Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A group of membrane transport proteins that transport biogenic amine derivatives of catechol across the PLASMA MEMBRANE. Catecholamine plasma membrane transporter proteins regulate neural transmission as well as catecholamine metabolism and recycling.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A family of sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters that transport the amino acid GLYCINE. They differ from GLYCINE RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GLYCINE. They are located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of NEURONS; GLIAL CELLS; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and RED BLOOD CELLS where they remove inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE.
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that couple the uptake of GLUTAMATE with the import of SODIUM ions and PROTONS and the export of POTASSIUM ions. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM they regulate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism.
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that regulates extracellular levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They differ from GABA RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They control GABA reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM through high-affinity sodium-dependent transport.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of noradrenergic neurons. They remove NOREPINEPHRINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. It regulates signal amplitude and duration at noradrenergic synapses and is the target of ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
A membrane of squamous EPITHELIAL CELLS, the mesothelial cells, covered by apical MICROVILLI that allow rapid absorption of fluid and particles in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. The peritoneum is divided into parietal and visceral components. The parietal peritoneum covers the inside of the ABDOMINAL WALL. The visceral peritoneum covers the intraperitoneal organs. The double-layered peritoneum forms the MESENTERY that suspends these organs from the abdominal wall.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A non-penetrating amino reagent (commonly called SITS) which acts as an inhibitor of anion transport in erythrocytes and other cells.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Proteins that bind to and are involved in the metabolism of phosphate ions.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A 700-kDa cytosolic protein complex consisting of seven equimolar subunits (alpha, beta, beta', gamma, delta, epsilon and zeta). COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 are principle components of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I and are involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
A family of monosaccharide transport proteins characterized by 12 membrane spanning helices. They facilitate passive diffusion of GLUCOSE across the CELL MEMBRANE.
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
A phenolphthalein that is used as a diagnostic aid in hepatic function determination.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
A ubiquitously expressed folic acid transporter that functions via an antiporter mechanism which is coupled to the transport of organic phosphates.
Solutions prepared for exchange across a semipermeable membrane of solutes below a molecular size determined by the cutoff threshold of the membrane material.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Portable peritoneal dialysis using the continuous (24 hours a day, 7 days a week) presence of peritoneal dialysis solution in the peritoneal cavity except for periods of drainage and instillation of fresh solution.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOTIDES across cellular membranes.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOSIDES across cellular membranes.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Dialysis fluid being introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity as either a continuous or an intermittent procedure.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.

A single membrane-embedded negative charge is critical for recognizing positively charged drugs by the Escherichia coli multidrug resistance protein MdfA. (1/9754)

The nature of the broad substrate specificity phenomenon, as manifested by multidrug resistance proteins, is not yet understood. In the Escherichia coli multidrug transporter, MdfA, the hydrophobicity profile and PhoA fusion analysis have so far identified only one membrane-embedded charged amino acid residue (E26). In order to determine whether this negatively charged residue may play a role in multidrug recognition, we evaluated the expression and function of MdfA constructs mutated at this position. Replacing E26 with the positively charged residue lysine abolished the multidrug resistance activity against positively charged drugs, but retained chloramphenicol efflux and resistance. In contrast, when the negative charge was preserved in a mutant with aspartate instead of E26, chloramphenicol recognition and transport were drastically inhibited; however, the mutant exhibited almost wild-type multidrug resistance activity against lipophilic cations. These results suggest that although the negative charge at position 26 is not essential for active transport, it dictates the multidrug resistance character of MdfA. We show that such a negative charge is also found in other drug resistance transporters, and its possible significance regarding multidrug resistance is discussed.  (+info)

Membrane deinsertion of SecA underlying proton motive force-dependent stimulation of protein translocation. (2/9754)

The proton motive force (PMF) renders protein translocation across the Escherichia coli membrane highly efficient, although the underlying mechanism has not been clarified. The membrane insertion and deinsertion of SecA coupled to ATP binding and hydrolysis, respectively, are thought to drive the translocation. We report here that PMF significantly decreases the level of membrane-inserted SecA. The prlA4 mutation of SecY, which causes efficient protein translocation in the absence of PMF, was found to reduce the membrane-inserted SecA irrespective of the presence or absence of PMF. The PMF-dependent decrease in the membrane-inserted SecA caused an increase in the amount of SecA released into the extra-membrane milieu, indicating that PMF deinserts SecA from the membrane. The PMF-dependent deinsertion reduced the amount of SecA required for maximal translocation activity. Neither ATP hydrolysis nor exchange with external SecA was required for the PMF-dependent deinsertion of SecA. These results indicate that the SecA deinsertion is a limiting step of protein translocation and is accelerated by PMF, efficient protein translocation thereby being caused in the presence of PMF.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of the human orthologue of yeast Pex14p. (3/9754)

Pex14p is a central component of the peroxisomal protein import machinery, which has been suggested to provide the point of convergence for PTS1- and PTS2-dependent protein import in yeast cells. Here we describe the identification of a human peroxisome-associated protein (HsPex14p) which shows significant similarity to the yeast Pex14p. HsPex14p is a carbonate-resistant peroxisomal membrane protein with its C terminus exposed to the cytosol. The N terminus of the protein is not accessible to exogenously added antibodies or protease and thus might protrude into the peroxisomal lumen. HsPex14p overexpression leads to the decoration of tubular structures and mislocalization of peroxisomal catalase to the cytosol. HsPex14p binds the cytosolic receptor for the peroxisomal targeting signal 1 (PTS1), a result consistent with a function as a membrane receptor in peroxisomal protein import. Homo-oligomerization of HsPex14p or interaction of the protein with the PTS2-receptor or HsPex13p was not observed. This distinguishes the human Pex14p from its counterpart in yeast cells and thus supports recent data suggesting that not all aspects of peroxisomal protein import are conserved between yeasts and humans. The role of HsPex14p in mammalian peroxisome biogenesis makes HsPEX14 a candidate PBD gene for being responsible for an unrecognized complementation group of human peroxisome biogenesis disorders.  (+info)

Induction of serotonin transporter by hypoxia in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells. Relationship with the mitogenic action of serotonin. (4/9754)

-The increased delivery of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) to the lung aggravates the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats, possibly through stimulation of the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PA-SMCs). In cultured rat PA-SMCs, 5-HT (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L) induced DNA synthesis and potentiated the mitogenic effect of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (10 ng/mL). This effect was dependent on the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT), since it was prevented by the 5-HTT inhibitors fluoxetine (10(-6) mol/L) and paroxetine (10(-7) mol/L), but it was unaltered by ketanserin (10(-6) mol/L), a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist. In PA-SMCs exposed to hypoxia, the levels of 5-HTT mRNA (measured by competitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) increased by 240% within 2 hours, followed by a 3-fold increase in the uptake of [3H]5-HT at 24 hours. Cotransfection of the cells with a construct of human 5-HTT promoter-luciferase gene reporter and of pCMV-beta-galactosidase gene allowed the demonstration that exposure of cells to hypoxia produced a 5.5-fold increase in luciferase activity, with no change in beta-galactosidase activity. The increased expression of 5-HTT in hypoxic cells was associated with a greater mitogenic response to 5-HT (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L) in the absence as well as in the presence of platelet-derived growth factor-BB. 5-HTT expression assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization in the lungs was found to predominate in the media of pulmonary artery, in which a marked increase was noted in rats that had been exposed to hypoxia for 15 days. These data show that in vitro and in vivo exposure to hypoxia induces, via a transcriptional mechanism, 5-HTT expression in PA-SMCs, and that this effect contributes to the stimulatory action of 5-HT on PA-SMC proliferation. In vivo expression of 5-HTT by PA-SMC may play a key role in serotonin-mediated pulmonary vascular remodeling.  (+info)

Reproducibility studies with 11C-DTBZ, a monoamine vesicular transporter inhibitor in healthy human subjects. (5/9754)

The reproducibility of (+/-)-alpha-[11C] dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) measures in PET was studied in 10 healthy human subjects, aged 22-76 y. METHODS: The scan-to-scan variation of several measures used in PET data analysis was determined, including the radioactivity ratio (target-to-reference), plasma-input Logan total distribution volume (DV), plasma-input Logan Bmax/Kd and tissue-input Logan Bmax/Kd values. RESULTS: The radioactivity ratios, plasma-input Bmax/Kd and tissue-input Bmax/Kd all have higher reliability than plasma-input total DV values. In addition, measures using the occipital cortex as the reference region have higher reliability than the same measures using the cerebellum as the reference region. CONCLUSION: Our results show that DTBZ is a reliable PET tracer that provides reproducible in vivo measurement of striatal vesicular monoamine transporter density. In the selection of reference regions for DTBZ PET data analysis, caution must be exercised in circumstances when DTBZ binding in the occipital cortex or the cerebellum may be altered.  (+info)

Re-entering the translocon from the lumenal side of the endoplasmic reticulum. Studies on mutated carboxypeptidase yscY species. (6/9754)

Misfolded or unassembled secretory proteins are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and subsequently degraded by the cytosolic ubiquitin-proteasome system. This requires their retrograde transport from the ER lumen into the cytosol, which is mediated by the Sec61 translocon. It had remained a mystery whether ER-localised soluble proteins are at all capable of re-entering the Sec61 channel de novo or whether a permanent contact of the imported protein with the translocon is a prerequisite for retrograde transport. In this study we analysed two new variants of the mutated yeast carboxypeptidase yscY, CPY*: a carboxy-terminal fusion protein of CPY* and pig liver esterase and a CPY* species carrying an additional glycosylation site at its carboxy-terminus. With these constructs it can be demonstrated that the newly synthesised CPY* chain is not retained in the translocation channel but reaches its ER lumenal side completely. Our data indicate that the Sec61 channel provides the essential pore for protein transport through the ER membrane in either direction; persistent contact with the translocon after import seems not to be required for retrograde transport.  (+info)

Cloning of a bovine orphan transporter and its short splicing variant. (7/9754)

We have isolated a cDNA (bv7-3) encoding a member of the Na+,Cl(-)-dependent transporter family and its short splicing variant (bv7-3s) by screening a bovine retina cDNA library. Sequence analysis revealed that bv7-3 encodes a protein of 729 amino acids and is a bovine homologue of the rat orphan transporter v7-3-2. bv7-3s contains 265 amino acids, sharing 252 N-terminal amino acids with bv7-3. Both mRNAs for bv7-3 and bv7-3s were detected in nervous system by Northern blot analysis. In immunofluorescence analysis in transfected HEK 293T cells, myc-tagged bv7-3 was mainly detected on the plasma membrane, whereas myc-tagged bv7-3s showed a pattern of intracellular membrane staining.  (+info)

UCP4, a novel brain-specific mitochondrial protein that reduces membrane potential in mammalian cells. (8/9754)

Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are a family of mitochondrial transporter proteins that have been implicated in thermoregulatory heat production and maintenance of the basal metabolic rate. We have identified and partially characterized a novel member of the human uncoupling protein family, termed uncoupling protein-4 (UCP4). Protein sequence analyses showed that UCP4 is most related to UCP3 and possesses features characteristic of mitochondrial transporter proteins. Unlike other known UCPs, UCP4 transcripts are exclusively expressed in both fetal and adult brain tissues. UCP4 maps to human chromosome 6p11.2-q12. Consistent with its potential role as an uncoupling protein, UCP4 is localized to the mitochondria and its ectopic expression in mammalian cells reduces mitochondrial membrane potential. These findings suggest that UCP4 may be involved in thermoregulatory heat production and metabolism in the brain.  (+info)

