRINE GLANDS and the complex viscous fluids of the APOCRINE GLANDS.
Hormones produced by the GONADS, including both steroid and peptide hormones. The major steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL and PROGESTERONE from the OVARY, and TESTOSTERONE from the TESTIS. The major peptide hormones include ACTIVINS and INHIBINS.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE that contains triterpenoid saponins. Remifemin from C. racemosa is used to suppress LUTEINIZING HORMONE. It is reclassified by some to ACTAEA. The common name of black snakeroot is also used with ASARUM and SANICULA.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
The status of health in suburban populations.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.
Methods used for assessment of ovarian function.
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.
Brief accounts or narratives of an incident or event.
3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of FLAVONOIDS in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.
An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.

Reproductive factors and fatal hip fractures. A Norwegian prospective study of 63,000 women. (1/2291)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of reproductive variables (age at menarche, menopause, first and last birth as well as parity, lactation, and abortions) on hip fracture mortality. DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective study in Norway with more than 60,000 women followed up for 29 years. A total of 465 deaths as a result of hip fracture were recorded. MAIN RESULTS: Statistically significant linear relations (p < or = 0.02) were found between both age at menarche and length of reproductive period (defined as age at menopause to age at menarche) and the mortality of hip fractures in women aged less than 80. The death rate for women with a late menarche (> or = 17 years) was twice that of the women with relatively early menarche (< or = 13 years). Compared with women with less than 30 years between menopause and menarche, the mortality rate ratio in women with more than 38 reproductive years was 0.5. We also found an inverse relation with age at first birth. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports by hypothesis that an early menarche and a long reproductive period protect against hip fracture mortality. High age at first birth may also be protective.  (+info)

Moderate physical activity in relation to mammographic patterns. (2/2291)

High-risk mammographic patterns may be used as a surrogate end point for breast cancer in etiologic research as well as in prevention studies. Physical activity may be one of the few modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We examined the relationship between physical activity and mammographic patterns among 2720 Norwegian women, ages 40-56 years, who participated in both the Second and Third Tromso studies. Epidemiologic data were obtained through questionnaires. Two questions from the Second Tromso study and five questions from the Third elicited information on physical activity. The mammograms were categorized into five groups based on anatomical-mammographic correlations. For analysis, patterns I through III were combined into a low-risk group and patterns IV and V into a high-risk group. Odds ratios that were adjusted for age, education, menopausal status, body mass index, parity, age at menarche, oral contraceptive use, and alcohol intake, with 95% confidence intervals, were estimated using logistic regression. Women who reported moderate physical activity, i.e., more than 2 h/week, were 20% less likely (odds ratio, 0.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.1) to have high-risk mammographic patterns compared with those who reported being inactive. This relationship remains consistent when stratified by menopausal status, parity, and tertiles of body mass index. However, all of the associations between various measures of physical activity and high-risk patterns found in this study are weak with confidence intervals that include 1.0. Thus, chance is a reasonable explanation for the weak associations found. The relationship between physical activity and high-risk patterns should be examined further as a means to explore the biologic mechanisms relating physical activity to breast cancer risk.  (+info)

Macronutrient intake and change in mammographic density at menopause: results from a randomized trial. (3/2291)

To examine the effects of dietary fat intake on breast cancer risk, we are conducting a randomized trial of dietary intervention in women with extensive areas of radiologically dense breast tissue on mammography, a risk factor for breast cancer. Early results show that after 2 years on a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet there is a significant reduction in area of density, particularly in women going through menopause. In women who went through menopause during the 2-year follow-up, the mean decreases in area of density and percentage of density in the intervention group were 11.0 cm2 and 11.0%, respectively, whereas the control group decreased 4.5 cm2 and 5.2%. The purpose of this analysis was to determine whether changes in intake of specific macronutrients could account for the observed reduction in breast density in these women. Differences between 2-year and baseline values of macronutrients (averaged over 3 nonconsecutive days of food intake) were calculated. We examined the effect of dietary variables, adjusted for changes in total calorie intake and weight and for family history of breast cancer, on changes in area of density and percentage of density using linear regression. Reduction in total or saturated fat intake or cholesterol intake was significantly associated with decreased dense area (p < or = .004). The most significant dietary variable associated with reduction in percentage of density was reduction in dietary cholesterol intake (P = 0.001), although reducing saturated fat intake was of borderline significance (P = 0.05). The effect of the membership in the intervention and control groups on change in area of density or percentage of density was reduced by models that included changes in intake of any fat, or cholesterol, or carbohydrates. The observation of an effect of diet at menopause on breast density, a marker of increased risk of breast cancer, may be an indication that exposures at this time have an enhanced effect on subsequent risk.  (+info)

Time at surgery during menstrual cycle and menopause affects pS2 but not cathepsin D levels in breast cancer. (4/2291)

Many studies have addressed the clinical value of pS2 as a marker of hormone responsiveness and of cathepsin D (Cath D) as a prognostic factor in breast cancer. Because pS2 and Cath D are both oestrogen induced in human breast cancer cell lines, we studied the influence of the menstrual cycle phase and menopausal status at the time of surgery on the levels of these proteins in breast cancer. A population of 1750 patients with breast cancer, including 339 women in menstrual cycle, was analysed. Tumoral Cath D and pS2 were measured by radioimmunoassay. Serum oestradiol (E2), progesterone (Pg), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels at the day of surgery were used to define the hormonal phase in premenopausal women. There was a trend towards a higher mean pS2 level in the follicular phase compared with the luteal phase (17 ng mg(-1) and 11 ng mg(-1) respectively, P = 0.09). Mean pS2 was lower in menopausal patients than in women with cycle (8 ng mg(-1) and 14 ng mg(-1) respectively, P = 0.0001). No differences in mean Cath D level were observed between the different phases of the menstrual cycle, or between pre- and post-menopausal women. In the overall population, pS2 was slightly positively associated with E2 and Pg levels and negatively associated with FSH and LH, probably reflecting the link between pS2 and menopausal status. In premenopausal women, no association was found between pS2 and E2, Pg, FSH or LH levels. There were no correlations between Cath D level and circulating hormone levels in the overall population. However, in the subgroup of premenopausal women with ER-positive (ER+) tumours, E2 was slightly associated with both pS2 and Cath D, consistent with oestrogen induction of these proteins in ER+ breast cancer cell lines. There are changes in pS2 level in breast cancer throughout the menstrual cycle and menopause. This suggests that the choice of the pS2 cut-off level should take the hormonal status at the time of surgery into account. In contrast, the level of Cath D is unrelated to the menstrual cycle and menopausal status.  (+info)

Socioeconomic status and determinants of hemostatic function in healthy women. (5/2291)

Hemostatic factors are reported to be associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). Socioeconomic status (SES) is 1 of the determinants of the hemostatic profile, but the factors underlying this association are not well known. Our aim was to examine determinants of the socioeconomic differences in hemostatic profile. Between 1991 and 1994, we studied 300 healthy women, aged 30 to 65 years, who were representative of women living in the greater Stockholm area. Fibrinogen, factor VII mass concentration (FVII:Ag), activated factor VII (FVIIa), von Willebrand factor (vWF), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were measured. Educational attainment was used as a measure of SES. Low educational level and an unfavorable hemostatic profile were both associated with older age, unhealthful life style, psychosocial stress, atherogenic biochemical factors, and hypertension. Levels of hemostatic factors increased with lower educational attainment. Independently of age, the differences between the lowest (mandatory) and highest (college/university) education in FVII:Ag levels were 41 microg/L (95% confidence interval [CI], 15 to 66 microg/L, P=0.001), 0.26 g/L (95% CI, 0.10 to 0.42 g/L, P=0.001) in fibrinogen levels, and 0.11 U/mL (95% CI, 0.09 to 0.12 U/mL, P=0.03) in levels of vWF. The corresponding differences in FVIIa and PAI-1 were not statistically significant. With further adjustment for menopausal status, family history of CHD, marital status, psychosocial stress, lifestyle patterns, biochemical factors, and hypertension, statistically significant differences between mandatory and college/university education were observed in FVII:Ag (difference=34 microg/L; 95% CI, 2 to 65 microg/L, P=0.05) but not in fibrinogen (difference=0.03 g/L; 95% CI, -0.13 to 0.19 g/L, P=0.92) or in vWF (difference=0.06 U/mL; 95% CI, -0.10 to 0.22 U/mL, P=0.45). An educational gradient was most consistent and statistically significant for FVII:Ag, fibrinogen, and vWF. Age, psychosocial stress, unhealthful life style, atherogenic biochemical factors, and hypertension mediated the association of low educational level with elevated levels of fibrinogen and vWF. Psychosocial stress and unhealthful life style were the most important contributing factors. There was an independent association between education and FVII:Ag, which could not be explained by any of these factors.  (+info)

Primary endometrioid carcinoma of fallopian tube. Clinicomorphologic study. (6/2291)

Twenty cases of primary Fallopian tube endometrioid carcinoma (PFTEC) are presented in the paper. This accounts for 42.5% of all histologic forms of primary Fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC) found in our Department. The youngest patient was 38, and the oldest 68 years (mean: 56 years). Seven patients were nulliparas. Only two cases were bilateral. According to FIGO staging, 13 cases were evaluated as stage I, 4 as II, and 3 as stage III. Due to the histologic grading, 8 tumors were classified as well, 7 as moderately, and 5 as poorly differentiated. In the time of preparation of the manuscript, 12 women were still alive, 2 of them with recurrent disease. The follow-up of patients without recurrence ranged from 4 to 120 months (median: 63). Eight patients had died (survival time: from 4 to 65 months; median: 26). Metastases were found in 8 patients, especially to ovaries. In 14/20 cases of PFTEC various forms of tubal wall invasion were observed. Blood or lymphatic vessels involvement was found in 9 patients. Six of them had died and one is alive with the symptoms of disease. Immunohistochemical detection of the mutant form of p53 protein and oncogene product, c-erbB-2, was studied in 17 cases. Nine patients exhibited simultaneous p53 protein accumulation and c-erbB-2 expression. 2/9 of these patients are alive with recurrent tumors and 4/9 died. Endometrioid carcinoma of the Fallopian tube can be characterized by a tendency to superficial invasion of tubal wall and in a half of the cases by invasion of vessels. The majority of these tumors were diagnosed at an early stage tumors.  (+info)

Dietary isoflavones: biological effects and relevance to human health. (7/2291)

Substantial evidence indicates that diets high in plant-based foods may explain the epidemiologic variance of many hormone-dependent diseases that are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Western populations. There is now an increased awareness that plants contain many phytoprotectants. Lignans and isoflavones represent two of the main classes of phytoestrogens of current interest in clinical nutrition. Although ubiquitous in their occurrence in the plant kingdom, these bioactive nonnutrients are found in particularly high concentrations in flaxseeds and soybeans and have been found to have a wide range of hormonal and nonhormonal activities that serve to provide plausible mechanisms for the potential health benefits of diets rich in phytoestrogens. Data from animal and in vitro studies provide convincing evidence for the potential of phytoestrogens in influencing hormone-dependent states; although the clinical application of diets rich in these estrogen mimics is in its infancy, data from preliminary studies suggest beneficial effects of importance to health. This review focuses on the more recent studies pertinent to this field and includes, where appropriate, the landmark and historical literature that has led to the exponential increase in interest in phytoestrogens from a clinical nutrition perspective.  (+info)

A prospective study on folate, B12, and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (B6) and breast cancer. (8/2291)

To investigate the incidence of breast cancer and prediagnostic serum levels of folate, B12, and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (B6), we conducted a nested case-control study using resources from the Washington County (Maryland) serum bank. In 1974, 12,450 serum specimens were donated, and in 1989, 14,625 plasma specimens were donated by female residents of Washington County. One hundred ninety-five incident breast cancer cases and 195 controls were matched by age, race, menopausal status at donation, and cohort participation as well as by date of blood donation. In both cohorts and all menopausal subgroups, median B12 concentrations were lower among cases than controls. Differences reached statistical significance only among women who were postmenopausal at donation (1974 cohort, 413 versus 482 pg/ml, P = 0.03; 1989 cohort, 406 versus 452 pg/ml, P = 0.02). Among women postmenopausal at blood donation, observed associations of B12 suggested a threshold effect with increased risk of breast cancer in the lowest one-fifth compared to the higher four-fifths of the control distribution [lowest versus highest fifth: 1974 cohort, matched odds ratio = 4.00 (95% confidence interval = 1.05-15.20); 1989 cohort, matched odds ratio = 2.25 (95% confidence interval = 0.86-5.91)]. We found no evidence for an association between folate, B6, and homocysteine and breast cancer. Findings suggested a threshold effect for serum B12 with an increased risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women in the lowest one-fifth compared to the higher four-fifths of the control distribution. These results should stimulate further investigations of potentially modifiable risk factors, such as these B-vitamins, for prevention of breast cancer.  (+info)

Menopause is a natural biological process that typically occurs in women in their mid-40s to mid-50s. It marks the end of menstrual cycles and fertility, defined as the absence of menstruation for 12 consecutive months. This transition period can last several years and is often accompanied by various physical and emotional symptoms such as hot flashes, night sweats, mood changes, sleep disturbances, and vaginal dryness. The hormonal fluctuations during this time, particularly the decrease in estrogen levels, contribute to these symptoms. It's essential to monitor and manage these symptoms to maintain overall health and well-being during this phase of life.

