Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A group of membrane transport proteins that transport biogenic amine derivatives of catechol across the PLASMA MEMBRANE. Catecholamine plasma membrane transporter proteins regulate neural transmission as well as catecholamine metabolism and recycling.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A family of sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters that transport the amino acid GLYCINE. They differ from GLYCINE RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GLYCINE. They are located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of NEURONS; GLIAL CELLS; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and RED BLOOD CELLS where they remove inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE.
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that couple the uptake of GLUTAMATE with the import of SODIUM ions and PROTONS and the export of POTASSIUM ions. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM they regulate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism.
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that regulates extracellular levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They differ from GABA RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They control GABA reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM through high-affinity sodium-dependent transport.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of noradrenergic neurons. They remove NOREPINEPHRINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. It regulates signal amplitude and duration at noradrenergic synapses and is the target of ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
A membrane of squamous EPITHELIAL CELLS, the mesothelial cells, covered by apical MICROVILLI that allow rapid absorption of fluid and particles in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. The peritoneum is divided into parietal and visceral components. The parietal peritoneum covers the inside of the ABDOMINAL WALL. The visceral peritoneum covers the intraperitoneal organs. The double-layered peritoneum forms the MESENTERY that suspends these organs from the abdominal wall.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A non-penetrating amino reagent (commonly called SITS) which acts as an inhibitor of anion transport in erythrocytes and other cells.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Proteins that bind to and are involved in the metabolism of phosphate ions.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A 700-kDa cytosolic protein complex consisting of seven equimolar subunits (alpha, beta, beta', gamma, delta, epsilon and zeta). COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 are principle components of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I and are involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
A family of monosaccharide transport proteins characterized by 12 membrane spanning helices. They facilitate passive diffusion of GLUCOSE across the CELL MEMBRANE.
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
A phenolphthalein that is used as a diagnostic aid in hepatic function determination.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
A ubiquitously expressed folic acid transporter that functions via an antiporter mechanism which is coupled to the transport of organic phosphates.
Solutions prepared for exchange across a semipermeable membrane of solutes below a molecular size determined by the cutoff threshold of the membrane material.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Portable peritoneal dialysis using the continuous (24 hours a day, 7 days a week) presence of peritoneal dialysis solution in the peritoneal cavity except for periods of drainage and instillation of fresh solution.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOTIDES across cellular membranes.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOSIDES across cellular membranes.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Dialysis fluid being introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity as either a continuous or an intermittent procedure.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.

A single membrane-embedded negative charge is critical for recognizing positively charged drugs by the Escherichia coli multidrug resistance protein MdfA. (1/9754)

The nature of the broad substrate specificity phenomenon, as manifested by multidrug resistance proteins, is not yet understood. In the Escherichia coli multidrug transporter, MdfA, the hydrophobicity profile and PhoA fusion analysis have so far identified only one membrane-embedded charged amino acid residue (E26). In order to determine whether this negatively charged residue may play a role in multidrug recognition, we evaluated the expression and function of MdfA constructs mutated at this position. Replacing E26 with the positively charged residue lysine abolished the multidrug resistance activity against positively charged drugs, but retained chloramphenicol efflux and resistance. In contrast, when the negative charge was preserved in a mutant with aspartate instead of E26, chloramphenicol recognition and transport were drastically inhibited; however, the mutant exhibited almost wild-type multidrug resistance activity against lipophilic cations. These results suggest that although the negative charge at position 26 is not essential for active transport, it dictates the multidrug resistance character of MdfA. We show that such a negative charge is also found in other drug resistance transporters, and its possible significance regarding multidrug resistance is discussed.  (+info)

Membrane deinsertion of SecA underlying proton motive force-dependent stimulation of protein translocation. (2/9754)