The transporters participate in a significant role in drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination. Transporters are of efflux and influx type, need ATP-binding sites for their in and out movement across the cell membrane. These transporters play an important role in allowing or opposing the drugs into the cells, results in non-linearity in drug pharmacokinetics. A wide range of transporters was discovered; among them, organic solute transporters (OST) play a key role in drug absorption and disposition. Organic solute transporters is a heteromeric transporter localized to the basolateral of epithelial cells. It is the primary efflux bile acid transporter in the intestine of mammals.. ...
BioAssay record AID 676749 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of Multidrug resistance efflux pump in Mycobacterium smegmatis str. MC2 155 ATCC 700084 assessed as reduction in isoniazid bromide MIC presence of test compound at 64 mg/L.
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Multidrug efflux systems display the ability to transport a variety of structurally unrelated drugs from a cell and consequently are capable of conferring resistance to a diverse range of chemotherapeutic agents. This review examines multidrug efflux systems which use the proton motive force to drive drug transport. These proteins are likely to operate as multidrug/proton antiporters and have been identified in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Such proton-dependent multidrug efflux proteins belong to three distinct families or superfamilies of transport proteins: the major facilitator superfamily (MFS), the small multidrug resistance (SMR) family, and the resistance/ nodulation/cell division (RND) family. The MFS consists of symporters, antiporters, and uniporters with either 12 or 14 transmembrane-spanning segments (TMS), and we show that within the MFS, three separate families include various multidrug/proton antiport proteins. The SMR family consists of proteins with four TMS, and the ...
The Tat system transports folded proteins across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane and the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts. Substrates are targeted to the Tat pathway by signal peptides containing a pair of consecutive arginine residues. The membrane proteins TatA, TatB and TatC are the essential components of this pathway in Escherichia coli. The complexes that these proteins form at native levels of expression have been investigated by the use of affinity tag-coding sequences fused to chromosomal tat genes. Distinct TatA and TatBC complexes were identified using size-exclusion chromatography and shown to have apparent molecular masses of approximately 700 and 500 kDa, respectively. Following in vivo expression, the Tat substrate protein SufI was found to copurify with the TatBC, but not the TatA, complex. This binding required the SufI signal peptide. Substitution of the twin-arginine residues in the SufI signal peptide by either twin lysine or twin alanine residues abolished export. However
The protein export is the active transport of proteins from the cytoplasm to the exterior of the cell, or to the periplasmic compartment in Gram-negative bacteria. The sec dependent pathway is the general protein export system that transports newly synthesized proteins into or across the cell membrane. The translocation channel is formed from a conserved trimeric membrane protein complex, called the Sec61/SecY complex. The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway is another protein transport system that transports folded proteins in bacteria, archaea, and chloroplasts. Many Tat systems comprise three functionally different membrane proteins, TatA, TatB, and TatC, but TatA and TatE seem to have overlapping functions, with TatA having by far the more important role ...
Recent identification of several members of the chloroplastic protein translocation machinery has allowed for further refinement of our understanding of the mechanism by which precursors are transported into chloroplasts. We have attempted to define the composition of complexes that form during translocation using co‐immunoprecipitation techniques with antibodies specific to translocation components. We have observed that precursors could be found in stable association with translocation complexes after solubilization with a mild detergent, decylmaltoside. Characterization of these complexes has led to two conclusions: (i) that under limiting ATP conditions, precursors associated with translocation complexes containing components of the outer and inner envelope membranes; and (ii) that the chaperone ClpC, a stromal Hsp100 homolog, was associated with precursor‐containing complexes under these limiting ATP conditions.. The data presented here suggest a new role for the stromal Hsp100 homolog ...
Membrane transporters allow the selective transport of otherwise poorly permeable solutes across the cell membrane and thus, play a key role in maintaining cellular homeostasis in all kingdoms of life. Importantly, these proteins also serve as important drug targets. Over the last decades, major progress in structural biology methods has elucidated important structure-function relationships in mem...
Among the different families of transporter, only two occur ubiquitously in all classifications of organisms. These are the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) superfamily and the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS). The MFS transporters are single-polypeptide secondary carriers capable only of transporting small solutes in response to chemiosmotic ion gradients [ (PUBMED:9529885) (PUBMED:9868370) ]. The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) of membrane proteins represents the largest family of secondary transporters with members from Archaea to Homo sapiens. MFS proteins target a wide spectrum of substrates, including ions, carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids and peptides, nucleosides and other small molecules in both directions across the membrane, in many instances catalysing active transport by transducing the energy stored in an proton electrochemical gradient into a concentration gradient of substrate [ (PUBMED:23530251) ]. One remarkable characteristic of the MFS is the high sequence variety within ...
Among the different families of transporter, only two occur ubiquitously in all classifications of organisms. These are the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) superfamily and the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS). The MFS transporters are single-polypeptide secondary carriers capable only of transporting small solutes in response to chemiosmotic ion gradients [ (PUBMED:9529885) (PUBMED:9868370) ]. The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) of membrane proteins represents the largest family of secondary transporters with members from Archaea to Homo sapiens. MFS proteins target a wide spectrum of substrates, including ions, carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids and peptides, nucleosides and other small molecules in both directions across the membrane, in many instances catalysing active transport by transducing the energy stored in an proton electrochemical gradient into a concentration gradient of substrate [ (PUBMED:23530251) ]. One remarkable characteristic of the MFS is the high sequence variety within ...
Proteoliposomes represent a suitable and up to date tool for studying membrane transporters which physiologically mediate absorption, excretion, trafficking and reabsorption of nutrients and metabolites. Using recently developed reconstitution strategies, transporters can be inserted in artificial bilayers with the same orientation as in the cell membranes and in the absence of other interfering molecular systems. These methodologies are very suitable for studying kinetic parameters and molecular mechanisms. After the first applications on mitochondrial transporters, in the last decade, proteoliposomes obtained with optimized methodologies have been used for studying plasma membrane transporters and defining their functional and kinetic properties and structure/function relationships. A lot of information has been obtained which has clarified and completed the knowledge on several transporters among which the OCTN sub-family members, transporters for neutral amino acid, B0AT1 and ASCT2, and others.
Shop Multidrug efflux pump accessory protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Multidrug efflux pump accessory protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Johnson, Tanya and Ouhtit, Allal and Gaur, Rajiv and Fernando, Augusta and Schwarzenberger, Paul and Su, Joseph and Ismail, Mohamed F and El-Sayyad, Hassan I and Karande, Anjali and Elmageed, Zakaria Abd and Rao, Prakash and Raj, Madhwa (2009) Biochemical characterization of riboflavin carrier protein (RCP) in prostate cancer. In: Frontiers in Bioscience, 14 . pp. 3634-3640. ...
Raj, Madhwa HG and Roy, Tanya and Karande, Anjali and Rao, Prakash N and Richardson, Kevin and Raj, Shailaja G (2003) Expression patterns of Riboflavin Carrier Protein (RCP) in the female reproductive system. In: Fertility and Sterility, 80 (3). S249-S250. ...
Plant nutrition critically depends on the activity of membrane transporters that translocate minerals from the soil into the plant and are responsible for their intra- and intercellular distribution. Most plant membrane transporters are encoded by multigene families whose members often exhibit overlapping expression patterns and a high degree of sequence homology. Furthermore, many inorganic nutrients are transported by more than one transporter family. These considerations, coupled with a large number of so-far non-annotated putative transporter genes, hamper our progress in understanding how the activity of specific transporters is integrated into a response to fluctuating conditions. We designed an oligonucleotide microarray representing 1096 Arabidopsis transporter genes and analysed the root transporter transcriptome over a 96-h period with respect to 80 mm NaCl, K+ starvation and Ca2+ starvation. Our data show that cation stress led to changes in transcript level of many genes across most ...
CP000667.PE394 Location/Qualifiers FT CDS_pept 453881..454846 FT /codon_start=1 FT /transl_table=11 FT /locus_tag=Strop_0394 FT /product=RarD protein, DMT superfamily transporter FT /note=TIGRFAM: RarD protein, DMT superfamily transporter; FT PFAM: protein of unknown function DUF6, transmembrane FT /db_xref=EnsemblGenomes-Gn:Strop_0394 FT /db_xref=EnsemblGenomes-Tr:ABP52879 FT /db_xref=GOA:A4X1X9 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR000620 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR004626 FT /db_xref=UniProtKB/TrEMBL:A4X1X9 FT /protein_id=ABP52879.1 FT /translation=MTPRKLGYLYGIGAYVLWGFFPLYMRLLRPASPLEILAHRIVWSV FT VFVALVLAAMRNRSFLRALLRRPRALAALGIAAALVALNWGTYIYGVNSERVVETSLGY FT FVNPLVVVLLGVFVLRERLRPAQWAAIGVGGAAVVVLTVDYGRPPYLALVLSFTFAGYG FT LVKKRLGLPAAQGLFVESAVLALPALAYLAWLGGTGGATFGAVSAGHTALLISAGAATA FT IPLLMFAGAANRLPFTSLGMLQYLAPILQLGCGVIIFREPMPPARLAGFALVWLALAVF FT TVDAVRAARRLPPPLADEVLAAVQPGSGTSPQQERKIVSG gtgacgcctc gcaagctcgg ctacctgtac ggtatcggcg cgtacgtgct ctggggtttc 60 ttcccgctct acatgagact gctccggccg ...
Membrane protein topology predictions can be markedly improved by the inclusion of even very limited experimental information. We have recently introduced an approach for the production of reliable topology models based on a combination of experimental determination of the location (cytoplasmic or p …
This paper is interesting because it reports a novel method for the regulation of an ATPase required to drive polypeptides through the bacterial inner membrane via the transmembrane protein-conducting channel SecYEG. Protein translocation through the SecY / Sec61 complex is an essential and conserved reaction and in bacteria it proceeds by the action of an ATP-driven protein pump associated with the protein conduction channel. The work identifies a conserved salt bridge or gate in SecA that may form a switch to control different conformations in the nucleotide binding fold. As such, it may play an important role in relaying the conformational changes associated with ATP binding and hydrolysis to a power stroke responsible for the directional movement of polypeptides. ...
Genetic information processingProtein fateProtein and peptide secretion and traffickingTat (twin-arginine translocation) pathway signal sequence (TIGR01409; HMM-score: 25.5) ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Proteolytic processing of Escherichia coli twin-arginine signal peptides by LepB. AU - Luke,Iris. AU - Handford,Jennifer I.. AU - Palmer,Tracy. AU - Sargent,Frank. PY - 2009/12. Y1 - 2009/12. N2 - The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) apparatus is a protein targeting system found in the cytoplasmic membranes of many prokaryotes. Substrate proteins of the Tat pathway are synthesised with signal peptides bearing SRRxFLK twin-arginine amino acid motifs. All Tat signal peptides have a common tripartite structure comprising a polar N-terminal region, followed by a hydrophobic region of variable length and a polar C-terminal region. In Escherichia coli, Tat signal peptides are proteolytically cleaved after translocation. The signal peptide C-terminal regions contain conserved AxA motifs, which are possible recognition sequences for leader peptidase I (LepB). In this work, the role of LepB in Tat signal peptide processing was addressed directly. Deliberate repression of lepB ...
To test the hypothesis that the abundance of the apical urea transporter of the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) is regulated in vivo by factors associated with altered water balance, immunoblots of rat inner medullary membrane fractions were probed with rabbit polyclonal antibodies against the renal urea transporter (RUT) gene product. In inner medullas of Brattleboro rats, which manifest severe chronic water diuresis, a 117-kD band was seen, in addition to the previously described 97-kD band. These two bands were detectable by antibodies directed against two different regions of the RUT sequence. When Brattleboro rats were treated with a 5-d infusion of arginine vasopressin (AVP) by osmotic minipump, the 117-kD band was markedly diminished, whereas the 97-kD band was unchanged. Simultaneous infusion of the diuretic agent furosemide prevented the AVP-induced decrease in the 117-kD band. In AVP-infused Sprague Dawley rats, the 117-kD band was barely perceptible. However, when AVP-treated ...
The Tat system is a protein export system dedicated to the transport of folded proteins across the prokaryotic cytoplasmic membrane and the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts. Proteins are targeted for export by the Tat system via N-terminal signal peptides harbouring an S-R-R-x-F-L-K twin-arginine motif. In this chapter qualitative and quantitative assays for native Tat substrates in the model organism Escherichia coli are described. Genetic screening methods designed to allow the rapid positive selection of Tat signal peptide activity and the first positive selection for mutations that inactivate the Tat pathway are also presented. Finally isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) methods for measuring the affinity of twin-arginine signal peptide-chaperone interactions are discussed.
Introduction: X-linked spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda(SEDT) is a type of shorttrunk skeletal dysplasia, occurring in males due to mutation in TRAPPC2 gene. Case Report: We describe a large Indian family with multiple males affected with X-linked SEDT. The affected individuals presented with disproportionate short stature, short trunk, and barrel-shaped chest. Elder sibs aged 26 years and 31 years had back and hip pain. Premature osteoarthritis was seen requiring hip replacement surgery in one sib. The known pathogenic nonsense mutation c.209G|A (p.W70X) was identified in TRAPPC2 gene. This is the first mutation proven Indian kindred with X-linked SEDT. Conclusion: Knowledge of molecular basis is essential to provide definitive diagnosis, accurate counseling, and prenatal diagnosis or early postnatal diagnosis for this rare condition.
Escherichia coli K1 infection is a major cause of neonatal meningitis, with high rates of mortality and disability. Despite years of research, only a small number of factors contributing to E. coli K1 virulence have been identified. The Tat (twin-arginine translocation) protein export system is found in the cytoplasmic membrane of E. coli and is involved in the transport of folded proteins. In vivo and ex vivo models using the African migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, were employed to explore the role of Tat pathway in E. coli K1 virulence using tat-deletion mutants. Groups of locusts were infected and mortality was recorded at 24-h intervals. The findings revealed that ?tatA, Delta tatAC and ?tat produced levels of mortality similar to wild-type E. coli K1, with |78% mortality recorded within 72 h. Bacteraemia was determined from haemolymph obtained 3 and 24 h postinfection. Again, wild-type and ?tatA produced similar levels of bacteraemia. In contrast, Delta tatAC and ?tat produced lower levels of