Premature menopause, also known as premature ovarian insufficiency, is a medical condition characterized by the cessation of ovarian function before the age of 40. This results in the absence of menstrual periods and decreased levels of estrogen and progesterone, which can have significant impacts on a woman's health and fertility.

The symptoms of premature menopause are similar to those experienced during natural menopause and may include hot flashes, night sweats, mood changes, vaginal dryness, and decreased libido. However, because of the early age of onset, women with premature menopause have an increased risk of developing certain health conditions such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and cognitive decline.

The causes of premature menopause are varied and can include genetic factors, autoimmune disorders, surgical removal of the ovaries, chemotherapy or radiation therapy, and exposure to environmental toxins. In some cases, the cause may be unknown. Treatment for premature menopause typically involves hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to alleviate symptoms and reduce the risk of long-term health complications. However, HRT carries its own risks and benefits, and individualized treatment plans should be developed in consultation with a healthcare provider.

Estrogen Replacement Therapy (ERT) is a medical treatment in which estrogen hormones are administered to replace the estrogen that is naturally produced by the ovaries but declines, especially during menopause. This therapy is often used to help manage symptoms of menopause such as hot flashes, night sweats, and vaginal dryness. It can also help prevent bone loss in postmenopausal women. ERT typically involves the use of estrogen alone, but in some cases, a combination of estrogen and progestin may be prescribed for women with a uterus to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. However, ERT is associated with certain risks, including an increased risk of breast cancer, blood clots, and stroke, so it's important for women to discuss the potential benefits and risks with their healthcare provider before starting this therapy.

Perimenopause is a term used to describe the phase before menopause where the ovaries gradually begin to produce less estrogen. It's also sometimes referred to as the "menopausal transition."

This stage can last for several years, typically starting in a woman's mid-40s, but it can begin in some women as early as their mid-30s or as late as their early 50s. During this time, menstrual cycles may become longer or shorter, and periods may be lighter or heavier.

The most significant sign of perimenopause is the irregularity of periods. However, other symptoms such as hot flashes, sleep disturbances, mood changes, and vaginal dryness can also occur, similar to those experienced during menopause.

Perimenopause ends after a woman has gone 12 months without having a period, which marks the start of menopause.

Postmenopause is a stage in a woman's life that follows 12 months after her last menstrual period (menopause) has occurred. During this stage, the ovaries no longer release eggs and produce lower levels of estrogen and progesterone hormones. The reduced levels of these hormones can lead to various physical changes and symptoms, such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and mood changes. Postmenopause is also associated with an increased risk of certain health conditions, including osteoporosis and heart disease. It's important for women in postmenopause to maintain a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise, a balanced diet, and routine medical check-ups to monitor their overall health and manage any potential risks.

A hot flash is a sudden, intense feeling of heat, particularly in the face, neck and chest regions, which is often accompanied by perspiration, reddening of the skin (flush or blush), and rapid heartbeat. It is a common symptom experienced by individuals, especially women during menopause or perimenopause, although it can also occur in other medical conditions or as a side effect of certain medications. The exact cause of hot flashes is not fully understood, but they are thought to be related to changes in hormone levels and the body's regulation of temperature.

Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI), also known as Premature Ovarian Failure, is a condition characterized by the cessation of ovarian function before the age of 40. This results in decreased estrogen production and loss of fertility. It is often associated with menstrual irregularities or amenorrhea (absence of menstruation). The exact cause can vary, including genetic factors, autoimmune diseases, toxins, and iatrogenic causes such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

The climacteric, also known as perimenopause or menopausal transition, is a phase in a woman's reproductive life characterized by various physiological and hormonal changes that occur as she approaches menopause. The term "climacteric" comes from the Greek word "klimakter," which means "ladder" or "rung of a ladder."

During this phase, which typically begins in a woman's mid-to-late 40s and can last for several years, the production of estrogen and progesterone by the ovaries starts to decline. This decline in hormone levels can lead to a variety of symptoms, including:

* Irregular menstrual cycles
* Hot flashes and night sweats
* Sleep disturbances
* Mood changes
* Vaginal dryness and discomfort during sexual activity
* Decreased libido
* Urinary frequency or urgency
* Memory and cognitive changes

The climacteric is a natural phase of a woman's life, and while some women may experience significant symptoms, others may have few or no symptoms at all. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and other treatments are available to help manage the symptoms of the climacteric for those who find them disruptive or bothersome.

Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) is a medical treatment that involves the use of hormones to replace or supplement those that the body is no longer producing or no longer producing in sufficient quantities. It is most commonly used to help manage symptoms associated with menopause and conditions related to hormonal imbalances.

In women, HRT typically involves the use of estrogen and/or progesterone to alleviate hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness, and mood changes that can occur during menopause. In some cases, testosterone may also be prescribed to help improve energy levels, sex drive, and overall sense of well-being.

In men, HRT is often used to treat low testosterone levels (hypogonadism) and related symptoms such as fatigue, decreased muscle mass, and reduced sex drive.

It's important to note that while HRT can be effective in managing certain symptoms, it also carries potential risks, including an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, breast cancer (in women), and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the decision to undergo HRT should be made carefully and discussed thoroughly with a healthcare provider.

Menarche is the first occurrence of menstruation in a female adolescent, indicating the onset of reproductive capability. It usually happens between the ages of 10 and 16, with an average age of around 12-13 years old, but it can vary widely from one individual to another due to various factors such as genetics, nutrition, and overall health.

Achieving menarche is a significant milestone in a girl's life, signaling the transition from childhood to adolescence. It is also an essential indicator of sexual maturation, often used in conjunction with other physical changes to assess pubertal development. However, it does not necessarily mean that a girl is psychologically or emotionally prepared for menstruation and sexual activity; therefore, appropriate education and support are crucial during this period.

Premenopause is not a formal medical term, but it's often informally used to refer to the time period in a woman's life leading up to menopause. During this stage, which can last for several years, hormonal changes begin to occur in preparation for menopause. The ovaries start to produce less estrogen and progesterone, which can lead to various symptoms such as irregular periods, hot flashes, mood swings, and sleep disturbances. However, it's important to note that not all women will experience these symptoms.

The official medical term for the stage when a woman's period becomes irregular and less frequent, but hasn't stopped completely, is perimenopause. This stage typically lasts from two to eight years and ends with menopause, which is defined as the point when a woman has not had a period for 12 consecutive months. After menopause, women enter postmenopause.

Ovariectomy is a surgical procedure in which one or both ovaries are removed. It is also known as "ovary removal" or "oophorectomy." This procedure is often performed as a treatment for various medical conditions, including ovarian cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and pelvic pain. Ovariectomy can also be part of a larger surgical procedure called an hysterectomy, in which the uterus is also removed.

In some cases, an ovariectomy may be performed as a preventative measure for individuals at high risk of developing ovarian cancer. This is known as a prophylactic ovariectomy. After an ovariectomy, a person will no longer have menstrual periods and will be unable to become pregnant naturally. Hormone replacement therapy may be recommended in some cases to help manage symptoms associated with the loss of hormones produced by the ovaries.

Estrogens are a group of steroid hormones that are primarily responsible for the development and regulation of female sexual characteristics and reproductive functions. They are also present in lower levels in males. The main estrogen hormone is estradiol, which plays a key role in promoting the growth and development of the female reproductive system, including the uterus, fallopian tubes, and breasts. Estrogens also help regulate the menstrual cycle, maintain bone density, and have important effects on the cardiovascular system, skin, hair, and cognitive function.

Estrogens are produced primarily by the ovaries in women, but they can also be produced in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estrogens are produced from the conversion of testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, through a process called aromatization.

Estrogen levels vary throughout a woman's life, with higher levels during reproductive years and lower levels after menopause. Estrogen therapy is sometimes used to treat symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness, or to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. However, estrogen therapy also carries risks, including an increased risk of certain cancers, blood clots, and stroke, so it is typically recommended only for women who have a high risk of these conditions.

Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a specific type of osteoporosis that occurs in women after they have gone through menopause. It is defined as a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength, leading to an increased risk of fractures. In this condition, the decline in estrogen levels that occurs during menopause accelerates bone loss, resulting in a decrease in bone density and quality, which can lead to fragility fractures, particularly in the hips, wrists, and spine.

It's important to note that while postmenopausal osteoporosis is more common in women, men can also develop osteoporosis due to other factors such as aging, lifestyle choices, and medical conditions.

Reproductive history is a term used in medicine to describe the past experiences related to reproduction for an individual. This can include information about pregnancies, including the number of pregnancies, outcomes (such as live births, miscarriages, or stillbirths), and any complications that arose during pregnancy or childbirth. It may also include details about contraceptive use, menstrual history, sexually transmitted infections, and any reproductive health issues or surgeries.

This information is often collected by healthcare providers to help assess fertility, plan for future pregnancies, identify potential risks, and provide appropriate care and management of reproductive health conditions. It's also used in research and public health to understand trends and disparities in reproductive outcomes.

Women's health is a branch of healthcare that focuses on the unique health needs, conditions, and concerns of women throughout their lifespan. It covers a broad range of topics including menstruation, fertility, pregnancy, menopause, breast health, sexual health, mental health, and chronic diseases that are more common in women such as osteoporosis and autoimmune disorders. Women's health also addresses issues related to gender-based violence, socioeconomic factors, and environmental impacts on women's health. It is aimed at promoting and maintaining the physical, emotional, and reproductive well-being of women, and preventing and treating diseases and conditions that disproportionately affect them.

A hysterectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the uterus (womb). Depending on the specific medical condition and necessity, a hysterectomy may also include the removal of the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and surrounding tissues. There are different types of hysterectomies, including:

1. Total hysterectomy: The uterus and cervix are removed.
2. Supracervical (or subtotal) hysterectomy: Only the upper part of the uterus is removed, leaving the cervix intact.
3. Radical hysterectomy: This procedure involves removing the uterus, cervix, surrounding tissues, and the upper part of the vagina. It is typically performed in cases of cervical cancer.
4. Oophorectomy: The removal of one or both ovaries can be performed along with a hysterectomy depending on the patient's medical condition and age.
5. Salpingectomy: The removal of one or both fallopian tubes can also be performed along with a hysterectomy if needed.

The reasons for performing a hysterectomy may include but are not limited to: uterine fibroids, heavy menstrual bleeding, endometriosis, adenomyosis, pelvic prolapse, cervical or uterine cancer, and chronic pelvic pain. The choice of the type of hysterectomy depends on the patient's medical condition, age, and personal preferences.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Menstruation is the regular, cyclical shedding of the uterine lining (endometrium) in women and female individuals of reproductive age, accompanied by the discharge of blood and other materials from the vagina. It typically occurs every 21 to 35 days and lasts for approximately 2-7 days. This process is a part of the menstrual cycle, which is under the control of hormonal fluctuations involving follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estrogen, and progesterone.

