Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.
Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Remembrance of information from 3 or more years previously.
Type of declarative memory, consisting of personal memory in contrast to general knowledge.
The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.
The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.
Pathologic partial or complete loss of the ability to recall past experiences (AMNESIA, RETROGRADE) or to form new memories (AMNESIA, ANTEROGRADE). This condition may be of organic or psychologic origin. Organic forms of amnesia are usually associated with dysfunction of the DIENCEPHALON or HIPPOCAMPUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-7)
Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
The active mental process of keeping out and ejecting, banishing from consciousness, ideas or impulses that are unacceptable to it.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Loss of the ability to recall information that had been previously encoded in memory prior to a specified or approximate point in time. This process may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organic forms may be associated with CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; and a wide variety of other conditions that impair cerebral function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-9)
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
Learning in which the subject must respond with one word or syllable when presented with another word or syllable.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.
The life of a person written by himself or herself. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Loss of the ability to form new memories beyond a certain point in time. This condition may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organically induced anterograde amnesia may follow CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SEIZURES; ANOXIA; and other conditions which adversely affect neural structures associated with memory formation (e.g., the HIPPOCAMPUS; FORNIX (BRAIN); MAMMILLARY BODIES; and ANTERIOR THALAMIC NUCLEI). (From Memory 1997 Jan-Mar;5(1-2):49-71)
An alkaloid from SOLANACEAE, especially DATURA and SCOPOLIA. Scopolamine and its quaternary derivatives act as antimuscarinics like ATROPINE, but may have more central nervous system effects. Among the many uses are as an anesthetic premedication, in URINARY INCONTINENCE, in MOTION SICKNESS, as an antispasmodic, and as a mydriatic and cycloplegic.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.
Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
A functional relationship between psychological phenomena of such nature that the presence of one tends to evoke the other; also, the process by which such a relationship is established.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.
The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The relationships between symbols and their meanings.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An antibiotic isolated from various Streptomyces species. It interferes with protein and DNA synthesis by inhibiting peptidyl transferase or the 80S ribosome system.
Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.
Learning to make a series of responses in exact order.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Cerebral cortex region on the medial aspect of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS, immediately caudal to the OLFACTORY CORTEX of the uncus. The entorhinal cortex is the origin of the major neural fiber system afferent to the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the so-called PERFORANT PATHWAY.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
Differential response to different stimuli.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
A new pattern of perceptual or ideational material derived from past experience.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Drugs used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly to prevent the cognitive deficits associated with dementias. These drugs act by a variety of mechanisms. While no potent nootropic drugs have yet been accepted for general use, several are being actively investigated.
The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.
One of four subsections of the hippocampus described by Lorente de No, located furthest from the DENTATE GYRUS.
Brain waves characterized by a frequency of 4-7 Hz, usually observed in the temporal lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed and sleepy.
A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.
Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
Lists of words to which individuals are asked to respond ascertaining the conceptual meaning held by the individual.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.
A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA2 FIELD and the DENTATE GYRUS.
A type of procedural memory manifested as a change in the ability to identify an item as a result of a previous encounter with the item or stimuli.
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
Devices capable of receiving data, retaining data for an indefinite or finite period of time, and supplying data upon demand.
GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.
Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.
The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
A genus of dextrally coiled freshwater snails that includes some species of importance as intermediate hosts of parasitic flukes.
The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.
An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Performance of an act one or more times, with a view to its fixation or improvement; any performance of an act or behavior that leads to learning.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and shares biological activities with IL-2. IL-15 also can induce proliferation and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Simulation of symptoms of illness or injury with intent to deceive in order to obtain a goal, e.g., a claim of physical illness to avoid jury duty.
A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A form of meningitis caused by LYMPHOCYTIC CHORIOMENINGITIS VIRUS. MICE and other rodents serve as the natural hosts, and infection in humans usually occurs through inhalation or ingestion of infectious particles. Clinical manifestations include an influenza-like syndrome followed by stiff neck, alterations of mentation, ATAXIA, and incontinence. Maternal infections may result in fetal malformations and injury, including neonatal HYDROCEPHALUS, aqueductal stenosis, CHORIORETINITIS, and MICROCEPHALY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)
A prodromal phase of cognitive decline that may precede the emergence of ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other dementias. It may include impairment of cognition, such as impairments in language, visuospatial awareness, ATTENTION and MEMORY.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.
Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.
Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.
Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.
A neurosurgical procedure that removes the anterior TEMPORAL LOBE including the medial temporal structures of CEREBRAL CORTEX; AMYGDALA; HIPPOCAMPUS; and the adjacent PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS. This procedure is generally used for the treatment of intractable temporal epilepsy (EPILEPSY, TEMPORAL LOBE).
Heavily myelinated fiber bundle of the TELENCEPHALON projecting from the hippocampal formation to the HYPOTHALAMUS. Some authorities consider the fornix part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM. The fimbria starts as a flattened band of axons arising from the subiculum and HIPPOCAMPUS, which then thickens to form the fornix.
A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.
Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
A group of nerve cells in the SUBSTANTIA INNOMINATA that has wide projections to the NEOCORTEX and is rich in ACETYLCHOLINE and CHOLINE ACETYLTRANSFERASE. In PARKINSON DISEASE and ALZHEIMER DISEASE the nucleus undergoes degeneration.
An acquired cognitive disorder characterized by inattentiveness and the inability to form short term memories. This disorder is frequently associated with chronic ALCOHOLISM; but it may also result from dietary deficiencies; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NEOPLASMS; CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; ENCEPHALITIS; EPILEPSY; and other conditions. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1139)
Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Infections with bacteria of the genus LISTERIA.
Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.

Physiological characteristics of capacity constraints in working memory as revealed by functional MRI. (1/8569)

A fundamental characteristic of working memory is that its capacity to handle information is limited. While there have been many brain mapping studies of working memory, the physiological basis of its capacity limitation has not been explained. We identified characteristics of working memory capacity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in healthy subjects. Working memory capacity was studied using a parametric 'n-back' working memory task involving increasing cognitive load and ultimately decreasing task performance. Loci within dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) evinced exclusively an 'inverted-U' shaped neurophysiological response from lowest to highest load, consistent with a capacity-constrained response. Regions outside of DLPFC, in contrast, were more heterogeneous in response and often showed early plateau or continuously increasing responses, which did not reflect capacity constraints. However, sporadic loci, including in the premotor cortex, thalamus and superior parietal lobule, also demonstrated putative capacity-constrained responses, perhaps arising as an upstream effect of DLPFC limitations or as part of a broader network-wide capacity limitation. These results demonstrate that regionally specific nodes within the working memory network are capacity-constrained in the physiological domain, providing a missing link in current explorations of the capacity characteristics of working memory.  (+info)

Neural changes after operant conditioning of the aerial respiratory behavior in Lymnaea stagnalis. (2/8569)

In this study, we demonstrate neural changes that occurred during operant conditioning of the aerial respiratory behavior of Lymnaea stagnalis. Aerial respiration in Lymnaea occurs at the water interface and is achieved by opening and closing movements of its respiratory orifice, the pneumostome. This behavior is controlled by a central pattern generator (CPG), the neurons of which, as well as the motoneurons innervating the pneumostome, have previously been identified and their synaptic connections well characterized. The respiratory behavior was operantly conditioned by applying a mechanical stimulus to the open pneumostome whenever the animal attempted to breathe. This negative reinforcement to the open pneumostome resulted in its immediate closure and a significant reduction in the overall respiratory activity. Electrophysiological recordings from the isolated CNSs after operant conditioning showed that the spontaneous patterned respiratory activity of the CPG neurons was significantly reduced. This included reduced spontaneous activity of the CPG interneuron involved in pneumostome opening (input 3 interneuron) and a reduced frequency of spontaneous tonic activity of the CPG interneuron [right pedal dorsal 1 (RPeD1)]. The ability to trigger the patterned respiratory activity by electrical stimulation of RPeD1 was also significantly reduced after operant conditioning. This study therefore demonstrates significant changes within a CPG that are associated with changes in a rhythmic homeostatic behavior after operant conditioning.  (+info)

Differential spatial memory impairment after right temporal lobectomy demonstrated using temporal titration. (3/8569)

In this study a temporal titration method to explore the extent to which spatial memory is differentially impaired following right temporal lobectomy was employed. The spatial and non-spatial memory of 19 left and 19 right temporal lobectomy (TL) patients was compared with that of 16 normal controls. The subjects studied an array of 16 toy objects and were subsequently tested for object recall, object recognition and memory for the location of the objects. By systematically varying the retention intervals for each group, it was possible to match all three groups on object recall at sub-ceiling levels. When memory for the position of the objects was assessed at equivalent delays, the right TL group revealed disrupted spatial memory, compared with both left TL and control groups (P < 0.05). MRI was used to quantify the extent of temporal lobe resection in the two groups and a significant correlation between hippocampal removal and both recall of spatial location and object name recall in the right TL group only was shown. These data support the notion of a selective (but not exclusive) spatial memory impairment associated with right temporal lobe damage that is related to the integrity of the hippocampal functioning.  (+info)

Object location learning and non-spatial working memory of patients with Parkinson's disease may be preserved in "real life" situations. (4/8569)

The presence of a spatial memory deficit in Parkinson's disease (PD) is still a matter of discussion. Nineteen PD patients and 16 controls were given two spatial tests and a non-spatial task. First, the subject was led into a room containing 4 objects and had 10 s to memorize their location. After being led outside, the subject had to place icons representing the objects on a map of the room. Differences between the real and estimated locations were evaluated. Afterwards, the subject had to choose a map showing the correct arrangement of objects from 4 alternatives. Locations of some objects were changed before the second test. The subject had 10 s to detect these changes. One point was given for each change or its absence detected. In the non-spatial working memory task, 8 cards of different shapes were used. The subject had to select a different card each time while the cards were shuffled between choices. Errors consisted of selecting previously chosen cards. The means of the above measures for both groups were compared. Absence of any significant differences suggests that PD patients perform well in "real life" memory tests in contrast to similar computerized tests.  (+info)

The predictive value of changes in effective connectivity for human learning. (5/8569)

During learning, neural responses decrease over repeated exposure to identical stimuli. This repetition suppression is thought to reflect a progressive optimization of neuronal responses elicited by the task. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to study the neural basis of associative learning of visual objects and their locations. As expected, activation in specialized cortical areas decreased with time. However, with path analysis it was shown that, in parallel to this adaptation, increases in effective connectivity occurred between distinct cortical systems specialized for spatial and object processing. The time course of these plastic changes was highly correlated with individual learning performance, suggesting that interactions between brain areas underlie associative learning.  (+info)

Crossmodal associative memory representations in rodent orbitofrontal cortex. (6/8569)

Firing patterns of neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex (OF) were analyzed in rats trained to perform a task that encouraged incidental associations between distinct odors and the places where their occurrence was detected. Many of the neurons fired differentially when the animals were at a particular location or sampled particular odors. Furthermore, a substantial fraction of the cells exhibited odor-specific firing patterns prior to odor presentation, when the animal arrived at a location associated with that odor. These findings suggest that neurons in the OF encode cross-modal associations between odors and locations within long-term memory.  (+info)

Episodic memory in transient global amnesia: encoding, storage, or retrieval deficit? (7/8569)

OBJECTIVES: To assess episodic memory (especially anterograde amnesia) during the acute phase of transient global amnesia to differentiate an encoding, a storage, or a retrieval deficit. METHODS: In three patients, whose amnestic episode fulfilled all current criteria for transient global amnesia, a neuropsychological protocol was administered which included a word learning task derived from the Grober and Buschke's procedure. RESULTS: In one patient, the results suggested an encoding deficit, and in two others, a storage deficit. CONCLUSIONS: The encoding/storage impairment concerning anterograde amnesia documented in our patients stands in clear contrast with the impairment in retrieval which must underly the retrograde amnesia that also characterises transient global amnesia. This dissociation in turn favours the idea of a functional independence among the cognitive mechanisms that subserve episodic memory.  (+info)

Executive function in depression: the role of performance strategies in aiding depressed and non-depressed participants. (8/8569)

OBJECTIVES: Depression has been found to be associated with dysfunction in executive processes, whereas relatively automatic processes are thought to remain intact. Failure to generate or implement adequate performance strategies has been postulated in depressed participants. The present study investigated spontaneous strategy usage in depressed and control participants, and the effectiveness of providing a hint about performance strategies. METHODS: Unipolar depressed participants were compared with matched healthy controls on three tasks sensitive to executive function: memory for categorised words, response suppression, and multiple scheduling. Participants in each group were randomly allocated to strategy aid and no strategy aid conditions. Those in the strategy aid condition were given a hint about the use of an appropriate performance strategy for each task, in addition to the standard instructions given to those in the no strategy aid condition. RESULTS: Depressed participants performed worse than controls on each of the three tasks, and were found to use appropriate performance strategies less often. Provision of strategy hints increased the use of performance strategies in two of the three tasks, memory for categorised words, and response suppression, but did not significantly improve overall performance for either group. CONCLUSIONS: The findings were consistent with the view that depressed participants fail to use appropriate performance strategies spontaneously to the same extent as controls. However, provision of information alone does not seem to be an adequate means of enhancing performance. The role of performance strategies in cognitive impairment in depression is discussed, both in terms of initiating use of such strategies and carrying these out efficiently.  (+info)

