Meningitis: Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)Meningitis, Bacterial: Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots.Meningitis, Pneumococcal: An acute purulent infection of the meninges and subarachnoid space caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, most prevalent in children and adults over the age of 60. This illness may be associated with OTITIS MEDIA; MASTOIDITIS; SINUSITIS; RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; sickle cell disease (ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL); skull fractures; and other disorders. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; neck stiffness; and somnolence followed by SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits (notably DEAFNESS); and COMA. (From Miller et al., Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p111)Meningitis, Aseptic: A syndrome characterized by headache, neck stiffness, low grade fever, and CSF lymphocytic pleocytosis in the absence of an acute bacterial pathogen. Viral meningitis is the most frequent cause although MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; RICKETTSIA INFECTIONS; diagnostic or therapeutic procedures; NEOPLASTIC PROCESSES; septic perimeningeal foci; and other conditions may result in this syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p745)Meningitis, Viral: Viral infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space. TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RUBELLA; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORBIVIRUS infections; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RHABDOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; JC VIRUS infections; and RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS may cause this form of meningitis. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, neck pain, vomiting, PHOTOPHOBIA, and signs of meningeal irritation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)Meningitis, Fungal: Meningitis caused by fungal agents which may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.Meningitis, Haemophilus: Infections of the nervous system caused by bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS, and marked by prominent inflammation of the MENINGES. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B is the most common causative organism. The condition primarily affects children under 6 years of age but may occur in adults.Meningitis, Meningococcal: A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)Meningitis, Cryptococcal: Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)Tuberculosis, Meningeal: A form of bacterial meningitis caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS or rarely MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The organism seeds the meninges and forms microtuberculomas which subsequently rupture. The clinical course tends to be subacute, with progressions occurring over a period of several days or longer. Headache and meningeal irritation may be followed by SEIZURES, cranial neuropathies, focal neurologic deficits, somnolence, and eventually COMA. The illness may occur in immunocompetent individuals or as an OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION in the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunodeficiency syndromes. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-9)Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Meningitis, Listeria: Inflammation of the meninges caused by LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES infection, usually occurring in individuals under the age of 3 years or over the age of 50 years. It may occur at any age in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, altered mentation, HEADACHE, meningeal signs, focal neurologic signs, and SEIZURES. (From Medicine 1998 Sep;77(5):313-36)Meningitis, Escherichia coli: A form of gram-negative meningitis that tends to occur in neonates, in association with anatomical abnormalities (which feature communication between the meninges and cutaneous structures) or as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS in association with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES. In premature neonates the clinical presentation may be limited to ANOREXIA; VOMITING; lethargy; or respiratory distress. Full-term infants may have as additional features FEVER; SEIZURES; and bulging of the anterior fontanelle. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp398-400)Spinal Puncture: Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.Echovirus Infections: Infectious disease processes, including meningitis, diarrhea, and respiratory disorders, caused by echoviruses.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Neisseria meningitidis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.Angiostrongylus cantonensis: A species of parasitic nematodes distributed throughout the Pacific islands that infests the lungs of domestic rats. Human infection, caused by consumption of raw slugs and land snails, results in eosinophilic meningitis.Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins: Proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid, normally albumin and globulin present in the ratio of 8 to 1. Increases in protein levels are of diagnostic value in neurological diseases. (Brain and Bannister's Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p221)Niger: A republic in western Africa, north of NIGERIA and west of CHAD. Its capital is Niamey.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Meninges: The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup A: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most outbreaks of meningococcal disease in Western Europe and the United States in the first half of the 20th century. They continue to be a major cause of disease in Asia and Africa, and especially localized epidemics in Sub-Sahara Africa.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Meningoencephalitis: An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.Streptococcus agalactiae: A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Enterovirus InfectionsCryptococcus neoformans: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Haemophilus influenzae type b: A type of H. influenzae isolated most frequently from biotype I. Prior to vaccine availability, it was a leading cause of childhood meningitis.Enterovirus B, Human: A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.Echovirus 9: A species of ENTEROVIRUS associated with outbreaks of aseptic meningitis (MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC).Meningeal Carcinomatosis: Primary or secondary neoplasm in the ARACHNOID or SUBARACHNOID SPACE. It appears as a diffuse fibrotic thickening of the MENINGES associated with variable degrees of inflammation.Streptococcus suis: A species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from pigs. It is a pathogen of swine but rarely occurs in humans.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Leukocytosis: A transient increase in the number of leukocytes in a body fluid.Cryptococcosis: Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.Strongylida Infections: Infections with nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA.Subarachnoid Space: The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Hydrocephalus: Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.Coccidioidomycosis: Infection with a fungus of the genus COCCIDIOIDES, endemic to the SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES. It is sometimes called valley fever but should not be confused with RIFT VALLEY FEVER. Infection is caused by inhalation of airborne, fungal particles known as arthroconidia, a form of FUNGAL SPORES. A primary form is an acute, benign, self-limited respiratory infection. A secondary form is a virulent, severe, chronic, progressive granulomatous disease with systemic involvement. It can be detected by use of COCCIDIOIDIN.Cefotaxime: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Meningeal Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Togo: A republic in western Africa, lying between GHANA on its west and BENIN on its east. Its capital is Lome.Burkina Faso: A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup W-135: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis found mostly in Africa.Cryptococcus: A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.Meningococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Flucytosine: A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea: Discharge of cerebrospinal fluid through the nose. Common etiologies include trauma, neoplasms, and prior surgery, although the condition may occur spontaneously. (Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997 Apr;116(4):442-9)Fluconazole: Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Arachnoiditis: Acute or chronic inflammation of the arachnoid membrane of the meninges most often involving the spinal cord or base of the brain. This term generally refers to a persistent inflammatory process characterized by thickening of the ARACHNOID membrane and dural adhesions. Associated conditions include prior surgery, infections, trauma, SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, and chemical irritation. Clinical features vary with the site of inflammation, but include cranial neuropathies, radiculopathies, and myelopathies. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch48, p25)Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Haemophilus Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.Cronobacter sakazakii: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus CHRONOBACTER, found in the environment and in foods.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.Lyme Neuroborreliosis: Nervous system infections caused by tick-borne spirochetes of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP. The disease may affect elements of the central or peripheral nervous system in isolation or in combination. Common clinical manifestations include a lymphocytic meningitis, cranial neuropathy (most often a facial neuropathy), POLYRADICULOPATHY, and a mild loss of memory and other cognitive functions. Less often more extensive inflammation involving the central nervous system (encephalomyelitis) may occur. In the peripheral nervous system, B. burgdorferi infection is associated with mononeuritis multiplex and polyradiculoneuritis. (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):182-91)Meningocele: A congenital or acquired protrusion of the meninges, unaccompanied by neural tissue, through a bony defect in the skull or vertebral column.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Tuberculosis, Miliary: An acute form of TUBERCULOSIS in which minute tubercles are formed in a number of organs of the body due to dissemination of the bacilli through the blood stream.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Pneumococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Cranial Nerve Diseases: Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.Sphenoid Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the SPHENOID SINUS. Isolated sphenoid sinusitis is uncommon. It usually occurs in conjunction with other paranasal sinusitis.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Counterimmunoelectrophoresis: Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.Headache: The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.Mumps: An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Pneumocephalus: Presence of air or gas within the intracranial cavity (e.g., epidural space, subdural space, intracerebral, etc.) which may result from traumatic injuries, fistulous tract formation, erosions of the skull from NEOPLASMS or infection, NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES, and other conditions.VietnamBacterial Capsules: An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.Eosinophilia: Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Infant, Newborn, Diseases: Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Cerebrospinal Fluid Otorrhea: Discharge of cerebrospinal fluid through the external auditory meatus or through the eustachian tube into the nasopharynx. This is usually associated with CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE involving the TEMPORAL BONE;), NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES; or other conditions, but may rarely occur spontaneously. (From Am J Otol 1995 Nov;16(6):765-71)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Tuberculoma: A tumor-like mass resulting from the enlargement of a tuberculous lesion.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Meningism: A condition characterized by neck stiffness, headache, and other symptoms suggestive of meningeal irritation, but without actual inflammation of the meninges (MENINGITIS). Spinal fluid pressure may be elevated but spinal fluid is normal. (DeJong, The Neurologic Examination, 4th ed, p673)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Phlebotomus Fever: Influenza-like febrile viral disease caused by several members of the BUNYAVIRIDAE family and transmitted mostly by the bloodsucking sandfly Phlebotomus papatasii.Latex Fixation Tests: Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Tuberculoma, Intracranial: A well-circumscribed mass composed of tuberculous granulation tissue that may occur in the cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, brain stem, or perimeningeal spaces. Multiple lesions are quite common. Management of intracranial manifestations vary with lesion site. Intracranial tuberculomas may be associated with SEIZURES, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Spinal cord tuberculomas may be associated with localized or radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, and incontinence. Tuberculomas may arise as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS, but also occur in immunocompetent individuals.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Streptococcus bovis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly found in the alimentary tract of cows, sheep, and other ruminants. It occasionally is encountered in cases of human endocarditis. This species is nonhemolytic.Central Nervous System Infections: Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.Subdural Effusion: Leakage and accumulation of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID in the subdural space which may be associated with an infectious process; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; INTRACRANIAL HYPOTENSION; and other conditions.Cephalosporin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.Encephalocele: Brain tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Hearing Loss: A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Encephalitis, Viral: Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Myelitis: Inflammation of the spinal cord. Relatively common etiologies include infections; AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES; SPINAL CORD; and ischemia (see also SPINAL CORD VASCULAR DISEASES). Clinical features generally include weakness, sensory loss, localized pain, incontinence, and other signs of autonomic dysfunction.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Thienamycins: Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Streptolysins: Exotoxins produced by certain strains of streptococci, particularly those of group A (STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES), that cause HEMOLYSIS.Sandfly fever Naples virus: A species in the genus PHLEBOVIRUS causing PHLEBOTOMUS FEVER, an influenza-like illness. Related serotypes include Toscana virus and Tehran virus.Pneumonia, Pneumococcal: A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Mumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.Moxalactam: Broad- spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic similar in structure to the CEPHALOSPORINS except for the substitution of an oxaazabicyclo moiety for the thiaazabicyclo moiety of certain CEPHALOSPORINS. It has been proposed especially for the meningitides because it passes the blood-brain barrier and for anaerobic infections.Food Parasitology: The presence of parasites in food and food products. For the presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food, FOOD MICROBIOLOGY is available.AfricaMycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Vasculitis, Central Nervous System: Inflammation of blood vessels within the central nervous system. Primary vasculitis is usually caused by autoimmune or idiopathic factors, while secondary vasculitis is caused by existing disease process. Clinical manifestations are highly variable but include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; behavioral alterations; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; and BRAIN INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp856-61)Central Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Coccidioides: A mitosporic fungal genus which causes COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS.Child, Hospitalized: Child hospitalized for short term care.Coma: A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.Community-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.