The proton motive force (PMF) renders protein translocation across the Escherichia coli membrane highly efficient, although the underlying mechanism has not been clarified. The membrane insertion and deinsertion of SecA coupled to ATP binding and hydrolysis, respectively, are thought to drive the translocation. We report here that PMF significantly decreases the level of membrane-inserted SecA. The prlA4 mutation of SecY, which causes efficient protein translocation in the absence of PMF, was found to reduce the membrane-inserted SecA irrespective of the presence or absence of PMF. The PMF-dependent decrease in the membrane-inserted SecA caused an increase in the amount of SecA released into the extra-membrane milieu, indicating that PMF deinserts SecA from the membrane. The PMF-dependent deinsertion reduced the amount of SecA required for maximal translocation activity. Neither ATP hydrolysis nor exchange with external SecA was required for the PMF-dependent deinsertion of SecA. These results indicate that the SecA deinsertion is a limiting step of protein translocation and is accelerated by PMF, efficient protein translocation thereby being caused in the presence of PMF.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of the human orthologue of yeast Pex14p. (3/9754)

Pex14p is a central component of the peroxisomal protein import machinery, which has been suggested to provide the point of convergence for PTS1- and PTS2-dependent protein import in yeast cells. Here we describe the identification of a human peroxisome-associated protein (HsPex14p) which shows significant similarity to the yeast Pex14p. HsPex14p is a carbonate-resistant peroxisomal membrane protein with its C terminus exposed to the cytosol. The N terminus of the protein is not accessible to exogenously added antibodies or protease and thus might protrude into the peroxisomal lumen. HsPex14p overexpression leads to the decoration of tubular structures and mislocalization of peroxisomal catalase to the cytosol. HsPex14p binds the cytosolic receptor for the peroxisomal targeting signal 1 (PTS1), a result consistent with a function as a membrane receptor in peroxisomal protein import. Homo-oligomerization of HsPex14p or interaction of the protein with the PTS2-receptor or HsPex13p was not observed. This distinguishes the human Pex14p from its counterpart in yeast cells and thus supports recent data suggesting that not all aspects of peroxisomal protein import are conserved between yeasts and humans. The role of HsPex14p in mammalian peroxisome biogenesis makes HsPEX14 a candidate PBD gene for being responsible for an unrecognized complementation group of human peroxisome biogenesis disorders.  (+info)

Induction of serotonin transporter by hypoxia in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells. Relationship with the mitogenic action of serotonin. (4/9754)

-The increased delivery of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) to the lung aggravates the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats, possibly through stimulation of the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PA-SMCs). In cultured rat PA-SMCs, 5-HT (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L) induced DNA synthesis and potentiated the mitogenic effect of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (10 ng/mL). This effect was dependent on the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT), since it was prevented by the 5-HTT inhibitors fluoxetine (10(-6) mol/L) and paroxetine (10(-7) mol/L), but it was unaltered by ketanserin (10(-6) mol/L), a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist. In PA-SMCs exposed to hypoxia, the levels of 5-HTT mRNA (measured by competitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) increased by 240% within 2 hours, followed by a 3-fold increase in the uptake of [3H]5-HT at 24 hours. Cotransfection of the cells with a construct of human 5-HTT promoter-luciferase gene reporter and of pCMV-beta-galactosidase gene allowed the demonstration that exposure of cells to hypoxia produced a 5.5-fold increase in luciferase activity, with no change in beta-galactosidase activity. The increased expression of 5-HTT in hypoxic cells was associated with a greater mitogenic response to 5-HT (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L) in the absence as well as in the presence of platelet-derived growth factor-BB. 5-HTT expression assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization in the lungs was found to predominate in the media of pulmonary artery, in which a marked increase was noted in rats that had been exposed to hypoxia for 15 days. These data show that in vitro and in vivo exposure to hypoxia induces, via a transcriptional mechanism, 5-HTT expression in PA-SMCs, and that this effect contributes to the stimulatory action of 5-HT on PA-SMC proliferation. In vivo expression of 5-HTT by PA-SMC may play a key role in serotonin-mediated pulmonary vascular remodeling.  (+info)

Reproducibility studies with 11C-DTBZ, a monoamine vesicular transporter inhibitor in healthy human subjects. (5/9754)

The reproducibility of (+/-)-alpha-[11C] dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) measures in PET was studied in 10 healthy human subjects, aged 22-76 y. METHODS: The scan-to-scan variation of several measures used in PET data analysis was determined, including the radioactivity ratio (target-to-reference), plasma-input Logan total distribution volume (DV), plasma-input Logan Bmax/Kd and tissue-input Logan Bmax/Kd values. RESULTS: The radioactivity ratios, plasma-input Bmax/Kd and tissue-input Bmax/Kd all have higher reliability than plasma-input total DV values. In addition, measures using the occipital cortex as the reference region have higher reliability than the same measures using the cerebellum as the reference region. CONCLUSION: Our results show that DTBZ is a reliable PET tracer that provides reproducible in vivo measurement of striatal vesicular monoamine transporter density. In the selection of reference regions for DTBZ PET data analysis, caution must be exercised in circumstances when DTBZ binding in the occipital cortex or the cerebellum may be altered.  (+info)