The menstrual cycle can be divided into three main phases:

1. Menstruation phase: The beginning of the cycle is marked by the start of menstrual bleeding, which signals the breakdown and shedding of the endometrium due to the absence of pregnancy and low levels of estrogen and progesterone. This phase typically lasts for 2-7 days.

2. Proliferative phase: After menstruation, under the influence of rising estrogen levels, the endometrium starts to thicken and regenerate. The uterine lining becomes rich in blood vessels and glands, preparing for a potential pregnancy. This phase lasts from day 5 until around day 14 of an average 28-day cycle.

3. Secretory phase: Following ovulation (release of an egg from the ovaries), which usually occurs around day 14, increased levels of progesterone cause further thickening and maturation of the endometrium. The glands in the lining produce nutrients to support a fertilized egg. If pregnancy does not occur, both estrogen and progesterone levels will drop, leading to menstruation and the start of a new cycle.

Understanding menstruation is essential for monitoring reproductive health, identifying potential issues such as irregular periods or menstrual disorders, and planning family planning strategies.

Cyclohexenes are organic compounds that consist of a six-carbon ring (cyclohexane) with one double bond. The general chemical formula for cyclohexene is C6H10. The double bond can introduce various chemical properties and reactions to the compound, such as electrophilic addition reactions.

Cyclohexenes are used in the synthesis of other organic compounds, including pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and materials. Some cyclohexene derivatives also occur naturally, for example, in essential oils and certain plant extracts. However, it is important to note that pure cyclohexene has a mild odor and is considered a hazardous substance, with potential health effects such as skin and eye irritation, respiratory issues, and potential long-term effects upon repeated exposure.

Aging is a complex, progressive and inevitable process of bodily changes over time, characterized by the accumulation of cellular damage and degenerative changes that eventually lead to increased vulnerability to disease and death. It involves various biological, genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that contribute to the decline in physical and mental functions. The medical field studies aging through the discipline of gerontology, which aims to understand the underlying mechanisms of aging and develop interventions to promote healthy aging and extend the human healthspan.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

The menstrual cycle is a series of natural changes that occur in the female reproductive system over an approximate 28-day interval, marking the body's preparation for potential pregnancy. It involves the interplay of hormones that regulate the growth and disintegration of the uterine lining (endometrium) and the release of an egg (ovulation) from the ovaries.

The menstrual cycle can be divided into three main phases:

1. Menstrual phase: The cycle begins with the onset of menstruation, where the thickened uterine lining is shed through the vagina, lasting typically for 3-7 days. This shedding occurs due to a decrease in estrogen and progesterone levels, which are hormones essential for maintaining the endometrium during the previous cycle.

2. Follicular phase: After menstruation, the follicular phase commences with the pituitary gland releasing follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH stimulates the growth of several ovarian follicles, each containing an immature egg. One dominant follicle usually becomes selected to mature and release an egg during ovulation. Estrogen levels rise as the dominant follicle grows, causing the endometrium to thicken in preparation for a potential pregnancy.

3. Luteal phase: Following ovulation, the ruptured follicle transforms into the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and estrogen to further support the endometrial thickening. If fertilization does not occur within approximately 24 hours after ovulation, the corpus luteum will degenerate, leading to a decline in hormone levels. This drop triggers the onset of menstruation, initiating a new menstrual cycle.

Understanding the menstrual cycle is crucial for monitoring reproductive health and planning or preventing pregnancies. Variations in cycle length and symptoms are common among women, but persistent irregularities may indicate underlying medical conditions requiring further evaluation by a healthcare professional.

"Vinyl compounds" is not a term used in medical definitions. It is a term used in chemistry and materials science to refer to a group of chemicals that contain carbon-based molecules with a vinyl group, which is a functional group consisting of a double bond between two carbon atoms, with one of the carbons also being bonded to a hydrogen atom (-CH2=CH-).

Vinyl compounds are used in various industrial and consumer products, including plastics, resins, adhesives, and coatings. Some vinyl compounds, such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), have been used in medical devices and supplies, such as intravenous (IV) bags, tubing, and blood vessel catheters. However, the use of PVC and other vinyl compounds in medical applications has raised concerns about potential health risks due to the release of toxic chemicals, such as phthalates and dioxins, during manufacturing, use, and disposal. Therefore, alternative materials are being developed and used in medical devices and supplies.

Progestins are a class of steroid hormones that are similar to progesterone, a natural hormone produced by the ovaries during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. They are often used in hormonal contraceptives, such as birth control pills, shots, and implants, to prevent ovulation and thicken the cervical mucus, making it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg. Progestins are also used in menopausal hormone therapy to alleviate symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Additionally, progestins may be used to treat endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Different types of progestins have varying properties and may be more suitable for certain indications or have different side effect profiles.

In medical terms, parity refers to the number of times a woman has given birth to a viable fetus, usually defined as a pregnancy that reaches at least 20 weeks' gestation. It is often used in obstetrics and gynecology to describe a woman's childbearing history and to assess potential risks associated with childbirth.

Parity is typically categorized as follows:

* Nulliparous: A woman who has never given birth to a viable fetus.
* Primiparous: A woman who has given birth to one viable fetus.
* Multiparous: A woman who has given birth to more than one viable fetus.

In some cases, parity may also consider the number of pregnancies that resulted in stillbirths or miscarriages, although this is not always the case. It's important to note that parity does not necessarily reflect the total number of pregnancies a woman has had, only those that resulted in viable births.

Bone density refers to the amount of bone mineral content (usually measured in grams) in a given volume of bone (usually measured in cubic centimeters). It is often used as an indicator of bone strength and fracture risk. Bone density is typically measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, which provide a T-score that compares the patient's bone density to that of a young adult reference population. A T-score of -1 or above is considered normal, while a T-score between -1 and -2.5 indicates osteopenia (low bone mass), and a T-score below -2.5 indicates osteoporosis (porous bones). Regular exercise, adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, and medication (if necessary) can help maintain or improve bone density and prevent fractures.

Estradiol is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone. It is the most potent and dominant form of estrogen in humans. Estradiol plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in women, such as breast development and regulation of the menstrual cycle. It also helps maintain bone density, protect the lining of the uterus, and is involved in cognition and mood regulation.

Estradiol is produced primarily by the ovaries, but it can also be synthesized in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estradiol is produced from testosterone through a process called aromatization. Abnormal levels of estradiol can contribute to various health issues, such as hormonal imbalances, infertility, osteoporosis, and certain types of cancer.

An ovary is a part of the female reproductive system in which ova or eggs are produced through the process of oogenesis. They are a pair of solid, almond-shaped structures located one on each side of the uterus within the pelvic cavity. Each ovary measures about 3 to 5 centimeters in length and weighs around 14 grams.

The ovaries have two main functions: endocrine (hormonal) function and reproductive function. They produce and release eggs (ovulation) responsible for potential fertilization and development of an embryo/fetus during pregnancy. Additionally, they are essential in the production of female sex hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone, which regulate menstrual cycles, sexual development, and reproduction.

During each menstrual cycle, a mature egg is released from one of the ovaries into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm. If not fertilized, the egg, along with the uterine lining, will be shed, leading to menstruation.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In females, it promotes the growth and development of ovarian follicles in the ovary, which ultimately leads to the maturation and release of an egg (ovulation). In males, FSH stimulates the testes to produce sperm. It works in conjunction with luteinizing hormone (LH) to regulate reproductive processes. The secretion of FSH is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and its release is influenced by the levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), estrogen, inhibin, and androgens.

Breast neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the breast tissue that can be benign or malignant. Benign breast neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors or growths, while malignant breast neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body.

Breast neoplasms can arise from different types of cells in the breast, including milk ducts, milk sacs (lobules), or connective tissue. The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma, which starts in the milk ducts and can spread to other parts of the breast and nearby structures.

Breast neoplasms are usually detected through screening methods such as mammography, ultrasound, or MRI, or through self-examination or clinical examination. Treatment options for breast neoplasms depend on several factors, including the type and stage of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and personal preferences. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or targeted therapy.

Dyspareunia is a medical term that describes painful sexual intercourse. This condition can affect both men and women, but it is more commonly reported by women. The pain can occur in various locations, such as the vaginal opening, deep inside the vagina, or in the pelvic region. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including physical conditions like vulvodynia, endometriosis, or vaginal infections, as well as psychological factors like anxiety, depression, or relationship issues. Treatment for dyspareunia depends on the underlying cause and may include medication, therapy, or lifestyle changes.

Gonadal steroid hormones, also known as gonadal sex steroids, are hormones that are produced and released by the gonads (i.e., ovaries in women and testes in men). These hormones play a critical role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics, reproductive function, and overall health.

The three main classes of gonadal steroid hormones are:

1. Androgens: These are male sex hormones that are primarily produced by the testes but also produced in smaller amounts by the ovaries and adrenal glands. The most well-known androgen is testosterone, which plays a key role in the development of male secondary sexual characteristics such as facial hair, deepening of the voice, and increased muscle mass.
2. Estrogens: These are female sex hormones that are primarily produced by the ovaries but also produced in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands. The most well-known estrogen is estradiol, which plays a key role in the development of female secondary sexual characteristics such as breast development and the menstrual cycle.
3. Progestogens: These are hormones that are produced by the ovaries during the second half of the menstrual cycle and play a key role in preparing the uterus for pregnancy. The most well-known progestogen is progesterone, which also plays a role in maintaining pregnancy and regulating the menstrual cycle.

Gonadal steroid hormones can have significant effects on various physiological processes, including bone density, cognitive function, mood, and sexual behavior. Disorders of gonadal steroid hormone production or action can lead to a range of health problems, including infertility, osteoporosis, and sexual dysfunction.

Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) is a glycoprotein hormone that belongs to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) family. It is primarily produced by the granulosa cells of developing follicles in the ovaries of females. AMH plays an essential role in female reproductive physiology, as it inhibits the recruitment and further development of primordial follicles, thereby regulating the size of the primordial follicle pool and the onset of puberty.

AMH levels are often used as a biomarker for ovarian reserve assessment in women. High AMH levels indicate a larger ovarian reserve, while low levels suggest a decreased reserve, which may be associated with reduced fertility or an earlier onset of menopause. Additionally, measuring AMH levels can help predict the response to ovarian stimulation during assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass, deterioration of bone tissue, and disruption of bone architecture, leading to increased risk of fractures, particularly in the spine, wrist, and hip. It mainly affects older people, especially postmenopausal women, due to hormonal changes that reduce bone density. Osteoporosis can also be caused by certain medications, medical conditions, or lifestyle factors such as smoking, alcohol abuse, and a lack of calcium and vitamin D in the diet. The diagnosis is often made using bone mineral density testing, and treatment may include medication to slow bone loss, promote bone formation, and prevent fractures.

Oral contraceptives, also known as "birth control pills," are medications taken by mouth to prevent pregnancy. They contain synthetic hormones that mimic the effects of natural hormones estrogen and progesterone in a woman's body, thereby preventing ovulation, fertilization, or implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus.

There are two main types of oral contraceptives: combined pills, which contain both estrogen and progestin, and mini-pills, which contain only progestin. Combined pills work by preventing ovulation, thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant. Mini-pills work mainly by thickening cervical mucus and changing the lining of the uterus.

Oral contraceptives are highly effective when used correctly, but they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It is important to use them consistently and as directed by a healthcare provider. Side effects may include nausea, breast tenderness, headaches, mood changes, and irregular menstrual bleeding. In rare cases, oral contraceptives may increase the risk of serious health problems such as blood clots, stroke, or liver tumors. However, for most women, the benefits of using oral contraceptives outweigh the risks.

Amenorrhea is a medical condition characterized by the absence or cessation of menstrual periods in women of reproductive age. It can be categorized as primary amenorrhea, when a woman who has not yet had her first period at the expected age (usually around 16 years old), or secondary amenorrhea, when a woman who has previously had regular periods stops getting them for six months or more.

There are various causes of amenorrhea, including hormonal imbalances, pregnancy, breastfeeding, menopause, extreme weight loss or gain, eating disorders, intense exercise, stress, chronic illness, tumors, and certain medications or medical treatments. In some cases, amenorrhea may indicate an underlying medical condition that requires further evaluation and treatment.