Hgt1p, a high-affinity glutathione transporter from Saccharomyces cerevisiae belongs to the recently described family of OPTs (oligopeptide transporters), the majority of whose members still have unknown substrate specificity. To obtain insights into substrate recognition and translocation, we have subjected all 21 residues of TMD9 (transmembrane domain 9) to alanine-scanning mutagenesis. Phe523 was found to be critical for glutathione recognition, since F523A mutants showed a 4-fold increase in Km without affecting expression or localization. Phe523 and the previously identified polar residue Gln526 were on the same face of the helix suggesting a joint participation in glutathione recognition, whereas two other polar residues, Ser519 and Asn522, of TMD9, although also orientated on the same face, did not appear to be involved. The size and hydrophobicity of Phe523 were both key features of its functionality, as seen from mutational analysis. Sequence alignments revealed that Phe523 and Gln526 ...
A major feature of the MexAB-OprM multidrug efflux pump which distinguishes it from the MexCD-OprJ and MexEF-OprN multidrug efflux systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is its ability to export a wide variety of beta-lactam antibiotics. Given the periplasmic location of their targets it is feasible that beta-lactams exit the cell via the outer membrane OprM without interaction with MexA and MexB, though the latter appear to be necessary for OprM function. To test this, chimeric MexAB-OprJ and MexCD-OprM efflux pumps were reconstituted in delta mexCD delta oprM and delta mexAB delta oprJ strains, respectively, and the influence of the exchange of outer membrane components on substrate (i.e., beta-lactam) specificity was assessed. Both chimeric pumps were active in antibiotic efflux, as evidenced by their contributions to resistance to a variety of antimicrobial agents, although there was no change in resistance profiles relative to the native pumps, indicating that OprM is not the determining factor ...
Bacteria have mechanisms to export proteins for diverse purposes, including colonization of hosts and pathogenesis. A small number of archetypal bacterial secretion machines have been found in several groups of bacteria and mediate a fundamentally distinct secretion process. Perhaps erroneously, proteins called autotransporters have long been thought to be one of these protein secretion systems. Mounting evidence suggests that autotransporters might be substrates to be secreted, not an autonomous transporter system. We have discovered a new translocation and assembly module (TAM) that promotes efficient secretion of autotransporters in proteobacteria. Functional analysis of the TAM in Citrobacter rodentium, Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli showed that it consists of an Omp85-family protein, TamA, in the outer membrane and TamB in the inner membrane of diverse bacterial species. The discovery of the TAM provides a new target for the development of therapies to inhibit colonization by ...
Calcium- and potassium-permeable plasma membrane transporters are activated by copper in |i|Arabidopsis|/i| root tips: linking copper transport with cytosolic hydroxyl radical production
P. aeruginosa is known for its ability to develop resistance to a number of structurally unrelated antibiotics, a phenomenon which can now be attributed predominantly to chromosomal mutations leading to overexpression of multidrug efflux systems.P. aeruginosa also produces a series of exoproducts, several of which, such as elastase, alkaline protease, exotoxins, and pyocyanin, have been shown to be virulence factors (3, 54,55). In this study, we show a link between the active efflux system MexEF-OprN and the production of virulence factors regulated by the las (10, 11, 19) and rhl(2, 33) cell-to-cell signaling systems. This important finding suggests that P. aeruginosa strains becoming resistant to multiple antibiotics by overexpression of MexEF-OprN are likely to be less virulent. Indeed, we recently found that nfxC mutants exhibit significantly reduced virulence both in a nonmammalian system and in a rat model of acute pneumonia (P. Cosson et al., submitted for publication).. The connection ...
YidC is a polytopic inner membrane protein with a molecular mass of 60 kDa. To facilitate its purification, a histidine tag was introduced at the C‐terminus of YidC, and the gene was placed under control of the lac promoter yielding the expression vector pEH1hisYidC. To determine whether His‐tagged YidC is functional in vivo, pEH1hisYidC was transformed to the YidC depletion strain JS7131 (Samuelson et al., 2000). In this strain, the chromosomal yidC gene is disrupted and an intact yidC gene under control of the araBAD promoter has been introduced. JS7131 is not viable on Luria-Bertani (LB) agar plates containing 0.2% glucose, since under these conditions expression of yidC from the araBAD promoter is tightly repressed. Transformation with pEH1hisYidC restored growth of JS7131 in the presence of glucose (Figure 1A), indicating that plasmid‐encoded, His‐tagged YidC is functional. For overproduction, pEH1hisYidC was transformed to strain E. coli SF100 (Baneyx and Georgiou, 1990). YidC ...
Part of the Sec protein translocase complex. Interacts with the SecYEG preprotein conducting channel. SecDF uses the proton motive force (PMF) to complete protein translocation after the ATP-dependent function of SecA.
Bacterial proteins with MCE domains were first described as being important for Mammalian Cell Entry. More recent evidence suggests they are components of lipid ABC transporters. In Escherichia coli, the single-domain protein MlaD is known to be part of an inner membrane transporter that is important for maintenance of outer membrane lipid asymmetry. Here we describe two multi MCE domain-containing proteins in Escherichia coli, PqiB and YebT, the latter of which is an orthologue of MAM-7 that was previously reported to be an outer membrane protein. We show that all three MCE domain-containing proteins localise to the inner membrane. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that MCE domains are widely distributed across bacterial phyla but multi MCE domain-containing proteins evolved in Proteobacteria from single-domain proteins. Mutants defective in mlaD, pqiAB and yebST were shown to have distinct but partially overlapping phenotypes, but the primary functions of PqiB and YebT differ from MlaD. Complementing
The translocase of the outer membrane (TOM complex) forms the entry gate for the majority of mitochondrial precursor proteins. Subsequently, specific protein complexes sort the precurcor proteins into the different subcompartments. The presequence translocase (TIM23 complex) transport proteins across and into the inner membrane. The TIM23 complex cooperates with the presequence-translocase associated motor (PAM) for transport into the mitochondrial matrix. The carrier translocase (TIM22 complex) inserts proteins into the inner membrane. The activity of the respiratory chain generates a membrane potential that drives both protein import pathways. The MIA machinery transports cysteine-rich proteins into the intermembrane space. Outer membrane proteins with β-barrel structure are first transported across the TOM machinery and then inserted into the outer membrane by the sorting and assembly machinery (SAM complex). Finally, the mitochondrial import machinery (MIM) promotes biogenesis of outer ...
Outer membrane (OM) proteins 5, 6, 7, 20, 22, 37, 40, and 70 are subunits of the TOM system that transports proteins across the outer membrane. Proteins 9, 10, 12, 22 and 54 are subunits of the TIM system that mediates import of multispanning carrier proteins into the inner membrane (IM). A carrier precursor exiting the TOM channel is captured by the 70 kDa Tim9/10-complex in the intermembrane space and transferred to the 300 kDa inner membrane complex that contains Tim9p, Tim10p, Tim12p, Tim22p and Tim54p. Binding to the Tim22-complex triggers the membrane potential dependent insertion of mulitspanning carrier into the inner membrane. Inner membrane proteins 11, 17, 23 and 44 are members of, or closely adjacent to, the second TIM system (Tim17-complex)that mediates transport of precursors carrying a targeting presequence ...
A cDNA clone encoding a taurine transporter, designated HTAU, has been isolated from human thyroid. It contains an open reading frame encoding a protein of 619 amino acids with a calculated molecular ...
Staphylococcus aureus Preprotein translocase subunit SecE (secE) datasheet and description hight quality product and Backed by our Guarantee
Atypical SLCs are novel plausible secondary active or facilitative transansporter proteins that share ancestral background with the known solute carriers. However, they have not been assigned a name according to the SLC root system, or been classified into any of the existing SLC families. Most ataypical SLCs are families within the major facilitator superfamily (MFS). These atypical SLCs are plausible secondary active or facilitative transporter proteins that share ancestry with the known solute carriers. They are, however, not named according to the SLC root system, or classified into any of the existing SLC families. ATMFs are categorised based on their sequence similarity and phylogenetic closeness. Some Atypical SLC of MFS type are: OCA2, CLN3, SPNS1, SPNS2, SPNS3, SV2A, SV2B, SV2C, SVOP, SVOPL, MFSD1, MFSD2A, MFSD2B, MFSD3, MFSD4A, MFSD4B, MFSD5, MFSD6, MFSD6L, MFSD8, MFSD9, MFSD10, MFSD11, MFSD12, MFSD13A, MFSD14A, MFSD14B, UNC93A and UNC93B1. All these are ataypical SLCs found within the ...
Figure 4. The mature domain-binding site onto SecA. (A) The E. coli SecA (gray)-SeYEG (yellow) was modeled after the Thermotoga maritima translocase in three conformational states, based on PBD (purple) positioning: closed (left), open (middle), and wide open (right). Side and bottom views are shown (as indicated). I, II: SecA clamps. (B) Kd measurements of PhoA and its signal peptide (SPPhoA) for the wild-type (WT), locked closed (LC), locked open (LO), and locked wide open (LWO) SecA bound to SecYEG-inverted membrane vesicles. proPhoA(1-30) was used as SPPhoA. Affinity values represent means ± SEM; n = 3. (C) Potential space occupied by an incoming preprotein onto the cytoplasmic side (platform) of a SecA(gray)-SecYEG(yellow) translocase; signal peptide is in green. The inner circle represents the minimum area a translocation-competent preprotein would occupy, depicted here by the predicted DH of the smallest known preprotein (proEcnA; ∼3 nm; Table S8). The bigger circle represents the area ...
Remy, Estelle, et al. A Major Facilitator Superfamily Transporter Plays a Dual Role in Polar Auxin Transport and Drought Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell, vol. 25, no. 3, American Society of Plant Biologists, 2013, pp. 901-26, doi:10.1105/tpc.113.110353 ...
Approximately 20% of bacterial proteins have functions outside the cytoplasm ( 1 ). Consequently, all bacteria possess protein export pathways that transport proteins made in the cytoplasm beyond the cytoplasmic membrane. These exported proteins may remain in the bacterial cell envelope or be further secreted to the extracellular environment. Many exported proteins function in essential physiological processes. Additionally, in bacterial pathogens, many exported proteins have functions in virulence. Consequently, the pathways that export proteins are commonly essential and/or are important for pathogenesis. Across bacteria, including mycobacteria, there are conserved protein export pathways: the general secretion (Sec) and the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathways. Both Sec and Tat pathways are essential to the viability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and both also contribute to virulence (L. Rank and M. Braunstein, unpublished; 2 - 4 ). In addition to these conserved pathways, bacterial pathogens
Die Transfusionsassoziierte Akute Lungeninsuffizienz (TRALI) ist die häufigste tödliche Nebenwirkung der Transfusion von Blutprodukten und wird oft durch mittransfundierte leukozytenreaktive Antikörper (AK) induziert. AK gegen das Humane Neutrophilenantigen (HNA)-3a verursachen häufig schwere Fälle der TRALI. HNA-3a ist auf dem Großteil der Blutzelltypen exprimiert und entsteht durch einen Einzelnukleotidpolymorphismus im Gen des „choline transporter-like protein 2
Author: Gebert, N. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2011-12-09; Open Access; Title: Dual function of Sdh3 in the respiratory chain and TIM22 protein translocase of the mitochondrial inner membrane.
Conserved ER Protein Translocation Channel; Essential Subunit Of Sec61 Complex (Sec61p, Sbh1p, And Sss1p); Forms Channel For SRP-dependent Protein Import; With Sec63 Complex Allows SRP-independent Protein Import Into ER; Involved In Posttranslational Soluble Protein Import Into The ER, ERAD Of Soluble Substrates, And Misfolded Soluble Protein Export From The ER
Solute Carrier (SLC) transporters are a large superfamily of transmembrane carriers involved in the regulated transport of metabolites, nutrients, ions and drugs across cellular membranes. A subset of these solute carriers play a significant role in the cellular uptake of many cancer therapeutics, ranging from chemotherapeutics such as antimetabolites, topoisomerase inhibitors, platinum-based drugs and taxanes to targeted therapies such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors. SLC transporters are co-expressed in groups and patterns across normal tissues, suggesting they may comprise a coordinated regulatory circuit serving to mediate normal tissue functions. In cancer however, there are dramatic changes in expression patterns of SLC transporters. This frequently serves to feed the increased metabolic demands of the tumor cell for amino acids, nucleotides and other metabolites, but also presents a therapeutic opportunity, as increased transporter expression may serve to increase intracellular concentrations of
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
The evolutionarily well-conserved SecA is essential for bacterial post-translational translocation. SecA uses the energy of ATP to drive preproteins through the membrane pore. The functional oligomeric state of SecA and the molecular basis for recognition of unfolded polypeptides by SecA are major unresolved questions that must be addressed to understand preprotein targeting and the molecular mechanics of SecA-mediated translocation. This thesis will address three aspects of these questions. First, the role of unstructured termini in the oligomerization and function of various SecA constructs was elucidated. By re-examining the tetramerization of a truncated SecA construct (SecA-N68), it was shown that the unstructured polypeptides at its termini are mediating its oligomerization. In turn, by removal of the first 14 N-terminal residues of the functional SecA-N95 construct, dimerization was drastically weakened. Although the weakened dimerization did not significantly affect the solution ATPase activity
Everything relating to GPC/SEC Systems: compilations of facts, news, background knowledge, product information and market trends can be found here in the form of a comprehensive, up-to-date dossier.
Agilent offers GPC and SEC systems for a wide range of applications, from polyolefins to biomolecules, and delivers complete solutions for polymer or protein characterizations.
Solute carrier (SLC) membrane transport proteins control essential physiological functions, including nutrient uptake, ion transport, and waste removal. SLCs interact with several important drugs, and a quarter of the more than 400 SLC genes are associated with human diseases. Yet, compared to other …
Plasma Membrane Permease; Mediates Uptake Of Glycerophosphoinositol And Glycerophosphocholine As Sources Of The Nutrients Inositol And Phosphate; Expression And Transport Rate Are Regulated By Phosphate And Inositol Availability
Cellular processesCellular processesToxin production and resistancedrug resistance MFS transporter, drug:H+ antiporter-2 (14 Spanner) (DHA2) family (TIGR00711; HMM-score: 132.4) ...
The Respiratory System. Cells continually use O2 & release CO2 Respiratory system designed for gas exchange Cardiovascular system transports gases in blood Failure of either system rapid cell death from O2 starvation. Nose -- Internal Structures. entrance - external nares...
Solute carriers (SLCs) are vital as they are responsible for a major part of the molecular transport over lipid bilayers. At present, there are 430 identified SLCs, of which 28 are called atypical SLCs of major facilitator superfamily (MFS) type. These are MFSD1, 2A, 2B, 3, 4A, 4B, 5, 6, 6 L, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13A, 14A and 14B; SV2A, SV2B and SV2C; SVOP and SVOPL; SPNS1, SPNS2 and SPNS3; and UNC93A and UNC93B1. We studied their fundamental properties, and we also included CLN3, an atypical SLC not yet belonging to any protein family (Pfam) clan, because its involvement in the same neuronal degenerative disorders as MFSD8 ...
