Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Memory, Long-Term: Remembrance of information from 3 or more years previously.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Memory, Episodic: Type of declarative memory, consisting of personal memory in contrast to general knowledge.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Recognition (Psychology): The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Retention (Psychology): The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Association Learning: The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.Amnesia: Pathologic partial or complete loss of the ability to recall past experiences (AMNESIA, RETROGRADE) or to form new memories (AMNESIA, ANTEROGRADE). This condition may be of organic or psychologic origin. Organic forms of amnesia are usually associated with dysfunction of the DIENCEPHALON or HIPPOCAMPUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-7)Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Mice, Inbred C57BLBrain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Nerve Tissue ProteinsMice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Long-Term Potentiation: A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Repression, Psychology: The active mental process of keeping out and ejecting, banishing from consciousness, ideas or impulses that are unacceptable to it.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Mushroom Bodies: Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Amnesia, Retrograde: Loss of the ability to recall information that had been previously encoded in memory prior to a specified or approximate point in time. This process may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organic forms may be associated with CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; and a wide variety of other conditions that impair cerebral function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-9)CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Executive Function: A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.Paired-Associate Learning: Learning in which the subject must respond with one word or syllable when presented with another word or syllable.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Autobiography as Topic: The life of a person written by himself or herself. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Electroshock: Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Scopolamine Hydrobromide: An alkaloid from SOLANACEAE, especially DATURA and SCOPOLIA. Scopolamine and its quaternary derivatives act as antimuscarinics like ATROPINE, but may have more central nervous system effects. Among the many uses are as an anesthetic premedication, in URINARY INCONTINENCE, in MOTION SICKNESS, as an antispasmodic, and as a mydriatic and cycloplegic.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Brain Injury, Chronic: Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Semantics: The relationships between symbols and their meanings.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Amnesia, Anterograde: Loss of the ability to form new memories beyond a certain point in time. This condition may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organically induced anterograde amnesia may follow CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SEIZURES; ANOXIA; and other conditions which adversely affect neural structures associated with memory formation (e.g., the HIPPOCAMPUS; FORNIX (BRAIN); MAMMILLARY BODIES; and ANTERIOR THALAMIC NUCLEI). (From Memory 1997 Jan-Mar;5(1-2):49-71)Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Discrimination Learning: Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Entorhinal Cortex: Cerebral cortex region on the medial aspect of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS, immediately caudal to the OLFACTORY CORTEX of the uncus. The entorhinal cortex is the origin of the major neural fiber system afferent to the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the so-called PERFORANT PATHWAY.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Wechsler Scales: Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Nootropic Agents: Drugs used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly to prevent the cognitive deficits associated with dementias. These drugs act by a variety of mechanisms. While no potent nootropic drugs have yet been accepted for general use, several are being actively investigated.Antigens, CD27: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Association: A functional relationship between psychological phenomena of such nature that the presence of one tends to evoke the other; also, the process by which such a relationship is established.Mental Processes: Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Imagination: A new pattern of perceptual or ideational material derived from past experience.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Brain Concussion: A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)Serial Learning: Learning to make a series of responses in exact order.CA1 Region, Hippocampal: One of four subsections of the hippocampus described by Lorente de No, located furthest from the DENTATE GYRUS.Anisomycin: An antibiotic isolated from various Streptomyces species. It interferes with protein and DNA synthesis by inhibiting peptidyl transferase or the 80S ribosome system.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Septum of Brain: GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Theta Rhythm: Brain waves characterized by a frequency of 4-7 Hz, usually observed in the temporal lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed and sleepy.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Fornix, Brain: Heavily myelinated fiber bundle of the TELENCEPHALON projecting from the hippocampal formation to the HYPOTHALAMUS. Some authorities consider the fornix part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM. The fimbria starts as a flattened band of axons arising from the subiculum and HIPPOCAMPUS, which then thickens to form the fornix.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Mice, Inbred BALB CGlioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Olfactory Pathways: Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor: A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).Habituation, Psychophysiologic: The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Dendritic Spines: Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Mild Cognitive Impairment: A prodromal phase of cognitive decline that may precede the emergence of ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other dementias. It may include impairment of cognition, such as impairments in language, visuospatial awareness, ATTENTION and MEMORY.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe: A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)Word Association Tests: Lists of words to which individuals are asked to respond ascertaining the conceptual meaning held by the individual.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Brain Diseases, Metabolic: Acquired or inborn metabolic diseases that produce brain dysfunction or damage. These include primary (i.e., disorders intrinsic to the brain) and secondary (i.e., extracranial) metabolic conditions that adversely affect cerebral function.Inhibition (Psychology): The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Functional Neuroimaging: Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.CA3 Region, Hippocampal: A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA2 FIELD and the DENTATE GYRUS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.
Sudden recovery of forgotten memories". Brain. 118: 167-183. doi:10.1093/brain/118.1.167. Campodonico, J. R. & Rediess, S. ( ... Kopelman MD (2002). "Disorders of memory". Brain. 125 (Pt 10): 2152-90. doi:10.1093/brain/awf229. PMID 12244076. Retrieved 2008 ... as only damage to areas of the brain crucial to memory processing is it possible to result in memory impairment. Organic causes ... Access to episodic memory can be impeded, while the degree of impairment to short term memory, semantic memory and procedural ...