Re-entering the translocon from the lumenal side of the endoplasmic reticulum. Studies on mutated carboxypeptidase yscY species. (6/9754)

Misfolded or unassembled secretory proteins are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and subsequently degraded by the cytosolic ubiquitin-proteasome system. This requires their retrograde transport from the ER lumen into the cytosol, which is mediated by the Sec61 translocon. It had remained a mystery whether ER-localised soluble proteins are at all capable of re-entering the Sec61 channel de novo or whether a permanent contact of the imported protein with the translocon is a prerequisite for retrograde transport. In this study we analysed two new variants of the mutated yeast carboxypeptidase yscY, CPY*: a carboxy-terminal fusion protein of CPY* and pig liver esterase and a CPY* species carrying an additional glycosylation site at its carboxy-terminus. With these constructs it can be demonstrated that the newly synthesised CPY* chain is not retained in the translocation channel but reaches its ER lumenal side completely. Our data indicate that the Sec61 channel provides the essential pore for protein transport through the ER membrane in either direction; persistent contact with the translocon after import seems not to be required for retrograde transport.  (+info)

Cloning of a bovine orphan transporter and its short splicing variant. (7/9754)

We have isolated a cDNA (bv7-3) encoding a member of the Na+,Cl(-)-dependent transporter family and its short splicing variant (bv7-3s) by screening a bovine retina cDNA library. Sequence analysis revealed that bv7-3 encodes a protein of 729 amino acids and is a bovine homologue of the rat orphan transporter v7-3-2. bv7-3s contains 265 amino acids, sharing 252 N-terminal amino acids with bv7-3. Both mRNAs for bv7-3 and bv7-3s were detected in nervous system by Northern blot analysis. In immunofluorescence analysis in transfected HEK 293T cells, myc-tagged bv7-3 was mainly detected on the plasma membrane, whereas myc-tagged bv7-3s showed a pattern of intracellular membrane staining.  (+info)

UCP4, a novel brain-specific mitochondrial protein that reduces membrane potential in mammalian cells. (8/9754)

Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are a family of mitochondrial transporter proteins that have been implicated in thermoregulatory heat production and maintenance of the basal metabolic rate. We have identified and partially characterized a novel member of the human uncoupling protein family, termed uncoupling protein-4 (UCP4). Protein sequence analyses showed that UCP4 is most related to UCP3 and possesses features characteristic of mitochondrial transporter proteins. Unlike other known UCPs, UCP4 transcripts are exclusively expressed in both fetal and adult brain tissues. UCP4 maps to human chromosome 6p11.2-q12. Consistent with its potential role as an uncoupling protein, UCP4 is localized to the mitochondria and its ectopic expression in mammalian cells reduces mitochondrial membrane potential. These findings suggest that UCP4 may be involved in thermoregulatory heat production and metabolism in the brain.  (+info)