Amenorrhea can have significant impacts on a woman's health and quality of life, including infertility, bone loss, and emotional distress. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider if you experience amenorrhea or missed periods to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Menstruation disturbances, also known as menstrual disorders, refer to any irregularities or abnormalities in a woman's menstrual cycle. These disturbances can manifest in various ways, including:

1. Amenorrhea: The absence of menstrual periods for three consecutive cycles or more in women of reproductive age.
2. Oligomenorrhea: Infrequent or light menstrual periods that occur at intervals greater than 35 days.
3. Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation, often accompanied by cramping, pelvic pain, and other symptoms that can interfere with daily activities.
4. Menorrhagia: Heavy or prolonged menstrual periods that last longer than seven days or result in excessive blood loss, leading to anemia or other health complications.
5. Polymenorrhea: Abnormally frequent menstrual periods that occur at intervals of 21 days or less.
6. Metrorrhagia: Irregular and unpredictable vaginal bleeding between expected menstrual periods, which can be caused by various factors such as hormonal imbalances, infections, or structural abnormalities.

Menstruation disturbances can have significant impacts on a woman's quality of life, fertility, and overall health. They may result from various underlying conditions, including hormonal imbalances, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, uterine fibroids, endometriosis, or sexually transmitted infections. Proper diagnosis and treatment of the underlying cause are essential for managing menstruation disturbances effectively.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure used to assess whether a person has a healthy weight for their height. It's calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of their height in meters. Here is the medical definition:

Body Mass Index (BMI) = weight(kg) / [height(m)]^2

According to the World Health Organization, BMI categories are defined as follows:

* Less than 18.5: Underweight
* 18.5-24.9: Normal or healthy weight
* 25.0-29.9: Overweight
* 30.0 and above: Obese

It is important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying weight issues in populations, it does have limitations when applied to individuals. For example, it may not accurately reflect body fat distribution or muscle mass, which can affect health risks associated with excess weight. Therefore, BMI should be used as one of several factors when evaluating an individual's health status and risk for chronic diseases.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

Reproduction, in the context of biology and medicine, refers to the process by which organisms produce offspring. It is a complex process that involves the creation, development, and growth of new individuals from parent organisms. In sexual reproduction, this process typically involves the combination of genetic material from two parents through the fusion of gametes (sex cells) such as sperm and egg cells. This results in the formation of a zygote, which then develops into a new individual with a unique genetic makeup.

In contrast, asexual reproduction does not involve the fusion of gametes and can occur through various mechanisms such as budding, fragmentation, or parthenogenesis. Asexual reproduction results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent organism.

Reproduction is a fundamental process that ensures the survival and continuation of species over time. It is also an area of active research in fields such as reproductive medicine, where scientists and clinicians work to understand and address issues related to human fertility, contraception, and genetic disorders.

Fertility is the natural ability to conceive or to cause conception of offspring. In humans, it is the capacity of a woman and a man to reproduce through sexual reproduction. For women, fertility usually takes place during their reproductive years, which is from adolescence until menopause. A woman's fertility depends on various factors including her age, overall health, and the health of her reproductive system.

For men, fertility can be affected by a variety of factors such as age, genetics, general health, sexual function, and environmental factors that may affect sperm production or quality. Factors that can negatively impact male fertility include exposure to certain chemicals, radiation, smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Infertility is a common medical condition affecting about 10-15% of couples trying to conceive. Infertility can be primary or secondary. Primary infertility refers to the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse, while secondary infertility refers to the inability to conceive following a previous pregnancy.

Infertility can be treated with various medical and surgical interventions depending on the underlying cause. These may include medications to stimulate ovulation, intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), or surgery to correct anatomical abnormalities.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Women" is not a medical term that can be defined in a straightforward way. In medical contexts, "women" is often used to refer to adult human females, based on their biological sex characteristics. However, it's important to note that there are individuals who may be biologically male but identify as women, and they are also considered part of the female population in many medical and societal contexts.

In general, gender identity is a personal sense of being male, female, or something else. It's separate from biological sex, which refers to physical characteristics like chromosomes, hormone levels, and reproductive organs. Some people identify with the gender that matches their biological sex, while others may identify as the opposite gender, or as neither male nor female.

Therefore, it's important to consider both the biological and personal aspects of an individual's identity when discussing medical issues related to women.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG) is a protein produced mainly in the liver that plays a crucial role in regulating the active forms of the sex hormones, testosterone and estradiol, in the body. SHBG binds to these hormones in the bloodstream, creating a reservoir of bound hormones. Only the unbound (or "free") fraction of testosterone and estradiol is considered biologically active and can easily enter cells to exert its effects.

By binding to sex hormones, SHBG helps control their availability and transport in the body. Factors such as age, sex, infection with certain viruses (like hepatitis or HIV), liver disease, obesity, and various medications can influence SHBG levels and, consequently, impact the amount of free testosterone and estradiol in circulation.

SHBG is an essential factor in maintaining hormonal balance and has implications for several physiological processes, including sexual development, reproduction, bone health, muscle mass, and overall well-being. Abnormal SHBG levels can contribute to various medical conditions, such as hypogonadism (low testosterone levels), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and certain types of cancer.

Female urogenital diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the female urinary and genital systems. These systems include the kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra, vulva, vagina, and reproductive organs such as the ovaries and uterus.

Some common female urogenital diseases include:

1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): These are infections that occur in any part of the urinary system, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra.
2. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): This is an infection of the reproductive organs, including the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries.
3. Endometriosis: This is a condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside of the uterus, often on the ovaries, fallopian tubes, or other pelvic structures.
4. Ovarian cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that form on the ovaries.
5. Uterine fibroids: These are noncancerous growths that develop in the muscular wall of the uterus.
6. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS): This is a chronic bladder condition characterized by pain, pressure, and discomfort in the bladder and pelvic area.
7. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs): These are infections that are passed from person to person during sexual contact. Common STIs include chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV.
8. Vulvodynia: This is chronic pain or discomfort of the vulva, the external female genital area.
9. Cancers of the reproductive system, such as ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, and uterine cancer.

These are just a few examples of female urogenital diseases. It's important for women to receive regular medical care and screenings to detect and treat these conditions early, when they are often easier to manage and have better outcomes.

Norpregnenes are a class of steroids that are produced by the metabolism of progesterone and other pregnanes. They are characterized by the absence of a double bond between carbons 4 and 5, and the presence of a ketone group at carbon 3. Some examples of norpregnenes include dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, and pregnenolone. These steroids are important intermediates in the biosynthesis of various hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, androgens, and estrogens. They play a role in various physiological processes such as sexual development, immune function, and stress response.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

"Bone" is the hard, dense connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrate animals. It provides support and protection for the body's internal organs, and serves as a attachment site for muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Bone is composed of cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone formation and resorption, respectively, and an extracellular matrix made up of collagen fibers and mineral crystals.

Bones can be classified into two main types: compact bone and spongy bone. Compact bone is dense and hard, and makes up the outer layer of all bones and the shafts of long bones. Spongy bone is less dense and contains large spaces, and makes up the ends of long bones and the interior of flat and irregular bones.

The human body has 206 bones in total. They can be further classified into five categories based on their shape: long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and sesamoid bones.

Jervell-Lange Nielsen Syndrome (JLNS) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by the combination of congenital deafness and prolongation of the QT interval on an electrocardiogram (ECG), which can lead to life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. It is caused by mutations in the KCNQ1 or KCNE1 genes, which are responsible for the potassium ion channels in the heart that help maintain a regular heart rhythm.

There are two types of JLNS: type 1 and type 2. Type 1 is characterized by profound congenital deafness and severe, life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias, while type 2 has less severe hearing loss and fewer cardiac complications. The syndrome can be diagnosed through genetic testing and ECG monitoring. Treatment typically involves the use of beta blockers to regulate heart rhythm, as well as the implementation of measures to manage the risk of sudden death, such as the implantation of a pacemaker or defibrillator.

Libido, in medical and psychological terms, refers to a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity. This term was first introduced by Sigmund Freud in his psychoanalytic theory, where he described it as one of the three components of human personality. Libido is influenced by biological, psychological, and social factors, and can vary significantly among individuals. It's important to note that a low or absent libido does not necessarily indicate an underlying medical issue, but could be a result of various factors such as stress, fatigue, relationship issues, mental health disorders, or hormonal imbalances. If you have concerns about your libido, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional for a proper evaluation and guidance.

Phytoestrogens are compounds found in plants that have estrogen-like properties. They can bind to and activate or inhibit the action of estrogen receptors in the body, depending on their structure and concentration. Phytoestrogens are present in a variety of foods, including soy products, nuts, seeds, fruits, and vegetables.

Phytoestrogens have been studied for their potential health benefits, such as reducing the risk of hormone-dependent cancers (e.g., breast cancer), improving menopausal symptoms, and promoting bone health. However, their effects on human health are complex and not fully understood, and some studies suggest that high intake of phytoestrogens may have adverse effects in certain populations or under specific conditions.

It is important to note that while phytoestrogens can mimic the effects of estrogen in the body, they are generally weaker than endogenous estrogens produced by the human body. Therefore, their impact on hormonal balance and health outcomes may vary depending on individual factors such as age, sex, hormonal status, and overall diet.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Sweating, also known as perspiration, is the production of sweat by the sweat glands in the skin in response to heat, physical exertion, hormonal changes, or emotional stress. Sweat is a fluid composed mainly of water, with small amounts of sodium chloride, lactate, and urea. It helps regulate body temperature by releasing heat through evaporation on the surface of the skin. Excessive sweating, known as hyperhidrosis, can be a medical condition that may require treatment.

Gonadal hormones, also known as sex hormones, are steroid hormones that are primarily produced by the gonads (ovaries in females and testes in males). They play crucial roles in the development and regulation of sexual characteristics and reproductive functions. The three main types of gonadal hormones are:

1. Estrogens - predominantly produced by ovaries, they are essential for female sexual development and reproduction. The most common estrogen is estradiol, which supports the growth and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in women, such as breast development and wider hips. Estrogens also play a role in regulating the menstrual cycle and maintaining bone health.

2. Progesterone - primarily produced by ovaries during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy, progesterone prepares the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and supports the growth and development of the fetus during pregnancy. It also plays a role in regulating the menstrual cycle.

3. Androgens - produced by both ovaries and testes, but primarily by testes in males. The most common androgen is testosterone, which is essential for male sexual development and reproduction. Testosterone supports the growth and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in men, such as facial hair, a deeper voice, and increased muscle mass. It also plays a role in regulating sex drive (libido) and bone health in both males and females.

In summary, gonadal hormones are steroid hormones produced by the gonads that play essential roles in sexual development, reproduction, and maintaining secondary sexual characteristics.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Oral hormonal contraceptives, also known as "birth control pills," are a type of medication that contains synthetic hormones (estrogen and/or progestin) that are taken by mouth to prevent pregnancy. They work by preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

There are several different types of oral hormonal contraceptives, including combined pills that contain both estrogen and progestin, and mini-pills that only contain progestin. These medications are usually taken daily for 21 days, followed by a seven-day break during which menstruation occurs. Some newer formulations may be taken continuously with no break.

It's important to note that while oral hormonal contraceptives are highly effective at preventing pregnancy when used correctly, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, it is still important to use barrier methods of protection, such as condoms, during sexual activity to reduce the risk of STIs.

As with any medication, oral hormonal contraceptives can have side effects and may not be suitable for everyone. It's important to discuss any medical conditions, allergies, or medications you are taking with your healthcare provider before starting to take oral hormonal contraceptives.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "life style" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to the way an individual or group lives, including their habits, behaviors, and preferences in areas such as diet, exercise, recreation, and stress management. Some lifestyle factors can have a significant impact on health outcomes and risk for certain diseases. However, it is not a medical term with a specific clinical meaning.

"Cimicifuga" is a genus of plants commonly known as black cohosh or bugbane. It belongs to the family Ranunculaceae and is native to North America. The plant has been used in traditional medicine for treating various health conditions, such as menopausal symptoms, menstrual cramps, and inflammation. However, it's essential to consult a healthcare professional before using any herbal remedies for medical purposes.