The respiratory system transports oxygen through the blood to all the major organs in the human body. Through breathing, the lungs pull oxygen into the body and expel carbon dioxide. Red blood cells ...
Research in the Blakely laboratory is focused on how presynaptic plasma membrane transporter proteins support chemical signaling in the nervous system, how they mediate the entry of transmitter-like neurotoxins into neurons, and whether altered signaling in disease states is supported by genetic variations in transporter structure.
Membrane Transporter Database for Personalized Medicine". (Integral membrane proteins, Transport phenomena). ... Cotransporters are a subcategory of membrane transport proteins (transporters) that couple the favorable movement of one ... "Proteins for Transport of Water and Mineral Nutrients across the Membranes of Plant Cells". The Plant Cell. 11 (4): 661-675. ... anion transport protein. This cotransporter is an important integral protein in mammalian erythrocytes and moves chloride ion ...
... inhibits amino acid and glucose transport proteins leading to a loss of nutrient transport across the plasma membrane ... "Polyene antibiotic that inhibits membrane transport proteins". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ... It results in fungal death by altering the cell membrane. Natamycin was discovered in 1955 and approved for medical use in the ... Natamycin inhibits the growth of fungi by specifically binding to ergosterol present in fungal cell membranes. ...
Functional and Phylogenetic Classification of Membrane Transport Proteins. Saier Lab. Group, UCSD and SDSC. Chen JS, Reddy V, ... All three subunits are essential for transport to the membrane assembly of functional channels on the membrane. The C-terminus ... CFTR is a transmembrane channel responsible for chloride transport and defects in this protein cause cystic fibrosis, partly ... Toczyłowska-Mamińska R, Dołowy K (February 2012). "Ion transporting proteins of human bronchial epithelium". Journal of ...
Identification of membrane proteins involved in water transport". European Journal of Cell Biology. 41 (2): 252-262. PMID ... benzenesulfonate binding by membrane proteins and the inhibition of water transport in human erythrocytes". Biochemistry. 25 (7 ... Peter Agre independently isolated the protein and demonstrated it was a ubiquitously expressed water transport protein, naming ... Benga showed the existence of a protein water channel in the red blood cell membrane. Two years later, in 1988, ...
Identification of membrane proteins involved in water transport". European Journal of Cell Biology. 41 (2): 252-262. PMID ... benzenesulfonate binding by membrane proteins and the inhibition of water transport in human erythrocytes". Biochemistry. 25 (7 ... Gheorghe Benga had showed the existence of a protein water channel in the red blood cell membrane in 1986. The omission of ... the first discoverer of the water channel protein in the red blood cell membrane". Cellular and Molecular Biology (Noisy-Le- ...
A pan-leukocyte antigen related to membrane transport proteins". J. Immunol. 145 (12): 4322-5. PMID 2258620. Dianzani U, ... Olweus J, Lund-Johansen F, Horejsi V (1993). "CD53, a protein with four membrane-spanning domains, mediates signal transduction ... Leukocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD53 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... CD53+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD53 genome location and CD53 ...
Patched has sequence similarity to known membrane transport proteins. When extracellular Hh is present (Figure 3), it binds to ... The steps leading to Ci protein proteolysis include phosphorylation of Ci protein by several protein kinases; PKA, GSK3β and ... PTCH1 has homology to Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) that is known to transport lipophilic molecules across a membrane. ... The Drosophila protein Fused (Fu in Figure 3) is a protein kinase that binds to Costal-2. Fused can inhibit Suppressor of Fused ...
ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intracellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct ... The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 5 (6): 355-64. doi: ... ATP-binding cassette sub-family A member 8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABCA8 gene. ...
ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intracellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct ... It also mediates the transport of lipids between Golgi and cell membrane. Since this protein is needed throughout the body it ... The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ... The ABCA1 c-terminus contains a PDZ domain, responsible for mediating protein-protein interactions, as well as a VFVNFA motif ...
ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intracellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct ... ATP-binding cassette sub-family A member 9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABCA9 gene. This gene is a member of ... the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and the encoded protein contains two transmembrane domains and two ...
ABC proteins transport various molecule across extra- and intracellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct ... The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ... ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A (ABC1), member 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABCA5 gene. ... Hu Y, Wang M, Veverka K, Garcia FU, Stearns ME (2007). "The ABCA5 protein: A urine diagnostic marker for prostatic ...
Sargent, F (2007). "The twin-arginine transport system: Moving folded proteins across membranes". Biochemical Society ... Structural studies of reversible protein phosphorylation and protein phosphatases". Biochemical Society Transactions. 27 (6): ... Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol membrane anchors: The tale of a tail". Biochemical Society Transactions. 20 (2): 243-56. doi: ... Rouse, J (2009). "Control of genome stability by SLX protein complexes". Biochemical Society Transactions. 37 (Pt 3): 495-510. ...
ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intracellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct ... ATP-binding cassette sub-family F member 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABCF2 gene. The protein encoded by ... a new human mitochondrial ATP-binding cassette membrane protein". FEBS Letters. 478 (1-2): 89-94. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(00) ... "Identification and characterization of a mammalian mitochondrial ATP-binding cassette membrane protein". Journal of Molecular ...
ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intracellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct ... Nakayama M, Kikuno R, Ohara O (2003). "Protein-protein interactions between large proteins: two-hybrid screening using a ... The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ... This protein is highly expressed in brain tissue and may play a role in macrophage lipid metabolism and neural development. Two ...
ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intracellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct ... Multidrug resistance-associated protein 9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABCC12 gene. This gene is a member of ... Haimeur A, Conseil G, Deeley RG, Cole SP (2004). "The MRP-related and BCRP/ABCG2 multidrug resistance proteins: biology, ... the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and the encoded protein contains two ATP-binding domains and 12 ...
ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intracellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct ... a lamellar body limiting membrane protein of alveolar type II cells, as the ABC transporter protein ABCA3". J. Biol. Chem. 277 ... The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ... 2001). "ABCA3 is a lamellar body membrane protein in human lung alveolar type II cells". FEBS Lett. 508 (2): 221-5. doi:10.1016 ...
ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intracellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct ... The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ... ATP binding cassette subfamily A member 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABCA10 gene. ... subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, and White). This encoded protein is a member of the ABC1 subfamily. Members ...
"Trafficking of ciliary membrane proteins by the intraflagellar transport/BBSome machinery". Essays in Biochemistry. 62 (6): 753 ... as is Rab8a in transporting PKD2. Not all ciliary proteins use a RVxP motif for transport, however; VxPx and Ax(S/A)xQ have ... "The Joubert syndrome protein ARL13B binds tubulin to maintain uniform distribution of proteins along the ciliary membrane". ... The kinesins KIF17 is implicated in transporting the CNGB1 protein which has a RVxP motif into human cilia, ...
Portal: Biology (EC 3.6.3, Integral membrane proteins, Transport proteins, Physiology). ... In the cell, they are situated in the plasma membrane (animals and plants) and the internal membranes (plants). Plasma membrane ... Proton transport against a high membrane potential is readily explained by this structural arrangement. P3B ATPases (or Type ... ATP hydrolysis is tightly coupled to translocation of the transported ligand(s) through the membrane, more than 40 Å away, by ...
v t e (Transport proteins, All stub articles, Membrane protein stubs). ... The Cl-oxalate exchanger is a transport protein in the kidney, where it functions in e.g. renal chloride reabsorption. ... "Effects of inhibitors on anion exchangers in rabbit renal brush border membrane vesicles". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ...
The protein localisation to the vacuolar membrane supports this suggestion (see also Chapter 1.5). The protein transports Mg2+ ... also showed that the protein could transport Zn2+ and Fe2+, but did not report on the capacity of the protein to transport ... Magnesium transporters are proteins that transport magnesium across the cell membrane. All forms of life require magnesium, yet ... Smith DL, Tao T, Maguire ME (Oct 1993). "Membrane topology of a P-type ATPase. The MgtB magnesium transport protein of ...
"Solid-State NMR Reveals Key Structural Features of Membrane Transport Proteins". Physics Today. 53 (9): 19-22. Bibcode:2000PhT ... and as a researcher of membrane-associated peptides and proteins, an organizer of international symposia, and author of a book ... Solid-State NMR Reveals Structural and Dynamical Properties of a Membrane-Anchored Electron-Carrier Protein, Cytochrome b(5), J ... Amyloid fiber formation and membrane disruption are separate processes localized in two distinct regions of IAPP, the type-2- ...
Molecular targets in pharmacology include receptors, enzymes and membrane transport proteins. Enzymes can be targeted with ... Major receptor types studied in pharmacology include G protein coupled receptors, ligand gated ion channels and receptor ...
Like the outer membrane secretin GspD these proteins are transported into the periplasm via the Sec translocation pathway ... Once the Sec machinery has transported the pre-pseudopilin across the inner membrane, but before the protein itself is released ... Unlike the other proteins that make up the inner membrane complex GspF is a multipass transmembrane protein and it may play a ... Korotkov KV, Gonen T, Hol WG (2011). "Secretins: dynamic channels for protein transport across membranes". Trends in ...
ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra-and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct ... Each membrane-spanning domain is made up of six α-helices. In addition, the protein also contains a third membrane-spanning ... Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABCC1 gene. The protein encoded ... "Cerebral amyloid-β proteostasis is regulated by the membrane transport protein ABCC1 in mice". The Journal of Clinical ...
2004). "Phylogeny as a guide to structure and function of membrane transport proteins". Mol Membr Biol. 21 (3): 171-181. doi: ... The membrane potential alters the conformation of the channel proteins, regulating their opening and closing. Cell membranes ... thus they must diffuse through the membrane through transmembrane protein channels. They have a crucial role in excitable cells ... which are located on the inner surface of the cell membrane and do not cross the membrane, and which are coassembled with the α ...
The Holin superfamily VI is a superfamily of integral membrane transport proteins. It is one of the seven different holin ... Portal: Biology v t e (Holins, Protein families, Protein superfamilies, All stub articles, Membrane protein stubs). ... In general, these proteins are thought to play a role in regulated cell death, although functionality varies between families ... These proteins appear to have one N-terminal transmembrane segment (TMS), followed by an amphipathic, weakly hydrophobic peak ...
The Holin superfamily VII is a superfamily of integral membrane transport proteins. It is one of the seven different holin ... Portal: Biology v t e (Holins, Protein superfamilies, All stub articles, Membrane protein stubs). ... In general, these proteins are thought to play a role in regulated cell death, although functionality varies between families ... includes proteins displaying 4 putative TMSs. Holin Lysin Transporter Classification Database "Holin Superfamily VII". ...
Protein families, Membrane proteins, Transmembrane proteins, Transmembrane transporters, Transport proteins, Integral membrane ... The KefC ancillary protein is YabF while the KefB ancillary protein is YheR. These ancillary proteins stimulate transport ... "Phylogeny as a guide to structure and function of membrane transport proteins". Molecular Membrane Biology. 21 (3): 171-81. doi ... Its transport function is not known. The GerN and GrmA proteins of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus megaterium, respectively, are ...
The Holin Superfamily III is a superfamily of integral membrane transport proteins. It is one of the seven different holin ... Portal: Biology v t e (Holins, Protein superfamilies, All stub articles, Membrane protein stubs). ... In general, these proteins are thought to play a role in regulated cell death, although functionality varies between families ... The average size of proteins in the entire superfamily is 114 aas with a standard deviation o 23 aas. Holin Lysin Transporter ...
They have been shown to bind to blood proteins and accumulate in the livers of marine animals.[69] Another pathway for ... Membrane filtration. *Reverse osmosis. *Nanofiltration[167]. *Supercritical water oxidation[168]. Private and public sector ... In particular, IgA, IgE (in females only) and C-reactive protein have been shown to decrease whereas antinuclear antibodies ... "Binding of perfluorinated fatty acids to serum proteins". Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 22 (11): 2639-2649. doi ...
"Carrier Proteins and Active Membrane Transport". Molecular Biology of the Cell (angleščina) (4. izd.).. ... "Types of Transport". BioNinja. Pridobljeno dne 2021-01-11.. *↑ Skou, J. C. (1965-07-01). "Enzymatic Basis for Active Transport ... "Active transport - Movement across cell membranes - GCSE Biology (Single Science) Revision". BBC Bitesize (angleščina). ... Primarni aktivni transportUredi. Imenuje se tudi direktni aktivni transport.[10] Pri svojem delovanju porablja presnovno ...
Pyruvate molecules produced by glycolysis are actively transported across the inner mitochondrial membrane, and into the matrix ... Allosteric inhibition and activation by Protein-protein interactions (PPI).[28] Indeed, some proteins interact with and ... Since the cell membrane is impervious to G6P, hexokinase essentially acts to transport glucose into the cells from which it can ... to transport the electrons from NADH across the mitochondrial membrane. They are the malate-aspartate shuttle and the glycerol ...
In humans, choline is absorbed from the intestines via the SLC44A1 (CTL1) membrane protein via facilitated diffusion governed ... TransportEdit. In humans, choline is transported as a free molecule in blood. Choline-containing phospholipids and other ... These are found in all cell membranes and the membranes of most cell organelles.[2] Phosphatidylcholines are structurally ... choline phospholipids are necessary components in cell membranes, in the membranes of cell organelles, and in very low-density ...