The transporters participate in a significant role in drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination. Transporters are of efflux and influx type, need ATP-binding sites for their in and out movement across the cell membrane. These transporters play an important role in allowing or opposing the drugs into the cells, results in non-linearity in drug pharmacokinetics. A wide range of transporters was discovered; among them, organic solute transporters (OST) play a key role in drug absorption and disposition. Organic solute transporters is a heteromeric transporter localized to the basolateral of epithelial cells. It is the primary efflux bile acid transporter in the intestine of mammals.. ...
BioAssay record AID 676749 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of Multidrug resistance efflux pump in Mycobacterium smegmatis str. MC2 155 ATCC 700084 assessed as reduction in isoniazid bromide MIC presence of test compound at 64 mg/L.
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Multidrug efflux systems display the ability to transport a variety of structurally unrelated drugs from a cell and consequently are capable of conferring resistance to a diverse range of chemotherapeutic agents. This review examines multidrug efflux systems which use the proton motive force to drive drug transport. These proteins are likely to operate as multidrug/proton antiporters and have been identified in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Such proton-dependent multidrug efflux proteins belong to three distinct families or superfamilies of transport proteins: the major facilitator superfamily (MFS), the small multidrug resistance (SMR) family, and the resistance/ nodulation/cell division (RND) family. The MFS consists of symporters, antiporters, and uniporters with either 12 or 14 transmembrane-spanning segments (TMS), and we show that within the MFS, three separate families include various multidrug/proton antiport proteins. The SMR family consists of proteins with four TMS, and the ...
The Tat system transports folded proteins across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane and the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts. Substrates are targeted to the Tat pathway by signal peptides containing a pair of consecutive arginine residues. The membrane proteins TatA, TatB and TatC are the essential components of this pathway in Escherichia coli. The complexes that these proteins form at native levels of expression have been investigated by the use of affinity tag-coding sequences fused to chromosomal tat genes. Distinct TatA and TatBC complexes were identified using size-exclusion chromatography and shown to have apparent molecular masses of approximately 700 and 500 kDa, respectively. Following in vivo expression, the Tat substrate protein SufI was found to copurify with the TatBC, but not the TatA, complex. This binding required the SufI signal peptide. Substitution of the twin-arginine residues in the SufI signal peptide by either twin lysine or twin alanine residues abolished export. However
The protein export is the active transport of proteins from the cytoplasm to the exterior of the cell, or to the periplasmic compartment in Gram-negative bacteria. The sec dependent pathway is the general protein export system that transports newly synthesized proteins into or across the cell membrane. The translocation channel is formed from a conserved trimeric membrane protein complex, called the Sec61/SecY complex. The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway is another protein transport system that transports folded proteins in bacteria, archaea, and chloroplasts. Many Tat systems comprise three functionally different membrane proteins, TatA, TatB, and TatC, but TatA and TatE seem to have overlapping functions, with TatA having by far the more important role ...
Recent identification of several members of the chloroplastic protein translocation machinery has allowed for further refinement of our understanding of the mechanism by which precursors are transported into chloroplasts. We have attempted to define the composition of complexes that form during translocation using co‐immunoprecipitation techniques with antibodies specific to translocation components. We have observed that precursors could be found in stable association with translocation complexes after solubilization with a mild detergent, decylmaltoside. Characterization of these complexes has led to two conclusions: (i) that under limiting ATP conditions, precursors associated with translocation complexes containing components of the outer and inner envelope membranes; and (ii) that the chaperone ClpC, a stromal Hsp100 homolog, was associated with precursor‐containing complexes under these limiting ATP conditions.. The data presented here suggest a new role for the stromal Hsp100 homolog ...
Membrane transporters allow the selective transport of otherwise poorly permeable solutes across the cell membrane and thus, play a key role in maintaining cellular homeostasis in all kingdoms of life. Importantly, these proteins also serve as important drug targets. Over the last decades, major progress in structural biology methods has elucidated important structure-function relationships in mem...