Hormones are defined as chemical messengers that are produced by endocrine glands or specialized cells and are transported through the bloodstream to tissues and organs, where they elicit specific responses. They play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes such as growth, development, metabolism, reproduction, and mood. Examples of hormones include insulin, estrogen, testosterone, adrenaline, and thyroxine.

Proportional hazards models are a type of statistical analysis used in medical research to investigate the relationship between covariates (predictor variables) and survival times. The most common application of proportional hazards models is in the Cox regression model, which is named after its developer, Sir David Cox.

In a proportional hazards model, the hazard rate or risk of an event occurring at a given time is assumed to be proportional to the hazard rate of a reference group, after adjusting for the covariates. This means that the ratio of the hazard rates between any two individuals remains constant over time, regardless of their survival times.

Mathematically, the hazard function h(t) at time t for an individual with a set of covariates X can be expressed as:

h(t|X) = h0(t) \* exp(β1X1 + β2X2 + ... + βpXp)

where h0(t) is the baseline hazard function, X1, X2, ..., Xp are the covariates, and β1, β2, ..., βp are the regression coefficients that represent the effect of each covariate on the hazard rate.

The assumption of proportionality is crucial in the interpretation of the results from a Cox regression model. If the assumption is violated, then the estimated regression coefficients may be biased and misleading. Therefore, it is important to test for the proportional hazards assumption before interpreting the results of a Cox regression analysis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Suburban Health" is not a recognized medical term or concept with a specific definition in the field of medicine. The term "suburban" generally refers to the residential areas surrounding a city or urban center, and health would refer to the physical and mental well-being of individuals living in those areas. However, there isn't a unique set of health issues or characteristics that define 'Suburban Health'.

Public health researchers might study the health disparities or common health issues in suburban areas compared to urban or rural areas, but this would not fall under a single medical definition. If you have more specific questions about health issues related to suburban living, I'd be happy to try and help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Linear Models" is actually a term from the field of statistics and machine learning, rather than medicine. A linear model is a type of statistical model that is used to analyze the relationship between two or more variables. In a linear model, the relationship between the dependent variable (the outcome or result) and the independent variable(s) (the factors being studied) is assumed to be linear, meaning that it can be described by a straight line on a graph.

The equation for a simple linear model with one independent variable (x) and one dependent variable (y) looks like this:

y = β0 + β1*x + ε

In this equation, β0 is the y-intercept or the value of y when x equals zero, β1 is the slope or the change in y for each unit increase in x, and ε is the error term or the difference between the actual values of y and the predicted values of y based on the linear model.

Linear models are widely used in medical research to study the relationship between various factors (such as exposure to a risk factor or treatment) and health outcomes (such as disease incidence or mortality). They can also be used to adjust for confounding variables, which are factors that may influence both the independent variable and the dependent variable, and thus affect the observed relationship between them.

Smoking is not a medical condition, but it's a significant health risk behavior. Here is the definition from a public health perspective:

Smoking is the act of inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning tobacco that is commonly consumed through cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. The smoke contains over 7,000 chemicals, including nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, and numerous toxic and carcinogenic substances. These toxins contribute to a wide range of diseases and health conditions, such as lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and various other cancers, as well as adverse reproductive outcomes and negative impacts on the developing fetus during pregnancy. Smoking is highly addictive due to the nicotine content, which makes quitting smoking a significant challenge for many individuals.

Anovulation is a medical condition in which there is a failure to ovulate, or release a mature egg from the ovaries, during a menstrual cycle. This can occur due to various reasons such as hormonal imbalances, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure, excessive exercise, stress, low body weight, or certain medications. Anovulation is common in women with irregular menstrual cycles and can cause infertility if left untreated. In some cases, anovulation may be treated with medication to stimulate ovulation.

Ovarian function tests are a series of diagnostic exams used to assess the health and functionality of the ovaries. These tests can help determine the remaining egg supply (ovarian reserve), evaluate hormone production, and identify any structural abnormalities. Commonly used ovarian function tests include:

1. Hormonal assays: Measuring levels of hormones such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in the blood can provide information about ovarian function and egg supply.

2. Transvaginal ultrasound: This imaging technique is used to visualize the ovaries and assess their size, shape, and follicle development, which can indicate ovarian reserve and response to hormonal stimulation.

3. Clomiphene citrate challenge test (CCCT): This test involves measuring FSH levels on day 3 of the menstrual cycle and then again after administering clomiphene citrate, a fertility medication, on days 5-9. An abnormal response may suggest decreased ovarian function.

4. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist stimulation test: This test evaluates the ovaries' ability to respond to GnRH, which regulates FSH and LH release. A suboptimal response may indicate reduced ovarian function.

5. Ovarian biopsy: Though rarely performed, an ovarian biopsy can provide direct information about the number and quality of follicles and eggs present in the ovary.

These tests are often used in conjunction to provide a comprehensive assessment of ovarian function, particularly in women experiencing infertility, menopause, or those undergoing assisted reproductive technologies (ART).

Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (MPA) is a synthetic form of the natural hormone progesterone, which is often used in various medical applications. It is a white to off-white crystalline powder, slightly soluble in water, and freely soluble in alcohol, chloroform, and methanol.

Medically, MPA is used as a prescription medication for several indications, including:

1. Contraception: As an oral contraceptive or injectable solution, it can prevent ovulation, thicken cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and alter the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.
2. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT): In postmenopausal women, MPA can help manage symptoms associated with decreased estrogen levels, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. It may also help prevent bone loss (osteoporosis).
3. Endometrial hyperplasia: MPA can be used to treat endometrial hyperplasia, a condition where the lining of the uterus becomes too thick, which could potentially lead to cancer if left untreated. By opposing the effects of estrogen, MPA helps regulate the growth of the endometrium.
4. Gynecological disorders: MPA can be used to treat various gynecological disorders, such as irregular menstrual cycles, amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), and dysfunctional uterine bleeding.
5. Cancer treatment: In some cases, MPA may be used in conjunction with other medications to treat certain types of breast or endometrial cancer.

As with any medication, Medroxyprogesterone Acetate can have side effects and potential risks. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation, dosage, and monitoring when considering this medication.

An anecdote, in the context of medicine and healthcare, is a short narrative or description of a particular event or experience regarding a patient or a medical treatment. Anecdotes are often used in clinical settings to illustrate a point or to share a personal observation about a patient's response to a therapy.

However, anecdotes are generally considered to be a lower level of evidence than rigorous scientific studies because they are based on individual experiences and may not be representative of the broader population. Anecdotes can be subject to bias, including recall bias and confirmation bias, and may not account for other factors that could have influenced the outcome.

Therefore, while anecdotes can provide interesting insights and generate hypotheses for further investigation, they should not be used as the sole basis for making clinical decisions or recommendations. Instead, anecdotal evidence should be considered in conjunction with more rigorous scientific research to inform medical practice.

Isoflavones are a type of plant-derived compounds called phytoestrogens, which have a chemical structure similar to human estrogen. They are found in various plants, particularly in soybeans and soy products. Isoflavones can act as weak estrogens or anti-estrogens in the body, depending on the levels of natural hormones present. These compounds have been studied for their potential health benefits, including reducing menopausal symptoms, improving cardiovascular health, and preventing certain types of cancer. However, more research is needed to fully understand their effects and safety.

Pregnanediol is a steroid hormone that is produced as a metabolite of progesterone. It is primarily used as a biomarker to measure the exposure to progesterone, particularly in cases where progesterone levels need to be monitored, such as during pregnancy or in certain medical conditions. Pregnanediol can be measured in urine, blood, or other bodily fluids and is often used in clinical and research settings to assess hormonal status. It is important to note that pregnanediol itself does not have any known physiological effects on the body, but rather serves as an indicator of progesterone levels.

"Age distribution" is a term used to describe the number of individuals within a population or sample that fall into different age categories. It is often presented in the form of a graph, table, or chart, and can provide important information about the demographic structure of a population.

The age distribution of a population can be influenced by a variety of factors, including birth rates, mortality rates, migration patterns, and aging. Public health officials and researchers use age distribution data to inform policies and programs related to healthcare, social services, and other areas that affect the well-being of populations.

For example, an age distribution graph might show a larger number of individuals in the younger age categories, indicating a population with a high birth rate. Alternatively, it might show a larger number of individuals in the older age categories, indicating a population with a high life expectancy or an aging population. Understanding the age distribution of a population can help policymakers plan for future needs and allocate resources more effectively.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