Intermediate-term memory (ITM) is a stage of memory distinct from sensory memory, working memory/short-term memory, and long-term memory.[1][2] While sensory memory persists for several milliseconds, working memory persists for up to thirty seconds, and long-term memory persists from thirty minutes to the end of an individuals life, intermediate-term memory persists for about two to three hours.[3] This overlap in the durations of these memory processes indicates that they occur simultaneously, rather than sequentially. Indeed, intermediate-term facilitation can be produced in the absence of long-term facilitation.[4] However, the boundaries between these forms of memory are not clear-cut, and they can vary depending on the task.[5] Intermediate-term memory is thought to be supported by the parahippocampal cortex.[6] In 1993, Rosenzweig and colleagues demonstrated that, in rats conditioned with an aversive stimulus, percent avoidance of the stimulus (and, by implication, memory of the aversive ...
This study examined the development of declarative and procedural memory longitudinally in primary school-aged children. At present, although there is a general consensus that age-related improvements during this period can be found for declarative memory, there are conflicting data on the developmental trajectory of the procedural memory system. At Time 1 children aged around 5 years were presented with measures of declarative and procedural memory. The tasks were then administered 12 months later. Performance on the declarative memory task was found to improve at a faster rate in comparison to the procedural memory task. The findings of the study support the view that multiple memory systems reach functional maturity at different points in development ...
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Introduction. SOPHIE ELLIS WORKING MEMORY MODEL WHAT IS THE WORKING MEMORY MODEL? The working memory model was proposed by two men called Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch in 1974. This model was an alternative to Atkinson & Shiffrins multi-store memory model (1968) to show that short-term memory was actually a lot more complex than the MSM (multi-store model) had previously suggested. Although the MSM was extremely successful in terms of the amount of research it generated, it became apparent that there were a number of problems with their ideas concerning the characteristics of short-term memory. This is an improvement over the multi-store model of memory because it is more detailed, and therefore we can learn more about the stores of memory in the brain from it. The working model proposes an active, multi-component short-term memory store with each sub-system having its own role to play in learning, problem solving and concentration. more. Middle. It is helpful to think of it as ...
Long-term memory consolidation such as remote fear memory formation is thought to depend on the gradual transfer of memory traces from hippocampal to cortical structures in a periodic and sleep-dependent process, which may involve the function of clock genes (40). In this study, we analyzed cognitive processing in single and double null mouse mutants of the clock modulators SHARP1 and -2. We discovered that S1/2−/− mice display enhanced performance in cortex-dependent learning tasks, which is paralleled by elevated Igf2 expression and MAPK signaling in the ACx but not the Hi. Moreover, virally modulated IGF2 signaling in the ACC altered remote fear memory formation in WT mice. We conclude that elevated IGF2 expression in the ACx might activate MAPK signaling to enhance memory consolidation in cortex-dependent learning tasks in S1/2−/− mice. MAPK signaling has already been reported to be important for hippocampal memory formation in mice (12) and in long-term memory consolidation in ...
In cognitive psychology and neuroscience, spatial memory is the part of memory responsible for recording information about ones environment and spatial orientation. For example, a persons spatial memory is required in order to navigate around a familiar city, just as a rats spatial memory is needed to learn the location of food at the end of a maze. It is often argued that in both humans and animals, spatial memories are summarized as a cognitive map. Spatial memory has representations within working, short-term memory and long-term memory. Research indicates that there are specific areas of the brain associated with spatial memory. Many methods are used for measuring spatial memory in children, adults, and animals. Short-term memory (STM) can be described as a system allowing one to temporarily store and manage information that is necessary to complete complex cognitive tasks. Tasks which employ short-term memory include learning, reasoning, and comprehension. Spatial memory is a cognitive ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CASK and CaMKII function in the mushroom body α/ß neurons during Drosophila memory formation. T2 - CASK and CaMKII in memory. AU - Malik, Bilal R. AU - Gillespie, John M. AU - Hodge, James J L. PY - 2013/3/27. Y1 - 2013/3/27. N2 - CaMKII is a central molecule in mechanisms of synaptic plasticity and memory. A vital feature of CaMKII in plasticity is its ability to switch to a calcium (Ca2+) independent constitutively active state after autophosphorylation at threonine 287 (T287). A second pair of sites, T306 T307 in the calmodulin (CaM) binding region once autophosphorylated, prevent subsequent CaM binding and inactivates the kinase during synaptic plasticity and memory. Recently a synaptic molecule called CASK has been shown to control both sets of CaMKII autophosphorylation events and hence is well poised to be a key regulator of memory. We show deletion of full length CASK or just its CaMK-like and L27 domains disrupts middle-term memory (MTM) and long-term memory (LTM), ...
Course objectives. The main aim of the course is to broaden students knowledge regarding psychology of memory, organization of memory, its types and functions. The course objectives are to be accomplished by: 1. Introducing students into the field of psychology of memory (Process and Types of Memory), specialized terminology and key concept in the field.. 2. Improving learners understanding of what the neuroscience and psychology of memory can (and cant) tell us.. 3. Helping develop strategies that can be used by students to improve learning and memory.. -------------------. Course content. 1. Introduction: What is memory? 2. How do we make memories? Stages of memory/stages of processing: Encoding, Storage, Retrieval. 3. Organization of memory, forms of memory storage: Short-term memory, long-term memory, sensory memory. 4. The role of three main brain structure involved in memory formation and consolidation (hippocampus, amygdala, cerebellum). 5. Why do we forget? What is the role of ...
Course objectives. The main aim of the course is to broaden students knowledge regarding psychology of memory, organization of memory, its types and functions. The course objectives are to be accomplished by: 1. Introducing students into the field of psychology of memory (Process and Types of Memory), specialized terminology and key concept in the field.. 2. Improving learners understanding of what the neuroscience and psychology of memory can (and cant) tell us.. 3. Helping develop strategies that can be used by students to improve learning and memory.. -------------------. Course content. 1. Introduction: What is memory? 2. How do we make memories? Stages of memory/stages of processing: Encoding, Storage, Retrieval. 3. Organization of memory, forms of memory storage: Short-term memory, long-term memory, sensory memory. 4. The role of three main brain structure involved in memory formation and consolidation (hippocampus, amygdala, cerebellum). 5. Why do we forget? What is the role of ...
A memory system is provided that enhances the memory bandwidth available through a memory module. The memory system includes a memory controller and a memory module coupled to the memory controller. In the memory system, the memory controller is coupled to the memory module via at least two independent memory channels. In the memory system, the at least two independent memory channels are coupled to one or more memory hub devices of the memory module.
The hippocampus replays experiences during quiet rest periods, and this replay benefits subsequent memory. A critical open question is how memories are prioritized for this replay. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) pattern analysis to track item-level replay in the hippocampus during an awake rest period after participants studied 15 objects and completed a memory test. Objects that were remembered less well were replayed more during the subsequent rest period, suggesting a prioritization process in which weaker memories-memories most vulnerable to forgetting-are selected for replay. In a second session 12 hours later, more replay of an object during a rest period predicted better subsequent memory for that object. Replay predicted memory improvement across sessions only for participants who slept during that interval. Our results provide evidence that replay in the human hippocampus prioritizes weakly learned information, predicts subsequent memory performance, and relates to memory
The classic modal model of memory argues that short term memory (STM) serves as the primary gateway for the formation of long term memory (LTM) representations (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968). Over the years, though, this model has been disregarded by many because of various incompatible results. For example, one common interpretation of this model is that STM serves as an incubator that strengthens representations through repeated rehearsal so that they can be successfully transferred to LTM. However, several researchers have found that longer periods of retention and rehearsal in STM does not lead to better LTM representations (e.g. Craik Watkins, 1973). In this study, we took a different approach to test this model. Rather than conceptualizing STM as an incubator, we instead tested whether it serves as the gate that filters what information from the environment will ultimately be encoded into LTM. It is well known that individuals substantially and reliably vary in their STM capacity. ...
Memory consolidation requires a timely controlled interplay between the hippocampus, a brain region important for memory formation, and the cortex, a region recruited for memory storage. Here we show that memory consolidation is associated with specific epigenetic modifications on histone proteins that have a distinct dynamic in these brain areas. While in the hippocampus, histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) are rapidly and transiently activated after learning, in the cortex they are induced with delay but persist over time. When these histone PTMs are increased in vivo by transgenic intervention or intense training, they facilitate memory consolidation. Conversely, when they are pharmacologically blocked, memory consolidation is impaired. These histone PTMs are further associated with the expression of the immediate early gene zif268, a transcription factor that favours memory consolidation. These findings reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of histone marks during memory ...
A memory device including an array of memory cells and a method for copying information within the memory device. Each memory cell includes a first memory sub-cell and a second memory sub-cell. Each memory cell also includes a device that copies information from the first memory sub-cell into the second memory sub-cell. Each memory cell may include a static random access memory (SRAM) cell and may utilize tri-state inverters to make overwriting information easier and reduce power consumption. Each memory cell may also include a second copy device that allows information to be copied from the second memory sub-cell to the first memory sub-cell. The memory device may be provided in a register file of a microprocessor to copy information from an architectural branch register (ABR) file to a speculative branch register (SBR) file.
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Acquired memory impairment commonly occurs after acquired brain injury such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, seizure disorder and encephalitis and is one the defining features of progressive disorders, such as Alzheimers disease. There is a growing body of knowledge about the use of compensatory memory aids in the rehabilitation of memory disorders. This study investigated the effect of the systematic training of compensatory memory aids on everyday memory performance within a Memory Aids Clinic, a specialised outpatient clinic which supplied and trained the use of memory aids. A comparison was made between subjects with acquired memory disorders in a treatment group (n=63) and control group (n = 28) in a between subjects design. All subjects underwent a baseline session which was comprised of a neuropsychological assessment, clinical interview and goal setting session. Treatment subjects then underwent three training sessions, matching memory aids to goals, across a six week period. Training ...
During tactile perception, long-range intracortical top-down axonal projections are essential for processing sensory information. Whether these projections regulate sleep-dependent long-term memory consolidation is unknown. We altered top-down inputs from higher-order cortex to sensory cortex during sleep and examined the consolidation of memories acquired earlier during awake texture perception. Mice learned novel textures and consolidated them during sleep. Within the first hour of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, optogenetic inhibition of top-down projecting axons from secondary motor cortex (M2) to primary somatosensory cortex (S1) impaired sleep-dependent reactivation of S1 neurons and memory consolidation. In NREM sleep and sleep-deprivation states, closed-loop asynchronous or synchronous M2-S1 coactivation, respectively, reduced or prolonged memory retention. Top-down cortical information flow in NREM sleep is thus required for perceptual memory consolidation. ...
The shared memory systems should support parallelization at the computation (multi-core), communication (Network-on-Chip, NoC) and memory architecture levels to exploit the potential performance benefits. These parallel systems supporting shared memory abstraction both in the general purpose and application specific domains are confronting the critical issue of memory consistency. The memory consistency issue arises due to the unconstrained memory operations which leads to the unexpected behavior of shared memory systems. The memory consistency models enforce ordering constraints on the memory operations for the expected behavior of the shared memory systems. The intuitive Sequential Consistency (SC) model enforces strict ordering constraints on the memory operations and does not take advantage of the system optimizations both in the hardware and software. Alternatively, the relaxed memory consistency models relax the ordering constraints on the memory operations and exploit these optimizations ...
ubjective Cognitive Decline (SCD) or thinking your memory isnt as good as it should be, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) where you have short term memory issues, and, yes, any stage of Alzheimers disease (AD).. Why?. The Memory Caps may boost your memory by improving your brains chemicals, blood flow, and energy. This proprietary formula adds a heightened level of stress protection, brain regeneration, and mental strength. All of these taken together will revitalize, refresh, and renew your brain and maximize your memory. Beyond that, there is a new urgent reason to take them as well!. In the past, I have only prescribed Memory Caps to those people who were losing their memory. Like Sam from New York, who was diagnosed with a memory problem that could have become Alzheimers. He was moving beyond senior moments to where his memory loss was interfering with his life. The Memory Caps helped him.. State-of-the-Art Formula. The Memory Caps are based on my 20 years of clinical experience treating ...
ubjective Cognitive Decline (SCD) or thinking your memory isnt as good as it should be, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) where you have short term memory issues, and, yes, any stage of Alzheimers disease (AD).. Why?. The Memory Caps may boost your memory by improving your brains chemicals, blood flow, and energy. This proprietary formula adds a heightened level of stress protection, brain regeneration, and mental strength. All of these taken together will revitalize, refresh, and renew your brain and maximize your memory. Beyond that, there is a new urgent reason to take them as well!. In the past, I have only prescribed Memory Caps to those people who were losing their memory. Like Sam from New York, who was diagnosed with a memory problem that could have become Alzheimers. He was moving beyond senior moments to where his memory loss was interfering with his life. The Memory Caps helped him.. State-of-the-Art Formula. The Memory Caps are based on my 20 years of clinical experience treating ...
View Notes - 07 - LTM - encoding and retreival from episodic memory from PYSC 405 at South Carolina. 1 Long Term Long Term Memory (LTM) Memory (LTM) Some questions Some questions Different Kinds of
Long term memory consists of anything you remember that happened more than a few minutes ago. Long term memories can last for days or even years.