Among the different families of transporter, only two occur ubiquitously in all classifications of organisms. These are the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) superfamily and the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS). The MFS transporters are single-polypeptide secondary carriers capable only of transporting small solutes in response to chemiosmotic ion gradients [ (PUBMED:9529885) (PUBMED:9868370) ]. The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) of membrane proteins represents the largest family of secondary transporters with members from Archaea to Homo sapiens. MFS proteins target a wide spectrum of substrates, including ions, carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids and peptides, nucleosides and other small molecules in both directions across the membrane, in many instances catalysing active transport by transducing the energy stored in an proton electrochemical gradient into a concentration gradient of substrate [ (PUBMED:23530251) ]. One remarkable characteristic of the MFS is the high sequence variety within ...
Among the different families of transporter, only two occur ubiquitously in all classifications of organisms. These are the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) superfamily and the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS). The MFS transporters are single-polypeptide secondary carriers capable only of transporting small solutes in response to chemiosmotic ion gradients [ (PUBMED:9529885) (PUBMED:9868370) ]. The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) of membrane proteins represents the largest family of secondary transporters with members from Archaea to Homo sapiens. MFS proteins target a wide spectrum of substrates, including ions, carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids and peptides, nucleosides and other small molecules in both directions across the membrane, in many instances catalysing active transport by transducing the energy stored in an proton electrochemical gradient into a concentration gradient of substrate [ (PUBMED:23530251) ]. One remarkable characteristic of the MFS is the high sequence variety within ...
Proteoliposomes represent a suitable and up to date tool for studying membrane transporters which physiologically mediate absorption, excretion, trafficking and reabsorption of nutrients and metabolites. Using recently developed reconstitution strategies, transporters can be inserted in artificial bilayers with the same orientation as in the cell membranes and in the absence of other interfering molecular systems. These methodologies are very suitable for studying kinetic parameters and molecular mechanisms. After the first applications on mitochondrial transporters, in the last decade, proteoliposomes obtained with optimized methodologies have been used for studying plasma membrane transporters and defining their functional and kinetic properties and structure/function relationships. A lot of information has been obtained which has clarified and completed the knowledge on several transporters among which the OCTN sub-family members, transporters for neutral amino acid, B0AT1 and ASCT2, and others.
Shop Multidrug efflux pump accessory protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Multidrug efflux pump accessory protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Johnson, Tanya and Ouhtit, Allal and Gaur, Rajiv and Fernando, Augusta and Schwarzenberger, Paul and Su, Joseph and Ismail, Mohamed F and El-Sayyad, Hassan I and Karande, Anjali and Elmageed, Zakaria Abd and Rao, Prakash and Raj, Madhwa (2009) Biochemical characterization of riboflavin carrier protein (RCP) in prostate cancer. In: Frontiers in Bioscience, 14 . pp. 3634-3640. ...
Raj, Madhwa HG and Roy, Tanya and Karande, Anjali and Rao, Prakash N and Richardson, Kevin and Raj, Shailaja G (2003) Expression patterns of Riboflavin Carrier Protein (RCP) in the female reproductive system. In: Fertility and Sterility, 80 (3). S249-S250. ...
Plant nutrition critically depends on the activity of membrane transporters that translocate minerals from the soil into the plant and are responsible for their intra- and intercellular distribution. Most plant membrane transporters are encoded by multigene families whose members often exhibit overlapping expression patterns and a high degree of sequence homology. Furthermore, many inorganic nutrients are transported by more than one transporter family. These considerations, coupled with a large number of so-far non-annotated putative transporter genes, hamper our progress in understanding how the activity of specific transporters is integrated into a response to fluctuating conditions. We designed an oligonucleotide microarray representing 1096 Arabidopsis transporter genes and analysed the root transporter transcriptome over a 96-h period with respect to 80 mm NaCl, K+ starvation and Ca2+ starvation. Our data show that cation stress led to changes in transcript level of many genes across most ...