... : MedlinePlus What Is Menopause?, National Institute on Aging Menopause & Me, The North American Menopause Society ( ... European Menopause and Andropause Society Menopause in the workplace Menopause in incarceration Pregnancy over age 50 ... Menopause is the opposite of menarche, the time when a girl's periods start. In the years before menopause, a woman's periods ... Menopause before the age of 45 years is considered to be "early menopause" and when ovarian failure/surgical removal of the ...
Menopause is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of gynecology dealing with topics related to ... "Menopause". 2014 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2015. Official website v t e ( ... The editor-in-chief is Isaac Schiff (Harvard Medical School). It is an official journal of the North American Menopause Society ... menopause. It was established in 1994 and is published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ...
The term criminal menopause alludes the human female biological process of menopause, in which ovulation and menstruation slow ... Criminal menopause is an informal term describing a decrease in anti-social behavior that correlates with human aging. In the ... "Criminal Menopause". The Times. 26 March 1992. p. 21. Retrieved 2023-05-05. "At 90, what will 17 years in prison mean?". The ... a process that some have termed criminal menopause. Finally, many lifers are first-time offenders convicted of homicide. The ...
Portugal in 2022 to be followed by Melbourne Australia 2024 North American Menopause Society European Menopause and Andropause ... The International Menopause Society (IMS) is a UK based charity. The Association was created in 1978 in Jerusalem during the ... "The British Menopause Society: For UK health professionals". Archived from the original on 2012-11-09. Retrieved ... Kelland, Kate (20 December 2011). "DHEA hormone may help women through menopause: study". Reuters. Retrieved 2012-10-27. "IMS ...
The Greene Menopause Index, also known as the Greene Climateric Scale, is a questionnaire a tool used by researchers to study ... It is a standard list of 21 questions which women use to rate how much they are bothered by menopause symptoms such as hot ... Greene Menopause Index entry in the public domain NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms This article incorporates public domain ... v t e (Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the National Cancer Institute Dictionary of Cancer Terms, Menopause, All stub ...
The theories discussed above assume that evolution directly selected for menopause. Another theory states that menopause is the ... This discovery has led some biologists to argue that there was no selection for or against menopause at the time at which the ... It is also argued that since the population fraction of post-menopausal women in early Homo sapiens was so low, menopause had ... Menopause results from having too few ovarian follicles to produce enough estrogen to maintain the ovarian-pituitary- ...
Menopause "Off-Broadway's Menopause the Musical to Close on April 23". 13 February 2006. Retrieved 20 November ... Menopause The Musical is a 2001 musical with book and lyrics by Jeanie Linders which premiered on March 28, 2001 in Orlando, ... "MENOPAUSE THE MUSICAL Returns to Boston Area at Stoneham Theatre, Now thru 6/2". 12 June 2014. Retrieved 20 ... "Menopause the Musical Las Vegas - Harrah's Las Vegas Hotel & Casino". Retrieved 20 November 2021. Campbell, ...
"Menopause at work - 14 million days lost a year". HR News. 2019-04-10. Retrieved 2021-03-06. "Menopause at centre of increasing ... "Menopause at work". 2019-10-18. Retrieved 2021-03-05. osdjay (2019-04-24). "Menopause at work". www.tuc. ... "NHSGGC : Menopause Policy". Retrieved 2021-03-14. "Challenging the culture on menopause for working doctors ... "Advice on the menopause". Retrieved 2021-03-05. "Menopause transition: effects on women's economic participation ...
Other educational resources related to menopause can be found at the NAMS website The North American Menopause ... Menopause Care Updates, and Menopause e-Consult. NAMS also releases consumer educational materials such as the print resource ... and practice guidelines on all aspects of menopause. The scope of Menopause encompasses many varied biomedical areas, including ... The North American Menopause Society was founded in 1989 by Dr. Wulf Utian, the Arthur H. Bill Professor Emeritus of ...
"The 2017 hormone therapy position statement of The North American Menopause Society". Menopause. 24 (7): 728-753. doi:10.1097/ ... The Menopause, Estrogen and Venous Events (MEVE) study was a retrospective observational study of menopausal hormone therapy ... Baber RJ, Panay N, Fenton A (April 2016). "2016 IMS Recommendations on women's midlife health and menopause hormone therapy". ... Lobo RA (May 2011). "Risk of venous thromboembolism by route of administration of estrogen". Menopause. 18 (5): 469-70. doi: ...
North American Menopause Society International Menopause Society [1], The European Menopause and Andropause Society Maturitas, ... The European Menopause and Andropause Society is an institution that promotes the study, and encourages research of midlife ... The 12th European Congress on Menopause and Andropause was held in Berlin, in May 2019. The 13th EMAS Congress took place ... EMAS participates in a variety of medical congresses related to menopause, gynecology, and obstetrics each year. The society ...
How My Mother Gave Birth to Me During Her Menopause is about Jean-Charles (Paul Ahmarani), a 30-year-old working on his thesis ... How My Mother Gave Birth to Me During Menopause (French: Comment ma mère accoucha de moi durant sa ménopause) is a film by ... How My Mother Gave Birth to Me During Menopause at IMDb v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different ...
Menopause, Estrogen and Venous Events (MEVE) Menopause: Risk of Breast Cancer, Morbidity and Prevalence (MISSION) Million Women ... Essentials of Menopause Management. pp. 13-43. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-42451-4_2. ISBN 978-3-319-42449-1. Pickar JH, Archer DF, ... Menopause. 26 (11): 1318-1323. doi:10.1097/GME.0000000000001398. PMC 8294069. PMID 31688579. Gordon JL, Rubinow DR, Watkins L, ... Menopause. 18 (5): 488-93. doi:10.1097/gme.0b013e3181f9f7c3. PMID 21178641. (Clinical trials, Endocrinology). ...
2010 position statement of the North American Menopause Society". Menopause. 17 (2): 242-55. doi:10.1097/gme.0b013e3181d0f6b9. ... North American Menopause, Society (2010). "Estrogen and progestogen use in postmenopausal women: ... perimenopause and menopause. His practice focuses on alternative therapies that are not recognised as effective. He has been ...
Following natural or surgically induced menopause, many women experience declines in sexual motivation. Menopause is associated ... Davis SR (2002). "The effects of tibolone on mood and libido". Menopause. 9 (3): 162-70. doi:10.1097/00042192-200205000-00004. ... Body odour and sexual attraction Hypoactive sexual desire disorder Menopause Menstrual cycle Pheromone Sexual desire and ...
"The 2017 hormone therapy position statement of The North American Menopause Society". Menopause. 24 (7): 728-753. doi:10.1097/ ... 2813-. ISBN 978-1-4557-1126-0. Buchsbaum HJ (6 December 2012). The Menopause. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 62, 64. ... The Menopause and Postmenopause. pp. 43-52. doi:10.1007/978-94-011-7230-1_5. ISBN 978-94-011-7232-5. Prossnitz ER, Arterburn JB ... Menopause. 25 (1): 11-20. doi:10.1097/GME.0000000000000956. PMC 5734988. PMID 28816933. The NAMS 2017 Hormone Therapy Position ...
Menopause. 22 (4): 391-401. doi:10.1097/GME.0000000000000343. PMC 4376597. PMID 25380275. Pabbidi MR, Kuppusamy M, Didion SP, ... randomized controlled trial that assessed the timing hypothesis that menopausal hormone therapy in early but not late menopause ...
Menopause. 25 (9): 1033-1045. doi:10.1097/GME.0000000000001095. PMC 6110370. PMID 29533367. Lello S, Capozzi A, Scambia G (2017 ... "The Tissue-Selective Estrogen Complex (Bazedoxifene/Conjugated Estrogens) for the Treatment of Menopause". Int J Endocrinol. ...
Menopause. 22 (12): 1308-16. doi:10.1097/GME.0000000000000467. PMC 4666011. PMID 25944519. ...
Official website (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Menopause, Cancer organizations based in ... associated with menopause. Although Menerba is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), it is distinct from the other ... Menopause. 16 (3): 458-65. doi:10.1097/gme.0b013e31818e64dd. PMID 19182698. S2CID 31985236. "Bionovo's MF101 Shows Positive ... a selective estrogen receptor beta agonist for hot flashes associated with menopause Seala (formerly VG101) a selective ...
In "Menopause", Patsy has to visit the hospital after fracturing her bones doing simple tasks, like snapping her fingers. The ... "Menopause". Absolutely Fabulous. Series 4. Episode 6. 5 October 2001. BBC One. Gates, Anita (30 April 1995). "TELEVISION; ... but she mistook her pregnancy for the onset of the menopause. The first few years of her life were spent locked in a room, and ...
Archer DF (2007). "Drospirenone, a progestin with added value for hypertensive postmenopausal women". Menopause. 14 (3 Pt 1): ... J Br Menopause Soc. 12 (Suppl 1): 4-7. doi:10.1258/136218006775992185. PMID 16513012. S2CID 38095916. Wu CQ, Grandi SM, Filion ... J Br Menopause Soc. 12 (Suppl 1): 4-7. doi:10.1258/136218006775992185. PMID 16513012. S2CID 38095916. Majumder A, Sanyal D ( ... Proceedings of the 4th Workshop of the International Menopause Society. CRC Press. pp. 133-. ISBN 978-0-203-02496-6. Simon JA ( ...
Canonico M (July 2014). "Hormone therapy and hemostasis among postmenopausal women: a review" (PDF). Menopause. 21 (7): 753-62 ...
Menopause management at Curlie T. S. Wiley's official web site (All articles with self-published sources, Articles with self- ... The protocol claims to relieve the symptoms of menopause but is also promoted as increasing overall health through the ... Rosenthal MS (2008). "The Wiley Protocol: an analysis of ethical issues". Menopause. 15 (5): 1014-1022. doi:10.1097/gme. ... Menopause, Andropause: Power in Transition". Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2 (3): 413-419. doi:10.1093 ...
Canonico M, Plu-Bureau G, O'Sullivan MJ, Stefanick ML, Cochrane B, Scarabin PY, Manson JE (March 2014). "Age at menopause, ... Christian Lauritzen; John W. W. Studd (22 June 2005). Current Management of the Menopause. CRC Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-203- ... Physiological levels of estrogen and/or progesterone may also influence risk of VTE-with late menopause (≥55 years) being ... Gompel A, Plu-Bureau G (August 2018). "Progesterone, progestins and the breast in menopause treatment". Climacteric. 21 (4): ...
The North American Menopause Society Menopause, US Food and Drug Administration British Menopause Society (CS1 maint: multiple ... Menopause treatment, Hormone Health Network, The Endocrine Society Sexual Health and Menopause Online, ... As of 2012, guidelines from the North American Menopause Society, the Endocrine Society, the International Menopause Society, ... "Premature menopause or early menopause: Long-term health consequences". Maturitas. 65 (2): 161-166. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas. ...
... menopause, or other causes. A Cochrane review of the use of phytoestrogens to relieve the vasomotor symptoms of menopause (hot ... Menopause. 16 (6): 1156-1166. doi:10.1097/gme.0b013e3181ace49b. PMC 2783540. PMID 19609225. Kennelly EJ, Baggett S, Nuntanakorn ...
"Menopause". n.d. Archived from the original on 9 March 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2013. Bunyavanich S (6 June 2007). " ... "For Women - Menopause and Hormones: Common Questions". Food and Drug Administration. Santen RJ, Allred DC, Ardoin SP, Archer DF ... Some people undergoing menopause never have hot flashes. Others have mild or infrequent flashes. Those most affected experience ... The rationale for the study is that estrogen can relieve the symptoms of menopause, but can also cause the growth of breast ...
"Menopause: Overview". Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. 28 June 2013. Archived ... "Menopause: Overview". PubMedHealth. 29 August 2013. Archived from the original on 10 September 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2015. ... Usually between ages 49-52, a woman reaches menopause, the time when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer ... Takahashi TA, Johnson KM (May 2015). "Menopause". The Medical Clinics of North America. 99 (3): 521-34. doi:10.1016/j.mcna. ...
Menopause? Don't Panic!). The daughter of a restaurateur, Burkard grew up with her sister, who is nine years older, in Höhn- ...
Menopause: MedlinePlus What Is Menopause?, National Institute on Aging Menopause & Me, The North American Menopause Society ( ... European Menopause and Andropause Society Menopause in the workplace Menopause in incarceration Pregnancy over age 50 ... Menopause is the opposite of menarche, the time when a girls periods start. In the years before menopause, a womans periods ... Menopause before the age of 45 years is considered to be "early menopause" and when ovarian failure/surgical removal of the ...
... and guidelines on menopause and perimenopause, including managing hot flash symptoms and hormone therapy. ... Menopause : Review in-depth clinical information, latest medical news, ...
The Menopause Project is a University initiative focusing on support for those experiencing menopause at work or study. ... The Menopause Project. The Menopause Project is a University initiative focusing on support for those experiencing menopause at ... The Menopause Support Network. The Menopause Support Network provides opportunities for women at Surrey to connect with others ... Our menopause initiatives. Our project is inclusive of everyone who goes through the menopause or menopausal symptoms as a ...
After menopause, a woman can no longer become ... After menopause, a woman can no longer become ... Menopause is the time in a womans life when her periods (menstruation) stop. Most often, it is a natural, normal body change ... Menopause is the time in a womans life when her periods (menstruation) stop. Most often, it is a natural, normal body change ... Menopause is complete when you have not had a period for 1 year. This is called postmenopause. Surgical menopause takes place ...
... but a new study suggests it may also effectively manage other menopause symptoms. ... is the most commonly recommended treatment for menopause symptoms, research is ongoing for alternatives, especially ... The North American Menopause Society (NAMS). (2019, May 29). Cognitive behavior therapy shown to improve multiple menopause ... The North American Menopause Society (NAMS). "Cognitive behavior therapy shown to improve multiple menopause symptoms." ...
People who have been pregnant or have breastfed a baby are less likely to enter the menopause before the age of 45, a study of ... There are other things that increase the risk of entering menopause early. Smoking has been linked to early menopause, as has ... This isnt always easy to define as periods can be erratic in the months or years before the menopause, which is usually only ... People who have been pregnant or have breastfed a baby are less likely to experience an early menopause. This may be because ...
Menopause Education Podcast: NK3 and NK1 Antagonism in Treatment of Hot Flashes ...
Learn about medical menopause symptoms and how to manage them. ... Medical menopause occurs due to treatment for various health ... Medical menopause, also known as induced menopause, occurs when a persons ovaries are surgically removed or damaged through ... Medical menopause usually comes with symptoms close to those of natural menopause, according to Shaw and Dr. Susmita. ... 5 Ways to Care for Yourself if Youre Going Through Medical Menopause By Mel Van De Graaff Jun 5, 2023 Medically Reviewed by ...