The genetic code may have evolved during the transition from the RNA world to a protein world.[85] The Alanine World Hypothesis ... A hypothetical cell membrane termed an azotosome, capable of functioning in liquid methane in Titan conditions was computer- ... enabling easier transport of substances in a cell.[59] However, water is also more chemically reactive and can break down large ... the type of cell membrane possessed by all life on Earth) in liquid water.[63][64] An analysis of data obtained using the ...
Membrane transport[edit]. A protein may be carrying another protein (for example, from cytoplasm to nucleus or vice versa in ... To test protein-protein interaction, the targeted protein cDNA and query protein cDNA were immobilized in a same coated slide. ... The system detects membrane proteins interactions with extracellular signaling proteins[55] Of the 705 integral membrane ... protein A is inactivated by protein B then the phenotypes will differ depending on which protein is inhibited (inhibit protein ...
The fusion proteins were a way to spread the infection to other cells by simply merging them with the infected one (HIV does ... In utero, maternal IgG is transported directly across the placenta, so that, at birth, human babies have high levels of ... Like the T cell, B cells express a unique B cell receptor (BCR), in this case, a membrane-bound antibody molecule. All the BCR ... Last one is piRNA where small RNA binds to the Piwi protein family and controls transposones and other mobile elements.[21] ...
Since LFS is not restricted by its ability to deliver molecules of varying sizes, drugs such as proteins, nanoparticles, and ... Electroporation allows the cell membrane to open up after applying an electric field. By applying short, high voltage pulses to ... permeant transport was increased.[1] When it comes to LFS, thermal effects are an important consideration on the side of safety ... "An investigation of the role of cavitation in low-frequency ultrasound-mediated transdermal drug transport". Pharmaceutical ...
FFAs are always bound to a transport protein, such as albumin.[19] ... Studies on the cell membranes of mammals and reptiles discovered that mammalian cell membranes are composed of a higher ... The triglycerides are coated with cholesterol and protein (protein coat) into a compound called a chylomicron. ... It is transported via the lymphatic system and the thoracic duct up to a location near the heart (where the arteries and veins ...
Transport ventilators-These ventilators are small and more rugged, and can be powered pneumatically or via AC or DC power ... alveolar collection of material other than gas, such as pus from pneumonia, water and protein from acute respiratory distress ... may require an airway inserted through a surgical opening in the cricothyroid membrane. This is similar to a tracheostomy but a ... Konrad F, Schreiber T, Brecht-Kraus D, Georgieff M (January 1994). "Mucociliary transport in ICU patients". Chest. 105 (1): 237 ...
mACE2 is a single-pass type I membrane protein, with its enzymatically active domain exposed on the surface of cells in the ... tryptophan transport. *blood vessel diameter maintenance. *angiotensin maturation. *receptor-mediated virion attachment to host ... The Human Protein Atlas. "ACE2 protein expression summary". Retrieved 12 May 2021.. ... The spike protein binds to ACE2 and subsequently down regulated ACE2 protein expression and resulted in worsened acid ...
"Insight into early events in the aggregation of the prion protein on lipid membranes". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - ... "Kinesin-mediated axonal transport of a membrane compartment containing beta-secretase and presenilin-1 requires APP". Nature. ... The oligomers are toxic to nerve cells.[4] The other protein implicated in Alzheimer's disease, tau protein, also forms such ... and β-secretases which generate Aβ from its precursor protein, APP (amyloid precursor protein).[43][44][45][46] Aβ circulates ...
... are functional protein channels in the plasma membrane that have overlapping CaM binding sites transport divalent cations such ... CMLs (CaM-related proteins)Edit. Plants contain CaM-related proteins (CMLs) apart from the typical CaM proteins. The CMLs have ... The AtBAG6 protein is a CaM-binding protein that binds to CaM only in the absence of Ca2+ and not in the presence of it. AtBAG6 ... "Protein-peptide interaction studies demonstrate the versatility of calmodulin target protein binding". Protein and Peptide ...
The viral envelope is made up of a lipid bilayer in which the membrane (M), envelope (E), and spike (S) structural proteins are ... Illustration of a SARS-CoV-2 virion[2] Red: spike proteins (S) Grey: lipid bilayer envelope Yellow: envelope proteins (E) ... S proteins are needed for interaction with the host cells. But human coronavirus NL63 is peculiar in that its M protein has the ... Proteins of coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M), and nucleocapsid (N). ...
Fred: corpuscles de Krause.[80] Tenen una forma bulbar característica i es localitzen a la pell i a les membranes mucoses de la ... UniProt «Transthyretin» (en anglès). Protein knowledgebase. UniProt Consortium, 2019 Gen 16; P02766 (TTHY_HUMAN) (rev), pàgs: ... Griffin JW, Price DL, Drachman DB, Morris J «Incorporation of axonally transported glycoproteins into axolemma during nerve ...
Stadtman E (1992). "Protein oxidation and aging". Science. 257 (5074): 1220-4. doi:10.1126/science.1355616. PMID 1355616.. ... Atkinson J; Epand RF; Epand RM (2007). "Tocopherols and tocotrienols in membranes: A critical review". Free Radic. Biol. Med. ... Možni alternativni mehanizem nastanka nevrodegenerativnih bolezni je okvarjen aksonski transport mitohondrijev, v katerih se ... Sohal R (2002). "Role of oxidative stress and protein oxidation in the aging process". Free Radic Biol Med. 33 (1): 37-44. doi: ...
Organization of membrane proteins". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes. 426 (4): 647-58. doi:10.1016/0005-2736( ... The Corps supported British war operations in Sinai, Palestine, and Syria by transporting supplies to the troops.[103][104][105 ... A great deal of the work of supplying the troops on both fronts has been done by the Camel Transport Corps. ... In World War I, the British Army also created the Egyptian Camel Transport Corps, which consisted of a group of Egyptian camel ...
They can be transported across long distances by animals, floating vegetation, currents[14] and winds,[24] and even in the guts ... The exoskeleton may be organic (chitin, polysaccharide or protein) or made of the mineral calcium carbonate. The body wall ... Bryozoa accomplish diffusion through the use of either a thin membrane (in the case of anascans and some polyzoa) or through ... Some may have been transported naturally as statoblasts. Others more probably were spread by humans, for example on imported ...
Protein builds tissue and cells in the body. Carbohydrates are very good for energy, but, if a person eats more than needed, ... Certain carbohydrates are an important storage and transport form of energy in most organisms, including plants and animals. ... They play a special role in cell membranes.. *Polysaccharides (long chains) are complex carbohydrates, with linear chains of ... If necessary, humans can live without eating carbohydrates because the human body can change fats and proteins into ...
Membrane-spanning 4A)、ABCA7(英语:ABCA7)、EPHA1(英语:EPHA1)和CD2AP[51]。研究也發現TREM2(英语:TREM2)的某些等位基因變異會增加罹患阿茲海默症的風險達3到5倍,可能的原因是某些TREM2變異 ... Roles of Proteolysis and Lipid Rafts in the Processing of the Amyloid Precursor Protein and Prion Protein. Biochemical Society ... Schindowski K, Belarbi K, Buée L. Neurotrophic factors in Alzheimer's disease: role of axonal transport. Genes
In allochory, plants use an external vector, or carrier, to transport their seeds away from them. These can be either biotic ( ... the allergens in pollen are proteins which are thought to be necessary in the process of pollination.[76][77] ... while also losing its cell membrane and much of its protoplasm. The sperm's nucleus then fuses with the egg's nucleus, ... In abiotic dispersal plants use the vectors of the wind, water, or a mechanism of their own to transport their seeds away from ...
"LEA proteins prevent protein aggregation due to water stress". Biochemical Journal. 388 (Part 1): 151-157. doi:10.1042/ ... The plant membrane in response to low temperature: an overview. pp. 1-24 in Lyons, J.M.; Graham, D.; Raison, J.K. (Eds.). Low ... Vascular plants differ from other plants in that nutrients are transported between their different parts through specialized ... protein expression is induced by stresses and protects other proteins from aggregation as a result of desiccation and freezing. ...
Elevated levels of protein excretion, urinary catalase and diuresis Damage to proximal convoluted tubules, necrotic cells cast ... In this process, uranium hexafluoride is repeatedly diffused through a silver-zinc membrane, and the different isotopes of ... Depleted uranium is also used as a shielding material in some containers used to store and transport radioactive materials. ... The precipitation ability was enhanced by overexpressing PhoK protein in E. coli.[74] ...
... release at the neuromuscular junction through degradation of the SNARE proteins required for ACh vesicle-membrane fusion.[35] ... This is important as neurotransmitter transport can be impaired through vesicular transport inhibition, resulting in diminished ... "Protein Engineering Design and Selection. 24 (9): 633-34. doi:10.1093/protein/gzr012.. ... Montecucco C (1986). "How Do Tetanus and Botulinum Toxins Bind to Neuronal Membranes?". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 11 (8 ...
Within the realm of biological processes it participates in oxidation-reduction, iron ion transport across membranes and ... Ferritin is a globular protein complex consisting of 24 protein subunits forming a hollow nanocage with multiple metal-protein ... Protein structureEdit. Ferritin is a hollow globular protein of mass 474 kDa and comprising 24 subunits. Typically it has ... Ferritin is a universal intracellular protein that stores iron and releases it in a controlled fashion. The protein is produced ...
In biomedical engineering, protein nanogels made by the in situ polymerization method provide a versatile platform for storage ... In physical geography and the Earth sciences, in situ typically describes natural material or processes prior to transport. For ... Diagram of an in situ carcinoma, not having invaded beyond the basement membrane. ... In biomedical, protein nanogels made by the in situ polymerization method provide a versatile platform for storage and release ...
calcium ion transmembrane transport. • cellular response to caffeine. • cellular response to ATP. • protein homotetramerization ... organelle membrane. • integral component of membrane. • мембрана. • внутрішньоклітинна мембранна органела. • sarcoplasmic ... sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. • ендоплазматичний ретикулум. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • клітинна мембрана. • smooth ... calcium ion transport. • negative regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration. • трансмембранний транспорт. • release of ...
1999 - Günter Blobel, United States, for the discovery that proteins have built-in signals that control their transport and ... for their discoveries about nerve cell membrane.[54] ... for finding G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal ... 1992 - Edmond H. Fischer, Switzerland and the United States, and Edwin G. Krebs, United States, for finding reversible protein ... 1997 - Stanley B. Prusiner, United States, for his discovery of prions, proteins that make people sick.[88] ...
Drugi tipovi pratitelja uključene su u transport preko membrane, naprimjer membrane mitohondrija i endoplazmatskog retikuluma ( ... Za njih se izvorno mislilo da se stežu na svoj supstratni protein (poznat i kao klijentski protein) nakon vezanja ATP-a, ... Ellis RJ (2007). Protein misassembly: macromolecular crowding and molecular chaperones. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. Advances in ... Soluble complexes of target proteins and peptidyl prolyl isomerase ... *^ Frickel EM, Riek R, Jelesarov I, Helenius A, Wuthrich ...
GTP-binding protein. *Latent TGF-beta binding protein. *Major urinary proteins. *Membrane transport protein ... γ proteins.[17] Signaling[edit]. G protein can refer to two distinct families of proteins. Heterotrimeric G proteins, sometimes ... G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside ... Whereas G proteins are activated by G protein-coupled receptors, they are inactivated by RGS proteins (for "Regulator of G ...
A membrane transport protein (or simply transporter) is a membrane protein involved in the movement of ions, small molecules, ... Unlike channel proteins which only transport substances through membranes passively, carrier proteins can transport ions and ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Membrane transport proteins. "Transport protein" at Dorlands Medical Dictionary ( ... Translocase Vesicular transport protein Endocytosis Membrane+transport+proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ...
... functional and evolutionary information about transport systems from a variety of living organisms. TCDB is a curated ... TCDB: the Transporter Classification Database for membrane transport protein analyses and information Nucleic Acids Res. 2006 ... Membrane Transport Proteins / chemistry * Membrane Transport Proteins / classification* * Membrane Transport Proteins / ... TCDB not only provides curated information and a tool for classifying newly identified membrane proteins, but also serves as a ...
Burns, Douglas B. ; Zydney, Andrew L. / Effect of solution pH on protein transport through ultrafiltration membranes. In: ... Burns, D. B., & Zydney, A. L. (1999). Effect of solution pH on protein transport through ultrafiltration membranes. ... Burns, DB & Zydney, AL 1999, Effect of solution pH on protein transport through ultrafiltration membranes, Biotechnology and ... Effect of solution pH on protein transport through ultrafiltration membranes. / Burns, Douglas B.; Zydney, Andrew L. ...
InterPro Family, particular and largely uncharacterised protein group
Copyright © 2022 Laboratory of Electron Transport Membrane Proteins and Structural Bioenergetics - OnePress theme by FameThemes ...
The XK gene provides instructions for producing a protein that is found in various tissues of the body, particularly the brain ... membrane transport protein XK. *X-linked Kx blood group (McLeod syndrome). *X1k ... On red blood cells, the XK protein attaches to another blood group protein, the Kell protein. The function of this blood group ... nonfunctional XK protein or cause no XK protein to be produced at all. Missing or abnormal XK protein also affects another ...
Membrane Proteins and Transport. Damian C. Ekiert, PhD-how large multiprotein complexes transport lipids between membranes. ... Shohei Koide, PhD-design and engineering of novel binding proteins and membrane proteins. Michele Pagano, MD-ubiquitin-mediated ... Hyung Don Ryoo, PhD-ER stress and the unfolded protein response in the Drosophila model organism. David L. Stokes, PhD-membrane ... Membrane Signaling and Trafficking. Gira Bhabha, PhD-how macromolecular protein machines are coordinated to facilitate ...
It is the first time we know of that the kinetic constants (ka, kd) have been measured for membrane transport proteins in a ... Application Note 140: Membrane Transport Protein Binding Kinetics Using Label-Free SPRm200. ... Application Note 140: Membrane Transport Protein Binding Kinetics Using Label-Free SPRm200 ... Download a PDF of Application Note 140: Membrane Transport Protein Binding Kinetics Using Label-Free SPRm200 ...
Joubert syndrome Arl13b functions at ciliary membranes and stabilizes protein transport in Caenorhabditis elegans ... as well as defects in ciliary protein localization and transport; ciliary transmembrane proteins abnormally accumulate, PKD-2 ... The small ciliary G protein Arl13b is required for cilium biogenesis and sonic hedgehog signaling and is mutated in patients ... Together, these data implicate a role for JS-associated Arl13b at ciliary membranes, where it regulates ciliary transmembrane ...
Protein transport into and across cellular membranes Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. Sunnybrook Research Institute ...
Coat proteins: shaping membrane transport. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2003;4:409-14. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Membrane bound vesicles (5, H). Unidentifiable structures. Su et al. (7). Kidney. Spiked vesicles in cytoplasm (2, A-D). CCVs. ... Collection of membrane bound particles (4, D). Unidentifiable structure. Werion et al. (13). Kidney. Circular vesicles with ... Circular membranes in cytoplasm (5, E). Unidentifiable structures. NA. Extracellular spiked vesicles (5, F). Unidentifiable ...