Old and recent memories are retrieved differently. For the very first time we were able to show that the retrieval of old and recent memories are supported by distinct brain networks, Prof. Dr. Magdalena Sauvage reports. The CA3 region, believed to be the place of memory storage in the hippocampus, no longer plays a role when we remember very old memories. Rather, the involvement of the CA1 region persists and the cortical areas adjacent to the hippocampus become involved. The reason for the differential involvement of the hippocampal subregions could lie in the mechanisms supported by CA3, explains Prof. Sauvage: In CA3, memories can be retrieved on the basis of single features of an original memory, which are used as cues. Since the memory for single features degrades over time, we speculate that they might ultimately be of no more use as cues, hence retrieving memory would then essentially rely on CA1 and other processes taking place in the parahippocampal region of the brain. ...
Computer - Memory Units - Memory unit is the amount of data that can be stored in the storage unit. 6. They are the data and the set of instructions to execute a program. The memory hierarchy design in a computer system mainly includes different storage devices. The flash memory is among the special types of memory that can be erased and programmed with a block of data. When used by itself, the term RAM refers to read and write memory; that is, you can both write data into RAM and read data This article is about the Computer Memory.In this article, we are going to study about the types of Computer Memory.We will first define Memory and describe its Types and will also discuss Primary memory and its types (SRAM and DRAM), briefly learn about ROM and its types (PROM, EPROM, and EEPROM). The flash memory keeps its data even with no power at all. In a computer, all the programs are stored in hard disk drive. Every computer system contains two kinds of memory out of which one is primary and the other ...
CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): Modern architectures implement relaxed memory models which may reorder memory operations or execute them non-atomically. Special instructions called memory fences are provided, allowing control of this behavior. To implement a concurrent algorithm for a modern architecture, the programmer is forced to manually reason about subtle relaxed behaviors and figure out ways to control these behaviors by adding fences to the program. Not only is this process time consuming and error-prone, but it has to be repeated every time the implementation is ported to a different architecture. In this paper, we present the first scalable framework for handling real-world concurrent algorithms running on relaxed architectures. Given a concurrent C program, a safety specification, and a description of the memory model, our framework tests the program on the memory model to expose violations of the specification, and synthesizes a set of necessary
The PC Guide , Systems and Components Reference Guide , System Memory , Memory Errors, Detection and Correction ]. False Parity Memory (a.k.a. Logic Parity). Parity memory was replaced by non-parity memory as a cost-saving measure. However, the penny pinchers responsible for this had a problem--the large number of installed systems that had no way to turn off parity checking. So they came up with a solution--false parity memory. It is also called logic parity or parity generator memory--fancier names for the same crapola.. Regular parity checking works by storing a parity bit when a byte of data is written to memory, and then using it for error detection when the byte is read from memory. False parity memory replaces all the extra parity bits on a memory module with a special circuit. This circuit generates the correct parity bit each time any memory byte is read. So it is generating the bit at read time, instead of write time. The result is that a parity error will never occur--it ...
Episodic memories are established and maintained by close interplay between hippocampus and other cortical regions, but degradation of a fronto-striatal network has been suggested to be a driving force of memory decline in aging. We wanted to directly address how changes in hippocampal-cortical versus striatal-cortical networks over time impact episodic memory with age. We followed 119 healthy participants (20-83 years) for 3.5 years with repeated tests of episodic verbal memory and magnetic resonance imaging for quantification of functional and structural connectivity and regional brain atrophy. While hippocampal-cortical functional connectivity predicted memory change in young, changes in cortico-striatal functional connectivity were related to change in recall in older adults. Within each age group, effects of functional and structural connectivity were anatomically closely aligned. Interestingly, the relationship between functional connectivity and memory was strongest in the age ranges ...
The ability to learn and to establish new memories is essential to our daily existence and identity; enabling us to navigate through the world. A new study by researchers at the Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital (The Neuro), McGill University and University of California, Los Angeles has captured an image for the first time of a mechanism, specifically protein translation, which underlies long-term memory formation. The finding provides the first visual evidence that when a new memory is formed new proteins are made locally at the synapse - the connection between nerve cells - increasing the strength of the synaptic connection and reinforcing the memory. The study published in Science, is important for understanding how memory traces are created and the ability to monitor it in real time will allow a detailed understanding of how memories are formed.. When considering what might be going on in the brain at a molecular level two essential properties of memory need to be taken into ...
Long -term Memory is often divided into two further main types: explicit (or declarative) memory and implicit (or procedural) memory.
storage,. Memory above the first megabyte of address space in an IBM PC with an 80286 or later processor. Extended memory is not directly available in real mode, only through EMS, UMB, XMS, or HMA; only applications executing in protected mode can use extended memory directly. In this case, the extended memory is provided by a supervising protected-mode operating system such as Microsoft Windows. The processor makes this memory available through a system of global descriptor tables and local descriptor tables. The memory is protected in the sense that memory assigned a local descriptor cannot be accessed by another program without causing a hardware trap. This prevents programs running in protected mode from interfering with each others memory. A protected-mode operating system such as Windows can also run real-mode programs and provide expanded memory to them. DOS Protected Mode Interface is Microsofts prescribed method for an MS-DOS program to access extended memory under a multitasking ...
The main finding of this study is that CB1R signaling critically modulates memory reconsolidation processes necessary for subsequent drug context-induced cocaine-seeking behavior in an instrumental model of drug relapse. Furthermore, memory retrieval induces CB1R-dependent changes in IEG expression, glutamate receptor subunit phosphorylation, and excitatory synaptic transmission in the BLA during memory reconsolidation.. Systemic CB1R antagonism during cocaine-memory reconsolidation (i.e., immediately after memory retrieval) reduced drug context-induced cocaine-seeking behavior 3 d later, relative to VEH (Fig. 1). The CB1R antagonist, AM251 does not alter inhibitory avoidance (Gobira et al., 2013) or grooming behaviors (Hodge et al., 2008) at similar doses, suggesting it is not aversive. Furthermore, AM251 alone did not alter the expression of drug-seeking behavior despite its long half-life (i.e., 22 h; McLaughlin et al., 2003; Fig. 2). These observations suggest that CB1R signaling is ...
Whereas other studies on the molecular processes underlying reconsolidation have mainly focused on consolidated memories a long time (days to weeks) after training (Nader et al., 2000; Abel and Lattal, 2001; Milekic and Alberini, 2002), here we investigated reconsolidation processes in an earlier time window (6-24 h) after acquisition. In this earlier time window of consolidated memory, we identified phase-dependent differences in the requirement for protein synthesis and PKA activity for memory reconsolidation after retrieval. Our study shows that translation-dependent processes are required for reconsolidation at both 6 and 24 h. This supports the notion that translation-dependent processes are critical for reconsolidation independently of the time of retrieval, at least within the time window investigated here. However, this is not the case for the function of PKA in reconsolidation in the same time window. Our direct measurements show that memory retrieval at 6 h after training, but not at ...
P>It has been postulated that memory consolidation process requires post-learning molecular changes that will support long-term experiences. In the present study, we assessed with in vivo microdialysis and capillary electrophoresis whether such changes involve the release of neurotransmitters at post-acquisition stages. Using conditioned taste aversion paradigm we observed spontaneous off-line (i.e. in absence of stimulation) dopamine and glutamate reactivation within the insular cortex about 45 min after the stimuli association. These increments did not appear in control groups that were unable to acquire the task, and it seems to be dependent on amygdala activity since its reversible inactivation by tetrodotoxin impaired cortical off-line release of both neurotransmitters and memory consolidation. In addition, blockade of dopaminergic D1 and/or NMDA receptors before the off-line activity impaired long- but not short-term memory. These results suggest that off-line extracellular increments of ...
The present fMRI experiment employed associative recognition to investigate the relationships between age and encoding-related negative subsequent memory effects and task-negative effects. Young, middle-aged and older adults (total n=136) were scanned while they made relational judgments on visually presented word pairs. In a later memory test, the participants made associative recognition judgments on studied, rearranged (items studied on different trials) and new pairs. Several regions, mostly localized to the default mode network, demonstrated negative subsequent memory effects in an across age-group analysis. All but one of these regions also demonstrated task-negative effects, although there was no correlation between the size of the respective effects. Whereas negative subsequent memory effects demonstrated a graded attenuation with age, task-negative effects declined markedly between the young and the middle-aged group, but showed no further reduction in the older group. Negative ...
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Medial temporal lobe structures such as the hippocampus have been shown to play a critical role in mnemonic processes, with additional recruitment of the amygdala when memories contain emotional content. Thus far, studies that have examined the relationship between amygdala activity and memory have typically relied on emotional content of the kind that is rarely encountered in day-to-day interactions. The present event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigates whether amygdala activity supports emotional memory during the more subtle social interactions that punctuate everyday life. Across four training sessions, subjects learned common first names for unfamiliar faces in the presence or absence of additional contextual information that was positive, negative, and neutral in valence (e.g., Emily helps the homeless, Bob is a deadbeat dad, Eric likes carrots). During scanning, subjects performed a yes/no recognition memory test on studied and novel faces. Results ...
A compact nonvolatile programmable memory cell. The memory cell has a floating gate (118), control gate (123), drain (108), and source regions (112). The memory cell is an electrically erasable programmable read only memory (EEPROM) cell or a Flash memory cell. Data may be stored the memory cell of the present invention for the required lifetime of the memory cell usage, and data is retained even when power is removed. The memory cell of the present invention has a substantially transverse or vertical channel (140), relative to a surface of a substrate. The memory may be used to create very high-density memory arrays.
The GluN2B subunit of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor shows age-related declines in expression across the frontal cortex and hippocampus. This decline is strongly correlated to age-related memory declines. This study was designed to determine if increasing GluN2B subunit expression in the frontal lobe or hippocampus would improve memory in aged mice. Mice were injected bilaterally with either the GluN2B vector, containing cDNA specific for the GluN2B subunit and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP); a control vector or vehicle. Spatial memory, cognitive flexibility, and associative memory were assessed using the Morris water maze. Aged mice, with increased GluN2B subunit expression, exhibited improved long-term spatial memory, comparable to young mice. However, memory was rescued on different days in the Morris water maze; early for hippocampal GluN2B subunit enrichment and later for the frontal lobe. A higher concentration of the GluN2B antagonist, Ro 25-6981, was required to ...
Memory pressure is caused when someone needs memory. Usually, that memory is simply any free memory. At times, more specialized memory is needed and you can see pressure when there is lots of free memory of other kinds. A few examples of these special needs would be DMA-capable memory, physical contiguity for large pages, low memory, and memory on one NUMA node. A common mistake is assuming that having any free memory means that there is no pressure. ...
Over a century of behavioral research has shown that stress can exert both positive and negative effects on memory. We have explored the idea that the complex effects of stress on learning and memory can be characterized by hormetic- and non-hormetic dose-response functions, in which stress may either stimulate or impair brain memory mechanisms, depending, in part, on the timing and duration of the stress experience. Extensive work has shown that acute stress or corticosteroid administration has a biphasic effect specifically on hippocampus-dependent learning, memory and synaptic plasticity. We suggest that brief stress exerts a rapid enhancement of memory-related functions of the hippocampus, produced by the amygdala-induced activation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity in conjunction with excitatory effects of neuromodulators, including glucocorticoids, norepinephrine, corticotropin-releasing hormone, acetylcholine and dopamine. We propose that the rapid stress-induced activation of the amygdala
The nature of specific memories and memory more generally is not well understood beyond the domain of memory researchers. However recent findings from memory research has important implications for the use of memory as evidence, not only in the case of the eyewitness testimony, but also for how jurors, barristers, and judges weight evidence. For example, in the legal arena alone, erroneous beliefs about memory have led to unsafe convictions - Innocence Project, USA.. These misunderstandings of memory can also be damaging, where in cases of rape, for example, memory as the major form of evidence is often undervalued due to circumstances surrounding the rape incident (only 18% of reported rapes result in a prosecution, and less than 7% in a conviction; Ministry of Justice, Home Office and National Office of Statistics 2013: 7).. The mission of this Research Centre is to produce research that has mutual benefit to both scientific and forensic inquiry. We, as scientists have been able to progress ...
The root cause and the appropriate solution for this error depends on your workload. You might have to try each of the following methods, in the following order, until the error is resolved. Before you continue to another method, reverse any changes that you made to spark-defaults.conf in the preceding section.. Increase memory overhead. Memory overhead is the amount of off-heap memory allocated to each executor. By default, memory overhead is set to either 10% of executor memory or 384, whichever is higher. Memory overhead is used for Java NIO direct buffers, thread stacks, shared native libraries, or memory mapped files.. Consider making gradual increases in memory overhead, up to 25%. Be sure that the sum of the driver or executor memory plus the driver or executor memory overhead is always less than the value of yarn.nodemanager.resource.memory-mb for your Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instance type:. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Imaging systems level consolidation of novel associate memories. T2 - A longitudinal neuroimaging study. AU - Smith, Jason F.. AU - Alexander, Gene E.. AU - Chen, Kewei. AU - Husain, Fatima T. AU - Kim, Jieun. AU - Pajor, Nathan. AU - Horwitz, Barry. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Previously, a standard theory of systems level memory consolidation was developed to describe how memory recall becomes independent of themedial temporal memory system. More recently, an extended consolidation theory was proposed that predicts seven changes in regional neural activity and inter-regional functional connectivity. Using longitudinal event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging of an associate memory task, we simultaneously tested all predictions and additionally tested for consolidation-related changes in recall of associate memories at a sub-trial temporal resolution, analyzing cue, delay and target periods of each trial separately. Results consistent with the theoretical predictions ...