Hormonal changes and clinical symptoms occur over a period leading up to and immediately following menopause; this period is ... Menopause markers. Laboratory markers of menopause include the following:. * An increase in serum follicle-stimulating hormone ... Before menopause, the risk of CAD for women lags behind the risk for men by approximately 10 years; after menopause, it catches ... Menopause and risk of diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program. Menopause. 2011 Aug. 18(8):857-68. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
... out doing a stage show ever again since she now struggles to memorize her lines because of the brain fog caused by menopause. ... And then theres my menopause brain, and the fear that I wouldnt be able to remember an entire play," she explained in an ... AceShowbiz - Olivia Colman refuses to return to acting on stage because her "menopause brain" is preventing her from learning ... but shes too scared to give it another go because brain fog caused by the menopause means she can no longer memorise an entire ...
... of women during menopause and after. What can be done to reverse thinning hair after menopause? ... Menopause is a biological change all women will experience in their lifetime. For some, early onset menopause begins in their ... Menopause Review. Nutrition of women with hair loss problem during the period of menopause. ... of women experience loss of hair as a part of menopause. Women experience varying symptoms during menopause, including the ...
A helpful guide to managing common menopause symptoms through diet. ... Home › Menopause › Treatments for MenopauseMenopause Diet. Your Diet During Menopause. These days, numerous menopause ... Hot flashes and menopause night sweats can be the bane of a womans existence once she reaches menopause. Waking up at night ... To fight a menopause hot flash, increase the amount of water you drink to at least 8 glasses a day. Also, try to include foods ...
Posted by AANMCNaturopathic Kitchen, Naturopathic Medicinebrain food, Carbohydrates, menopause symptoms, multivitamins, vitamin ... Yams are a great source of fiber, vitamins, minerals, can help to promote brain function, and ease menopause symptoms. ...
Menopause and epilepsy Many, but not all, women with epilepsy experience changes in their seizures when they enter menopause. ... Some women whose seizure patterns change during menopause have worse or more frequent seizures, but others have fewer. Women ... who have catamenial epilepsy often have more seizures while in perimenopause but then fewer once in menopause. ...
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Do male and female both suffer menopause?. Yes. Both males and females undergo menopause. During our mid-life, our bodies ... Navigating Menopause? Here are the 7 Most Common Struggles and Their Solutions. ...
This page contains content available to members of the International Menopause Society. To view this content, please complete ... Install International Menopause Society - DEV. Install this application on your home screen for quick and easy access when ... CAMS - Canadian Menopause Society/Société Canadienne de Ménopause. *CAMS - Asociación Argentina para el Estudio del Climaterio ... CAMS - Canadian Menopause Society/Société Canadienne de Ménopause. *CAMS - Asociación Argentina para el Estudio del Climaterio ...
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... UK Health Centre Information ... Menopause And Changes Affecting The Breasts. It is normal for your breasts to change before, during and after menopause and ... After menopause, the breasts tend to change shape and you may notice that they lose firmness and become smaller; there is also ... Some women find that their breasts get significantly smaller after menopause, but it is possible for the breast to get bigger ...
Brain fog is tied to the severity of certain menopause symptoms, especially depression and sexual problems. Estrogen loss may ... Menopause and brain fog: Whats the link? Research ties severity of certain menopause symptoms to cognitive performance. June 1 ... With midlife comes menopause, and new research suggests cognitive blips may be linked to how severely we experience menopause ... "Brain fog is one of the lesser-known symptoms of menopause, but its so common," says Dr. Heather Hirsch, head of the Menopause ...
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  • Urogenital symptoms that may appear during menopause and continue through postmenopause include: painful intercourse vaginal dryness atrophic vaginitis - thinning of the membranes of the vulva, the vagina, the cervix, and the outer urinary tract, along with considerable shrinking and loss in elasticity of all of the outer and inner genital areas. (
  • An extremely detailed, even comprehensive, glossary of terminology related to menopause, perimenopause, and postmenopause, along with a selection of terms relating to other women's health issues. (
  • The Menopause and postmenopause : the proceedings of an international symposium, held in Rome, June 1979 / edited by N. Pasetto, R. Paoletti and J. L. Ambrus. (
  • In addition to symptoms (hot flushes/flashes, night sweats, mood changes, arthralgia and vaginal dryness), the physical consequences of menopause include bone loss, increased central abdominal fat, and adverse changes in a woman's cholesterol profile and vascular function. (
  • Hot flashes are one of the most common complaints during menopause. (
  • Cognitive behavior therapy has previously been proposed as a low-risk treatment for hot flashes, but a new study suggests it may also effectively manage other menopause symptoms. (
  • Women today have more options than ever before when it comes to the treatment of common menopause symptoms such as hot flashes, depression, sleep disturbances, and sexual function. (
  • Alternative treatments such as antidepressants have proven effective in treating menopause-related depression and, to a lesser extent, hot flashes. (
  • Previous studies relative to menopause symptoms, however, have focused only on its ability to manage hot flashes. (
  • Many welcome the end to periods and worries about unwanted pregnancy, but menopause, and the perimenopause before it, is often accompanied by troubling symptoms such as hot flashes, cognitive problems, night sweats, vaginal dryness, anxiety, and a reduced sex drive. (
  • These symptoms, which may include hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness, anxiety, and a reduced sex drive, can start long before menopause and continue for several years afterward. (
  • Will the hot flashes, mood swings, and other symptoms of menopause come to a halt when your periods are finally finished? (
  • Some will continue to have menopausal symptoms, like hot flashes and night sweats, for a decade or longer after menopause. (
  • Postmenopausal hot flashes are caused by decreased estrogen levels , and it's not uncommon to have random hot flashes for years after menopause. (
  • There are ways to lessen the effects of the many menopause symptoms like hot flashes and mood swings. (
  • Menopause is known for its lousy reputation: hot flashes, mood swings, vaginal dryness. (
  • Hot flashes are the most commonly reported menopause symptom, affecting approximately 85% of menopausal women. (
  • If you are going through menopause you may be suffering from a whole host of symptoms including hot flashes, mood swings, and weight gain. (
  • Hot flashes and menopause night sweats can be the bane of a woman's existence once she reaches menopause. (
  • For up to several years before and just after menopause, estrogen levels fluctuate widely, periods become irregular, and symptoms (such as hot flashes) may occur. (
  • Hot flashes and heart palpitations are possible symptoms of menopause. (
  • Medications are also available to treat hot flashes and prevent bone loss that can occur throughout menopause. (
  • At the physiological level, menopause happens because of a decrease in the ovaries' production of the hormones estrogen and progesterone. (
  • First-line treatment of perimenopause and menopause for most women is replacing the missing hormones by prescribing the right dose and type of HRT," she said. (
  • Lower levels of these hormones cause menopause symptoms. (
  • This is not supported by the present study, which showed that levels of endogenous sex hormones, both of which are associated with menopause and T2D, could not explain the association between early onset of natural menopause and risk of T2D. (
  • The role of hormones: We'll look at the three hormones that fluctuate and decrease during menopause, giving rise to symptoms and changes. (
  • Menopause occurs due to a decrease in hormones produced by the ovaries,' says Nisarg Patel, MBBS , an ob-gyn at Nisha Women's Hospital and IVF Centre and ClinicSpots. (
  • When the levels of these hormones decline due to menopause, it can lead to changes in hair health and growth. (
  • Mood swings often occur during menopause because of the fluctuation of hormones in the body. (
  • If you had an oophorectomy (surgery to remove the ovaries), or a hysterectomy with an oophorectomy, and are not taking hormones you may experience menopause symptoms sooner. (
  • Iatrogenic menopause occurs when both ovaries are surgically removed along with uterus for medical reasons. (
  • Unlike menopause in women, late-onset hypogonadism in men occurs gradually, with testosterone levels decreasing over the course of many years. (
  • Menopause occurs in most women between ages 45 and 55, although it may begin as early as age 40 or be delayed to the late 50s. (
  • Ovarian reserve depletes in the years, and decades, before menopause occurs. (
  • Menopause occurs after you've had no period for 12 consecutive months, which on average happens around 51 years old. (
  • Medical menopause, also known as induced menopause, occurs when a person's ovaries are surgically removed or damaged through radiation or chemotherapy,' says James Walker, MD , medical advisor at the health care platform Welzo. (
  • Although menopause is a natural phenomenon, one third of women will experience a pathological experience, especially when it occurs before the age of 45 or when they suffer from premature ovarian insufficiency. (
  • Menopause is considered premature when it occurs before age 40. (
  • Natural menopause isn't caused by any type of medical or surgical treatment. (
  • This study, conducted by Dr Taulant Muka and Dr Eralda Asllanaj, of the Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Netherlands, with colleagues, studied the association between age at natural menopause (ANM) and the risk of T2D, and assesses the effects of potential intermediate risk factors in this association. (
  • Of a total of 6816 participants, 3969 women were included in the present study - some women having been excluded because, for example, they had not reached menopause, already had T2D, or had had a non-natural menopause. (
  • Medical menopause usually comes with symptoms close to those of natural menopause, according to Shaw and Dr. Susmita. (
  • When a follow up survey and questionnaire were conducted four years later, researchers were able to assess the diets of the women who had experienced the onset of a natural menopause in the interim. (
  • A clear understanding of how diet affects the start of natural menopause will be very beneficial to those who may already be at risk or have a family history of certain complications related to menopause. (
  • This study is the first to investigate the links between individual nutrients and a wide variety of food groups and age at natural menopause in a large cohort of British women. (
  • Urinary metals and metal mixtures and timing of natural menopause in midlife women: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. (
  • Objective: We prospectively examined the associations of 15 urinary metal concentrations and their mixtures with natural menopause in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Multi-Pollutant Study. (
  • Natural menopause was defined as the final bleeding episode prior to at least 12 months of amenorrhea, not due to surgery or hormone therapy. (
  • Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine associations between individual metal concentrations and timing of natural menopause. (
  • The associations between metal mixtures and natural menopause were evaluated using elastic net penalized Cox regression, and an environmental risk score (ERS) was computed to represent individual risks of natural menopause related to metal mixtures. (
  • Results: The median age at natural menopause was 53.2 years. (
  • Using the Cox proportional hazards models, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (and its 95% confidence interval (CI)) for natural menopause was 1.32 (1.03, 1.67) for arsenic and 1.36 (1.05, 1.76) for lead, comparing the highest with the lowest quartiles of metal concentrations. (
  • Women in the highest vs. the lowest quartiles of ERS had an HR of 1.71 (1.36, 2.15), equivalent to a 1.6 year earlier median time to natural menopause. (
  • Conclusion: This study suggests that arsenic, lead, and metal mixtures are associated with earlier natural menopause, a risk factor for adverse health outcomes in later life. (
  • 6, 2023 Although about half of people go through menopause, less than 15% of them receive effective treatment for their symptoms. (
  • Moreover, most postmenopausal women will suffer from the late consequences of hypoestrogenism on their genitourinary tissues (genitourinary syndrome of menopause). (
  • Surgical menopause takes place when surgical treatments cause a drop in estrogen. (
  • HT should not be used in women who started menopause many years ago, except for vaginal estrogen treatments. (
  • This phase usually begins several years before menopause, when your ovaries slowly make less estrogen . (
  • These same authors have shown in previous work that both higher endogenous estradiol levels in post-menopausal women, and an early start of estrogen exposure (ie, an early start of periods), have been linked to an increased risk of T2D, and might mediate the effect of age at menopause on diabetes risk. (
  • However, some patients require more than estrogen alone to improve psychologic dysfunction, decreased sexual desire, or other sexual problems associated with menopause. (
  • In these cases, testosterone therapy can lead to a cessation of estrogen production and the onset of medical menopause. (
  • When estrogen levels decline during menopause, it can lead to hair loss and mood swings, depression, and anxiety. (
  • During the years before menopause, production of estrogen and progesterone begins to fluctuate, and menstrual periods and ovulation occur less often. (
  • Results are published online today in Menopause , the journal of The North American Menopause Society (NAMS). (
  • According to the North American Menopause Society , postmenopausal people should see a healthcare provider to assess their risk for fractures, lower their risk through better nutrition and exercise, and consider taking medication. (
  • Menopause is the permanent end of menstrual periods, ovulation, and fertility. (
  • Anxiety, depression and memory issues are common signs of menopause, but University College London (UCL) scientists have found that both mindfulness and cognitive behavioural therapy are effective at alleviating suffering. (
  • Leran more about the cessation of your period and find out what to do if you are experiencing any of these signs of menopause. (
  • The term menopause refers to a point in time that follows one year after the last menstruation. (
  • menopause , permanent cessation of menstruation that results from the loss of ovarian function and therefore represents the end of a woman's reproductive life. (
  • Menopause is the time in a woman's life when her periods (menstruation) stop. (
  • Menopause happens when the ovaries no longer release an egg every month and menstruation stops. (
  • In the years before menopause, a woman's periods typically become irregular, which means that periods may be longer or shorter in duration or be lighter or heavier in the amount of flow. (