Nocardia osteomyelitis in a pachymeningitis patient: an example of a difficult case to treat with antimicrobial agents. (1/898)

Antimicrobial agents played a miraculous role in the treatment of bacterial infections until resistant bacteria became widespread. Besides antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, many factors can influence the cure of infection. Nocardia infection may be a good example which is difficult to cure with antimicrobial agents alone. A 66-year-old man developed soft tissue infection of the right buttock and thigh. He was given prednisolone and azathioprine for pachymeningitis 3 months prior to admission. Despite surgical and antimicrobial treatment (sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim), the infection spread to the femur and osteomyelitis developed. The case showed that treatment of bacterial infection is not always as successful as was once thought because recent isolates of bacteria are more often resistant to various antimicrobial agents, intracellular parasites are difficult to eliminate even with the active drug in vitro, and infections in some sites such as bone are refractory to treatment especially when the patient is in a compromised state. In conclusion, for the treatment of infections, clinicians need to rely on laboratory tests more than before and have to consider the influence of various host factors.  (+info)

Meningitis caused by an alkali-producing pseudomonad. (2/898)

The clinical and microbiological features of a case of meningitis, due to an alkali-producing pseudomonad which closely resembles Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, are described. A respiratory infection and a course of antibiotic therapy before admission to hospital may have been predisposing factors to opportunistic infection by this normally saprophytic organism. The problems of identifying alkali-producing pseudomonads are discussed.  (+info)