Autobiographical memory forms a network of memories about personal experiences that defines and supports well-being and effective functioning of the self in various ways. During the last three decades, there have been two characteristics of autobiographical memory that have received special interest regarding their role in psychological well-being and psychopathology, namely memory specificity and memory coherence. Memory specificity refers to the extent to which retrieved autobiographical memories are specific (i.e., memories about a particular experience that happened on a particular day). Difficulty retrieving specific memories interferes with effective functioning of the self and is related to depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Memory coherence refers to the narrative expression of the overall structure of autobiographical memories. It has likewise been related to psychological well-being and the occurrence of psychopathology. Research on memory specificity and memory coherence has
Hi, I am a friendly script caring about memory consumption in GCC. Please contact [email protected] if something is going wrong. Comparing memory consumption on compilation of combine.i, insn-attrtab.i, and generate-3.4.ii I got: comparing combine.c compilation at -O0 level: Overall memory needed: 25276k Peak memory use before GGC: 9567k Peak memory use after GGC: 8914k Maximum of released memory in single GGC run: 2648k Garbage: 40068k Leak: 6741k Overhead: 5738k GGC runs: 313 comparing combine.c compilation at -O1 level: Overall memory needed: 26900k Peak memory use before GGC: 17438k Peak memory use after GGC: 17259k Maximum of released memory in single GGC run: 2318k Garbage: 61617k Leak: 6881k Overhead: 7268k GGC runs: 388 comparing combine.c compilation at -O2 level: Amount of memory still referenced at the end of compilation increased from 6966k to 6974k, overall 0.12% Overall memory needed: 26900k Peak memory use before GGC: 17441k Peak memory use after GGC: 17259k Maximum of released memory in ...
Episodic memory exercises such as reminiscing and storytelling have been shown to provide therapeutic benefits for older adults by prolonging their ability to lead an independent lifestyle. In this paper, we describe a mobile reminiscence tool called Memory Karaoke, which facilitates episodic memory exercise through contextualized storytelling of meaningful experiences by using contextual cues such as location, time, and photos. We present results from two studies we conducted with Memory Karaoke to explore which contextual cues contribute to best exercising a persons episodic memory. Our findings suggest that while viewing photos do exercise episodic memory to some extent, additional contextual cues (e.g. location and time) can solicit a greater amount of episodic memory exercise. This suggests that Memory Karaokes selective capture process and its ability to contextualize memories while users retell stories are two effective features which help it to support episodic memory use. These ...
Causes of Short Term Memory Loss. The causes of short term memory loss can be quite varied, ranging from neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimers disease, to Vitamin B-12 deficiency and certain prescription medications. See this list of memory loss causes for more detail.. Free Brain Age Games Challenge a friend. Hello . Play game. This game will give your short term memory a good developmental workout. In this exercise you need to click on the buckyballs that you see light up in the order that they appear. Six is a good score in this game but it is infinitely long, a seven year old autistic boy was able to …. Short Term memory. classic memory game with 4 different levels. Brain games math games puzzle games Word Games Crosswords Sudoku Memory Games Downloads. Restart Fullscreen donate short term Memory. Play. Favorite. Favorite. Click to add this game to your favorites. share. rate. Current …. ...
Spatial memory deficits have been well documented in older adults and may serve as an early indicator of mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimers disease in some individuals. Pattern separation is a critical mechanism for reducing potential interference among similar memory representations to enhance memory accuracy. A small but growing literature indicates that spatial pattern separation may become less efficient as a result of normal aging, possibly due to age-related changes in subregions of the hippocampus. This decreased efficiency in spatial pattern separation may be a critical processing deficit that could be a contributing factor to spatial memory deficits and episodic memory impairment associated with aging. The present paper will review recently published studies in humans, nonhuman primates, and rodents that have examined age-related changes in spatial pattern separation. The potential basic science, translational, and clinical implications from these studies are discussed to illustrate the
One current challenge in cognitive training is to create a training regime that benefits multiple cognitive domains, including episodic memory, without relying on a large battery of tasks, which can be time-consuming and difficult to learn. By giving careful consideration to the neural correlates underlying episodic and working memory, we devised a computerized working memory training task in which neurologically healthy participants were required to monitor and detect repetitions in two streams of spatial information (spatial location and scene identity) presented simultaneously (i.e. a dual n-back paradigm). Participants episodic memory abilities were assessed before and after training using two object and scene recognition memory tasks incorporating memory confidence judgments. Furthermore, to determine the generalizability of the effects of training, we also assessed fluid intelligence using a matrix reasoning task. By examining the difference between pre- and post-training performance (i.e. gain
TY - JOUR. T1 - Indirect effects of elevated body mass index on memory performance through altered cerebral metabolite concentrations. AU - Gonzales, Mitzi M.. AU - Tarumi, Takashi. AU - Eagan, Danielle E.. AU - Tanaka, Hirofumi. AU - Vaghasia, Miral. AU - Haley, Andreana P.. PY - 2012/9/1. Y1 - 2012/9/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE: Elevated body mass index (BMI) at midlife is associated with increased risk of cognitive decline in later life. The goal of the current study was to assess mechanisms of early brain vulnerability by examining if higher BMI at midlife affects current cognitive performance through alterations in cerebral neurochemistry. METHODS: Fifty-five participants, aged 40 to 60 years, underwent neuropsychological testing, health screen, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy examining N-acetylaspartate, creatine (Cr), myo-inositol (mI), choline, and glutamate concentrations in occipitoparietal gray matter. Concentrations of N-acetylaspartate, choline, mI, and glutamate were calculated as ...
0010]A memory device comprising a memory cell and dual access devices is described in which the memory cell has a first electrode, a second electrode and a memory element between the first and second electrodes. The memory cell comprises a phase change memory cell in embodiments described herein. The phase change material in the memory element in the memory cell has an amorphous phase and a crystalline phase. In the reset state of the memory cell, substantially all of an active region of the memory element is in the amorphous phase. In the set state at least a substantial portion of the active region of the memory element is in the crysatlline phase. In multilevel cells, there may be more than one set state in which various amounts of the active region are in the crystalline state. The memory device includes a first word line conductor and a second word line conductor, and first and second access devices responsive to voltages on the first and second word line conductors, respectively. The ...
0072] FIG. 7 is a flow diagram of exemplary operations that may be performed by the memory controller during operations for determining an operational write latency of a memory device. The operations may begin in step 710 by retrieving memory device parameters such as WL, BL, and latency window. The foregoing information may be retrieved from the memory device, from a device utilized for the retention of such information and used in conjunction with one or more memory devices (e.g. the EEPROM device on a memory card or DIMM), etc. In step 720, the memory controller may set the write length WL to WL-M/2 and the burst length BL to BL+2*M, wherein M is the number of clock cycles within the latency window of the memory device. At step 730, the memory controller may perform a write operation. Then in step 740, the memory controller may read back the written data. In step 750, the memory controller may determine whether the data read from the memory device is the data intended to be written. If not, ...
The subject invention provides systems and methods that facilitate formation of semiconductor memory devices comprising memory cells with one or more injecting bilayer electrodes. Memory arrays generally comprise bit cells that have two discrete components; a memory element and a selection element, such as, for example, a diode. The invention increases the efficiency of a memory device by forming memory cells with selection diodes comprising a bilayer electrode. Memory cells are provided comprising bilayer cathodes and/or bilayer anodes that facilitate a significant improvement in charge injection into the diode layers of memory cells. The increased charge (e.g. electrons or holes) density in the diode layers of the selected memory cells results in improved memory cell switching times and lowers the voltage required for the memory cell to operate, thereby, creating a more efficient memory cell.
An SDRAM memory chip device comprises a non-volatile memory controller for operating a non-volatile memory, e.g., a NAND-flash, and a FIFO memory buffer. The FIFO memory buffer serves to operate background store and load operations between a FIFO buffer array and the non-volatile memory, while a host system such as a CPU exchanges data with the SDRAM work memory. The SDRAM memory chip device, therefore, has at least two additional pins as compared with conventional SDRAM standard for generating a set of additional commands. These commands are employed by the FIFO memory buffer to manage the data transfer between the FIFO buffer and each of the non-volatile memory and the volatile SDRAM memory. Two further pins reflecting the flash memory status provide appropriate issuance of load or store signals by the host system.
An SDRAM memory chip device comprises a non-volatile memory controller for operating a non-volatile memory, e.g., a NAND-flash, and a FIFO memory buffer. The FIFO memory buffer serves to operate background store and load operations between a FIFO buffer array and the non-volatile memory, while a host system such as a CPU exchanges data with the SDRAM work memory. The SDRAM memory chip device, therefore, has at least two additional pins as compared with conventional SDRAM standard for generating a set of additional commands. These commands are employed by the FIFO memory buffer to manage the data transfer between the FIFO buffer and each of the non-volatile memory and the volatile SDRAM memory. Two further pins reflecting the flash memory status provide appropriate issuance of load or store signals by the host system.
The goal of this dissertation was to investigate the memory retention effects of methylene blue (MB) in both appetitive and aversive memory tasks in rats. Methylene blue is a metabolic enhancer that improves memory retention in a variety of tasks including inhibitory avoidance, object recognition, spatial memory, and extinction of Pavlovian fear conditioning. Low dose MB has no side effects on behavior. MB works as a metabolic enhancer by increasing brain cytochrome oxidase activity and oxygen consumption. The first experiment was conducted to examine the effects of MB treatment in normal rats in the hole board spatial memory task, to determine if it could enhance memory of discrimination learning of rewarded versus non-rewarded trials. Subjects treated with MB discriminated better between rewarded and non-rewarded trials as compared to control subjects, indicated by a greater number of correct responses on rewarded trials than non-rewarded trials. The second experiment was conducted to ...
Memory Loss: When Should You Seek Help For Yourself or a Loved One.. Now that the holidays have passed, did you notice a visiting loved one who seemed to be having trouble with their memory?. Everyone forgets things at some time. How often have you misplaced your car keys or forgotten the name of a person you just met?. Some degree of memory problems, as well as a modest decline in other thinking skills, is a fairly common part of aging.. Theres a difference, however, between normal changes in memory and the type of memory loss associated with Alzheimers disease and related disorders.. Some memory problems are the result of treatable conditions. If youre experiencing memory problems, talk to your doctor to get a timely diagnosis and appropriate care.. Memory loss and aging. Normal age-related memory loss doesnt prevent you from living a full and productive life.. For example, you may forget a persons name, but recall it later in the day. You might misplace your glasses occasionally. Or ...
Episodic memory is a core feature of Alzheimers disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Impaired episodic memory in AD results from the dysfunction of an integrated network and involves both gray and white matter pathologies. We explored the neural correlates of episodic memory in AD, MCI and healthy aging by correlating a measure of episodic memory with hippocampal volume and fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of the cingulum and fornix. Episodic memory was associated with hippocampal volume and MD of the cingulum and fornix. In contrast, there were fewer significant associations between episodic memory and FA. These findings support a relationship between episodic memory and hippocampal circuitry, and suggest that MD is a more sensitive marker of decreased white matter integrity in the study of AD and MCI than FA. Furthermore, MD was significantly associated with hippocampal volume, indicating that white matter pathology is not completely independent of gray matter
However, cognitive enhancement remains to be controversial, especially with the notion of enhancer drugs becoming available for general consumption. That is because there are both short-term effects on cognition (delirium), and the potential for long-lasting changes in memory, attention and cognition. Retrieval would be initiated by a query or a prompt signal from a current set of sensory inputs or patterns. Mazes - Perfect for cognition and memory studies. Long-term memory can be broken into smaller groups, declarative memory and procedural memory. J Zhejiang Univ Sci. Memory & Cognition covers human memory and learning, conceptual processes, psycholinguistics, problem solving, thinking, decision making, and skilled performance, including relevant work in the areas of computer simulation, information processing, mathematical psychology, developmental psychology, and experimental social psychology. What Are Memory and Cognition? Taking inspiration from life experience, a new form of computer ...
Sleep, as defined by a state of rest, reduced sensory sensitivity, relaxed muscle tonus and altered neural activity, is well known across the animal kingdom from mollusks (Stephenson and Lewis, 2011) to humans. The role of sleep is likely to be manifold, but one particular property appears to exist across animal species - the supportive effect on memory consolidation. In humans, consolidation of different forms of memory appears to be supported by different sleep phases, e.g. perceptual memory (Mednick et al., 2003), sensory-motor memory (Brawn et al., 2008) and motor skill memory (Walker et al., 2002) by REM sleep, and declarative memory by slow wave sleep (Diekelmann and Born, 2010). Insects are known to go through rest phases that resemble key features of sleep [Drosophila (Hendricks et al., 2000; Shaw et al., 2000); honeybee (Kaiser, 1988)]. In Drosophila, the genes and signaling cascades that control sleep are already well understood (Sehgal and Mignot, 2011), and some of these regulatory ...
BACKGROUND: Subclinical doses of propofol produce anterograde amnesia, characterized by an early failure of memory consolidation. It is unknown how propofol affects the amygdala-dependent emotional memory system, which modulates consolidation in the hippocampus in response to emotional arousal and neurohumoral stress. We present an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study of the effects of propofol on the emotional memory system in human subjects.. METHODS: Thirty-five healthy subjects were randomized to receive propofol, at an estimated brain concentration of 0.90 μg ml(-1), or placebo. During drug infusion, emotionally arousing and neutral images were presented in a continuous recognition task, while blood-oxygen-level-dependent activation responses were acquired. After a drug-free interval of 2 h, subsequent memory for successfully encoded items was assessed. Imaging analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping and behavioural analysis using signal detection ...