Learning and Memory. 2006 Mar-Apr;13(2):161-7. PMID 16585791 Hsin LW, Chang LT, Rothman RB, Dersch CM, Jacobson AE, Rice KC. ... Behavioural Brain Research. 2004 Jan 5;148(1-2):107-17. PMID 14684252 Swant J, Wagner JJ. Dopamine transporter blockade ... GBR-12935 is now widely used in animal research into Parkinson's disease and the dopamine pathways in the brain. Vanoxerine GBR ... developed in its 3H radiolabelled form for the purpose of mapping the distribution of dopaminergic neurons in the brain by ...
Due to the brain's limited capacity to process information, it becomes necessary that the brain have the ability filter out ... "Prefrontal cortex and hippocampus subserve different components of working memory in rats". Learning and Memory. 15 (3): 97-105 ... It opens the gate between two areas in the cortex, allowing for the influence of stimuli in working memory. The thalamus, ... Extrinsic input comes from an area of the brain anatomically and functionally distinct from a given circuit, while intrinsic ...
Brain and Language. 104 (3): 245. doi:10.1016/j.bandl.2007.05.002. PMID 17624417. Hagoort, Peter (2003). "How the brain solves ... N400 P600 Bereitschaftspotential C1 and P1 Contingent negative variation Difference due to memory Error-related negativity Late ... Brain Research. 1071 (1): 187. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2005.11.085. PMID 16412999. Hagoort, Peter (2003). "How the brain solves ... According to this model, the brain's first step in processing sentences is to organize input and build local phrase structure ( ...
A major component of the system entails sensory memory, which is broken down into iconic memory and echoic memory. The ... Wood, S.; Hiscock, M. (2000). "Selective attention fails to alter the dichotic listening lag". Brain and Language. 71: 373-390 ... According to the modality effect, echoic memory has an advantage over iconic memory. Research has shown that the speech is more ... Research on iconic memory has provided a visual hierarchy of the visual system, which indicates specific neurons are activated ...
The hippocampus is located in the medial temporal lobe area of the brain and is responsible for governing spatial memory. In ... The spatial memory of the rat is responsible for recording information about the rat's environment as well as its spatial ... Brain Res. 49:105-114.Medline /full/nprot.2006.2.html 8. Shoji, H., Hagihara, H., Takao, K., Hattori, S., Miyakawa, T. (2012) T ... This type of maze is used to perform short-term memory experimentations on rats. Rats are examined on whether or not they have ...
During a sabbatical year in the early 1970s, she had worked on her book Memory and the Brain and felt that teaching at Spring ... For Arnold, it was a step on the path to understand the circuitry of the brain that mediated sensation, perception, motivation ... At age ninety, Arnold continued to read her former students' research as well as anything published on emotion, the brain, and ... Arnold, M. B. (1984). Memory and the brain. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. http://www.feministvoices.com/magda-arnold/ "Archived copy ...
Marková, I. S.; Berrios, G. E.; Hodges, J H (2004). "Insight into Memory Function". Neurology, Psychiatry & Brain Research. 11 ... Differences in brain activation in the left and right hemisphere seem to be indicative of insight versus non-insight solutions ... The data suggests there is something different occurring in the brain when solving insight versus non-insight problems that ... Subramaniam, Karuna; Kounios, John; Parrish, Todd B.; Jung-Beeman, Mark (1 March 2009). "A Brain Mechanism for Facilitation of ...
Another difference is that brain areas involved in working memory and attention are often more active during explicit than ... Stadler, M.A.; Frensch, P.A. (1994). "Whither learning, whither memory?". Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 17: 423-424. doi: ... This is because the latter (explicit learning) requires time for the memories to set in and build connections after the ... Implicit memory Implicit cognition Sun, Ron (2008). The Cambridge handbook of computational psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge ...
Therefore, there is a McGurk effect exhibited in people with damage to the right hemisphere of the brain but the effect is not ... Windmann, S (2004). "Effects of sentence context and expectation on the McGurk illusion". Journal of Memory and Language. 50 (1 ... Speech is perceived by all of the senses working together (seeing, touching, and listening to a face move). The brain is often ... In people with lesions to the left hemisphere of the brain, visual features often play a critical role in speech and language ...
... was in phase II clinical trials around 2004-2006 for the treatment of memory deficits and dementia but no new ... Brain Research. 1121 (1): 207-15. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2006.08.108. PMID 17011531. Restivo L, Roman F, Dumuis A, Bockaert J, ... Behavioural Brain Research. 195 (1): 180-6. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2008.08.007. PMID 18765258. Tamburella A, Micale V, Navarria A, ... Neurobiology of Learning and Memory. 90 (1): 185-91. doi:10.1016/j.nlm.2008.03.010. PMID 18485752. Hille C, Bate S, Davis J, ...