CP000667.PE394 Location/Qualifiers FT CDS_pept 453881..454846 FT /codon_start=1 FT /transl_table=11 FT /locus_tag=Strop_0394 FT /product=RarD protein, DMT superfamily transporter FT /note=TIGRFAM: RarD protein, DMT superfamily transporter; FT PFAM: protein of unknown function DUF6, transmembrane FT /db_xref=EnsemblGenomes-Gn:Strop_0394 FT /db_xref=EnsemblGenomes-Tr:ABP52879 FT /db_xref=GOA:A4X1X9 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR000620 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR004626 FT /db_xref=UniProtKB/TrEMBL:A4X1X9 FT /protein_id=ABP52879.1 FT /translation=MTPRKLGYLYGIGAYVLWGFFPLYMRLLRPASPLEILAHRIVWSV FT VFVALVLAAMRNRSFLRALLRRPRALAALGIAAALVALNWGTYIYGVNSERVVETSLGY FT FVNPLVVVLLGVFVLRERLRPAQWAAIGVGGAAVVVLTVDYGRPPYLALVLSFTFAGYG FT LVKKRLGLPAAQGLFVESAVLALPALAYLAWLGGTGGATFGAVSAGHTALLISAGAATA FT IPLLMFAGAANRLPFTSLGMLQYLAPILQLGCGVIIFREPMPPARLAGFALVWLALAVF FT TVDAVRAARRLPPPLADEVLAAVQPGSGTSPQQERKIVSG gtgacgcctc gcaagctcgg ctacctgtac ggtatcggcg cgtacgtgct ctggggtttc 60 ttcccgctct acatgagact gctccggccg ...
Membrane protein topology predictions can be markedly improved by the inclusion of even very limited experimental information. We have recently introduced an approach for the production of reliable topology models based on a combination of experimental determination of the location (cytoplasmic or p …
This paper is interesting because it reports a novel method for the regulation of an ATPase required to drive polypeptides through the bacterial inner membrane via the transmembrane protein-conducting channel SecYEG. Protein translocation through the SecY / Sec61 complex is an essential and conserved reaction and in bacteria it proceeds by the action of an ATP-driven protein pump associated with the protein conduction channel. The work identifies a conserved salt bridge or gate in SecA that may form a switch to control different conformations in the nucleotide binding fold. As such, it may play an important role in relaying the conformational changes associated with ATP binding and hydrolysis to a power stroke responsible for the directional movement of polypeptides. ...
Genetic information processingProtein fateProtein and peptide secretion and traffickingTat (twin-arginine translocation) pathway signal sequence (TIGR01409; HMM-score: 25.5) ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Proteolytic processing of Escherichia coli twin-arginine signal peptides by LepB. AU - Luke,Iris. AU - Handford,Jennifer I.. AU - Palmer,Tracy. AU - Sargent,Frank. PY - 2009/12. Y1 - 2009/12. N2 - The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) apparatus is a protein targeting system found in the cytoplasmic membranes of many prokaryotes. Substrate proteins of the Tat pathway are synthesised with signal peptides bearing SRRxFLK twin-arginine amino acid motifs. All Tat signal peptides have a common tripartite structure comprising a polar N-terminal region, followed by a hydrophobic region of variable length and a polar C-terminal region. In Escherichia coli, Tat signal peptides are proteolytically cleaved after translocation. The signal peptide C-terminal regions contain conserved AxA motifs, which are possible recognition sequences for leader peptidase I (LepB). In this work, the role of LepB in Tat signal peptide processing was addressed directly. Deliberate repression of lepB ...
To test the hypothesis that the abundance of the apical urea transporter of the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) is regulated in vivo by factors associated with altered water balance, immunoblots of rat inner medullary membrane fractions were probed with rabbit polyclonal antibodies against the renal urea transporter (RUT) gene product. In inner medullas of Brattleboro rats, which manifest severe chronic water diuresis, a 117-kD band was seen, in addition to the previously described 97-kD band. These two bands were detectable by antibodies directed against two different regions of the RUT sequence. When Brattleboro rats were treated with a 5-d infusion of arginine vasopressin (AVP) by osmotic minipump, the 117-kD band was markedly diminished, whereas the 97-kD band was unchanged. Simultaneous infusion of the diuretic agent furosemide prevented the AVP-induced decrease in the 117-kD band. In AVP-infused Sprague Dawley rats, the 117-kD band was barely perceptible. However, when AVP-treated ...
The Tat system is a protein export system dedicated to the transport of folded proteins across the prokaryotic cytoplasmic membrane and the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts. Proteins are targeted for export by the Tat system via N-terminal signal peptides harbouring an S-R-R-x-F-L-K twin-arginine motif. In this chapter qualitative and quantitative assays for native Tat substrates in the model organism Escherichia coli are described. Genetic screening methods designed to allow the rapid positive selection of Tat signal peptide activity and the first positive selection for mutations that inactivate the Tat pathway are also presented. Finally isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) methods for measuring the affinity of twin-arginine signal peptide-chaperone interactions are discussed.