These experiments examined the effects of posttrial peripheral and intra-amygdala injections of the cholinergic muscarinic receptor agonist oxotremorine on memory consolidation underlying extinction of amphetamine conditioned place preference (CPP) behavior. Male Long-Evans rats were initially trained and tested for an amphetamine (2 mg/kg) CPP. Rats were subsequently given limited extinction training, followed by immediate posttrial peripheral or intrabasolateral amygdala injections of oxotremorine. A second CPP test was then administered, and the amount of time spent in the previously amphetamine-paired and saline-paired apparatus compartments was recorded. Peripheral (0.07 or 0.01 mg/kg) or intra-amygdala (10 etag/0.5 microL) postextinction trial injections of oxotremorine facilitated CPP extinction. Oxotremorine injections that were delayed 2 h posttrial training did not enhance CPP extinction, indicating a time-dependent effect of the drug on memory consolidation processes. The findings ...
ELF_MEMORY(3) BSD Library Functions Manual ELF_MEMORY(3) NAME elf_memory -- process an ELF or ar(1) archive mapped into memory LIBRARY ELF Access Library (libelf, -lelf) SYNOPSIS #include ,libelf.h, Elf * elf_memory(char *image, size_t size); DESCRIPTION Function elf_memory() is used to process an ELF file or ar(1) archive whose image is present in memory. Argument image points to the start of the memory image of the file or ar- chive. Argument size contains the size in bytes of the memory image. The ELF descriptor is created for reading (i.e., analogous to the use of elf_begin(3) with a command argument value of ELF_C_READ). RETURN VALUES Function elf_memory() returns a pointer to a new ELF descriptor if suc- cessful, or NULL if an error occurred. The return value may be queried for the file type using elf_kind(3). EXAMPLES To read parse an elf file, use: int fd; void *p; struct stat sb; Elf *e; ... if ((fd = open(./elf-file, O_RDONLY)) , 0 ,, fstat(fd, &sb) , 0 ,, (p = mmap(NULL, sb.st_size, ...
In the movie Slumdog Millionaire, the childhood memories of a young game show contestant trigger his correct answers. In Memento, the amnesiac hero uses tattoos as memory aids. In Away from Her, an older woman suffering from dementia no longer remembers who her husband is. These are compelling films that tell affecting stories about the human condition. But what can these movies teach us about memory? In this book, John Seamon shows how examining the treatment of memory in popular movies can shed new light on how human memory works.. After explaining that memory is actually a diverse collection of independent systems, Seamon uses examples from movies to offer an accessible, nontechnical description of what science knows about memory function and dysfunction. In a series of lively encounters with numerous popular films, he draws on Life of Pi and Avatar, for example, to explain working memory, used for short-term retention. He describes the process of long-term memory with examples from such ...
Objective To compare the Double Memory Test (DMT) with standard memory tests in the diagnosis of early dementia.. Background Diagnosis of dementia requires memory impairment, but few memory tests coordinate acquisition and retrieval to optimize encoding specificity for high sensitivity and specificity. The DMT was developed to improve early diagnosis.. Design We compared the discriminative validity of the DMT, Paired Associates (PA), and Logical Memory (LM) memory tests in a nested case-control study of 30 cases of early dementia and 90 controls matched for age, education, and sex.. Methods The DMT includes memory tests with (CCR) and without (ICR) encoding specificity. Both tests use category cues to elicit retrieval, but CCR optimizes encoding specificity because the same cues are used for acquisition and retrieval. ICR does not because category cues are used only for retrieval. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity.. Results The median BIMC ...
Memory Systems Description Memory Systems: Cache, DRAM, Disk by Bruce Jacob, Spencer Ng and David Wang Is your memory hierarchy stopping your microprocessor from performing at the high level it should be? Memory Systems: Cache, DRAM, Disk shows you how to resolve this problem. The book tells you everything you need to know about the logical design and operation, physical design and operation, performance characteristics and resulting design trade-offs, and the energy consumption of modern memory hierarchies. You learn how to to tackle the challenging optimization problems that result from the side-effects that can appear at any point in the entire hierarchy. As a result you will be able to design and emulate the entire memory hierarchy. 900 pages 634 ills Trim size 7 1/2 X 9 1/4 in Copyright 2008 Memory Systems Key Features Understand all levels of the system hierarchy -Xcache, DRAM, and disk. Evaluate the system-level effects of all design choices. Model performance and energy consump
Purpose: Circadian rhythm affects learning process, memory consolidation, and long-term memory. In this study, the alleviating effect of exercise on circadian rhythm disruption-induced memory deficits was investigated. Methods: BMAL1 knockdown transgenic mice (BMAL1 TG) were used as the BMAL1-TG group and the BMAL1-TG with treadmill exercise group. Female C57BL/6J mice of the same age were used as the wildtype group and the wildtype with treadmill exercise group. The mice in the treadmill exercise groups performed running on a motorized treadmill under the dark-dark conditions for 8 weeks. Short-term memory, nonspatial object memory, and spatial learning memory were determined using step-down avoidance test, novel object-recognition test, and radial 8-arm maze test. Immunohistochemistry for doublecortin and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine was conducted for the determination of hippocampal neurogenesis. Using the western blot analysis, we determined the expressions of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and ...
Aging is typically associated with declining mental abilities, most prominent for some forms of memory. There are, however, large inter-individual differences within the older population. Some people experience rapid decline whereas others seem almost spared from any adverse effects of aging. This thesis examined the neural underpinnings of such individual differences by using longitudinal observations of episodic memory change across 15-20 years, combined with structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Study I found significant correlations between volume and activity of the hippocampus (HC), and memory change over a 6-year period. That is, individuals with decline in HC function also had declining memory. In contrast, Study II showed that successfully aged individuals, who maintained high memory scores over 15-20 years, had preserved HC function compared to age-matched elderly with average memory change. The successful agers had HC activity levels comparable to those of ...
Up to 65 percent of people who suffer from multiple sclerosis (MS) experience some degree of long-term memory loss. Montclair State Psychology Professor Joshua Sandry hopes his exploration of the cognitive and neural processes associated with long-term memory impairment in MS will eventually contribute to new memory rehabilitation techniques and treatments for patients with the disease.. Sandry is the principal investigator on a research project funded by the Consortium of MS Centers through the Kessler Foundation, where he is a visiting scientist. Together with co-investigator and Kessler Foundation research scientist Ekaterina Dobryakova, he will study how disease-related damage to the hippocampus affects working memory and long-term memory impairment in MS. The main purpose of this grant is to increase our understanding of the relationship between MS disease pathology and memory impairment, he says.. We know from past research that memory impairment in MS is related to hippocampal ...
The limitation of working memory to hold discrete units to an amount of 7 ± 2 items is called memory span and is a well proven finding in the field of cognitive research. The digit memory span test measure how many digits a subject can reproduce from a series of digits presented to them. The length of the series is increased with each correct reproduction. The test is aborted when the subject failed to reproduce two consecutive sequences. The length of the last correctly reproduced sequence is the estimate of the memory span. If the reproduction should be in reverse order, the executive control function is more prominent since the items must be re-ordered.. This task is relying heavily on an articulatory control process which is used for verbal rehearsal which was traditionally considered as the short term memory. In contemporary models of the working memory, there is also visuo-spatial sketch pad which handles non-symbolic information such as images and spatial information. The drastic ...
Previous research has demonstrated that glucose administration facilitates long-term memory performance. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effect of glucose administration on different components of long-term recognition memory. Fifty-six healthy young individuals received (a) a drink containing 25 g of glucose or (b) an inert placebo drink. Recollection and familiarity components of recognition memory were measured using the remember-know paradigm. The results revealed that glucose administration led to significantly increased proportion of recognition responses based on recollection, but had no effect on the proportion of recognition responses made through participants detection of stimulus familiarity. Consequently, the data suggest that glucose administration appears to facilitate recognition memory that is accompanied by recollection of contextual details and episodic richness. The findings also suggest that memory tasks that result in high levels of hippocampal ...
The recall of a memory by a reminder stimulus places this memory back into an active and labile state, from which it is reconsolidated into an inactive and stable state. Is this cellular reconsolidation of memory simply a recapitulation of the events engaged at consolidation, or is there a more complicated process at work (see the Perspective by Izquierdo and Cammarota)? Lee et al. show that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), but not transcription factor Zif268, is necessary for the consolidation of contextual fear conditioning within the hippocampus. However, Zif268, but not BDNF, is required for reconsolidation of the contextual fear memory. Frankland et al. show that processing fear memories involves the activation of multiple cortical regions of the brain. Cortical activation was greater after remote, rather than recent, memory tests, which is consistent with an increasingly important role for the cortex over time. The anterior cingulate cortex, an area involved in processing ...
Women entering menopause sometimes report feeling fuzzy or less sharp mentally, or that they cant remember or concentrate as well as they once did. Its not clear to what extent natural menopause affects memory, or whether this is a consequence of normal aging. Right now, we dont have much evidence to show that natural menopause affects memory or mental function. It may be that the hot flashes and/or sleep disturbances that come with menopause are affecting memory and concentration. However, there is some evidence that experiencing a sudden medical menopause can have an adverse effect on memory. Researchers are still working to figure out how estrogen levels impact mental functioning and memory. Its certainly conceivable that when your estrogen levels are low, or you are taking a drug that blocks the effects of estrogen (such as tamoxifen), your brain cells ability to receive, communicate, and store information may be reduced, resulting in decreased memory. At the same time, other factors ...
It has consistently been reported that negative subsequent memory effects-lower study activity for later remembered than later forgotten items-are attenuated in older individuals. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigated whether these findings extend to subsequent memory effects associated with successful encoding of item-context information. Older (n = 25) and young (n = 17) subjects were scanned while making 1 of 2 encoding judgments on a series of pictures. Memory was assessed for the study item and, for items judged old, the items encoding task. Both memory judgments were made using confidence ratings, permitting item and source memory strength to be unconfounded and source confidence to be equated across age groups. Replicating prior findings, negative item effects in regions of the default mode network in young subjects were reversed in older subjects. Negative source effects, however, were invariant with respect to age and, in both age groups, the magnitude ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Mathematical Anxiety influences the cortical connectivity profiles in lower alpha band during working memory tasks. AU - Bayrak, Şeyma. AU - Margulies, Daniel. AU - Bamidis, Panagiotis. AU - Klados, Manousos A.. PY - 2016/7/30. Y1 - 2016/7/30. N2 - Introduction Highly math-anxious (HMA) individuals are characterized by a strong tendency to avoid math, which ultimately undercuts their math competence and forecloses important career paths (Ashcraft, 2002). It is hypothesized that worries and intrusive thoughts associated with math anxiety (MA) reduce working memory resources needed for cognitively demanding math tasks (Chang & Beilock, 2016). However, mental processes that access the memory representations of mathematical knowledge has not been fully uncovered (Ashcraft, 2001). Previous studies indicate that the frontal cortex is dominantly involved in working memory (WM) and more specifically while updating the working memory representations (Smith & Jonides, 1997). Additionally, ...
Propranolol administered immediately after learning or after recall has been found to impair memory consolidation or reconsolidation (respectively) in animals, but less reliably so in humans. Since reconsolidation impairment has been proposed as a treatment for mental disorders that have at their core an emotional memory, it is desirable to understand how to reliably reduce the strength of pathogenic memories in humans. We postulated that since humans (unlike experimental animals) typically receive propranolol orally, this introduces a delay before this drug can exert its memory impairment effects, which may render it less effective. As a means to test this, in two double-blind placebo-controlled experiments, we examined the capacity of propranolol to impair consolidation and reconsolidation as a function of timing of ingestion in healthy subjects. In Experiment 1, (n=36), propranolol administered immediately after learning or recall failed to impair the consolidation or reconsolidation of the ...
The ability of the nervous system to retain, manipulate and use visual information which is no longer present in the external environment contributes to intelligent behaviour. A new approach to studying visual working memory has led to re-evaluation of the nature of its limitations in keeping with a finite memory resource which is flexibly distributed across space according to attentional priority. Using a novel behavioural paradigm to study visual working memory precision for sequentially presented items, I demonstrate how the resolution with which healthy subjects recall simple objects changes dynamically with each new item in the sequence. Stochastic modelling of the distribution of responses suggested that memory for earlier objects in the sequence was especially prone to failure in integration of visual features, such as orientation and colour, into complete objects. Next, I examined how memory precision was affected by attentional selection according to the relative behavioural relevance ...
From: FEBRUARY 5 , 2004. CAMBRIDGE, Mass. -- MIT neuroscientists have discovered a new brain mechanism controlling the formation of lasting memories. This mechanism explains how signals between neurons stimulate production of the protein building blocks needed for long-term memory storage. The study, which will appear in the Feb. 6 issue of the journal Cell, has broad implications for our understanding of how learning and memory normally occur, and how these abilities may be undermined in psychiatric and neurologic diseases. Long-lasting memories are stored in the brain through strengthening of the connections, or synapses, between neurons. Researchers have known for many years that neurons must turn on the synthesis of new proteins for long-term memory storage and synaptic strengthening to occur, but the mechanisms by which neurons accomplish these tasks have remained elusive. The MIT research team, led by Nobel laureate Susumu Tonegawa, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Retrieval cue and delay interval influence the relationship between prospective memory and activities of daily living in older adults. AU - Tierney, S.M.. AU - Bucks, Romola S.. AU - Weinborn, Michael. AU - Hodgson, Erica R.. AU - Woods, Steven P.. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - © 2016 Taylor & Francis. Objective: Older adults commonly experience mild declines in everyday functioning and the strategic aspects of prospective memory (PM). This study used multiprocess theory to examine whether the strategic demands of retrieval cue type (event vs.Time based) and delay interval length (2 vs. 15 min) influence the relationship between PM and activities of daily living (ADLs) in older adults. Method: Participants included 97 community-dwelling older adults recruited from the Western Australia Participant Pool. Participants were administered the Memory for Intentions Screening Test (MIST) and Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) as part of a larger neurocognitive ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Volumetric correlates of spatiotemporal working and recognition memory impairment in aged rhesus monkeys. AU - Shamy, Jul Lea. AU - Habeck, Christian. AU - Hof, Patrick R.. AU - Amaral, David G. AU - Fong, Sania G.. AU - Buonocore, Michael H.. AU - Stern, Yaakov. AU - Barnes, Carol A.. AU - Rapp, Peter R.. PY - 2011/7. Y1 - 2011/7. N2 - Spatiotemporal and recognition memory are affected by aging in humans and macaque monkeys. To investigate whether these deficits are coupled with atrophy of memory-related brain regions, T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired and volumes of the cerebrum, ventricles, prefrontal cortex (PFC), calcarine cortex, hippocampus, and striatum were quantified in young and aged rhesus monkeys. Subjects were tested on a spatiotemporal memory procedure (delayed response [DR]) that requires the integrity of the PFC and a medial temporal lobe-dependent recognition memory task (delayed nonmatching to sample [DNMS]). Region of interest analyses ...