Event-related Potential (ERP) is a commonly used measure to the response of the brain to different events and can be measured ... Phase resetting is important in the formation of long-term memories. Due to synchronization within the gamma-frequency range ... Phase resetting plays a role in promoting neural synchrony in various pathways in the brain, from regulating circadian rhythms ... Research has also shown that the occurrence of phase resetting within alpha activity during memory tasks which require quick ...
"Scientists Find Brain Areas Affected By Lack Of Sleep". ScienceDaily. November 2003. Retrieved 2008-05-14. John Fauber (May ... "Memory formation: The big sleep". The Economist. April 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-15. Sarah Graham (April 2005). "Slumbering Fruit ... Tononi, G. (2012). PHI: A Voyage from the Brain to the Soul. Pantheon Books. Laureys, S.; Tononi, G. (2009). The Neurology of ... Henry Fountain (January 2008). "Study Gives Key Role to Sleep in Helping Brain Learn Anew". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-05- ...
... who was using it to present working memory challenges to people while he studied their brains using fMRI, to try to learn about ... A 2013 article in The New Yorker magazine said that brain training games are "bogus." Michael Fitzgerald (2014-10-09). "Do ... Shipstead, Z; Hicks, K; Engle, RW (2012). "Cogmed working memory training: Does the evidence support the claims?". Journal of ... When the studies appeared to show that the challenges improved working memory, Klingberg founded Cogmed in 2001, with financial ...
2002). Memory, Brain and Belief. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674007192. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) Fins de ...
Memory. 5 (1): 11-37. doi:10.1101/lm.5.1.11. ISSN 1072-0502. PMC 311242 . PMID 10454370. Kenyon, F. C. (1896-03-01). "The brain ... Circuit plasticity and memory. 35: 178-184. doi:10.1016/j.conb.2015.10.002. PMC 4835525 . PMID 26496148. Gupta, Nitin; Stopfer ... Kenyon cells are the intrinsic neurons of the mushroom body, a neuropil found in the brains of most arthropods and some ... The cAMP signaling cascade, especially protein kinase A, must function properly in Kenyon cells for learning and memory to ...
Biological memory (1926). Ritchie, Arthur David. Scientific method: an inquiry into the character and validity of natural laws ... Thought and the brain (1927). Ramsey, Frank P. Foundations: essays in philosophy, logic, mathematics and economics (1931). Rank ...
"Emotion, Memory and the Brain." Scientific American (June 1994). Mayo Clinic 2015. Lumb 2014, p. 51. Field 2011, pp. 382-387. " ... The Emotional Brain and Emotional Intelligence: New Insights. North Hampton, Mass, 2011. Ainsworth, Mary D. S. "Attachments and ... A 2011 study showed that the same regions of the brain that become active in response to painful sensory experiences are ... New York: Scribner, 1997' and Panksepp Jaak, Nelson Eric, Bekkedal Marni (1997). "Brain Systems for the Mediation of Separation ...
Sala, Sergio Della; Logie, Robert H. (2002). "Working Memory". In Ramachandran, V.S. (ed.). Encyclopedia of the Human Brain. 4 ... Working memory[edit]. See also: Working memory § Attention. One important question facing the study of mind-wandering is how it ... Recent research has studied the relationship between mind-wandering and working memory capacity.[35] Working memory capacity ... It is possible that mind-wandering causes lower performance on working memory capacity tasks or that lower working memory ...
The changes in brain activity were studied in subjects during both convergent and divergent thinking. To do this, researchers ... doi:10.1016/S0926-6410(00)00017-3. Squire, L; Knowlton, G (1993). "The Structure and Organization of Memory". Annual Review of ... The large increase in amplitude and coherence indicates a close synchronization between both hemispheres in the brain. The ... Razoumnikova, Olga (2000). "Function Organization of Different Brain Areas During Convergent and Divergent Thinking: an EEG ...
Martin, A.; Chao, L. L. (2001). "Semantic memory and the brain: structure and processes". Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 11 ( ... Long-term memory enables the listener to develop musical expectation based on previous experience while working memory is ... Neuroscientific evidence suggests that memory for music is, at least in part, special and distinct from other forms of memory. ... Enculturation is a powerful influence on music memory. Both long-term and working memory systems are critically involved in the ...
Wall PM, Messier C (May 2000). "Concurrent modulation of anxiety and memory". Behavioural Brain Research. 109 (2): 229-41. doi: ... "U-69,593 microinjection in the infralimbic cortex reduces anxiety and enhances spontaneous alternation memory in mice". Brain ... "Characterization and visualization of rat and guinea pig brain kappa opioid receptors: evidence for kappa 1 and kappa 2 opioid ... site of action in the brain". Neuropsychopharmacology. 6 (1): 17-21. PMID 1315136. ...
The Memory Experience - Use it or Lose it PBS: Changing Your Mind - Grow Your Own Brain Lobes of Steel: Aerobic exercise ... Allopregnanolone, a neurosteroid, aids the continued neurogenesis in the brain. Levels of allopregnanolone in the brain decline ... provides some protection against brain inflammation, which might result in better memory at an older age. This is due to ... Studies Find Brains Grow New Cells Michael Specter: Rethinking the Brain - How the songs of canaries upset a fundamental ...
