Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Meningococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Meningitis, Meningococcal: A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)Neisseria meningitidis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup B: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis which are the most common ones causing infections or disease in infants. Serogroup B strains are isolated most frequently in sporadic cases, and are less common in outbreaks and epidemics.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup C: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most sporadic cases in teenagers and almost all outbreaks of disease in this age group. These strains are less common in infants.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Porins: Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Transferrin-Binding Proteins: A class of carrier proteins that bind to TRANSFERRIN. Many strains of pathogenic bacteria utilize transferrin-binding proteins to acquire their supply of iron from serum.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Complement Factor H: An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup A: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most outbreaks of meningococcal disease in Western Europe and the United States in the first half of the 20th century. They continue to be a major cause of disease in Asia and Africa, and especially localized epidemics in Sub-Sahara Africa.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup W-135: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis found mostly in Africa.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Papillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup Y: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis which, in the United States, causes disease in mostly adults and the elderly. Serogroup Y strains are associated with PNEUMONIA.Neisseria lactamica: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA commonly found in the NASOPHARYNX of infants and children, but rarely pathogenic. It is the only species to produce acid from LACTOSE.Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Immunity, Herd: The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Tetanus ToxoidAntibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Serum Bactericidal Antibody Assay: Procedures for identification and measurement of IMMUNOGLOBULINS in the blood that initiate lysis of bacteria.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Bacterial Capsules: An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Chickenpox Vaccine: A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.Diphtheria Toxoid: The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines: Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.Streptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.Niger: A republic in western Africa, north of NIGERIA and west of CHAD. Its capital is Niamey.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Dengue Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.Vaccines, Virosome: Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Serum Bactericidal Test: Method of measuring the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy. It is used to monitor the therapy in BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; OSTEOMYELITIS and other serious bacterial infections. As commonly performed, the test is a variation of the broth dilution test. This test needs to be distinguished from testing of the naturally occurring BLOOD BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY.Purpura: Purplish or brownish red discoloration, easily visible through the epidermis, caused by hemorrhage into the tissues. When the size of the discolorization is >2-3 cm it is generally called Ecchymoses (ECCHYMOSIS).Neisseria: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and genitourinary tract. Some species are primary pathogens for humans.Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Mice, Inbred BALB CPoliovirus Vaccine, Oral: A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)Yellow Fever Vaccine: Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Plague Vaccine: A suspension of killed Yersinia pestis used for immunizing people in enzootic plague areas.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Fungal Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.Diphtheria-Tetanus Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine primes for polysaccharide-inducible IgG2 antibody response in children with recurrent otitis media acuta. (1/586)

Children with frequent recurrent episodes of otitis media may have a deficient IgG2 antibody response to polysaccharide antigens. Five otitis-prone children were vaccinated with heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. While all had an IgG1 antibody response to all pneumococcal serotypes included in the conjugate vaccine, the IgG2 response, especially to serotypes 6B, 9V, 19F, and 23F, was poor. However, vaccination with a 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine 6 months after conjugate vaccination induced an 11.5- to 163-fold increase in IgG2 anti-polysaccharide antibody titers. Thus, an IgG2 polysaccharide antibody deficiency can be overcome by priming with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine followed by a booster with a polyvalent polysaccharide vaccine.  (+info)

Humoral immune responses to Neisseria meningitidis in children. (2/586)

An understanding of the nature of immunity to serogroup B meningococci in childhood is necessary in order to establish the reasons for poor responses to candidate vaccines in infancy. We sought to examine the nature of humoral immune responses following infection in relation to age. Serum bactericidal activity was poor in children under 12 months of age despite recent infection with Neisseria meningitidis. The highest levels of bactericidal activity were seen in children over 10 years of age. However, infants produced levels of total immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgG subclass antibodies similar to those in older children in a meningococcal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Most antibody was of the IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses. This striking age dependency of bactericidal antibody response following infection is not apparently due to failure of class switching in infants but might be due to qualitative differences in antibody specificity or affinity.  (+info)

Cellular immune responses to Neisseria meningitidis in children. (3/586)