Do intracellular membranes contain transport proteins?. Intracellular membrane traffic depends on transport vesicles and ... How do coiled-coil proteins support intra-Golgi transport?. *What is the role of Ceramide transport protein in lipid transport? ... Coiled-coil proteins of the golgin family have been implicated in intra-Golgi transport through tethering events in membrane ... What are the three mechanisms of protein transport?. Solute particles can traverse the membrane via three mechanisms: passive, ...
Hydrophobic mismatch is a key factor in protein transport across lipid bilayer membranes via the Tat pathway. Journal of ... Almost all proteins that reside in the outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria contain a membrane-spanning segment that ... The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway transports folded proteins across membranes in bacteria, thylakoids, plant ... The Escherichia coli outer membrane protein OmpA acquires secondary structure prior to its integration into the membrane. ...
Protein transport across the peroxisomal membrane. Girzalsky, W., Platta, H.W. & Erdmann, R. Biol. Chem. 390, 745-751 (2009) ... 25, Molecular Machines involved in Protein Transport across Cellular Membranes / Elsevier Academic Press 529-560. (2007) ... Function of the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Pex4p and the AAA peroxins Pex1p and Pex6p in peroxisomal protein transport. ... Pex2 and Pex12 function as protein-ubiquitin ligases in peroxisomal protein import. Platta, H.W.*, El Magraoui, F.*, Bäumer, B. ...
Active membrane transport and receptor proteins from bacteria. Saidijam, M., Bettaney, K. E., Szakonyi, G., Psakis, G., ... Activation of protein kinase B by adenosine A1 and A3 receptors in newborn rat cardiomyocytes. Germack, R., Griffin, M. & ... regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein controls AMPAR endocytosis through a direct interaction with clathrin-adaptor protein ... Activation of tissue plasminogen activator by metastasis-inducing S100P protein. Clarke, C., Gross, S. R., Ismail, T., Rudland ...
Categories: Membrane Transport Proteins Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Co-transport across the luminal membrane is facilitated by the protein sodium glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1). Once in the ... Kabir I, Rahman MM, Haider R, Mazumder RN, Khaled MA, Mahalanabis D. Increased height gain of children fed a high-protein diet ... Kabir I, Malek MA, Mazumder RN, Rahman MM, Mahalanabis D. Rapid catch-up growth of children fed a high-protein diet during ... Other possible future ORS composition changes include addition of probiotics (91), prebiotics, zinc (87), or protein polymers. ...
Phylogeny as a Guide to Structure and Function of Membrane Transport Proteins. Mol Membr Biol. 21(3):171-81.. Wong, F.H., J.S. ... Vesicle-associated Membrane Protein (VAMP) Superfamily. These proteins are integral membrane proteins that are associated with ... Protein Kinase (PK) Superfamily. Protein kinase domains are sometimes found in transport proteins. These include TC#s 1.A.87.2. ... 2.A.9 - The Membrane Protein Insertase (YidC/Alb3/Oxa1) Family. 3.A.27 - The Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Protein Insertion ...
Membrane Transport Proteins in Osteoclasts: The Ins and Outs. Ribet, A. B. P., Ng, P. Y. & Pavlos, N. J., 26 Feb 2021, In: ... Membrane trafficking in osteoclasts and implications for osteoporosis. Ng, P. Y., Brigitte Patricia Ribet, A. & Pavlos, N. J., ... Molecular structure and the role of high-temperature requirement protein 1 in skeletal disorders and cancers. Li, Y., Yuan, J. ... Molecular structure and function of microfibrillar-associated proteins in skeletal and metabolic disorders and cancers. Zhu, S. ...
Membrane Transport Proteins. 1. 2014. 1037. 0.020. Why? Molecular Sequence Data. 2. 2014. 18889. 0.020. Why? ... Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 3. 1. 2015. 31. 0.140. Why? ...
A facile approach for the in vitro assembly of multimeric membrane transport proteins. Elife. 2018 Jun 11;7. pii: e36478. ... "MiniVIPER is a peptide tag for imaging and translocating proteins in cells." Biochemistry 59(33), 3051-3059 (2020). ... Small molecule nAS-E targeting cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and CREB-binding protein interaction inhibits ... Small molecule nAS-E targeting cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and CREB-binding protein interaction inhibits ...
OSBP-related protein family in lipid transport over membrane contact sites. Olkkonen, V. M., 2015, In: Lipid Insight. 8(S1)/ ... OSBP-related protein 3 (ORP3) coupling with VAMP-associated protein A regulates R-Ras activity. Weber-Boyvat, M., Kentala, H., ... Oxysterol-binding protein related-proteins (ORPs) 5 and 8 regulate calcium signaling at specific cell compartments. Pulli, I., ... ORP/Osh mediate cross-talk between ER-plasma membrane contact site components and plasma membrane SNAREs. Weber-Boyvat, M., ...
ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intracellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct ... The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ... General protein information Go to the top of the page Help Preferred Names. ATP-binding cassette sub-family A member 10. Names ... Model RNAs and proteins are also reported here.. Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly. Genomic * NC_000017.11 Reference GRCh38 ...
Here, we demonstrate that the membrane protein, TMEM219, is a binding partner of IL-13Rα2 using yeast two-hybrid, co- ... Quick, M. & Javitch, J. A. Monitoring the function of membrane transport proteins in detergent-solubilized form. Proc. Natl ... purified membrane protein in detergent, and the heterogeneity problem of reconstituting membrane protein into liposomes36,37,38 ... Reconstituted membrane protein into a nanodisc makes the protein water-soluble and provides an effective approach to study it35 ...
108010012996 Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins Proteins 0.000 description 10 * 239000002253 acid Substances 0.000 ... 102000019208 Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins Human genes 0.000 description 10 * ... 108091019276 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor family Proteins 0.000 description 3 * 229930000680 A04AD01 - Scopolamine Natural ...
... thereby altering the activity of membrane-bound enzymes and transport proteins. Ethanol damage to mitochondrial membranes may ... Toxic effects on cell membranes. Ethanol and its metabolite, acetaldehyde, have been shown to damage liver cell membranes. ... Serum C-reactive protein: a non-invasive marker of alcoholic hepatitis. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2006 Dec. 41(12):1473-9. [QxMD ... Acetaldehyde-modified proteins and lipids on the cell surface may behave as neoantigens and trigger immunologic injury. ...
Proteins [D12.776] * Membrane Proteins [D12.776.543] * Membrane Transport Proteins [D12.776.543.585] * Solute Carrier Proteins ... Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins [D12] * Proteins [D12.776] * Membrane Proteins [D12.776.543] * Membrane Transport Proteins ... Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins [D12] * Proteins [D12.776] * Membrane Proteins [D12.776.543] * Membrane Transport Proteins ... Proteins [D12.776] * Carrier Proteins [D12.776.157] * Membrane Transport Proteins [D12.776.157.530] * Solute Carrier Proteins [ ...
3. carrier (membrane transport protein); transporter​Biochemistry. Discussions. Log in to talk about this word. ...
Membrane proteins carry out a wide range of physiological functions by regulating molecular transport across bio-membranes. We ... Novel platform to measure the membrane transport activity simultaneous with the conformational change of membrane proteins. ... Finding the link between the membrane dynamism and protein localization leads to solve the function of proteins. This study ... the novel platform to measure the membrane transport activity simultaneous with the conformational change of membrane proteins ...
Membrane Transport Proteins (Biological Pump)IBA 07/2007. 1. Amino Acid Transport Systems (Amino Acid Transporter)IBA 07/2007. ... Anti-rotavirus protein reduces stool output in infants with diarrhea: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.. ...
  • A membrane transport protein (or simply transporter) is a membrane protein involved in the movement of ions, small molecules, and macromolecules, such as another protein, across a biological membrane. (
  • When a channel is opened, millions of ions can pass through the membrane per second, but only 100 to 1000 molecules typically pass through a carrier molecule in the same time. (
  • Unlike channel proteins which only transport substances through membranes passively, carrier proteins can transport ions and molecules either passively through facilitated diffusion, or via secondary active transport. (
  • Facilitated diffusion is the passage of molecules or ions across a biological membrane through specific transport proteins and requires no energy input. (
  • Some of these transport mechanisms require the input of energy and use of a transmembrane protein, whereas other mechanisms do not incorporate secondary molecules. (
  • ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intracellular membranes. (
  • In epithelial cells, glycosylated protein molecules are transported to both the apical and the basolateral surface domains. (
  • Active transport depends on (sugars/proteins) to move molecules across the cell membrane. (
  • Transport of molecules across the membrane barrier is essential for all cells (e.g. for metabolite supply). (
  • In particular, lipid composition affects the membrane collective behaviour, and its interactions with other biological molecules. (
  • It therefore transports molecules in the opposite direction than expected," says Markus Seeger. (
  • Aquaporin-AQP, Influenza A M2 or Gramicidin-GA) are well known, non-exclusive examples of proteins in which water molecules and protons are envisioned to diffuse along the water filled pores. (
  • ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. (
  • Molecular sorting reactions in the endosome thus play a fundamental role in controlling the composition of the plasma membrane by determining which molecules are recycled back to the plasma membrane and which are degraded. (
  • Cells of the intestine and the kidney are specialized to carry out …show more content… (p 29 bottom left) Movement of a substance across a membrane in which a protein transport moves molecules against (or up) the concentration gradient. (
  • Reverse transport, or transporter reversal, is a phenomenon in which the substrates of a membrane transport protein are moved in the opposite direction to that of their typical movement by the transporter. (
  • Transporter reversal typically occurs when a membrane transport protein is phosphorylated by a particular protein kinase, which is an enzyme that adds a phosphate group to proteins. (
  • The Transporter Classification Database (TCDB) is a web accessible, curated, relational database containing sequence, classification, structural, functional and evolutionary information about transport systems from a variety of living organisms. (
  • The transporter classification (TC) system is an International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology approved system of nomenclature for transport protein classification. (
  • TCDB not only provides curated information and a tool for classifying newly identified membrane proteins, but also serves as a genome transporter-annotation tool. (
  • A dopamine plasma membrane transporter protein complex located on the membrane of dopaminergic neurons. (
  • Crystal structures of a membrane protein transporter in three different conformational states provide insights into the transport mechanism. (
  • We hypothesized that reduced transport of metformin via the plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT) and organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) could increase the risk of severe gastrointestinal adverse effects. (
  • With this approach, they uncovered a gene that encodes the membrane transport protein known as excitatory amino acid transporter 2 or Eaat2. (
  • We utilized solid supported membrane based electrophysiology to study real-time SLC-transporter activity in a 96-well based format, introducing a method also suitable for drug screenings and safety tests. (
  • Pink crystals reveal the mechanism of chloride transport over the cell membrane: Using time-resolved serial crystallography, the pink NmHR crystals revealed ion binding sites in the chloride transporter and pumping dynamics after photoactivation. (
  • Quantitative PCR analysis and protein distribution of drug transporter genes in the rat cochlea. (
  • In this study, we examined the levels of endogenous membrane transporters in rat cochlea by targeted PCR array analysis of 84 transporter genes, followed by validation and localization in tissues by immunohistochemistry. (
  • Our studies indicate that several members of the SLC, VDAC and ABC membrane transporter families show high levels of expression, both at the RNA and protein levels in the rat cochlea. (
  • Mg mediates glucose transport mechanisms into the cell membranes through its effect on insulin signalling via tyrosine kinase activity, phosphorylase B kinase activity and glucose transporter protein activity (8,9). (
  • These carrier proteins have receptors that bind to a specific molecule (substrate) needing transport. (
  • To address the possibility that IL-13Rα2 interacts with other membrane receptors, yeast 2 hybrid (Y2H) screening was employed to identify IL-13Rα2 binding proteins. (
  • G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the receptors of various neurotransmitters and hormonis, and about 1/3 of the current drugs target GPCRs. (
  • This binding is thought to be responsible for vesicle docking and apparently precedes membrane fusion, According to the current concept, syntaxin 1 and SNAP-25 are members of larger protein families, collectively designated as target-SNAP receptors (t-SNAREs), whose specific localization to subcellular membranes define where transport vesicles bind and fuse, Here we demonstrate that major pools of syntaxin 1 and SNAP-25 recycle with SVs. (
  • which function as sorting adapters for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, raising the possibility that it may function in the selection of integral membrane proteins for export. (
  • The cis and trans functions of ubiquitin control the trafficking of a wide array of signaling receptors and other proteins in all eukaryotic cells, thereby regulating processes as essential as growth control and development. (
  • Intracellular membrane traffic depends on transport vesicles and tubules, which shuttle proteins and lipids between compartments. (
  • Membranes are shaped into vesicles by cytoplasmic coats which then dissociate upon GTP hydrolysis. (
  • Shaping Giant Membrane Vesicles in 3D-Printed Protein Hydrogel Cages. (
  • Beating vesicles: Encapsulated protein oscillations cause dynamic membrane deformations. (
  • Protein crowding mediates membrane remodeling in upstream ESCRT-induced formation of intraluminal vesicles. (
  • In vitro experiments using inverted membrane vesicles prepared from MPIase-depleted strains, and liposomes containing MPIase showed that MPIase is required for insertion of a subset of membrane proteins, which has been thought to be SecYEG-independent and YidC-dependent. (
  • Syntaxin 1 and synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kD (SNAP-25) are neuronal plasmalemma proteins that appear to be essential for exocytosis of synaptic vesicles (SVs). (
  • Both proteins cofractionate with SVs and clathrin-coated vesicles upon subcellular fractionation. (
  • Endocytosis mediates internalization of the plasma membrane via vesicles that deliver their content to the endosomal system, a network of related organelles that undergo maturation to generate a terminal endosome that fuses with the lysosome. (
  • Here, we investigate the role of the yeast Nedd4 homologue, Rsp5, in protein sorting into vesicles that bud into the multivesicular endosome (MVE) en route to the vacuole. (
  • First, when conjugated to the cytosolic domain of a cargo protein, ubiquitin serves as a cis signal to promote sorting into nascent vesicles. (
  • There are four mechanisms or groups of mechanisms that exist to facilitate solute movement across biological membranes. (
  • Biological membranes form the interface between cells and their environment. (
  • Collectively membrane transporters and channels are known as the transportome. (
  • Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen that can utilize chitin as a carbon source, through its ability to produce chitin-degrading enzymes to digest chitin and membrane transporters to transport the degradation products (chitooligosaccharides) into the cells. (
  • The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. (
  • Membrane transporters can be major determinants in the targeting and effectiveness of pharmaceutical agents. (