Brain. 131 (5): 1311-1322. doi:10.1093/brain/awn066. PMC 2367692 . PMID 18390562. Allman, John M.; Hakeem, Atiya; Erwin, Joseph ... Working memory and spatial span are areas where decline is most readily noted. Cognitive flexibility, however, has a late onset ... Working memory is a short-term, capacity-limited cognitive buffer that stores information and permits its manipulation to guide ... The major change that occurs in the brain in adulthood is the constant myelination of neurons in the prefrontal cortex. At age ...
Stained brain slice images which include the "ventral+lateral+nucleus+of+thalamus" at the BrainMaps project. ... Crosson, B., (1992). Subcortical Functions in Language and Memory. New York: The Guliford Press. Ro T, Farnè A, Johnson RM, et ... Thalamus Thalamus Orrison Jr., W. (2008). Atlas of Brain Function. New York: Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. ...
Memory and synaptic plasticity[edit]. Main article: Synaptic plasticity. Earlier models of memory are primarily based on the ... The brain seems to be able to discriminate and adapt particularly well in certain contexts. For instance, human beings seem to ... Michael A. Arbib; Shun-ichi Amari; Prudence H. Arbib (2002). The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks. Cambridge, ... Blue Brain, a project founded by Henry Markram from the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, aims to construct a ...
... tests show the former NFL star had the brain disease CTE. CTE, or Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, is believed to stem from ... Symptoms are similar to those of another brain disease: Alzheimers, and can include memory loss, confusion, aggression, rage ... According to the attorney for convicted murderer Aaron Hernandez, tests show the former NFL star had the brain disease CTE. CTE ...
This herbal supplement helps you in enhancing your memory power and brain health by providing all the vital nutrients that are ... Brain Pill is the strongest concentration tablet that exists in the market with huge benefits and without any risk. The ... A cup of green tea a day can improve and strengthen your memory and ease your mood, not to mention its ability to protect ... The antioxidants that in berries will help your brain to function properly and promoting your mood and eating berries will also ...
... and that might help treat emotionally distressing memories, a new study shows. ... It may be possible to learn how to suppress specific memories, ... Brains Memory Suppression Probed. With Practice, People May Be ... Memory suppression took some practice, but it worked.. Meanwhile, the women got their brains scanned with functional magnetic ... The brain scans showed that different areas of the brain were active when the women remembered the facial pairs, compared with ...
... , UW Medicine, University of Washington. Promoting the well-being of those living with memory ... UW Medicine Memory and Brain Wellness Center. Harborview Medical Center. 325 Ninth Ave. Seattle, WA 98104. Phone: 206.520.5000 ... our team looked at the challenges that hinder African American participation in brain health research and the work being done ... address pseudoscientific medical claims and dish out evidence-based common sense about lifestyle changes to improve brain ...
... brain exercises to improve memory, automatic budgeting app, easy workout plans for beginners ... Comments to "Brain exercises to improve memory". * 202. : 27.05.2015 at 13:30:14 And yoga practices which purify ones soul, ... Brain exercises to improve memory,confidence poems and quotes,steps to build up self-confidence,the power of subconscious mind ...
... program let you assess your memory and cognitive abilities so you can get an optimal brain training and keep a healthy brain ... Brain Plasticity Explained Brain plasticity is basically the ability of your brain to adapt to and learn new things. It allows ... Brain plasticity allows us to learn new languages, understand new concepts and hard wire them into our brain so that we can ... This is brain plasticity.. Having the knowledge to know that your brain can take on new challenges and learn new things is ...
UW Medicine Memory and Brain Wellness Center. Harborview Medical Center. 325 Ninth Ave. Seattle, WA 98104. Phone: 206.520.5000 ...
... and get tips on memory improvement and stress management. Live smart and stay sharp at any age. ... The Best Supplements for Brain Health. Turns out ginkgo biloba isnt all its cracked up to be. What might be worth popping ... Aerobic Exercise Can Boost Brain Health New study shows improvements in adults who are at risk for dementia ... Report Links Mental Well-Being and Brain Health. Positivity and optimism might protect against cognitive decline ...
Two-time USA Memory Champion Ron White shows WSJs Shirley Wang the secret behind memorizing a deck of cards. Photo credit Don ... Building a Better Brain for Memory. Two-time USA Memory Champion Ron White shows WSJs Shirley Wang the secret behind ... Im Still Angry, A Tiananmen Survivor Confronts Painful Memories. 5/31/2019 5:30AM 5/31/2019 5:17 ... How Smartphones Sabotage Your Brains Ability to Focus. 5/16/2019 5:30AM 5/16/2019 2:10 ...
... and get tips on memory improvement and stress management. Live smart and stay sharp at any age. ... The Top 5 Superfoods That Can Feed Your Brain. Memory-boosting nutrients that you could easily work into your diet ... The Power of Music on the Brain. An important new report from AARPs brain health experts ... Supplements for Brain Health Panned in New Report. AARP collaborative council finds little value - but lots of expense - in ...