Introduction: X-linked spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda(SEDT) is a type of shorttrunk skeletal dysplasia, occurring in males due to mutation in TRAPPC2 gene. Case Report: We describe a large Indian family with multiple males affected with X-linked SEDT. The affected individuals presented with disproportionate short stature, short trunk, and barrel-shaped chest. Elder sibs aged 26 years and 31 years had back and hip pain. Premature osteoarthritis was seen requiring hip replacement surgery in one sib. The known pathogenic nonsense mutation c.209G|A (p.W70X) was identified in TRAPPC2 gene. This is the first mutation proven Indian kindred with X-linked SEDT. Conclusion: Knowledge of molecular basis is essential to provide definitive diagnosis, accurate counseling, and prenatal diagnosis or early postnatal diagnosis for this rare condition.
Escherichia coli K1 infection is a major cause of neonatal meningitis, with high rates of mortality and disability. Despite years of research, only a small number of factors contributing to E. coli K1 virulence have been identified. The Tat (twin-arginine translocation) protein export system is found in the cytoplasmic membrane of E. coli and is involved in the transport of folded proteins. In vivo and ex vivo models using the African migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, were employed to explore the role of Tat pathway in E. coli K1 virulence using tat-deletion mutants. Groups of locusts were infected and mortality was recorded at 24-h intervals. The findings revealed that ?tatA, Delta tatAC and ?tat produced levels of mortality similar to wild-type E. coli K1, with |78% mortality recorded within 72 h. Bacteraemia was determined from haemolymph obtained 3 and 24 h postinfection. Again, wild-type and ?tatA produced similar levels of bacteraemia. In contrast, Delta tatAC and ?tat produced lower levels of
Hgt1p, a high-affinity glutathione transporter from Saccharomyces cerevisiae belongs to the recently described family of OPTs (oligopeptide transporters), the majority of whose members still have unknown substrate specificity. To obtain insights into substrate recognition and translocation, we have subjected all 21 residues of TMD9 (transmembrane domain 9) to alanine-scanning mutagenesis. Phe523 was found to be critical for glutathione recognition, since F523A mutants showed a 4-fold increase in Km without affecting expression or localization. Phe523 and the previously identified polar residue Gln526 were on the same face of the helix suggesting a joint participation in glutathione recognition, whereas two other polar residues, Ser519 and Asn522, of TMD9, although also orientated on the same face, did not appear to be involved. The size and hydrophobicity of Phe523 were both key features of its functionality, as seen from mutational analysis. Sequence alignments revealed that Phe523 and Gln526 ...
A major feature of the MexAB-OprM multidrug efflux pump which distinguishes it from the MexCD-OprJ and MexEF-OprN multidrug efflux systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is its ability to export a wide variety of beta-lactam antibiotics. Given the periplasmic location of their targets it is feasible that beta-lactams exit the cell via the outer membrane OprM without interaction with MexA and MexB, though the latter appear to be necessary for OprM function. To test this, chimeric MexAB-OprJ and MexCD-OprM efflux pumps were reconstituted in delta mexCD delta oprM and delta mexAB delta oprJ strains, respectively, and the influence of the exchange of outer membrane components on substrate (i.e., beta-lactam) specificity was assessed. Both chimeric pumps were active in antibiotic efflux, as evidenced by their contributions to resistance to a variety of antimicrobial agents, although there was no change in resistance profiles relative to the native pumps, indicating that OprM is not the determining factor ...
Bacteria have mechanisms to export proteins for diverse purposes, including colonization of hosts and pathogenesis. A small number of archetypal bacterial secretion machines have been found in several groups of bacteria and mediate a fundamentally distinct secretion process. Perhaps erroneously, proteins called autotransporters have long been thought to be one of these protein secretion systems. Mounting evidence suggests that autotransporters might be substrates to be secreted, not an autonomous transporter system. We have discovered a new translocation and assembly module (TAM) that promotes efficient secretion of autotransporters in proteobacteria. Functional analysis of the TAM in Citrobacter rodentium, Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli showed that it consists of an Omp85-family protein, TamA, in the outer membrane and TamB in the inner membrane of diverse bacterial species. The discovery of the TAM provides a new target for the development of therapies to inhibit colonization by ...
Calcium- and potassium-permeable plasma membrane transporters are activated by copper in |i|Arabidopsis|/i| root tips: linking copper transport with cytosolic hydroxyl radical production