Citrobacter koseri meningitis in a special care baby unit. (3/898)

An outbreak of meningitis due to Citrobacter koseri in a special care baby unit is described. The organism showed a high capacity for spread among the babies on the unit and although the intestinal carriage rate was high, the clinical case:carrier ratio was low.  (+info)

Free sialic acid levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis. (4/898)

The free and bound sialic acid content of cerebrospinal fluid from patients with positive evidence (by CSF culture) of pyogenic and tuberculous meningitis was determined. The free sialic acid content was significantly raised only in cases of pyogenic meningitis, but not in tuberculous or other types of the disease.  (+info)

Ultrasound-enhanced latex immunoagglutination and PCR as complementary methods for non-culture-based confirmation of meningococcal disease. (5/898)

Preadmission administration of antibiotics to patients with suspected meningococcal infection has decreased the likelihood of obtaining an isolate and has stimulated development of rapid and reliable non-culture-based diagnostic methods. The sensitivity of the conventional test card latex agglutination test (TCLAT) for detection of capsular polysaccharide has been reported to be suboptimal. In the United Kingdom meningococcal DNA detection by PCR has become readily available and is now used as a first-line investigation. Recently, the performance of latex antigen detection has been markedly improved by ultrasound enhancement. Three tests for laboratory confirmation of meningococcal infection, (i) PCR assays, (ii) TCLAT, and (iii) ultrasound-enhanced latex agglutination test (USELAT), were compared in a retrospective study of 125 specimens (serum, plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid specimens) from 90 patients in whom meningococcal disease was suspected on clinical grounds. Samples were from patients with (i) culture-confirmed meningococcal disease, (ii) culture-negative but PCR-confirmed meningococcal disease, and (iii) clinically suspected but non-laboratory-confirmed meningococcal disease. USELAT was found to be nearly five times more sensitive than TCLAT. Serogroup characterization was obtained by both PCR and USELAT for 44 samples; all results were concordant and agreed with the serogroups determined for the isolates when the serogroups were available. For 12 samples negative by USELAT, the serogroup was determined by PCR; however, for 12 other specimens for which PCR had failed to indicate the serogroup, USELAT gave a result. USELAT is a rapid, low-cost method which can confirm a diagnosis, identify serogroups, and guide appropriate management of meningococcal disease contacts. A complementary non-culture-based confirmation strategy of USELAT for local use supported by a centralized PCR assay service for detection of meningococci would give the benefits of timely information and improved epidemiological data.  (+info)

Intrathecal antibiotic therapy for neonatal meningitis. (6/898)

Twenty infants with neonatal meningitis were treated with systemic and lumbar intrathecal antibiotics upon initial diagnosis. Failure to sterilize the CSF in 2-3 days was associated with evidence of ventriculitis in these infants who were then treated with intraventricular antibiotics. 4 infants died, but only 2 of them may be regarded as treatment failure. It is suggested that many deaths from neonatal meningitis may be preventable by early detection and treatment of ventriculitis with intraventricular antibiotics.  (+info)

Magnetization transfer MR imaging in CNS tuberculosis. (7/898)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: CNS tuberculosis may simulate other granulomas and meningitis on MR images. The purpose of this study was to improve the characterization of lesions in CNS tuberculosis and to assess the disease load using magnetization transfer (MT) imaging. METHODS: A total of 107 tuberculomas in seven patients with or without meningitis and 15 patients with tuberculosis meningitis alone were studied. Fifteen patients with cysticercus granulomas with T2 hypointensity, five patients each with viral and pyogenic meningitis, and two patients with cryptococcal meningitis were also studied. The MT ratios were calculated from tuberculomas, cysticercus granulomas, and thickened meninges in tuberculous, viral, pyogenic, and cryptococcal meningitis and were compared within each pathologic group and with the MT ratio of different regions of normal brain parenchyma. Detectability of lesions on T1-weighted MT spin-echo (SE) images was compared with that on conventional SE and postcontrast MT-SE images. RESULTS: Thickened meninges appeared hyperintense relative to surrounding brain parenchyma in the basal and supratentorial cisterns on precontrast MT-SE images in all 18 patients with tuberculosis meningitis. These meninges were not seen or were barely visible on conventional SE images, and enhanced on postcontrast MT-SE images. The MT ratio from the thickened meninges of tuberculous meningitis was significantly lower than that from the meninges in cryptococcal and pyogenic disease and significantly higher than the meninges in viral meningoencephalitis. The MT ratio from T2 visible and invisible tuberculomas appeared to be significantly lower than that of normal white matter. The MT ratio of T2 hypointense cysticercus granuloma was significantly higher than that of T2 hypointense tuberculoma. CONCLUSION: Precontrast MT-SE imaging helps to better assess the disease load in CNS tuberculosis by improving the detectability of the lesions. With the use of MT ratios, it may be possible to differentiate tuberculosis from similar-appearing infective lesions on MR images.  (+info)