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Will Procera help your memory? Read my unbiased review and decide for yourself. Procera ingredients. side effects. ...
Photic memory for executive brain responses. Sarah Laxhmi Chellappa, Julien Q. M. Ly, Christelle Meyer, Evelyne Balteau, ... Prior light and brain responses. Sarah Laxhmi Chellappa, Julien Q. M. Ly, Christelle Meyer, Evelyne Balteau, Christian ... Prior light and brain responses. Sarah Laxhmi Chellappa, Julien Q. M. Ly, Christelle Meyer, Evelyne Balteau, Christian ... bDepartment of Chronobiology, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Stem Cell and Brain Research Institute ...
But at the World Memory Championships, the brute force power of the brain to store data is all that matters. ... But at the World Memory Championships, the brute force power of the brain to store data is all that matters. This year the ... When competitors repeated what they had stored in their brains he was free to snap away. To get shots like the one of the guy ... Like his railroad portraits, whats most captivating about Vintiners photos from the memory competition is the way his photos ...
... foresaw sensitive information being carried by microchips in the brain by 2021. A team of American neuroscientists could be ...
The findings may one day help patients to recover from brain injury. ... Scientists use transcranial alternating current stimulation to improve working memory. ... The synchronized brain waves seemed to improve the performance of the working memory - the brains ability to retain small bits ... "The next step is to see if the brain stimulation works in patients with brain injury, in combination with brain imaging, where ...
Stimulating a targeted area of the brain with small doses of weak electricity while you sleep may enhance your ability to ... "We work with the brain, thats really unique about what we do. We listen in to brain activity and can boost what the brain ... home/ neurology center/ neurology a-z list/ could slight brain zap during sleep boost memory? article ... Attention and wakefulness is important for us to be aware and form memories, but the brain is more sophisticated than we ...
The hippocampus, a small seahorse-shaped area of the brain, distributes memory to appropriate storage sections in the brain ... "Remember when"¦?" is how many a wistful trip down memory lane begins. But just how the brain keeps tabs on what happened and ... Instead they were interested in why adult brains continually spawn new brain cells in the dentate gyrus, the entryway to the ... "Intuitively we feel that those new brain cells have to be good for something, but nobody really knows what it is.". Each of ...
New research discovers that when occasions call for the brain to make sudden changes, we often fail to remember why we halted ... In addition, the brain areas that are known to be active when a person is committing something to memory - including a region ... Brains Response Inhibition Can Weaken Memory. By Rick Nauert PhD Associate News Editor ... Nauert PhD, R. (2018). Brains Response Inhibition Can Weaken Memory. Psych Central. Retrieved on August 11, 2020, from https ...
Most of the research on memory boosters has looked for medicines that can improve cognitive performance and treat the symptoms ... Other promising studies have focused on technologies that affect brain cells using magnets, low-voltage electrical currents, or ... For example, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) uses magnetic fields to activate specific brain regions and already has ... The animals also demonstrated improved memory for finding their way through mazes. ...
Learn what recent clinical studies have to say about vitamins and memory loss. ... Certain vitamins and fatty acids may help prevent memory loss. ... Brain Vitamins: Can Vitamins Boost Memory?. Medically reviewed ... No matter your age, the best way to combat memory decline is to eat well and exercise your body as well as your brain, advises ... Lifestyle choices that harm memory. You can begin to take care of your brain by simply being more mindful of foods and habits ...
... effectively training your brain like a muscle. We speak to neuroscientist Dr Liron Jacobson and chartered psychologist ... Brain training (also known as cognitive training) involves engaging in regular mental activities to maintain or improve your ... Brain training: can you delay cognitive decline?. We speak to the experts about how to improve your memory and maintain ... Brain training may slow cognitive decline at first * A short burst of daily exercise boosts brain power in over-50s, research ...
... program let you assess your memory and cognitive abilities so you can get an optimal brain training and keep a healthy brain ... Brain And The Miracle Of Nature The human brain is a true miracle of nature. It is the most complex organ in our bodies and ... Our brains also allow us to perform many higher level functions like language, visual response and interpretation, memory and ... Brain research shows that if we touch something and it feels hot, the nerves in our fingers send a signal to our brains and it ...
Topics include: emotion and memory, aging and memory, plasticity of the cerebral cortex, and synaptic connectivity and memory. ... What processes underlie the formation of new memories? What determines their strength? Where are the changes underlying memory ... This increase is due in large part to the development of new techniques for the analysis of brain and behavior. But, to a ... We are approaching the end of the first century of attempts to discover how the brain enables us to acquire, retain, and use ...
But can the secrets of grand memory masters help the rest of us find our car keys? ... It takes less than 30 seconds for the reigning World Memory Champion to recall the sequence of a pack of playing cards. In an ... It takes less than 30 seconds for the reigning World Memory Champion to recall the sequence of a pack of playing cards. In an ... But can the secrets of memory grand masters help the rest of us find our car keys? ...