  • A large number of biologically important membrane transporters have been identified and localized to a variety of tissues, organs and cell types. (
  • However, little is known about the expression of key membrane transporters in the inner ear, a promising site for targeted therapeutics, as well as a region vulnerable to adverse drug reactions and environmental factors. (
  • Identification and characterization of these membrane transporters in the inner ear have clinical implications for both therapeutic and cytotoxic mechanisms that may aid in the preservation of auditory function. (
  • She joined Dr. Sergey Bezrukov's laboratory in the Section on Molecular Transport at the NICHD as a Post-baccalaureate IRTA Fellow in July 2022. (
  • In addition, they discuss how lipids are synthesized and transported to and from the ER. (
  • SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, is an enveloped virus, meaning that its genetic material is packed inside an outer layer (envelope) of proteins and lipids. (
  • Further characterization of these proteins is important to understand details of chitin metabolism. (
  • They circulate in the blood by binding to a protein carrier, serum albumin where they travel to the tissue for use in metabolism or biosynthetic pathways. (
  • Microbial bioluminescence is a branch of the electron transport chain [ 7 ] and as electron transport is involved in cell metabolism, any disruption to this system e.g. by the presence of toxins, will have an effect on light output. (
  • Finally, we show that arl-13 interacts genetically with other ciliogenic and ciliary transport-associated genes in maintaining cilium structure/morphology and anterograde IFT stability. (
  • The human genes encoding these proteins are clustered at chromosomal region 6p21 and coexpressed in multiple tissues, including the pancreas. (
  • Heterozygosity for mutations suggest a role of nongenetic factors or other genes involved in renal glucose transport. (
  • Mitochondria contain translocases for the transport of precursor proteins across their outer and inner membranes. (
  • Using several biochemical approaches in follow-up mouse studies, the research team identified the mitochondrial proteins that bind to mutant HTT, noting its particular affinity for TIM23, a protein complex that transports other proteins from the rest of the cell into the mitochondria. (
  • VDAC is a transmembrane, β-barrel channel that resides in the MOM and is essential for metabolite transport between cytosol and mitochondria. (
  • Currently, she is investigating the role and regulation of VDAC, a mitochondrial outer membrane protein essential for metabolite transport between cytosol and mitochondria. (
  • Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA . (
  • Intracellular transport is an essential process for cellular functions and is driven by molecular motors. (
  • Unravelling the structural diversity of cellular membranes is a paramount challenge in life sciences. (
  • DHA is one of the primary building elements of the cellular membrane and is required to create fresh tissue, particularly for the fetal growth of the brain, nervous system, and retina, all of which continue to evolve within the first pregnancy months [ 9 ]. (
  • Secondary active transport involves the use of an electrochemical gradient, and does not use energy produced in the cell. (
  • once such ions are dissolved in water they cannot diffuse freely across cell membranes due to the hydrophobic nature of the fatty acid tails of the phospholipids that make up the bilayers. (
  • Facilitated diffusion occurs in and out of the cell membrane via channels/pores and carriers/porters. (
  • A unique advantage of SPRM is its capability to directly measure both binding affinity and kinetics of ligand-membrane protein interactions without extracting the proteins from the cell membrane, thus ensuring measurements in the membrane's physiological environment. (
  • We herein demonstrated that once PtdSer was exposed on the cell surface of ATP11A −/− ATP11C −/− mouse T cell line (W3), its internalization to the inner leaflet of plasma membranes was negligible at 15 °C. (
  • Intracellular proteins are synthesized on cytoplasmic free ribosomes and do not need to be transported outside the cell membrane to function in cells. (
  • In this study, I try to elucidate "the protein structural diversity" inside living cells at the atomic level using the advanced in-cell NMR technology. (
  • Furthermore I will try to contribute to the drug discovery research by applying the in-cell NMR technology to drug target proteins. (
  • Ion channels are essential membrane proteins that regulate the ion permeation through the cell membrane. (
  • Single-molecule studies have been extensively applied to functional analysis of the ion channel, but nobody knows whether the ion channel in actual cell membrane works as isolated single channel or not. (
  • These proteins are implicated in diverse pathways including cell proliferation, growth and protein transport. (
  • Outside of the cell membrane, sterols, particularly cholesterols, are precursor of bile acids, vitamin D and steroidal hormones. (
  • LacY is a membrane protein that actively transports lactose into the cell. (
  • Since most membrane proteins are toxic when overexpressed, we optimized our system to express appropriate levels of LacY without killing the cell. (
  • Professor Niemi, in turn, studies the genetic variation of cell-membrane transport proteins that carry drugs to cells in humans. (
  • Noirclerc-Savoye M, Lantez V, Signor L, Philippe J, Vernet T and Zapun A Reconstitution of membrane protein complexes involved in pneumococcal septal cell wall assembly. (
  • PIN auxin transport proteins) to the plasma membrane, and secreting materials that expand the cell wall to the apoplast. (
  • In his own research, Arguello studies the structure and function of proteins that transport heavy metals in cell membranes. (
  • One focus of Arguello's research is the mechanisms by which heavy metals, after transport into cells, are delivered across membranes into various cell compartments--a process at the heart of micronutrient metal distribution in humans and other living organisms. (
  • In a 2008 paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , Arguello and his research team described their discovery of the molecular mechanism by which copper ions are transferred from a chaperone protein to metal binding sites on the transport protein in the cell membrane. (
  • Cell membranes help organisms maintain homeostasis by controlling what substances may enter or lease cells. (
  • Some substances can cross the cell membrane without any input of energy by the cell in a process known as passive transport. (
  • PITTSBURGH, May 18, 2014 - Scientists at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine have identified for the first time a key molecular mechanism by which the abnormal protein found in Huntington's disease can cause brain cell death. (
  • Further investigation revealed that mutant HTT inhibited TIM23's ability to transport proteins across the mitochondrial membrane, slowing metabolic activity and ultimately triggering cell-suicide pathways. (
  • To verify the findings, the researchers showed that producing more TIM23 could overcome the protein transport deficiency and prevent cell death. (
  • Phasecontrast microscopy revealed an extensive system of basal membrane invaginations, and Na + -K + -ATPase- and anionexchanger-like immunoreactivity could be localized in cell membranes. (
  • IrtAB (purple/turquoise/blue) sits in the inner membrane of M. tuberculosis and imports iron-loaded mycobactin (yellow/orange) from the host cell into the bacterial cell, where iron is released. (
  • A team of researchers led by Markus Seeger, professor at the Institute of Medical Microbiology of the University of Zurich (UZH), has now analyzed in detail the protein responsible for transporting iron from the infected host cell into the bacteria. (
  • The results suggest that a phosphorylation-based gating mechanism controls cargo selection by yeast retromer, and they establish a functional precedent for CDC25 protein phosphatases that lies outside of their canonical role in regulating cell cycle progression. (
  • Given the central role that retromer plays in controlling plasma membrane composition and organelle biogenesis, it is logical to expect that retromer activities would be regulated in order to integrate its functions with cell physiology ( Seaman, 2012 ), but examples of such regulation have yet to be identified. (
  • Duration 30 minutes, CHO cell membrane preparation. (
  • Intense CD73 expression was identified in 75 out of 159 RCC cell membranes compared with normal renal tissues. (
  • In contrast, there was high P‑gp expression in the blood vessels of 42 out of 85 RCC tissues and there was no significant difference between the P‑gp expression identified in RCC cells (34 out of 85) and the cell membrane of normal renal cells (2 out of 13). (
  • Ecto-5′-nucleotidase, also termed cluster of differentiation (CD)73, is a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-linked membrane protein found on the surface of a variety of cell types ( 14 ). (
  • Photoactive chloride pumping through the cell membrane captured by time-resolved serial crystallography: Chloride ions (green spheres) are transported across the cell membrane by the NmHR chloride pump (pink). (
  • For the first time, a molecular movie has captured in detail the process of an anion transported across the cell membrane by a light-fuelled protein pump. (
  • Many bacteria and unicellular algae have light-driven pumps in their cell membranes: proteins that change shape when exposed to photons such that they can transport charged atoms in or out of the cell. (
  • Among others, it possesses a rhodopsin protein in its cell membrane which transports chloride anions from outside the cell to its inside. (
  • As the study has revealed, the chloride anion is attracted by a positively charged patch of the rhodopsin protein in Nonlabens marinus' cell membrane. (
  • This disease is caused by mutations in the SLC39A14 gene responsible for instructions for proteins that transport manganese across cell membranes. (
  • Lipophilic drugs are able to penetrate though cell membranes, whereas water-soluble drugs penetrate through paracellular spaces, moving across the barrier by a combination of concentration-driven diffusion and convective volume flow along with water. (
  • plasma membrane of the cell, the heavy chain is called an integral membrane protein. (
  • material in a eukaryotic cell is called the nuclear membrane. (
  • Finally, NSP8 and NSP9 bind to the 7SL RNA in the Signal Recognition Particle and interfere with protein trafficking to the cell membrane upon infection. (
  • Phylogenetic characterization of transport protein superfamilies: superiority of SuperfamilyTree programs over those based on multiple alignments. (
  • In most cases, the electrostatic interactions were dominated by the distortion of the electrical double layer surrounding the protein, leading to a distinct maximum in protein transmission at the protein isoelectric point. (
  • Attractive electrostatic interactions did occur when the protein and membrane had a large opposite charge, causing a second maximum in transmission at a pH between the isoelectric points of the protein and membrane. (
  • In this application note, binding interactions of an antibody to a membrane transport receptor were studied using SPRm 200. (
  • Measuring biophysical properties in the membrane target's native environment in real time and label free provides insightful drug-receptor interactions information much earlier in the drug discovery process, thus opening an opportunity to speed up drug development. (
  • Principles of protein-DNA recognition and interactions. (
  • Bioinformatics predictions of protein and small molecule DNA interactions. (
  • Protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions. (
  • We define the interactions between SARS-CoV-2 proteins and human RNAs. (
  • His studies on membrane translocation of presecretory proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) led to the proposal of the "signal hypothesis" to explain how proteins reach their final destinations ( Blobel and Dobberstein, 1975 ). (
  • The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a network of membranes that folds, modifies, and transports proteins in eukaryotic cells. (
  • This protein forms a heterodimer with ABCB2 in order to transport peptides from the cytoplasm to the endoplasmic reticulum. (
  • The XK gene provides instructions for producing a protein that is found in various tissues of the body, particularly the brain, muscle, and heart. (
  • Huntington's disease patients inherit from a parent a gene that contains too many repeats of a certain DNA sequence, which results in the production of an abnormal form of a protein called huntingtin (HTT), explained senior investigator Robert Friedlander, M.D ., UPMC Professor of Neurosurgery and Neurobiology and chair, Department of Neurological Surgery , Pitt School of Medicine. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene is involved in antigen presentation. (
  • In this study, we used genetic selection in budding yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) to identify gene products that control plasma membrane residence of integral membrane proteins. (
  • The MS4A1 gene (MS4A1-stands for 'Membrane Spanning 4-Domains A1' ), is a protein coding gene located on ch. (
  • 2018). The VPS33B gene is involved in intracellular protein transport and membrane fusion. (
  • 3D printed protein-based robotic structures actuated by molecular motor assemblies. (
  • Alongside sphingolipids, sterols may form structures called lipid rafts which are implicated in signaling and membrane trafficking. (
  • Domain structures of proteins and Ramachandran plots. (
  • To date only ~200 unique membrane protein structures have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank. (
  • We are interested in determining the 3D structures of bacterial outer membrane proteins by X-ray crystallography. (
  • The association of amphipathic α helices in water leads to α-helical-bundle protein structures. (
  • We describe morphologic features of coronavirus that distinguish it from subcellular structures, including particle size range (60-140 nm), intracellular particle location within membrane-bound vacuoles, and a nucleocapsid appearing in cross section as dense dots (6-12 nm) within the particles. (
  • The envelope contains structures (spike proteins) for attaching to human cells during infection. (
  • that is they exist permanently within and span the membrane across which they transport substances. (
  • The proteins may assist in the movement of substances by facilitated diffusion or active transport. (
  • Each carrier protein is designed to recognize only one substance or one group of very similar substances. (
  • researchers believe that it might play a role in transporting substances into and out of cells. (
  • Small substances constantly pass through plasma membranes. (
  • Active transport maintains concentrations of ions and other substances that living cells require in the face of these passive movements. (
  • The carrier protein is used to transport specific substances across a membrane. (
  • During endosome maturation, integral membrane proteins are either retained, leading their eventual turnover in the lysosome, or they are exported and delivered to other organelles for re-use. (
  • One mutant obtained displays a loss of retromer-dependent plasma membrane recycling of multiple integral plasma membrane proteins. (
  • To identify factors that regulate post-Golgi trafficking of integral membrane proteins, we harnessed the activity of yeast chitin synthase 3 (Chs3), an integral membrane enzyme that is trafficked between Golgi and endosomal compartments and the plasma membrane. (
  • Coiled-coil proteins of the golgin family have been implicated in intra-Golgi transport through tethering events in membrane fusion and as structural supports for the Golgi complex. (
  • The protein has the structural flexibility and diversity to exert biological functions efficiently. (
  • Here, the relationship between membrane composition and resultant structural features was investigated by surface pres. (
  • Tom Cech, Roy Parker and John Rinn (RNA biology), Robin Dowell (RNA bioinformatics and genomics), and Marcelo Sousa (structural biology of membrane proteins and protein transport). (
  • With our structural and functional elucidation of IrtAB, we opened avenues to develop novel tuberculosis drugs that inhibit the iron transport into the bacteria", Seeger concludes. (
  • Most protein channels share some structural aspects, such as their self-assembled multiple subunits within trans-membrane domains and the selectivity of these protein channels is usually driven by the narrowest region of the pore, showing gating behaviours generated by the structural motion of the external subunits in response to voltage, ligand and pH stimuli. (