There is an urgent need for effective vaccines against serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis. Current experimental vaccines based on the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of this organism provide a measure of protection in older children but have been ineffective in infants. We postulated that the inability of OMP vaccines to protect infants might be due to age-dependent defects in cellular immunity. We measured proliferation and in vitro production of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in response to meningococcal antigens by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from children convalescing from meningococcal disease and from controls. After meningococcal infection, the balance of cytokine production by PBMCs from the youngest children was skewed towards a TH1 response (low IL-10/IFN-gamma ratio), while older children produced more TH2 cytokine (higher IL-10/IFN-gamma ratio). There was a trend to higher proliferative responses by PBMCs from older children. These responses were not influenced by the presence or subtype of class 1 (PorA) OMP or by the presence of class 2/3 (PorB) or class 4 OMP. Even young infants might be expected to develop adequate cellular immune responses to serogroup B N. meningitidis vaccines if a vaccine preparation can be formulated to mimic the immune stimulus of invasive disease, which may include stimulation of TH2 cytokine production.  (+info)

Meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine is immunogenic in infancy and primes for memory. (4/586)

The safety, immunogenicity, and immunologic priming of 2 dosages (2 microgram or 10 microgram) of a meningococcal C oligosaccharide-CRM197 conjugate vaccine was evaluated in 114 infants vaccinated at ages 2, 3, and 4 months. Antibody persistence and response to boosting with 10 microgram of meningococcal C polysaccharide were assessed. The meningococcal conjugate vaccine produced fewer local reactions than concurrent routine immunizations. Total serogroup C-specific immunoglobulin geometric mean concentration (GMC) increased from 0.3 microgram/mL before vaccination to 13.1 microgram/mL at age 5 months. Serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) geometric mean titers (GMTs) rose from <1:4 to 1:1057 at 5 months and fell by 14 months to 1:19. Following boosting, anti-C-specific immunoglobulin GMC rose to 15.9 microgram/mL and SBA GMT to 1:495. Antibody responses in the 10-microgram dose cohort were significantly higher at 5 months (P<.01) than in the 2-microgram dose cohort but were lower after polysaccharide boosting (P=.02). This meningococcal conjugate vaccine was well tolerated and immunogenic and induced immunologic memory in infants.  (+info)

Pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide preparations may contain non-C-polysaccharide contaminants that are immunogenic. (5/586)

We measured the capacity to opsonize Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6B and estimated the concentration of immunoglobulin G anti-6B capsular polysaccharide (PS) antibodies in 25 pre- and postimmune sera from adults immunized with a pneumococcal PS vaccine. We first studied two postvaccination serum samples displaying less opsonophagocytic capacity than expected. The majority of anti-6B antibodies in the two samples reacted with the capsular PSs of several unrelated serotypes (2, 4, 9V, 19F, and 23F) and with the lysate of noncapsulated S. pneumoniae bacteria but not with C-PS. The non-type-specific antibodies accounted for at least one-half of anti-6B antibodies in 40% of prevaccination sera and 10% of postvaccination sera from adults. The non-type-specific antibodies could be demonstrated in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for pneumococcal antibodies to other serotypes (4, 9V, 18C, 19F, and 23F). The nonspecific antibodies appear to bind a contaminant(s) in the current preparations of capsular PS. ELISA for antibodies to pneumococcal capsules may not be serotype specific for some samples.  (+info)

Immune response to pneumococcal conjugate and polysaccharide vaccines in otitis-prone and otitis-free children. (6/586)

We compared responses to pneumococcal conjugate and polysaccharide vaccines in 48 otitis-free and 64 otitis-prone children. Pre- and postimmunization concentrations of antibodies to pneumococcal serotypes 6B, 14, 19F, and 23F were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Postimmunization mean concentrations of antibodies to all four serotypes were significantly higher for children receiving conjugate vaccine than for those receiving polysaccharide vaccine; the difference in responses was primarily due to a better response to conjugate vaccine in the otitis-prone group. Significantly higher postimmunization concentrations of antibodies to all four serotypes and to one of the four serotypes were found in otitis-prone children and otitis-free children who received conjugate vaccine, respectively. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has the potential to reduce the incidence of disease due to vaccine serotypes, even among children with recurrent otitis media.  (+info)

Fcgamma receptor polymorphisms determine the magnitude of in vitro phagocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae mediated by pneumococcal conjugate sera. (7/586)