Memory Mechanisms is an edited review volume that summarizes state-of-the-art knowledge on memory mechanisms at the molecular, cellular and circuit level. Each review is written by leading experts in the field, presenting not only current knowledge, but also discussing the concepts, providing critical reflections and suggesting an outlook for future studies. The memory mechanisms are also discussed in the context of diseases. Studies of memory deficits in disease models are introduced as well as approaches to restore memory deficits. Finally, the impact of contemporary memory research for psychiatry is illustrated.. ...
Activated naive B cells that seed a GC and undergo SHM, Ig isotype switching, and selection by a specific Ag can differentiate into memory B cells or plasma cells. It is generally accepted that the processes of SHM and isotype switching are markers of memory B cells. In human tonsils, memory B cells were historically identified by the loss of IgD together with other markers such as CD38 (5, 10, 11, 17). The case for using IgD and CD38 to separate memory (IgD−CD38−) from naive (IgD+CD38−) and GC (IgD−CD38+) B cells was supported by the finding that the majority of tonsil IgD+ cells expressed unmutated IgV region genes, while those expressed by IgD− cells were mutated (5, 11, 25, 26). Studies using these markers demonstrated that although both naive and memory B cells were in a quiescent state, memory cells exhibited enhanced responses compared to naive B cells in vitro (10, 17, 18, 19, 20). Together, these articles established a scheme to identify human memory B cells.. However, ...
Under declarative memory resides semantic and episodic memory. Semantic memory refers to memory that is encoded with specific ... recover memories Method of loci Mnemonic major system Photographic memory Politics of memory Prenatal memory Procedural memory ... memory that is shared, passed on, and constructed by a group Explicit memory False memory Immunological memory, a ... memory systems that have evolved to help retain survival-and-fitness information Animal memory Body memory, hypothetical memory ...
"SUDAAK - Sudan Memory". Retrieved 2022-04-02. "Sudan Memory Team - Sudan Memory". ... Khartoum: SFDAS Sudan Memory website Sudan Memory on Facebook Sudan Open Archive by Rift Valley Institute Sudan Archive at ... "Mahdia - Sudan Memory". Retrieved 2022-04-02. "Sharhabil Ahmed - Sudan's King of Jazz - Sudan Memory". www ... "Topics - Sudan Memory". Retrieved 2022-04-02. "Highlights - Sudan Memory". Retrieved ...
... may refer to: Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model Baddeley's model of working memory Memory-prediction model Memory ... an addressing scheme for computer memory address space Flat memory model Paged memory model Segmented memory Intel Memory Model ... describes how threads interact through memory Java Memory Model Consistency model Memory model (addressing scheme), ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Memory model. If an internal link led you here, you may wish ...
An automatic channel memory system (ACMS) is a system in which a digitally controlled radio tuner such as a TV set or VCR could ... While early sets often lost their memory in a power outage or by otherwise being disconnected from mains electricity, all of ... without affecting memory. A typical TV device allows an automatic channel scan to be performed from a menu accessed by a button ...
... is accessed when a touch probe comes into contact with a memory button. Read and/or write operations between the ... Touch Memory (or contact memory) is an electronic identification device packaged in a coin-shaped stainless steel container. ... Communication rate, and product breadth, of touch memory goes well beyond the simple memory products typically available with ... Touch memory is used in such areas as Access control Asset management eCash Gaming systems Thermochron applications Time and ...
In computing, memory ballooning is a technique used to eliminate the need to overprovision host memory used by a virtual ... which allocates unused memory within the VM's address space into a reserved memory pool (the "balloon") so that it is ... However, rather than being reserved for other uses within the VM, the physical memory mapped to those pages within the VM is ... Depending on the amount of memory required by the VM, the size of the "balloon" may be increased or decreased dynamically, ...
World Memory Championships website World Memory Olympics website USA National Memory Championships Memory Ladder - for Android ... International Association of Memory". Retrieved 2017-12-07. "World Memory Championships , World Memory ... Eidetic memory Exceptional memory Haraguchi's mnemonic system Interference theory Linkword Memory Memory League Mentalism ... Memory sport, sometimes referred to as competitive memory or the mind sport of memory, refers to competitions in which ...
... and episodic memory are both types of explicit memory (or declarative memory), that is, memory of facts or ... The counterpart to declarative or explicit memory is nondeclarative memory or implicit memory. The idea of semantic memory was ... Semantic memory is distinct from episodic memory, which is our memory of experiences and specific events that occur during our ... Memory semantics Sparse distributed memory McRae, Ken; Jones, Michael (2013). "Semantic Memory". In Reisberg, Daniel (ed.). The ...
... is the act of enhancing one's memory. Memory deficits, age-related memory loss, and people's want to improve ... Cognitive enhancer Effect of caffeine on memory Emotion and memory Music-related memory Sleep and Memory Spaced repetition ... A memory clamp (also called a "reality clamp") is a generic name for a type of physical memory aid designed be worn on the ... Food and memory may be connected. While no link has been isolated to prove a direct connection between diet and memory, there ...
... s work by monitoring memory access, allocations, and deallocation of memory. Many memory debuggers require ... A memory debugger is a debugger for finding software memory problems such as memory leaks and buffer overflows. These are due ... Some memory debuggers (e.g. Valgrind) work by running the executable in a virtual machine-like environment, monitoring memory ... As abnormally high memory utilization can be a contributing factor in software aging, memory debuggers can help programmers to ...
... , also known as folklore or myths, refers to past events that have been passed orally from generation to generation ... The events described by the memories may date back hundreds, thousands, or even tens of thousands of years and often have a ... Bruemmer, Fred (1993). Arctic memories: living with the Inuit. Key Porter Books. p. 37. ISBN 1550134612. Retrieved 2015-06-24. ... suggesting the memory of the proboscideans had become conflated with that of other megafauna, such as bears and sabertooths. ...
... s, also called fixed-size blocks allocation, is the use of pools for memory management that allows dynamic memory ... Free list Object pool Slab allocation Fast Efficient Fixed-Sized Memory Pool PJLIB Reference: Fast Memory Pool A Memory ... Benefits Memory pools allow memory allocation with constant execution time. The memory release for thousands of objects in a ... This is also known as a region; see region-based memory management. A simple memory pool module can allocate, for example, ...
... see external memory (psychology) For the use of the term in computing, see auxiliary memory For the use of the term in computer ... see external memory algorithm This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title External memory. If an internal ... The term external memory is used with different meanings in different fields: For the use of the term in psychology, ...
... can also be divided into egocentric and allocentric spatial memory. A person's spatial memory is required to ... Spatial memory has representations within working, short-term memory and long-term memory. Research indicates that there are ... Visual memory is responsible for retaining visual shapes and colors (i.e., what), whereas spatial memory is responsible for ... The evidence for the spatial memory of some species of animals, such as rats, indicates that they do use spatial memory to ...
For a memory technology to be considered a universal memory, it would need to have best characteristics of several memory ... resistive random-access memory (RRAM) nano-RAM memristor-based memory Since each memory has its limitations, none of these have ... bubble memory (1970-1980, obsolete) racetrack memory (currently experimental) ferroelectric random-access memory (FRAM) (in ... Many types of memory technologies have been explored with the goal of creating a practical universal memory. These include: low ...
... a type of computer memory used in certain very high speed searching applications Autoassociative memory, all computer memories ... Associative memory may refer to: Associative memory (psychology), the ability to learn and remember the relationship between ... that enable one to retrieve a piece of data from only a tiny sample of itself Bidirectional associative memory, a type of ... for a fuzzy match across a broad field This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Associative memory. If ...
... is Nevermore's only EP. It was recorded in April and May 1996 and released on July 23, 1996. It features a Bauhaus ... In Memory at AllMusic Albrecht, Frank. "Rock Hard". issue 110. Retrieved 20 May 2013. v t e (Articles with short description, ...
... constitute a central element to the politics of memory and impact on the culture of historical memory and culture ... Memory laws can be either punitive or non-punitive. A non-punitive memory law does not imply a criminal sanction. It has a ... A punitive memory law includes a sanction, often of a criminal nature. Nikolai Koposov refers to "memory laws per se" as "laws ... Scholars of memory laws have pointed to the proliferation and promulgation of memory laws in the past decade within the member ...
Physical Address Extension (PAE) Virtual Memory I: the problem High Memory Virtual Memory I: the problem (Articles with short ... of virtual memory to use. On computers with a lot of physical memory, this can mean that there exists memory that the kernel ... High memory is the part of physical memory in a computer which is not directly mapped by the page tables of its operating ... When the kernel wishes to address high memory, it creates a mapping on the fly and destroys the mapping when done, which incurs ...
"Loving Memory - Blu-ray Tony Scott". Loving Memory at IMDb Loving Memory at Rotten Tomatoes v t e (Use dmy ... Loving Memory is a 1970 black and white psychological drama film written and directed by Tony Scott, credited as Anthony Scott ... "Loving Memory (1970)". Baxter, Brian (24 August 2012). "How Tony Scott kickstarted his career" - via " ... "Pete's Peek - The BFI unearths Tony Scott's debut, Loving Memory - Movie Talk - What's on TV". 28 August 2010. "BFI ...
Adding complexity slows down the memory hierarchy. CMOx memory technology stretches the Flash space in the memory hierarchy One ... cache Cache hierarchy in a modern processor Memory wall Computer memory Hierarchical storage management Cloud storage Memory ... main memory to disk). Modern programming languages mainly assume two levels of memory, main memory and disk storage, though in ... The type of memory or storage components also change historically. For example, the memory hierarchy of an Intel Haswell Mobile ...
The term memory is also often used to refer to non-volatile memory including read-only memory (ROM) through modern flash memory ... NMOS memory was commercialized by IBM in the early 1970s. MOS memory overtook magnetic core memory as the dominant memory ... Memory geometry Memory hierarchy Memory organization Processor registers store data but normally are not considered as memory, ... Examples of non-volatile memory are flash memory and ROM, PROM, EPROM and EEPROM memory. Examples of volatile memory are ...
Official website History & Memory at JSTOR History & Memory at Project MUSE (Articles with short description, Short description ... "Collective Memory and Historical Consciousness." History and Memory 1.1 (1989): 5-26. He, Yinan. "Remembering and Forgetting ... "Transcultural Memory and the Troostmeisjes/Comfort Women Photographic Project." History and Memory 30.1 (2018): 116-150. Myers ... Maier, Charles S. "A Surfeit of Memory? Reflections on History, Melancholy and Denial." History and Memory 5.2 (1993): 136-152 ...
... is the recording of memories outside the brain. The earliest forms of symbolic behavior-scratching marks on ... However it was the invention of writing that allowed complex memories to be recorded. A more narrow meaning of exosomatic ... Brain-computer interface "INLS 302: Newby on Cognitive Space". (Memory). ... memory is a computerized information system that interfaces directly with the brain and functions as an extension of the user ...
A digital computer's main memory consists of many memory locations. Each memory location has a physical address which is a code ... Base address Endianness Low-level programming language Memory address register Memory allocation Memory management unit (MMU) ... shared memory and memory mapped files. Some parts of address space may be not mapped at all. Some systems have a "split" memory ... number of physical memory connectors or amount of soldered-on memory). Each memory location in a stored-program computer holds ...
... may refer to: A computer memory component or device. Xbox 360 memory units, flash-based memory devices Memory cards ... in video game consoles This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Memory unit. If an internal link led ...
Drums were widely used in the 1950s and into the 1960s as computer memory. For many early computers, drum memory formed the ... CAB500 Carousel memory (magnetic rolls) Karlqvist gap Manchester Mark 1 Random-access memory Wisconsin Integrally Synchronized ... Drums were displaced as primary computer memory by magnetic core memory, which offered a better balance of size, speed, cost, ... deriving from the use of drum secondary-storage devices as backup storage for pages in virtual memory. Magnetic drum memory ...
"Black Memory". "» Movie Review: BLACK MEMORY (1947)". Black Memory at IMDb v t e (Use dmy dates from May 2016, Use British ... Black Memory is a 1947 British crime film directed by Oswald Mitchell and starring Michael Atkinson, Myra O'Connell and Michael ... Also making her film acting debut in Black Memory was the Welsh-born actor, playwright, screenwriter and film director Jane ...
Semantic memory Declarative memory Sensory memory Visual memory Spatial memory A. Jansen, A.; Sehlmeyer, C.; Pfleiderer, B.; ... Verbal memory is a term used in cognitive psychology which refers to memory of words and other abstractions involving language ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Memory). ... Sommer, J.; Konrad, C.; Zwitserlood, P.; Knecht S. "Assessment of Verbal Memory by fMRI: Lateralization and Functional ...
... is a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument (HCM #155) located in the Wilmington section of Los Angeles, ... "Plaque Ceremonies At Memory Chapel". Wilmington Daily Press Journal. April 4, 1946. p. 4 - via "Wilmington". LA ... 155 - Memory Chapel". Big Orange Landmarks. 2008-06-19. (CS1 errors: missing periodical, Articles with short description, Short ... English services are held in the adjacent Calvary Presbyterian Church-which replaced the Memory Chapel. List of Los Angeles ...
... about 1 in 8 has subjective cognitive decline-defined as worsening memory problems in the past year. ... The result is tens of thousands of people are reporting signs that their memory is getting worse. Compared to noncaregivers, ... Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is defined as self-reported memory problems that have been getting worse over the past year ... Caregivers can help reduce their risk for memory loss by making positive lifestyle choices. These choices include being ...
Check out research-proven strategies that can boost your memory and help you remember more. ... Do you ever wish you could improve your memory? ... 11 Methods for Improving Your Memory. * Mental Health A-Z * ... Attention is one of the major components of memory. In order for information to move from your short-term memory into your long ... This time its personal: the memory benefit of hearing oneself. Memory. 2018;26(4):574-579. doi:10.1080/09658211.2017.1383434 ...