  • Large quantities of protein are required for structural analysis. (
  • The main structural proteins of CAVEOLAE . (
  • Following binding, and while the binding site is facing the same way, the carrier will capture or occlude (take in and retain) the substrate within its molecular structure and cause an internal translocation so that the opening in the protein now faces the other side of the plasma membrane. (
  • Experimental data were obtained for the transport of a broad range of proteins with different surface charge and molecular weight. (
  • TRPM3 activity depends on the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P 2 ), but the molecular mechanism of activation by PI(4,5)P 2 is not known. (
  • The results are discussed in the context of a predictive model for partitioning and transport of low molecular weight solutes in human dermis. (
  • MPIase not only cooperates with these factors but also has a molecular chaperone-like function specific to the substrate membrane proteins through direct interaction with the glycan chain. (
  • The "signal hypothesis" can explain the molecular mechanism of membrane integration of hydrophobic membrane proteins. (
  • During the transport, two molecular gates thus make sure that chloride only moves in one direction: inside," Nogly says. (
  • Regulation of peroxisomal matrix protein import by ubiquitination. (
  • A pH difference would indicate potential across the MOM suggesting a voltage-dependent regulation of VDAC metabolite transport in cells. (
  • Research has correlated defects in specific carrier proteins with specific diseases. (
  • The type of carrier proteins used in facilitated diffusion is slightly different from those used in active transport. (
  • They are still transmembrane carrier proteins, but these are gated transmembrane channels, meaning they do not internally translocate, nor require ATP to function. (
  • The small ciliary G protein Arl13b is required for cilium biogenesis and sonic hedgehog signaling and is mutated in patients with Joubert syndrome (JS). (
  • The contributors examine how proteins enter the ER, the biogenesis of membrane proteins, and the role of the ER in protein sorting and quality control. (
  • Together, these data implicate a role for JS-associated Arl13b at ciliary membranes, where it regulates ciliary transmembrane protein localizations and anterograde IFT assembly stability. (
  • The Y2H screening assay identified transmembrane protein 219 (TMEM219), a known membrane protein, as a molecule that interacts with IL-13Rα2. (
  • Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. (
  • The study led by Dr. Stahl and Dr. Peco focuses on fundamental mechanisms of sleep and glial cells in flies, but we expect our discovery will fuel research to determine if a mechanism involving the transport of taurine to and from glial cells might influence sleep in humans," said van Meyel. (
  • First, we show that Arl13b/ARL-13 localization is frequently restricted to a proximal ciliary compartment, where it associates with ciliary membranes via palmitoylation modification motifs. (
  • Here, we demonstrate that the membrane protein, TMEM219, is a binding partner of IL-13Rα2 using yeast two-hybrid, co-immunoprecipitation, co-localization and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays. (
  • The C2 domain binds specifically to phosphoinositides in vitro and is sufficient for localization to membranes in intact cells. (
  • How do coiled-coil proteins support intra-Golgi transport? (
  • Although the prevailing view is that the Golgi apparatus provides the same lumenal environment for glycosylation of apical and basolateral cargo proteins, there are indications that proteoglycans destined for the two opposite epithelial surfaces are exposed to different conditions in transit through the Golgi apparatus. (
  • What is the difference between an intracellular and extracellular protein? (
  • Extracellular protein: enters cells through endocytosis or pinocytosis and degrades in lysosomes. (
  • The extracellular-facing H(+) transfer glutamate becomes directly exposed to aqueous solution during the transport cycle, but the intracellular glutamate E203, Glu(in), is buried within the protein. (
  • Bacterial extracellular solute-binding proteins [Interproscan]. (
  • Using a combination of cryo-electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography, the researchers solved for the first time a high-resolution structure of the transport protein IrtAB. (
  • Using specific antibodies, V-ATPase subunit B was localized in the plasma membrane. (
  • This meeting aims to gather key participants representing the full scientific scope of the topic, specifically, but not limited to, the areas of Ion channels, Artificial channels, Membrane, Supramolecular chemistry, Materials and Biophysics. (
  • This session will address the key challenges of the biophysics of protein water channels and explore what can be learnt from natural proteins. (
  • What are the three mechanisms of protein transport? (
  • Solute particles can traverse the membrane via three mechanisms: passive, facilitated, and active transport. (
  • How many types of transport mechanisms are there? (
  • The mechanisms fall into one of three categories: simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and active transport. (
  • Given the importance of membrane transport, cells utilize a wide range of transport mechanisms. (
  • What are the mechanisms of membrane transport? (
  • Active transport mechanisms, or pumps, work against electrochemical gradients. (
  • In this review, we will outline the mechanisms underlying membrane insertion catalyzed by MPIase, which cooperates with proteinaceous factors and PMF. (
  • Because of the importance of these basic biological functions, a better understanding of the mechanisms of heavy metal transport has implications for the treatment of a host of diseases, for human and animal nutrition, and for the bioremediation of heavy metal pollution. (
  • Discussion will focus on the structure of natural proteins and their functions, and the natural mechanisms of selective translocation. (
  • As absorption in the small intestine plays a major role in overall oral drug absorption, any discussion of oral dose absorption is by definition a discussion of intestinal transport mechanisms and the factos which affect them. (
  • What is the role of Ceramide transport protein in lipid transport? (
  • We observed pronounced dysregulation of lipid transport and neutrophil degranulation. (
  • Working with bacterial cytochrome oxidases, the authors--from three different laboratories--have made inroads into understanding the structure of the active site of an important energy-generating protein. (
  • The transport protein, which is located in the bacterial membrane, is essential for the survival of the pathogens. (
  • Meningococcal meningitis is a bacterial form of meningitis, a serious infection of the meninges that affects the brain membrane. (
  • Phospholipids are asymmetrically distributed between the lipid bilayer of plasma membranes in which phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) is confined to the inner leaflet. (
  • ATP11A and ATP11C, type IV P-Type ATPases in plasma membranes, flip PtdSer from the outer to the inner leaflet, but involvement of other P4-ATPases is unclear. (
  • Vac8 controls vacuolar membrane dynamics during different autophagy pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (
  • In contrast, mutation of E202, a conserved glutamate at the protein-water boundary of the interfacial region, leads to severe slowing of the Cl(-)/H(+) antiport rate. (
  • Professor Niemi's team has found a genetic mutation that affects the properties of a transport protein in the liver and may explain the adverse effects. (
  • A spontaneously arising mutation that activates the yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) CDC25 family phosphatase, Mih1, results in accelerated turnover of a subset of endocytosed plasma membrane proteins due to deficient sorting into a retromer-mediated recycling pathway. (
  • Mutation of a lysine-rich patch on the surface of the C2 domain abolishes membrane interaction and disrupts sorting of biosynthetic cargo. (
  • Researchers are eager to discover the details of light-driven pumps because these proteins are valuable optogenetic tools: genetically engineered into mammalian neurons, they make it possible to control the neurons activities by light and thus research their function. (
  • JNK and p38 belong to a subgroup of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) superfamily and are activated in response to a variety of stresses in mammalian cells. (
  • We have identified a protein kinase, SEK-1, which has significant similarity with mammalian SEK1. (
  • AQP0 water channels are the most abundant proteins expressed in the mammalian lens fiber membranes where they are essential for lens development and transparency. (
  • The hydrophobic transmembrane (TM) regions of nascent chain of a membrane protein are recognized by SRP through the interaction with the TM regions, the protein then being transported to the ER membrane via the SR. The process prevents aggregation of hydrophobic TM domain of nascent protein in the hydrophilic environment of cytoplasm. (
  • 1) Despite their importance as a drug discovery, it is difficult to determine its function: direct biophysical studies require these proteins be solubilized and purified and between their extraction and reconstitution, transport activity cannot be measured because of the lack of a vectorial environment. (
  • Fundamental Characteristics of AAA+ Protein Family Structure and Function. (
  • Phylogeny as a Guide to Structure and Function of Membrane Transport Proteins. (
  • Sterols have a fundamental effect in membrane properties, affecting fluidity, membrane transport and function of membrane proteins. (
  • To investigate the function of SEK-1, we generated a sek-1 deletion mutant which lacks most of protein kinase catalytic domains. (
  • Thus, MPIase catalyzes membrane insertion by accepting nascent membrane proteins on the membrane through its chaperone-like function, i.e., direct interaction with the substrate proteins, and then MPIase functionally interacts with SecYEG and YidC for substrate delivery, and acts with PMF to facilitate and complete membrane insertion when necessary. (
  • Proteins destined to be embodied into the biological membrane or to be exported across the membrane require a specific mechanism to reach the destination to exert their function at the proper location. (
  • Principles of protein function and protein structure relationships. (
  • Structure and function of STAT proteins. (
  • IonTraC is first to propose a systematic analysis of the expression, function, as well as therapeutic and diagnostic potential of proteins involved in ion transport (the ""transportome"") in cancer. (
  • Which of the following is not a function of membrane proteins? (
  • The development of synthetic biomimetic artificial water-channels and pores is key for a better understanding of the natural function of protein channels. (
  • Mimicking the function of the complex superstructures of proteins is an important challenge. (
  • These results demonstrate that the C2 domain specifies Rsp5-dependent ubiquitination of endosomal cargo and suggest that Rsp5 function is regulated by membrane phosphoinositides. (
  • Protein of unknown function (DUF3313) [Interproscan]. (
  • An efficient strategy for small-scale screening and production of archaeal membrane transport proteins in Escherichia coli. (
  • protein_coding" "AAC73969","clpA","Escherichia coli","ATPase and specificity subunit of ClpA-ClpP ATP-dependent serine protease, chaperone activity [Ensembl]. (
  • Here we show that the mitochondrial outer membrane contains a separate sorting and assembly machinery (SAM) that operates after the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM). (
  • The central role of the SAM complex in the sorting and assembly pathway of outer membrane proteins explains the various pleiotropic functions that have been ascribed to Mas37 (refs 4, 11-15). (
  • These results suggest that the TOM complex, which can transport all kinds of mitochondrial precursor proteins, is not sufficient for the correct integration of outer membrane proteins with a complicated topology, and instead transfers precursor proteins to the SAM complex. (
  • In contrast, the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) has been assumed to be "leaky", or having zero potential, due to the abundance of voltage-dependent anion channels (VDAC). (
  • Our research focuses on the development and use of synthetic biology tools to scrutinize the biology of the biospheres most abundant protein, the photosynthetic CO 2 -fixing enzyme Rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase). (
  • A previously developed method employing the use of a dialysis membrane in series with human dermis tissue mounted in side-by-side diffusion cells was utilized to observe the effects of the presence of soluble proteins in the donor compartment on the measured transport parameters of parathion. (
  • They also participate in the transport of oxygen in the blood, the synthesis of sugars in plants, and the transcription of DNA, and contribute to the virulence of pathogenic microorganisms. (
  • Currently, it is understood that ATP synthesis is driven by the transmembrane potential across the mitochondrial inner membrane. (
  • abstract = "Although a number of previous studies have demonstrated that solution pH can have a dramatic effect on protein transport through ultrafiltration membranes, the exact origin of this behavior has been unclear. (
  • abstract = "A series of crown boronic acids, 1-4, were synthesized and studied as carriers for catecholamine transport through bulk liquid membranes (BLMs) and supported liquid membranes (SLMs). (
  • Presecretory proteins possess an extended sequence, the so-called signal sequence, of 20-40 amino acids at their N-termini, which serves as a "tag" for the translocation of precursor proteins to their destinations. (
  • Ribosomes-nascent chain complex (ribosomes with nascent polypeptides emerging from the ribosomes) then interacts with the protein-conducting channel (the Sec61 complex) on the ER membrane and deliver the nascent chains of precursor proteins into the channel co-translationally ( Zito and Oliver, 2003 ). (
  • The mechanism of action of Nogo inhibition may be complex, because two different inhibitory domains have been identified in the Nogo protein. (
  • Because other LRR proteins serve a wide variety of functions ( Buchanan and Gay, 1996 ), they offer little insight into the mechanism of NgR signaling. (
  • SLMs containing carrier 3 were stable, implying that carrier 3 is a very good candidate for transport mechanism studies. (
  • This allowed researchers to decipher the chloride transport mechanism. (
  • Recent advances have uncovered the general protein apparatus used by all eukaryotes for intracellular transport, including secretion and endocytosis, and for triggered exocytosis of hormones and neurotransmitters. (
  • Since many eukaryotic membrane proteins are not abundant in nature, reliable protein overproduction systems are a prerequisite for further advancement of the field. (
  • Thus, both proteins are significant components of SVs although less abundant than synaptobrevin (8.7% of the total protein). (
  • Practical training will include interactive computer-guided demonstrations of protein analysis, hands-on practical sessions for nucleic acid purification and chemical structure characterisation, protein expression and purification (including SDS-PAGE), protein sequence analysis including mass spectrometry, protein structure analysis by 3D protein modelling and protein folding (Bioinformatics). (
  • Here, the anion enters the protein and finally binds to a positive charge at the retinal molecule inside. (
  • The APC superfamily consists of numerous families of porters that transport amino acids and their dereivatives. (
  • Recombinant fusion protein containing a sequence corresponding to amino acids 430-680 of human TAP2 (NP_000535.3). (
  • These ATPase are found as coomponents of several protein secretion systems as well as synaptosomal fusion systems. (
  • Since protein secretion is difficult in E. coli , our cells were engineered to lyse in order to release ß-galactosidase. (
  • These are diffusion, carrier-mediated transport including facilitated diffusion and active transport, osmosis, and endocytosis-exocytosis. (
  • Aquaporins are water channel proteins embedded in the membranes of cells. (
  • Our findings show that aquaporins, even though similar in size and fold, give very diverse protein yields. (
  • Nature has evolved specialised membrane proteins called aquaporins for water transport in cells but these biological nanochannels have proven challenging to reproduce. (