Fcgamma receptors show two genetically determined polymorphisms: the biallelic FcgammaRIIa-R131 and -H131 polymorphism and the NA1/NA2 FcgammaIIIb polymorphism. Using 10 pre- and postconjugate vaccination sera from adults, we analyzed in vitro phagocytic capacities of three different combinations of polymorphonuclear leukocyte FcgammaR allotypes: those homozygous for the H131 and NA1 allotype, those homozygous for the R131 and NA2 allotype, and those heterozygous for both receptors. For pre- and postvaccination sera, mean phagocytosis levels for the homozygous H131/NA1 allotype were 4 -fold higher than for the homozygous R131/NA2 allotype. There was a strong and significant correlation between IgG2 ELISA antibody titers and phagocytosis levels for the homozygous H131/NA1 Fcgamma receptor allotype and the heterozygous allotype but not for the homozygous R131/NA2 allotype. There was no relation between IgG1 ELISA titer and phagocytosis level. Apparently the IgG2 antibodies induced are functionally the most important. This may explain the large effect of Fcgamma receptor polymorphisms on in vitro phagocytosis of pneumococci mediated by conjugate antisera.  (+info)

The epidemiological impact of antimeningococcal B vaccination in Cuba. (8/586)

The incidence of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) before (1984-1988) and after (1989-1994), a nationwide intervention with VA-MENGOC-BC vaccination started in 1989, was compared. The prevaccination period incidence density (ID> 8.8/10(5) year-person) was higher than the postvaccination ID (ID< 6.5/10(5) year-person). The percentage proportional differences from the start to the end of each period of ID in the vaccinal period was higher (87%) than the prevaccinal (37%) with significant differences among vaccinated groups (< 25 years old). A break-point (Chow test) was confirmed by the decrease in the ID between 1989 and 1990 in children under 1 year old, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and 50-54 years. Comparison of ID using maps showed a decrease in IMD in all municipalities during the postvaccination period. These findings support the epidemiological impact of VA-MENGOC-BC vaccination in the reduction of IMD morbidity.  (+info)