Sclerosing spinal pachymeningitis. A complication of intrathecal administration of Depo-Medrol for multiple sclerosis. (8/898)

Reported complications of intrathecal steroid therapy include aseptic meningitis, infectious meningitis, and arachnoiditis. We report a case of sclerosing spinal pachymeningitis complicating the attempted intrathecal administration of Depo-Medrol for multiple sclerosis. The lesion is characterised by concentric laminar proliferation of neomembranes within the subdural space of the entire spinal cord and cauda equina, resulting from repeated episodes of injury and repair to the spinal dura mater by Depo-Medrol. There is clinical and laboratory evidence that Depo-Medrol produces meningeal irritation and that the vehicle is the necrotising fraction.  (+info)

  • Meningitis is highly contagious and spreads through sneezing, coughing or living in cramped conditions. (redlandsdailyfacts.com)
  • Meningitis has also become an increasingly serious problem among teens and young adults between the ages of 15-24, due to how certain contagious types can spread easily in crowded school or university settings. (generalhealthmagazine.com)
  • The research, supported by Meningitis Research Foundation (MRF) and the Confederation of Meningitis Organisations (CoMO), also found that 29% of teenagers surveyed incorrectly believe meningitis is not contagious and a further 29% don't know whether it is or not. (ellontimes.co.uk)
  • Various forms of meningitis come from bacteria or a virus that invaded the area, from exposure to chemicals, a fungus or even parasites. (livestrong.com)
  • While meningitis occurs all over the world, the highest disease burden is found in sub-Saharan Africa, in an area that stretches from the Gambia to Ethiopia, known as the Meningitis Belt . (columbia.edu)
  • Epidemics of meningococcal meningitis took place at irregular intervals, with death occurring in 40-50 percent of cases, until the use of antibiotic drugs greatly reduced both mortality rates and the incidence of the disease in countries worldwide. (britannica.com)
  • The conference, called Epidemics and the Environment: The Meningitis Challenge in Africa , was presented in conjunction with the Center for International Earth Science Information Network and the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI). (columbia.edu)
  • He also explored the potential to use this understanding to provide more timely warnings of the onset of meningitis epidemics and improve the efficacy of prevention and control. (columbia.edu)
  • It also served to highlight the fact that a way of predicting these meningitis epidemics would be enormously useful. (columbia.edu)
  • Bacterial meningitis, although rare, may be fatal. (marshfieldclinic.org)
  • Mark Thomas, from Blakenall, Walsall, in the West Midlands, was just 12 years old when he developed meningitis in February 2002, but doctors at Walsall's Manor Hospital failed to recognise the tell tale signs of the potentially fatal illness and a blood test, which would have flagged up meningitis, was not reviewed and acted upon for more than four days. (irwinmitchell.com)
  • While about 50 percent of bacterial meningitis cases were fatal in the past, this statistic has dropped significantly to about 10-15 percent thanks to recent medical advancements. (generalhealthmagazine.com)
  • There is one special case of viral meningitis/encephalitis that people carry all of their lives and it is the patient with herpes on the face who are at risk and it can be rapidly fatal and requires immediate treatment with Acyclovir, or one of the newer similar agents intravenously or the patient can sustain fatal damage to both temporal lobes. (emednation.com)
  • Tests to diagnose meningitis can take a number of hours to complete, so treatment will usually be offered immediately if meningitis is suspected. (headway.org.uk)