  • In addition, the brain areas that are known to be active when a person is committing something to memory - including a region in the front of the brain called the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex - were suppressed on those trials in which the participants had to inhibit their responses strongly. (psychcentral.com)
  • Classical models for short-term memory typically assume that all neuronal activity is contained within the prefrontal cortex (PFC), yet, data from this new study suggests that a G-protein coupled receptor in the thalamus may play a large role. (genengnews.com)
  • More immediately, it adds a new dimension to classical models by emphasizing the importance of a two-way neural dialogue between the prefrontal cortex and the thalamus in support of short-term memory. (genengnews.com)
  • Previous research had found that the prefrontal cortex, the brain region behind the forehead, tends to lose volume with age, and that part of this region helps sustain quality sleep, which is critical to consolidating new memories. (nytimes.com)
  • It found that a brain area called the medial prefrontal cortex, roughly behind the middle of the forehead, was about one-third smaller on average in the older group than in the younger one - a difference due to natural atrophy over time, previous research suggests. (nytimes.com)
  • In older adults with age-related memory loss, stimulating a precise location of the brain's memory center with electromagnetic pulses improves the memory to the level of young adults, stated new Northwestern Medicine study. (medindia.net)
  • Meanwhile, the women got their brains scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). (webmd.com)
  • The trial successfully showed that the particular faces that people later forgot were the same ones in which fMRI was showing that a known inhibition network in the brain had been strongly activated. (psychcentral.com)
  • We can use TACS to manipulate the activity of key brain networks and we can see what's happening with fMRI," explained Violante. (psychcentral.com)
  • Johnson's team put eleven female and five male college students inside an fMRI machine, which measures real-time patterns of blood flow in the brain. (wired.com)
  • The team from Brigham Young University (BYU), Utah-- including research proposer, undergraduate student Stefania Ashby -- used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to observe brain activity when subjects were remembering specific experiences and putting themselves in novel ones. (wired.co.uk)
  • Then, under fMRI testing, the subjects were prompted with various scenarios and the areas of their brain that became active during each scenario was correlated with each scene's familiarity -- pure memory, or imagination. (wired.co.uk)
  • An fMRI (functional MRI) measures how active a part of the brain is at a given time. (medindia.net)
  • This gives us hope that stem cells someday could help restore brain function in humans suffering from a wide range of diseases and injuries that impair memory formation," LaFerla said. (thaindian.com)
  • However, they found the exact opposite: Memory was a little worse on the faces for which participants had to inhibit their responses. (psychcentral.com)
  • The most amazing brain challenging game I have ever found! (apple.com)
  • Memory loss and brain shrinkage were found in the study's middle-age participants before the onset of any symptoms, Dr. Echouffo-Tcheugui noted. (infowars.com)
  • By disabling each of these four genes one at a time, they found that one in particular, Gpr12, coded for a protein that is required for and promotes working memory. (genengnews.com)
  • Amazingly, they also found that when they took low-performing mice and increased the amount of the Gpr12 protein in the thalamus, their accuracy in the memory task increased from 50-80%, similar to the level of high-performers. (genengnews.com)
  • We found that these two brain regions are very highly correlated with each other in high-performers but not in low-performers. (genengnews.com)
  • Some of the antioxidants in blueberries have been found to accumulate in the brain and help improve communication between brain cells ( 16 , 17 ). (healthline.com)
  • Using Arc protein as bait, they went on a molecular fishing expedition in a pond filled with other proteins normally found in the brain and hooked two known to be involved in transporting materials into and out of cells. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • That process of 'memory consolidation' takes time-and it was something Inman's team saw experimentally when they measured electrical signals in the brain and found that network interactions between the amygdala and other memory regions of the brain were stronger on the day-later test but not the same-day one. (ieee.org)
  • At least 1.7 million people in the United States are found to have memory loss each year, costing the nation's economy more than $76 billion annually, according to the most recent federal health data. (washingtonpost.com)
  • They found that the brain was able to more effectively metabolize glucose and use it for cellular energy in the brain. (prweb.com)
  • What they've now found is that this particular bit within it, the CA3, which is a very exciting bit of the brain, is larger in some people. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Song and Berger found a way to accurately mimic how a memory is translated from short-term memory into long-term memory. (i4u.com)
  • There is some evidence to suggest that vitamin E can benefit the mind and memory in older people. (healthline.com)
  • The hope is that the approach could one day be used to bypass damaged areas of the brain and relay signals in people with traumatic brain injury, stroke, or epilepsy. (psychcentral.com)
  • Previous studies using animals suggest that the prosthesis might even give people a better memory than they could expect naturally. (newscientist.com)
  • But even when people claim that there are no details attached to their memories, we could still pick some of those details out. (wired.com)
  • brains of people who have photographic memory? (bio.net)
  • People should still work to avoid smoking, diabetes, and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, said Dr. Andrew Budson, a neurology researcher at Boston University School of Medicine and author of "Seven Steps to Managing Your Memory: What's Normal, What's Not, and What to Do About It. (reuters.com)