  • Kids 10 years and older with these risk factors also should get a full series of the MenB vaccine. (
  • For those without risk factors, the decision to receive the MenB vaccine should be made together by the teen, his or her parents, and the doctor. (
  • During routine visits, 51% of pediatricians and 31% of FPs reported always or often discussing MenB vaccine. (
  • We found that 73% of pediatricians and 41% of FPs currently administered the MenB vaccine. (
  • A minority of physicians are discussing MenB vaccine during routine 16- to 18-year-old visits. (
  • Two serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccines have been licensed by the Food and Drug Administration in the United States and approved for use in persons aged 10 to 25 years: MenB-FHbp (Trumenba) and MenB-4C (Bexsero). (
  • Martinez told AAFP News that the MenB vaccines weren't on her radar before she started her fellowship. (
  • In their FAQ, the vaccine science fellows touched on a number of issues surrounding the MenB vaccines. (
  • The incidence of MenB is highest in children age 5 or younger, with an estimated 75-100 cases per year, but the MenB vaccines are not licensed in the United States for this age group, the FAQ said. (
  • The two MenB vaccines are fairly pricey, with Trumenba's three-dose series carrying a CDC private sector price of $115.75 per dose or $347.25 for the series, the fellows said. (
  • As with meningococcal conjugate vaccines, meningococcal serogroup B (MenB) vaccines received FDA approval based on blood tests indicating immune response (immunogenicity) to the particular strains found within the vaccine. (
  • these persons should receive an MenB vaccine series if their treating health care providers, in consultation with their local health or state departments, determine they are appropriate candidates on the basis of CDC criteria. (
  • A severe allergic reaction to a previous dose of MenB vaccine or any of its components is a contraindication. (
  • The two new MenB vaccines, Trumenba and Bexsero contain protein antigen, FHbp, and are effective against the majority of MenB strains. (
  • Researchers used a laboratory test called the Meningococcal Antigen Typing System (MATS) to study the coverage potential of the MenB-4C vaccine, which was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in January 2015 for use in individuals ages 10-25 years. (
  • The MATS test showed that 91 percent of these US bacterial strains express antigens similar to those contained in the MenB-4C vaccine, with an estimated coverage ranging from 88 percent to 97 percent each year. (
  • Significant variation in the likelihood of MenB vaccine receipt correlated with sociodemographic, clinical, and provider factors. (
  • In an effort to identify sociodemographic and provider factors associated with MenB vaccine receipt, Dr. Feemster and her associates conducted a cross-sectional study of 85,789 Philadelphia youth aged 16-18 years who had a record in the KIDS Plus II Philadelphia database between Oct. 31, 2015 and July 31, 2017. (
  • P less than .0001) also were less likely to receive the MenB vaccine, reported Dr. Feemster, who is also director of research for Children's Hospital of Philadelphia's Vaccine Education Center, and her colleagues. (
  • They also speculated that variation in MenB receipt across different providers "may reflect different recommendation practices, perceived need for MenB vaccines in a provider's patient population, or clinic-level purchasing decisions. (
  • In the United States, there are two serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccines licensed for use for patients aged 10 to 25 years. (
  • The Global Meningococcal Vaccines Market study report will provide a valuable insight with an emphasis on global market including some of the major players such as Biomed Pvt. (
  • The global meningococcal vaccines market garnered $1.93 million in 2018, and is expected to generate $4.19 billion by 2026, registering a CAGR of 9.5% from 2019 to 2026. (
  • The report offers a detailed segmentation of the global meningococcal vaccines market based on vaccine serotype, vaccine type, end user, and region. (
  • In this report, the global Meningococcal Vaccines market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022. (
  • Antibodies against the group A and C polysaccharides decline markedly over the first 3 years following a single dose of vaccine (5,10-13). (
  • it was significant only for antibodies to meningococcal C antigen (P=0.03), although the geometric mean titre was still over sevenfold greater than prevaccination values. (
  • It is unclear at the moment whether the altered presentation affects the ability of vaccine-elicited antibodies to kill these strains. (
  • The test currently used to predict which meningococcal isolates will be targeted by Trumenba measures the abundance of FHbp on the cell surface since a critical amount is needed for antibodies to bind the cell and aid killing. (
  • The data reported from these tests show that some strains with sufficient FHbp levels are surprisingly not susceptible to killing by Trumenba vaccine antibodies. (
  • Development of the 4-component meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB) has required new assays for the reliable evaluation of the expression and cross-reactivity of those specific antigen variants that are predicted to be targeted by bactericidal antibodies elicited by the vaccine in different isolates. (
  • Mapping of epitopes recognized by functional monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is essential for understanding the nature of immune responses and designing improved vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics. (
  • Vaccine efficacy. (
  • The serogroup A vaccine has been shown to have a clinical efficacy of 85%-95% and to be of use in controlling epidemics. (
  • A similar level of clinical efficacy has been demonstrated for the serogroup C vaccine, both in American military recruits and in an epidemic. (
  • Instead, vaccine efficacy was based on 'complement mediated antibody killing' detected in the serum of individuals who received the vaccines, a surrogate measure of protection,' the FAQ said. (
  • Multivalent recombinant PorA vaccines have been developed to broaden the protective effect, but no efficacy data are available as yet. (
  • Manufacturer(s) have sought approval of the vaccine(s) and provided evidence as to its safety and efficacy only when it is used in accordance with the product monographs. (
  • Our findings provide a catalogue of non-functional fHbps from all variant groups that can be included in new generation meningococcal vaccines, and establish proof-in-principle for clinical studies to compare their efficacy with wild-type fHbps. (
  • this interaction could impair the efficacy of fHbp-based vaccines. (
  • Compensation Program should usual y wait until they recover before getting meningococcal ACWY vaccine. (
  • People who are moderately or severely ill should usually wait until they recover before getting meningococcal ACWY vaccine. (
  • The primary objectives of the Phase II observer-blind, controlled, randomized study were to assess noninferiority of 2 investigational formulations of MenABCWY vaccines compared to the licensed ACWY vaccine, and formulation selection based on a desirability index (DI). (
  • This is a form to show your interest in participating in the Meningococcal Vaccine (ACWYX) clinical trial (PI: Dr. Sandeep Kumar Panigrahi). (
  • Timely and comprehensive, Meningococcal Vaccines: Methods and Protocols provides the scientist, public health physician, epidemiologist, clinical microbiologist, and clinician with the essential tools to lay bare the secrets of the meningococcus and to develop, evaluate, and implement successful new meningococcal vaccines. (
  • The government's expert Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee (PBAC) has rejected a subsidy call and said there were "multiple uncertainties" about the clinical effectiveness of the vaccine. (
  • While efforts to develop a vaccine began over a century ago, the candidates that made it to clinical trials all failed. (
  • The recently submitted BLA includes positive data from Phase II and Phase III clinical trials held in the U.S. to seek an indication for use of the vaccine in persons 2 years of age and older. (