Heartbreaking and revelatory, Forbidden Memory offers a personal, literary discussion of the nature of memory, violence, and ... Forbidden Memory is] one of the most important books on Tibet during the final years of the Mao era. . . . This new edition, ... "Forbidden Memory is an extraordinary and unique record of events in Tibet in the 1960s, when Tibetan intellectuals, lamas, and ... Forbidden Memory is a beautiful book as well as an important contribution to the historiography of Tibet.-Economist ...
... The Drive-On-Chip Design DSP Builder for Intel FPGAs-generated VHDL has a signal ... 7.11.1. DSP Builder for Intel FPGAs Model for the Drive-On-Chip Designs 7.11.2. Avalon Memory-Mapped Interface 7.11.3. About ... for Intel FPGAs design adds blocks to terminate the parallel inputs and outputs and handshaking logic with an Avalon memory- ...
Memories are the refiring of the same neurons that fired when you first had a particular thought or experience. Though ... So why, then, do memories exist?. How it Works. Our memories are essential. They help us learn from past experiences and make ... You can actually see changes in the neurons when memories form. Synapses can grow stronger as you learn. But memories are often ... differently than we do emotionally based memories. This is because your basal ganglia handles procedural memory, while your ...
Component Memory Component memory is memory allocated from memory resources (such as RAM blocks) available on the FPGA. ... 4.1.1. Pointer Interfaces 4.1.2. Avalon® Memory Mapped Host Interfaces 4.1.3. Avalon® Memory Mapped Agent Memories 4.1.4. ... Example: Overriding a Coalesced Memory Architecture 7.2. Example: Overriding a Banked Memory Architecture 7.3. Merge Memories ... External Memory External memory is memory resources that are outside of the FPGA. ...
Set of memory models of the x86 CPU. In computing, Intel Memory Model refers to a set of six different memory models of the x86 ... Main article: x86 memory segmentation. Four registers are used to refer to four segments on the 16-bit x86 segmented memory ... as if the platform were a flat memory model: It forbids the aliasing of memory as described above, so two huge pointers that ... with its paged memory management unit it is possible to protect individual memory pages against writing.[4][5] ...
This book is for students and researchers who have a specific interest in learning and memory and want to understand how ... Gateway to Memory is a valuable addition to the introductory texts describing neural network models of learning and memory. The ... Gateway to Memory is an exciting and badly needed text that integrates computational and neurobiological approaches to memory. ... Gateway to Memory An Introduction to Neural Network Modeling of the Hippocampus and Learning. by Mark A. Gluck and Catherine E ...
The Making Core Memory project is a design inquiry into the invisible work that went into assembling core memory, an early form ... we designed an electronic quilt and a series of participatory workshops that materialize the work of the core memory weavers. ...
Purchase Memory Systems - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780123797513, 9780080553849 ... Generic DRAM Memory Access Protocol 12. Evolution of DRAM Devices 13. DRAM Memory Controller 14. Memory System Design Analysis ... Is your memory hierarchy stopping your microprocessor from performing at the high level it should be? Memory Systems: Cache, ... Memory Systems Overview 8. DRAM Device: Basic Circuits and Architecture 9. DRAM System Signalling and Timing 10. DRAM Memory ...
Self-testing strengthens the memory by creating keywords as clues for retrieving the word pairs later on.. Scholars have long ... Why testing improves memory: Mediator effectiveness hypothesis. Science. Vol. 330, October 15, 2010, p. 335. doi: 10.1126/ ... known the value of self-quizzing: "Exercise in repeatedly recalling a thing strengthens the memory," Aristotle wrote more than ...
In memory Instead of receiving flowers, you can set up a crowdfunding page for people to donate to a cause close to their heart ... You can fundraise in memory of a loved one by taking part in an event or asking for donations to a cause.. ... Crowdfund to raise money for funeral costs, to support loved ones or in memory of someone special.. ... You could crowdfund to set up a charity in memory of a loved one. ...
... returns with Dual Memory, a standalone novel blending the hard science fiction of Her with the action adve... ... Sue Burke, author of the acclaimed novel Semiosis, returns with Dual Memory, a standalone novel blending the hard science ... Sue Burke, author of the acclaimed novel Semiosis, returns with Dual Memory, a standalone novel blending the hard science ...
Discover the best Memory Cards in Best Sellers. Find the top 100 most popular items in Amazon Computers & Accessories Best ... PNY 128GB Premier-X Class 10 U3 V30 microSDXC Flash Memory Card 2-Pack - 100MB/s, Class 10, U3, V30, A1, 4K UHD, Full HD, UHS-I ... SanDisk 1TB Extreme microSDXC UHS-I Memory Card with Adapter - Up to 190MB/s, C10, U3, V30, 4K, 5K, A2, Micro SD Card- SDSQXAV- ... Amazon Basics microSDXC Memory Card with Full Size Adapter, A2, U3, Read Speed up to 100 MB/s, 128 GB ...
Memory safe iBoot implementation. In iOS 14 and iPadOS 14, Apple modified the C compiler toolchain used to build the iBoot ... The modified toolchain implements code designed to prevent memory- and type-safety issues that are typically encountered in C ... Type confusion caused by use after free errors, by segregating all dynamic memory allocations by static type ... Buffer overflows, by ensuring that all pointers carry bounds information that is verified when accessing memory ...
Discover Sonys wide range of memory cards from tough SD card to CFexpress memory cards and from SSD to card readers for fast ... CEA-G Series CFexpress Type A Memory Card. CEA-G160T/CEA-G320T/CEA-G640T/CEA-G80T ...
use `ipcs` to view current memory use `ipcrm -m {shmid}` to remove on some systems use `ipcclean` to clean up unused memory if ... The idea behind SHMOP is an easy to use shared memory interface, without any additional headers added to the shared memory ... Windows does support shared memory through memory mapped file. Check the following functions for details:. * CreateFileMapping ... Your shared memory directory. $setting[shm_dir] = /shm_dir/; // Number of files to read and write $setting[files] = 40000 ...
... computer memory: Memory hierarchy: Although the main/auxiliary memory distinction is broadly useful, memory organization in a ... fast cache memory; larger DRAM; very large hard disks; and slow and… ... computer memory. * In computer memory: Memory hierarchy. Although the main/auxiliary memory distinction is broadly useful, ... memory organization in a computer forms a hierarchy of levels, arranged from very small, fast, and expensive registers in the ...
Excerpt: Hunger Of Memory I remember to start with that day in Sacramento - a California now nearly thirty years past - when ... Memory teaches me what I know of these matters; the boy reminds the adult. I was a bilingual child, a certain kind - socially ... Hunger of Memory. Subtitle. The Education of Richard Rodriguez. Author. Richard Rodriguez. Your purchase helps support NPR ... Hunger of Memory: The Education of Richard Rodriguez. By Richard Rodriguez Paperback, 224 pages. Bantam Books. List price: $ ...
Episode 35 of The Blender explores memory and consequence, as it examines lives around the world affected by the events of ... Episode 35 of The Blender explores memory and consequence, as it examines lives around the world affected by the events of ...
It can be difficult to know just what to say after a loss. Weve selected topics to help you get started. Read what others have said, or leave a comment of your own ...
It can be difficult to know just what to say after a loss. Weve selected topics to help you get started. Read what others have said, or leave a comment of your own ...
Memory Merangkai atau membeli PC gaming, mana yang lebih baik? Sepertinya para gamer cenderung merangkai PC sendiri, tetapi ... Memory Cara Kingston membantu mengurangi biaya daya pusat data hingga 60% Pelajari cara Kingston mengurangi biaya daya dan ... Memory Studi Kasus: Bagaimana Simply Hosting mendapat keuntungan dari layanan dan dukungan kolaboratif Kingston membantu ...
It can be difficult to know just what to say after a loss. Weve selected topics to help you get started. Read what others have said, or leave a comment of your own ...
It can be difficult to know just what to say after a loss. Weve selected topics to help you get started. Read what others have said, or leave a comment of your own ...
... by James Miller G3RUH Data bits in Oscar-13s memory get corrupted from time to time. If this were to happen ... How do we know that memory bits get flipped? What is the physical construction of the memory? How does the machine take ... This "wash" operation cleans up 32k of memory every 40 seconds. EDAC Memory Circuits -------------------- Circuits to perform ... How does he get from AO-13 increased memory errors to that ludicrous dogma? Simple. The memory error counter has been ramping ...
Memory is selective, fungible. The many details of that brief encounter four or five years ago have all been erased by the one ... Memory Holes. Two ongoing wars and many controversies later, the search for meaning at Ground Zero still proves painfully ... What we all call "the footprints" are really an opportunistic half-memory of the towers roof plan, projected down on to the ... The choice to harbor memory at the World Trade Center in the confines of a hastily repurposed, politically tainted, ...
There is another aspect of the memory process - memory consolidation - that actually occurs during sleep itself. Memory ... Sleep affects different kinds of memory, including both declarative and procedural memories. Declarative memory involves ... memory. is impaired by lack of sleep. A sleep-deprived brain is less effective at memory retrieval, while staying well rested ... Memory consolidation that takes place during sleep. not only secures memory for retrieval, but also appears to prepare the ...
Susie A. Cavanaugh. September 27, 1949 - March 21, 2013. Susie Atlene Cavanaugh was born the fourth child of the late Nancy Martin Cavanaugh and Plomer Cavanaugh on September 27, 1949. She grew up in the small rural town of Cadiz in far Western Kentucky. She attended public schools in Trigg County after which she matriculated to Western Kentucky University in Bowling Green earning a Bachelor of Arts Degree in Sociology with a minor in Social Welfare. In 1973, she earned a Master of Arts Degree in Curriculum and Instruction from University of Kentucky. Ms. Cavanaugh received Rank I, Certification in Secondary Administration and Supervision in1985 and returned to University of Kentucky in 1989 to complete a minor and certification in History.. Read more obituary. Jane Rhodes Justice. Monday, April 28, 1952 - Wednesday, October 2, 2013. Jane Rhodes Justice, wife of D. Mack Justice died at her home Wednesday, Oct. 2, 2013.. She was born in Lexington, a daughter of Charles Dover Rhodes, Jr. and the ...
to allocate memory for your return object. SPI_palloc. allocates memory in the "upper executor context", that is, the memory ... SPI_repalloc - reallocate memory in the upper executor context. SPI_pfree - free memory in the upper executor context. SPI_ ... creates a new memory context and makes it current. SPI_finish. restores the previous current memory context and destroys the ... PostgreSQL allocates memory within memory contexts, which provide a convenient method of managing allocations made in many ...
  • Sleep affects different kinds of memory, including both declarative and procedural memories. (
  • It seems that short-term and long-term memories don't form in exactly the same way, nor do declarative and procedural memories. (
  • This book is for students and researchers who have a specific interest in learning and memory and want to understand how computational models can be integrated into experimental research on the hippocampus and learning. (
  • The second part, the core of the book, reviews computational models of how the hippocampus cooperates with other brain structures-including the entorhinal cortex, basal forebrain, cerebellum, and primary sensory and motor cortices-to support learning and memory in both animals and humans. (
  • This book is a very user-friendly introduction to the world of computer models of the brain, with an emphasis on how the hippocampus and associated areas mediate memory. (
  • That's a big mistake, since an impressive lineup of research suggests that exercise promotes new neurons in the hippocampus, the area of the brain responsible for some aspects of memory, and new connections between them. (
  • Seniors with higher levels of the stress hormone cortisol in their blood have a smaller hippocampus and do worse on memory tests, according to researchers at Douglas Hospital. (
  • A region called the hippocampus is crucial for forming, retaining, and recalling declarative memories. (
  • When Is the Hippocampus Involved in Recognition Memory? (
  • The role of the hippocampus in recognition memory is controversial. (
  • Experiment 1 examined the role of the hippocampus in recognition memory tasks that required the animals to use these different types of mnemonic information. (
  • Experiment 2 examined whether, when using different types of recognition memory information, the hippocampus interacts with either the perirhinal or prefrontal cortex. (
  • Experiment 1 revealed that the hippocampus was crucial for object location, object-in-place, and recency recognition memory, but not for the novel object preference task. (
  • Experiment 2 revealed that object-in-place and recency recognition memory performance depended on a functional interaction between the hippocampus and either the perirhinal or medial prefrontal cortices. (
  • Thus, the hippocampus plays a role in recognition memory when such memory involves remembering that a particular stimulus occurred in a particular place or when the memory contains a temporal or object recency component. (
  • Thus, under conditions in which recognition memory has a spatial or temporal component, the hippocampus appears to be critical. (
  • and second, that the hippocampus functionally interacts with either the perirhinal or medial prefrontal cortex during these recognition memory tasks. (
  • To test the first hypothesis, animals with bilateral lesions in the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, and perirhinal cortex were compared in a battery of recognition memory tasks. (
  • Most patients in the study had stimulation of the hippocampus, the brain's memory center. (
  • The user have observed memory leak in 'op_tcf_aaa_search_session', while analyzing memory leaks in OOB code. (
  • Cite this: Smell Test May Predict Memory Decline - Medscape - Jul 27, 2016. (
  • This suggests the "human memory can be potentially improved by direct electrical brain stimulation at extremely low currents," Haneef told Medscape Medical News . (
  • Fast Five Quiz: Memory Loss - Medscape - Apr 10, 2019. (
  • The notch location (gap) between pins on memory modules has changed with DDR5, preventing newer modules from being accidentally plugged into DDR4 sockets. (
  • DDR5 DRAM modules now start with a baseline memory speed of 4800MHz - a 50% increase over DDR4. (
  • Compared to DDR4 modules, DDR5 offers double the memory bank groups as well as double the burst length to enhance efficiency. (
  • Please watch for Kingston's upcoming range of FURY DDR5 memory modules for more information. (
  • Benchmark data for DDR5 memory modules will be available closer to Intel's launch of next-generation processors. (
  • This is because your basal ganglia handles procedural memory, while your amygdala burns highly emotional moments such as a first kiss into your long-term memory. (
  • Much of the basic knowledge we need to function on a daily basis - from typing at a computer to driving a car to taking a run at the gym - falls within the category of procedural memory. (
  • According to research, a routine of high-quality, plentiful sleep is important to motor skill learning and procedural memory. (
  • Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is defined as self-reported memory problems that have been getting worse over the past year. (
  • Research strongly suggests that high-quality sleep during youth and middle age may help guard against age-related cognitive decline, including problems with memory, many years later. (
  • Sleep is not the only factor in age-related memory decline, but it appears to be an important one. (
  • Having a higher level of depression symptoms was associated with a more rapid decline in thinking and memory skills, the findings showed. (
  • In a study of older adults, both a low score on the UPSIT and positive amyloid beta (Aβ) status predicted memory decline. (
  • The investigators compared the predictive utility of odor identification impairment using the UPSIT with that of amyloid status, as determined by 11C-Pittsburgh Compound B (PIB) positron- emission tomography (PET) scanning or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, in predicting memory decline. (
  • Memory decline was defined as 1 standard deviation (SD) decrease over 4 years or 0.5 SD over 2 years on composite z-score from Logical Memory 1, Visual Reproduction, and Free and Cued Selective Reminding tests. (
  • During follow-up, 67% of participants showed memory decline. (
  • 35 of 40) significantly predicted memory decline, the researchers found. (
  • Low Hourly Wages in Middle Age and Memory Decline in Older Age Does low-wage employment history during midlife peak earning years impact memory function in older age? (