  • It's easy to see how manipulating memories in people could open up an ethical minefield, said Arthur Caplan, a medical ethicist at New York University's Langone Medical Center. (newsmax.com)
  • When people talk about brain foods, fatty fish is often at the top of the list. (healthline.com)
  • Curcumin may help improve memory in people with Alzheimer's. (healthline.com)
  • DARPA's envisioned brain probe may one day help such people as Thomas Green III, who said he was driving a five-ton truck in Iraq in 2004 when it hit a roadside bomb, then flipped 10 times. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Glucose utilization in the brain is reduced in people with type 2 diabetes, which can often result in neurocognitive problems. (prweb.com)
  • Most of us store many similar memories, relating to the places we spend most time and the people we know best. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Our results may help to explain why we sometimes find it difficult to differentiate between similar past memories, and why some people are better at doing this than others," said Prof Eleanor Maguire, the study's senior author, from the Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging at University College London (UCL). (bbc.co.uk)
  • Furthermore, that overlap was more apparent in people who said they were more confused by the similarities between the four memories. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Choosing to lead by example, his ultimate aim is to spread the word about brain health and educate people on how to improve their lives. (care2.com)
  • If I can make people excited about memorization, staying fit, and having a healthy brain, then I feel like I'm doing my job," he says. (care2.com)
  • But the more people sat, the thinner their MTL and connected sub-regions of the brain tended to be. (businessinsider.com)
  • Reducing sedentary behavior may therefore be a way to improve brain health in people at risk for Alzheimer's. (businessinsider.com)
  • It is estimated that about 55,000 Canadians are living with brain tumours, and every day 27 people are added to that list. (cbc.ca)
  • Older people's memory got better up to the level that we could no longer tell them apart from younger people," said lead investigator Joel Voss, associate professor at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. (medindia.net)
  • The subjects in the control group showed brain shrinkage that was consistent with what has generally been observed among people in their 60s and 70s. (theatlantic.com)
  • At least 1.7 million people will sustain a traumatic brain injury each year, according to the Brain Injury Association of America. (livestrong.com)
  • Reading can pose unique challenges for brain injured people with memory impairment. (livestrong.com)
  • Because inhibition of memory may prevent these people from being able to enjoy a plot requiring longer retention time, it can be helpful to start with smaller chunks. (livestrong.com)
  • Educate yourself about how to prevent brain injury and make sure the people you love always wear a helmet when riding a bike. (livestrong.com)
  • Such specialized processing for faces aids in the encoding of memory for people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuronal growth is exceptionally slow, which may be frustrating for the individual suffering from traumatic brain injury, but persistence in correcting deficits must be actively pursued. (livestrong.com)
  • Additionally, naturopathic physician Robert Ullman recommends utilizing the healing effects of homeopathic arnica to assist in healing traumatic brain injury and support memory repair. (livestrong.com)
  • Card games such as Old Maid, Go Fish, Memory, Solitaire and SNAP utilize simplistic memory skills that can be helpful for a person recovering from traumatic brain injury. (livestrong.com)
  • Conversely, long-term memory involves storing a potentially unlimited amount of information for an indefinite period of time. (redorbit.com)
  • The patients could not remember the locations of four or more objects because doing so involved tapping into long-term memory functions in the medial temporal lobe. (redorbit.com)
  • Hopefully, it will repair their long-term memory," says Berger. (newscientist.com)
  • Unfortunately, it's possible to over-excite a cell to death, says Worley, and if the excitation controls come off, the strength of long-term memory is altered. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The machine working is based on the understanding of short term memory and long term memory formulation. (i4u.com)
  • This is known as long term memory. (i4u.com)
  • learning and long-term memory in the midline diencephalon and medial temporal region. (booktopia.com.au)
  • I'm going to have to confess to a lapse of memory,' he says sheepishly, though it sounds like a line he has used before. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Treating a brain injury early is the best indicator for recovery so be sure to recognize the signs of even mild injury, such as slurred speech, memory lapse, extreme fatigue, dizziness and confusion. (livestrong.com)
  • Our results emphasize the critical role of light for cognitive brain responses and are, to date, the strongest evidence in favor of a cognitive role for melanopsin, which may confer a form of "photic memory" to human cognitive brain function. (pnas.org)
  • The human brain is a true miracle of nature. (google.com)
  • Human memory is about to get supercharged. (newscientist.com)
  • Here we show that human white matter-derived brain CD8 + T cells can be subsetted into CD103 − CD69 + and CD103 + CD69 + T cells both with a phenotypic and transcription factor profile consistent with T RM cells. (nature.com)
  • We conclude that the human brain is surveilled by T RM cells, providing protection against neurotropic virus reactivation, whilst being under tight control of key immune checkpoint molecules. (nature.com)
  • We recently phenotyped human T cells acutely isolated from the post-mortem brain 14 . (nature.com)
  • We here test the hypothesis that the CD8 + T-cell compartment in the human brain harbors populations with T RM -cell features and demonstrate the existence of two CD69 + subsets, distinguished by the surface presence of CD103. (nature.com)