  • During menopause, a woman's ovaries stop releasing eggs. (
  • Surgical removal of the ovaries, known as an oophorectomy, can also trigger medical menopause,' says Ooha Susmita, MBBS, MD , a psychiatrist and sexual wellness expert with the digital sexual health platform Allo Health. (
  • Surgical removal of the ovaries in trans men can also cause medical menopause, says Kimberly Shaw, CNM , a certified nurse midwife at Cone Health in North Carolina. (
  • During early menopause transition, the menstrual cycles remain regular but the interval between cycles begins to lengthen. (
  • During the menopausal transition and after menopause, women can experience a wide range of symptoms. (
  • However, for women who enter the menopause transition without having regular menstrual cycles (due to prior surgery, other medical conditions or ongoing hormonal contraception) the menopause cannot be identified by bleeding patterns and is defined as the permanent loss of ovarian function. (
  • Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is often experienced by women approaching menopause due to the hormonal changes that accompany the menopause transition. (
  • Bone loss accelerates in the late menopausal transition and continues for the first few years after menopause. (
  • She remains passionate about helping women understand the effects of menopause and how they can transition through this phase in a positive and life-affirming way. (
  • However, as part of their medical transition, they may also experience medical menopause and need just as much support as anyone else going through a similar process. (
  • Menopause transition status was not independently associated with use of CAM. (
  • to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis in order to assess whether hormone therapy (HT) increases weight in women in the menopausal transition and after menopause . (
  • most regimens studied showed that patients using HT in the menopausal transition and after menopause did not show significant weight gain . (
  • Following the removal of the uterus, symptoms of menopause typically occur earlier. (
  • Alterations in the circulating levels of androgens play an important role in psychologic and sexual changes that occur after menopause. (
  • A diet with lots of refined pasta and rice showed that menopause was more likely to occur one and a half years earlier than average. (
  • However, menopause may occur normally in women aged 45 (or even 40) to age 55 or older. (
  • Going through menopause before midlife can be challenging when most of the available resources for managing the change are made for those in their 40s and 50s. (
  • Menopause : a midlife passage / edited by Joan C. Callahan. (
  • The study focused on medical interventions with professional clinicians but they say practising mindfulness or meditation at home could also help women get through menopause flare-ups. (
  • The scientists were keen to emphasise the study was not furthering the myth that menopause is "all in the head", and they advocated for a holistic approach that combines medicines with other approaches to give as many women as possible the best outcome during menopause. (
  • HT may be started in women who have recently entered menopause. (
  • But some women can go through menopause early. (
  • Most women nearing menopause will begin experiencing vasomotor symptoms (VMS). (
  • Many women have menopause symptoms . (
  • A study of premenopausal and early perimenopausal women found that race and ethnicity play no role in the age when you experience menopause. (
  • The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) looked at women from different races from seven states and found they experienced menopause around the same age. (
  • Women with early or normal onset menopause are at a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes than those with late onset menopause, concludes new research published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes). (
  • Previous research (by the same authors of this new study) has shown that women with early onset of menopause (age below 45 years) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and overall mortality, whereas an onset of menopause at age 50-54 years is linked to a reduced risk of CVD and mortality. (
  • The Menopause Support Network provides opportunities for women at Surrey to connect with others, offer mutual support and share information and ideas in relation to menopause and managing symptoms at work. (
  • Although a small study, it lays the foundation for future research focused on how various psychological treatments may help the millions of women who suffer with menopause symptoms. (
  • Dec. 8, 2022 Delirium is common among women with urinary tract infections (UTIs) -- especially those who have experienced menopause. (
  • Menopause , which for most women happens between the ages of 40 and 58, signals the end of the reproductive years. (
  • From this, they created a mathematical model that predicts how long ovarian transplant surgery might delay menopause in healthy women. (
  • The model predicted that for most women ages 40 and under, ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplant would significantly delay menopause. (
  • The menopause affects all women differently and while some people want to take hormone replacement treatment (HRT) others may prefer a more herbal route. (
  • The Menopause Flash Dance Tea created in 2019 by Meera Bhogal is aimed at alleviating some of the disruptive issues the menopause can cause women in their day to day life. (
  • Meera said nobody in her family would talk about the menopause and there were no older women who she could turn to, so she found herself in a very lonely place with no-one to reach out to and she ended up telling herself it wasn't happening. (
  • As well as drinking the tea, Meera urges women not to neglect their gut health during the menopause. (
  • In addition, check out our section on life after menopause and find out why, although most women dread the start of this stage in their life, most women end up loving this time in their lives. (
  • Transgender women can also experience medical menopause in certain situations, Dr. Susmita says. (
  • JLP's ambition is to normalise conversations about menopause and to ensure that women are given support and advice that will enable them to thrive at work. (
  • Many women experience significant hair changes during menopause. (
  • Menopause is a biological change all women will experience in their lifetime. (
  • Women experiencing menopausal hair loss may also wonder, "What vitamins are good for hair loss after menopause? (
  • Additionally, some of the best supplements for women experiencing menopause may also be helpful to tackle this issue. (
  • Research by the University of Leeds has examined the links between diet and the onset of menopause in British women. (
  • The average age at the start of the menopause for women in the UK is 51 years. (
  • More than 900 women between the ages of 40 and 65 had experienced a natural start of their menopause at the time of the follow-up survey, meaning they had not had menstrual periods for at least 12 consecutive months and menopause had not been brought on by such things as cancer, surgery or pharmaceutical treatments. (
  • Study co-author, Janet Cade, Professor of Nutritional Epidemiology and Public Health at the School of Food Science and Nutrition at Leeds, said: "The age at which menopause begins can have serious health implications for some women. (
  • The age at which menopause begins can have serious health implications for some women. (
  • This special issue aims to update knowledge about women heath aspect related to menopause. (
  • The change : women, ageing and the menopause / Germaine Greer. (
  • Factors exclusive to women, such as adverse pregnancy outcomes and premature menopause, elevate the risk of HF. (
  • We provide a specific emphasis on aspects exclusive to women, such as the impact of pregnancy-induced hypertension and premature menopause, as these unique factors warrant greater attention in the broader HF discussion. (
  • Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time when menstrual periods permanently cease, marking the end of reproduction. (
  • Menopause is the opposite of menarche, the time when a girl's periods start. (
  • This isn't always easy to define as periods can be erratic in the months or years before the menopause, which is usually only confirmed 12 months after periods have stopped, says Christine Langton at the University of Massachusetts. (
  • Symptoms of menopause can start years before menstrual periods end. (
  • If you menstruate (have periods), menopause is when your menstrual cycle ends for 12 consecutive months. (
  • It's also loaded with antioxidants, which can help ease menopause symptoms and memory loss. (
  • Yams are a great source of fiber, vitamins, minerals, can help to promote brain function, and ease menopause symptoms. (
  • They incorporated several factors, including age and follicle survival, in their model to see how long different factors might delay the time of menopause. (
  • Hormone changes during menopause can cause a range of symptoms. (
  • Hormone changes during menopause can increase the risk of heart disease and osteoporosis (a condition that weakens bones and makes them vulnerable to breaking), so it's important to maintain healthy lifestyle habits. (
  • While the increased risk is thought to be due to the adverse effects of menopause on CVD risk factors, the influence of age at menopause on these risk factors remains uncertain. (
  • On the other hand, treatments for the relief of the symptoms and consequences of menopause are gaining in efficacy and safety, although new data are always needed. (
  • But perimenopause and menopause can go on for 20 or 30 years of your life and it's just not talked about. (
  • a focus on this year's World Menopause Day theme, cognition and mood. (
  • These days, numerous menopause treatments are touted as the cure-all for menopause. (
  • While many of these treatments do offer relief from menopause symptoms, often there are much simpler ways to deal with the associated discomforts. (
  • For some, early onset menopause begins in their 30s and early 40s. (
  • Transplanting ovarian tissue could be used to delay menopause, research suggests. (
  • Tissue harvested after the age of 40 years did not delay menopause onset as there were too few viable follicles left in the tissue of the typical donor. (
  • The potential to delay menopause shouldn't influence someone's decision to have babies, says Langton. (
  • People who breastfed for a total of seven to 12 months over their lifetime who had any number of infants were 28 per cent less likely to experience menopause before the age of 45 than those who had breastfed for less than a month. (
  • Unlike premature menopause, premature ovarian failure isn't always permanent. (
  • Other medical conditions, such as premature ovarian failure or certain autoimmune disorders, can also cause medical menopause,' Dr. Susmita says. (
  • People who've gone through menopause are more likely to develop osteoporosis, a condition that weakens bones and may cause fractures. (
  • In addition, find out more about some of health risks that go hand in hand with menopause such as osteoporosis and heart attacks. (
  • Previous studies have suggested that earlier onset of menopause is associated with lower bone density, osteoporosis and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. (
  • With proper intervention, osteoporosis is a largely preventable sequela of menopause. (
  • For more on osteoporosis as a sequela of menopause, read here . (
  • Evaluación del riesgo de fractura y su aplicaci'on en la detección de la osteoporosis postmenopáusica : informe de un grupo de estudio de la OMS. (
  • Evaluación del riesgo de fractura y su aplicación en la detección de la osteoporosis postmenopáusica : informe de un grupo de estudio de la OMS. (
  • Symptoms of surgical menopause can be more severe and start more suddenly. (
  • See Menopause: Changes and Challenges , a Critical Images slideshow, to help identify comorbidities and diseases in the postmenopausal population. (
  • Menopause usually happens between the ages of 45 and 55, with symptoms that can last for months or years. (
  • However, using HT for the 10 years after developing menopause is associated with a lower chance of death. (
  • These are the years after menopause. (
  • those with menopause at 40-44 years were 2.4 times more likely to develop T2D, whereas those with menopause at 45-55 years were 60% more likely than those with late menopause to develop T2D. (
  • A modeling study suggests that by removing, freezing, and then reimplanting ovarian tissue, the fertile years can be extended long beyond the normal age of menopause. (
  • They suggest that by freezing ovarian tissue taken from a woman during her reproductive years and then reimplanting it at a later stage, they could delay, or even prevent menopause. (
  • Instead of asking for information many years after people experienced menopause, Langton and her colleagues looked at the health records in the Nurses' Health Study II - a project that has asked volunteers for information about their health every two years since 1989. (
  • Find out what to expect in the years after menopause. (
  • Read on for some tips on how to improve your menopause diet and ensure that you keep feeling great in the years to come! (
  • Analysis of their diet showed that high intakes of oily fish were associated with a delayed start to menopause by nearly three years. (
  • Women's health related to menopause has been given a lot of visibility in recent years. (
  • Kate was a key figure in the introduction of Pinsent Masons' 'Fan Clubs' - informal support groups that allow colleagues at different levels to have open conversations about menopause. (
  • The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (Nice) recently recommended the use of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for menopause symptoms, including hot flushes, and the official guidelines are currently being written. (
  • While typically not needed, a diagnosis of menopause can be confirmed by measuring hormone levels in the blood or urine. (
  • Check out our menopause symptoms section so that you can learn everything you need to know about the many affects and symptoms of menopause and discover if you may in fact be experiencing the beginning of menopause. (
  • Recognizing the signs of this change will help you to better cope with the many affects of menopause. (
  • Here's what to expect when entering menopause, how you can manage symptoms, and how it affects your overall health. (
  • Our project is inclusive of everyone who goes through the menopause or menopausal symptoms as a result of hormonal changes. (
  • Menopause can also sometimes be caused by drugs used for chemotherapy or hormone therapy (HT) for breast cancer. (
  • Chemotherapy isn't the only reason someone might experience medical menopause. (
  • Also learn more about how to lessen some of these symptoms, and discomforts, of menopause by taking a look at our menopause treatment section. (
  • Learn how to lessen your risk for the menopause conditions by reading today. (
  • The primary indications for treatment of menopause are symptoms and prevention of bone loss. (
  • After menopause, bone density decreases. (
  • The study showed that high intake of healthy foods, such as oily fish and fresh legumes, such as peas and green beans were associated with a later onset of the menopause, while a high consumption of refined white pasta and rice was associated with an earlier start. (
  • Perimenopause lasts until menopause, the point at which your ovaries stop releasing eggs. (
  • This phase follows menopause and lasts for the rest of your life. (
  • Cite this: Fast Five Quiz: Do You Know the Conditions Associated With Menopause and How Best to Treat Them? (
  • Cite this: Does Menopause Mean More Migraines? (