  • We cherish our memories. (
  • Cherish your memories by reducing the intake of artificial sweeteners. (
  • A sleep-deprived brain is less effective at memory retrieval, while staying well rested can help protect and improve this aspect of memory function. (
  • Memory consolidation is the process in which the brain takes new knowledge and converts it to longer-term storage, ready for future recall. (
  • Memory consolidation that takes place during sleep not only secures memory for retrieval, but also appears to prepare the brain to accept new information in the next waking day. (
  • Human memory happens in many parts of the brain at once, and some types of memories stick around longer than others. (
  • Anterograde amnesia is when brain trauma curtails or stops someone's ability to form new memories. (
  • By studying people such as H.M., as well as animals with different types of brain damage, scientists can trace where and how different kinds of memories form in the brain. (
  • different areas of the brain form and store different kinds of memories, and different processes may be at play for each. (
  • The temporal lobes, the brain regions that H.M. was partially missing, play a crucial role in forming and recalling memories. (
  • Investigations of the neural basis of recognition memory have implicated several brain regions. (
  • The sense of smell is supported by neurogenesis and is very strongly associated with memory, and it is thought by some that that connection might make it a very useful surrogate for what might be going on in the brain," Dr Craft added. (
  • Brain Stimulation for Improved Memory? (
  • Electrical brain stimulation may have the potential to improve verbal memory, results of a small study of patients with epilepsy suggest. (
  • However, they note, this study lays the groundwork for larger-scale and extensive studies examining the nuanced effects of brain stimulation on human cognition and memory. (
  • Cite this: Brain Stimulation for Improved Memory? (
  • Older adults with more significant depressive symptoms have more memory problems, more markers of brain aging, and increased vascular brain lesions. (
  • Stamp of Memories II" was published in 1994, also by Peter Blum Edition. (
  • These 11 research-proven strategies can effectively improve memory, enhance recall, and increase retention of information. (
  • In order to recall information, you need to encode what you are studying into long-term memory. (
  • If something is especially noteworthy, or is repeated many times, it might get stored in your long-term memory, allowing you to recall it years later. (
  • Sleep also is important to the ability to recall memories. (
  • Research indicates that recall of both short- and long-term memory is impaired by lack of sleep. (
  • Scientists studying memory processing in infants found that babies 6-12 months who took naps at least 30 minutes after learning new behaviors showed better recall than infants who did not sleep. (
  • We alternated when patients were undergoing stimulation vs no stimulation, and still found that when patients' RNS systems were activated, their memory recall score was greater than when there was no stimulation," Haneef said in a release. (
  • We analyzed 17DD-YF-specific memory by establishing the phenotypic features of peripheral blood mononuclear cells upon 17DD-YF antigen recall in vitro. (
  • Memories are the refiring of the same neurons that fired when you first had a particular thought or experience. (
  • You can actually see changes in the neurons when memories form. (
  • Since the 1940s scientists have surmised that memories are held within groups of neurons, or nerve cells, called cell assemblies. (
  • Research shows that even a brief lack of sleep can diminish the brain's capacity to form new memories as part of everyday learning. (
  • Memory, Forgetfulness, and Aging: What's Normal and What's Not? (
  • This paper endeavors to reach a better understanding of the mechanisms of memory and of forgetfulness, underlining the importance not only of what is remembered but, especially, of how the possibility of forgetfulness is paramount to the formation of our memories. (
  • If our memories are so wrong, while convinced we are so right, some scientists now pose an even more extraordinary question: Can we deliberately create false memories? (
  • We will begin by examining empirical research on memory for different kinds of content: factual information vs. personal events vs. cognitive skills. (
  • If you purchase only one book at the turn of the new millennium to teach you about the latest computational models of memory and amnesia, let it be Gateway to Memory . (
  • To understand how we remember things, it's incredibly helpful to study how we forget- which is why neuroscientists study amnesia, the loss of memories or the ability to learn . (
  • Participants included 84 elderly adults from the Questionable Dementia II study who had either mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or normal memory at baseline. (
  • The researchers also caution that for this preliminary study, no follow-up testing was conducted to determine whether the memory improvement was transient and settled back to baseline after a specified period. (
  • Do Memory Problems Always Mean Alzheimer's Disease? (
  • And decreased odor identification is also seen in those with mild memory symptoms and those who develop Alzheimer's disease dementia," said William Kreisl, MD, from the Taub Institute and Columbia University Medical Center in New York City. (
  • Despite these limitations, we conclude that UPSIT may be useful in evaluating patients who are concerned about their memory as a low-cost, noninvasive alternative to PET scan or spinal tap in assisting physicians in determining a patient's risk of one day developing Alzheimer's disease," Dr Kreisl said. (
  • Studies also show sleep deprivation and sleep disorders can negatively affect declarative memory . (
  • Various mental disorders are associated with impairments or alterations in memory. (
  • Anxiety and related disorders are also strongly associated with memory loss and impairment. (
  • Disorders of memory and learning / George A. Talland. (
  • These actions ensure that transient memory allocations made inside your C function are reclaimed at C function exit, avoiding memory leakage. (
  • 2018) as one of the top biomarkers to monitor the immunological memory to 17DD-YF vaccine. (
  • YF vaccination, including the levels of 17DD-YF-specific neutralizing antibodies, 17DD-YF- specific phenotypic and functional biomarkers, and resultant memory status. (
  • Selection of memory-related biomarkers up-regulated before and after primary or secondary 17DD-YF vaccination. (
  • The attributes EMCD4, EMCD8 and IFNCD8 were then underscored as universal memory-related biomarkers. (
  • Procedural memories are often made through repetition and practice, and are recalled without conscious thought. (
  • Component memory is memory allocated from memory resources (such as RAM blocks) available on the FPGA. (
  • Model performance and energy consumption for each component in the memory hierarchy. (
  • displays dynamic PGA memory usage by named component categories for each process. (
  • Hence, this component of libavutil is created to make dealing with memory consistently possible on all platforms. (
  • Although fear of memory loss may be an obsessive concern in individuals with health illness anxiety disorder, memory dysfunction is not a routine component of the condition. (
  • The first part provides a tutorial introduction to topics in neuroscience, the psychology of learning and memory, and the theory of neural network models. (
  • Recent studies are questioning the fragile unreliability of the human memory - with enormous implications for justice, psychology and our sense of who we are. (
  • As scientists discover our memories are vulnerable to change and malleable to our experiences, is it possible that traumatic memories could be "replaced" with healthy ones to deal with issues like depression and PTSD? (
  • In Forbidden Memory the leading Tibetan writer Tsering Woeser presents three hundred previously unseen photographs taken by her father, then an officer in the People's Liberation Army, that show for the first time the frenzy and violence of the Cultural Revolution in Tibet. (
  • Memories aren't like photographs: Each time you remember something, it comes out a little different. (
  • Data bits in Oscar-13's memory get corrupted from time to time. (
  • PostgreSQL allocates memory within memory contexts , which provide a convenient method of managing allocations made in many different places that need to live for differing amounts of time. (
  • Her studies show that flashbulb memories erode over time just like fading memories of birthdays and love affairs. (
  • We also have a working memory, which lets us keep something in our minds for a limited time by repeating it. (
  • Long-term memory stores it for a longer period of time. (
  • We do not have compatible memory upgrades for your system at this time. (
  • Time and Memory in Japan", reflects the dynamic development of Japanese art and culture during recent decades. (
  • How to increase phone memory of Android phone because I have no plans to change my phone for the time being. (
  • object-place information (object-in-place memory), or recency information (temporal order memory). (
  • However, it can be argued that recognition memory is not a unitary process, as distinct types of information are used to form judgments of prior occurrence, including the relative familiarity of an object or location or when or where an object was previously encountered (recency/temporal order memory or object-in-place memory, respectively). (
  • The Doorkeepers for Christ of Historic Bethel AMEC invite family and friends to support the creation of our Historic Bethel Memory Garden that will be constructed on the 10th Street Side of our Church grounds. (
  • But there are advantages to forgetting things: Our brains evolved to summon memories that relate to what's happening right now, not to swamp us with random details. (
  • Events which seem seared on our brains are called "flashbulb memories" because we practically see them in our mind like pictures illuminated by flashbulbs. (
  • Declarative memory involves memories related to facts and knowledge, as well as details about individual experiences. (
  • Recognition memory involves making judgments about whether a stimulus has been encountered before. (
  • Among seniors with mild memory and cognitive problems, those who had one alcoholic drink a day, typically wine, had a slower progression of their dementia over a three-year period than the teetotalers. (
  • the current context is restored to the upper executor context, and all allocations made in the C function memory context are freed and cannot be used any more. (
  • Caregivers can help reduce their risk for memory loss by making positive lifestyle choices. (
  • The secret of preventing memory loss in old age may lie in treating depression and causes of stress early as researchers have confirmed that depression indeed increases the risk of dementia. (
  • Researchers have found that information is organized in memory in related clusters. (
  • Besides their innate ability to rapidly produce effector cytokines and kill virus -infected or transformed cells, natural killer (NK) cells display a strong capability to adapt to environmental modifications and to differentiate into long-lived, hyperfunctional populations , dubbed memory or memory -like NK cells . (
  • Episode 35 of The Blender explores memory and consequence, as it examines lives around the world affected by the events of September 11, 2001, and other tragedies like it. (
  • The first experiment examines memory in a real professional setting (Academia). (
  • When you're tempted to stay up late for the sake of being productive, keep in mind that you and your memory ultimately will be better served by getting a good night's sleep. (
  • For example, the computing-heavy components like video decoding and encoding can be sped up significantly through the use of aligned memory. (
  • Designed to significantly increase performance levels of the entire platform, these modules feature Intel Extreme Memory Profiles (XMP), an exclusive set of SPD (Serial Presence Detect) settings that act as an integrated "plug and play" overclocking tool. (
  • Beginning in June 2000, it took Bong Joon Ho a year to write the script for Memories of Murder (2003) , yet he has stated that: 'For the first six months, I didn't write a line of the script. (
  • The Making Core Memory project is a design inquiry into the invisible work that went into assembling core memory, an early form of computer information storage initially woven by hand. (
  • I have written a script to highlight the superiority of shared memory storage. (
  • The memory and storage experts. (
  • Very dense memory storage. (
  • If you don't have a Cloud account, you may choose a PC or tablet or other external storage devices to save internal memory on the Android phone. (
  • Self-testing strengthens the memory by creating keywords as clues for retrieving the word pairs later on. (
  • This will help multi-core processors more efficiently manage the retrieval of data from memory. (
  • Memory scientists say most memories are full of distortions and errors. (
  • Memory is under heavy scrutiny by a new generation of scientists - and they're posing an uncomfortable question: Can we trust what we remember about our lives? (
  • Depression has long had a connection to memory problems. (
  • a single seashell can bring back memories of an entire beach vacation. (
  • After Bhavita died in 2017, her family and colleagues wanted to honour her memory by establishing a scholarship. (
  • creates a new memory context and makes it current. (
  • The Christmas Season brings wonderful traditions and thus creates happy memories. (
  • Is your memory hierarchy stopping your microprocessor from performing at the high level it should be? (
  • You learn how to to tackle the challenging optimization problems that result from the side-effects that can appear at any point in the entire hierarchy.As a result you will be able to design and emulate the entire memory hierarchy. (
  • While Molaison-known when he was alive as H.M.-remembered much of his childhood, he was unable to form new declarative memories. (
  • Layers of childhood memories blend with historical events to form the rich imagery of his large mixed media paintings and installations. (
  • Join 2021 MSI COMPUTING AND DISPLAY New Product Launch Event on 2021 November 2nd 09:00 (UTC-7) to know more about details of new Intel motherboard and memory! (
  • This article focuses on the features and details of Sybase's Adaptive Server Enterprise (ASE) in-memory database. (
  • Forbidden Memory is an extraordinary and unique record of events in Tibet in the 1960s, when Tibetan intellectuals, lamas, and officials were publicly humiliated by Communist Party activists and their supporters, and is an account of the disastrous push for communalization that followed. (
  • Gluck and Myers display their extraordinary ability to simplify difficult concepts so that a broad readership can appreciate the breadth and depth of the rapid advances in the cognitive neuroscience of memory being made by the best and brightest of computational modelers. (
  • The result is tens of thousands of people are reporting signs that their memory is getting worse. (
  • Heartbreaking and revelatory, Forbidden Memory offers a personal, literary discussion of the nature of memory, violence, and responsibility, while giving insight into the condition of a people whose violently truncated history they are still unable to discuss today. (
  • Stress may also act as a trigger to poor memory in people with a gene associated with Alzheimer's. (
  • Five local older people were filmed sharing some of their memories/life events. (
  • Jennifer McQuiston] Many people around the world have great memories of Dr. Steele. (
  • EDAC Memory Circuits -------------------- Circuits to perform error detection and correction are delightfully simple. (
  • Four registers are used to refer to four segments on the 16-bit x86 segmented memory architecture. (
  • We will also discuss developmental changes in memory-from infancy to old age. (
  • Function attributes applicable to memory handling functions. (
  • showing that, depending on the nature of the recognition memory judgment, these cortical regions may function within a neural circuit. (
  • Three persons reported memory problems and being diagnosed by the same physician with toxic encephalopathy from mold exposure in the school. (
  • 10. Do you feel you have more problems with memory than most? (
  • So correct me if I'm wrong, but the shmop.c extension uses memcpy() to copy strings to and from shared memory without any form of locking, and as far as I know, memcpy() is not atomic. (
  • In general, declarative memories are easier to form than nondeclarative memories. (
  • To make a gift in memory of your loved one, please use our Online Donation Form . (
  • To allow direct connectivity in Qsys, the top-level DSP Builder for Intel FPGAs design adds blocks to terminate the parallel inputs and outputs and handshaking logic with an Avalon memory-mapped register map. (
  • Sunnyvale, Calif.-December 13, 2007 -OCZ Technology Group, a worldwide leader in innovative, ultra-high performance and high reliability memory, today announced new 1800MHz Intel Extreme Memory modules, a performance solution that implements a specification predefined and specially tailored for the Intel X48 chipset. (