  • He became fascinated by studies of the human brain as a Ph.D. student in computer science, and has pioneered new approaches for applying techniques from artificial intelligence to understand brain activity. (youtube.com)
  • Dr. Itzhak Fried, a professor of neurosurgery at the University of California, Los Angeles, has been exploring the mechanisms of memory at the single-neuron level in the human brain. (nih.gov)
  • Working memory is a fundamental building block of the human thought process, he explained. (drugs.com)
  • These are evolutionarily the most advanced parts of the human brain," he noted. (drugs.com)
  • This book discusses in plain terms the structure, function, and development of the human brain. (ascd.org)
  • The science has never been done before, and raises ethical questions about whether the human mind should be manipulated in the name of staving off war injuries or managing the aging brain. (newsmax.com)
  • It can fine tune the human brain, biologically and neurologically enhancing its performance and protecting it from some of the ravages of time. (go.com)
  • And only the "musicians" showed measurable signs of overcoming the tendency of the human brain to gradually slow down the time it takes to receive, process and act upon an auditory signal. (go.com)
  • The way human memory works is one of the great unsolved mysteries," said Andres Lozano, chairman of neurosurgery at the University of Toronto. (washingtonpost.com)
  • ask whether Google's famously accurate and fast PageRank algorithm for internet search might behave similarly to the brain's algorithm - whatever that might be - for searching human memory. (scienceblogs.com)
  • One way of graphing the associative structure of human memory is simply to ask human subjects to generate words which are strongly associated with other words. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Averaged across many subjects, the frequency of those generated words reflects the "associate frequency" of the words in human memory. (scienceblogs.com)
  • How well does PageRank account for human memory? (scienceblogs.com)
  • Griffiths et al note one critical difference between PageRank and the "associate frequency" measure of human memory: the latter doesn't account for the fact that some cues are strongly associated with more words than others. (scienceblogs.com)
  • No one is suggesting that Larry Page has discovered the secret to the organization of human memory. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Working memory is a bottleneck for the human brain´s capacity to process information. (medgadget.com)
  • To find out, Inman and his colleagues at Emory University, in Atlanta-including neurosurgeon Jon Willie and memory researcher Joseph Manns -recruited 14 patients with epilepsy who already had electrodes placed in their brains to detect and monitor seizures. (ieee.org)
  • This herbal supplement helps you in enhancing your memory power and brain health by providing all the vital nutrients that are essential for maintaining brain health. (google.com)
  • My Brain Injury Made Me Forget, but My Health Is Not an Issue! (nationalreview.com)
  • In other words, if she's telling the FBI the truth (as she's bound by law to do), then her health issues were so profound that she not only dramatically curtailed her work, but she has literal gaps in her memory. (nationalreview.com)
  • If you have been injured in the line of duty and you can't remember your family, we want to be able to restore those kinds of functions,' DARPA program manager Justin Sanchez said this week at a conference in the US capital convened by the Center for Brain Health at the University of Texas. (newsmax.com)
  • Overall, fatty fish is an excellent choice for brain health. (healthline.com)
  • Blueberries provide numerous health benefits , including some that are specifically for your brain. (healthline.com)
  • We all want to make better food choices to promote brain health. (cjnews.com)
  • What's interesting is that the nutritional profile of many of the recipes in The Brain Boosting Die t are beneficial for general health as well. (cjnews.com)
  • The brain scans showed that different areas of the brain were active when the women remembered the facial pairs, compared with when the women suppressed those memories. (webmd.com)
  • The antioxidants that in berries will help your brain to function properly and promoting your mood and eating berries will also help the feeling to produce good enzymes in the body that will pick up your spirits. (google.com)
  • A cup of green tea a day can improve and strengthen your memory and ease your mood, not to mention its ability to protect yourself from cancer. (google.com)
  • Eating walnuts can also help reduce cholesterol and the circulation, which will also increase the mood, will be more oxygen to improve the brain. (google.com)
  • This process is dysregulated, however, in PTSD, where overgeneralized and exaggerated fear responses cause symptoms including nightmares or unwanted memories of the trauma, avoidance of situations that trigger memories of the trauma, heightened reactions, anxiety, and depressed mood. (eurekalert.org)
  • Music has been shown to be a powerful memory retention tool and good for the brain overall and singing can boost your mood as well . (lifehacker.com.au)
  • Some of the images were identical to ones they'd seen before, some were brand-new and others were similar to ones they'd seen earlier - we may have changed the color or the size," said Michael Yassa, director of UCI's Center for the Neurobiology of Learning & Memory and the study's senior author. (breitbart.com)
  • Violante and team used TCAS to target two brain regions - the middle frontal gyrus and the inferior parietal lobule - which are known to be involved in working memory. (psychcentral.com)
  • It is not something that can happen immediately, although with proper training brain plasticity can occur much faster. (google.com)
  • Depue and colleagues acknowledge that memory suppression and the manipulation of memory have been very controversial topics in psychology for the last century. (webmd.com)
  • Sekeres and her colleagues looked at 12 medulloblastoma survivors and one survivor of an ependymoma, another childhood brain tumor. (hon.ch)