P. aeruginosa is known for its ability to develop resistance to a number of structurally unrelated antibiotics, a phenomenon which can now be attributed predominantly to chromosomal mutations leading to overexpression of multidrug efflux systems.P. aeruginosa also produces a series of exoproducts, several of which, such as elastase, alkaline protease, exotoxins, and pyocyanin, have been shown to be virulence factors (3, 54,55). In this study, we show a link between the active efflux system MexEF-OprN and the production of virulence factors regulated by the las (10, 11, 19) and rhl(2, 33) cell-to-cell signaling systems. This important finding suggests that P. aeruginosa strains becoming resistant to multiple antibiotics by overexpression of MexEF-OprN are likely to be less virulent. Indeed, we recently found that nfxC mutants exhibit significantly reduced virulence both in a nonmammalian system and in a rat model of acute pneumonia (P. Cosson et al., submitted for publication).. The connection ...
YidC is a polytopic inner membrane protein with a molecular mass of 60 kDa. To facilitate its purification, a histidine tag was introduced at the C‐terminus of YidC, and the gene was placed under control of the lac promoter yielding the expression vector pEH1hisYidC. To determine whether His‐tagged YidC is functional in vivo, pEH1hisYidC was transformed to the YidC depletion strain JS7131 (Samuelson et al., 2000). In this strain, the chromosomal yidC gene is disrupted and an intact yidC gene under control of the araBAD promoter has been introduced. JS7131 is not viable on Luria-Bertani (LB) agar plates containing 0.2% glucose, since under these conditions expression of yidC from the araBAD promoter is tightly repressed. Transformation with pEH1hisYidC restored growth of JS7131 in the presence of glucose (Figure 1A), indicating that plasmid‐encoded, His‐tagged YidC is functional. For overproduction, pEH1hisYidC was transformed to strain E. coli SF100 (Baneyx and Georgiou, 1990). YidC ...
Part of the Sec protein translocase complex. Interacts with the SecYEG preprotein conducting channel. SecDF uses the proton motive force (PMF) to complete protein translocation after the ATP-dependent function of SecA.
Bacterial proteins with MCE domains were first described as being important for Mammalian Cell Entry. More recent evidence suggests they are components of lipid ABC transporters. In Escherichia coli, the single-domain protein MlaD is known to be part of an inner membrane transporter that is important for maintenance of outer membrane lipid asymmetry. Here we describe two multi MCE domain-containing proteins in Escherichia coli, PqiB and YebT, the latter of which is an orthologue of MAM-7 that was previously reported to be an outer membrane protein. We show that all three MCE domain-containing proteins localise to the inner membrane. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that MCE domains are widely distributed across bacterial phyla but multi MCE domain-containing proteins evolved in Proteobacteria from single-domain proteins. Mutants defective in mlaD, pqiAB and yebST were shown to have distinct but partially overlapping phenotypes, but the primary functions of PqiB and YebT differ from MlaD. Complementing
The translocase of the outer membrane (TOM complex) forms the entry gate for the majority of mitochondrial precursor proteins. Subsequently, specific protein complexes sort the precurcor proteins into the different subcompartments. The presequence translocase (TIM23 complex) transport proteins across and into the inner membrane. The TIM23 complex cooperates with the presequence-translocase associated motor (PAM) for transport into the mitochondrial matrix. The carrier translocase (TIM22 complex) inserts proteins into the inner membrane. The activity of the respiratory chain generates a membrane potential that drives both protein import pathways. The MIA machinery transports cysteine-rich proteins into the intermembrane space. Outer membrane proteins with β-barrel structure are first transported across the TOM machinery and then inserted into the outer membrane by the sorting and assembly machinery (SAM complex). Finally, the mitochondrial import machinery (MIM) promotes biogenesis of outer ...
Outer membrane (OM) proteins 5, 6, 7, 20, 22, 37, 40, and 70 are subunits of the TOM system that transports proteins across the outer membrane. Proteins 9, 10, 12, 22 and 54 are subunits of the TIM system that mediates import of multispanning carrier proteins into the inner membrane (IM). A carrier precursor exiting the TOM channel is captured by the 70 kDa Tim9/10-complex in the intermembrane space and transferred to the 300 kDa inner membrane complex that contains Tim9p, Tim10p, Tim12p, Tim22p and Tim54p. Binding to the Tim22-complex triggers the membrane potential dependent insertion of mulitspanning carrier into the inner membrane. Inner membrane proteins 11, 17, 23 and 44 are members of, or closely adjacent to, the second TIM system (Tim17-complex)that mediates transport of precursors carrying a targeting presequence ...
A cDNA clone encoding a taurine transporter, designated HTAU, has been isolated from human thyroid. It contains an open reading frame encoding a protein of 619 amino acids with a calculated molecular ...
Staphylococcus aureus Preprotein translocase subunit SecE (secE) datasheet and description hight quality product and Backed by our Guarantee
Atypical SLCs are novel plausible secondary active or facilitative transansporter proteins that share ancestral background with the known solute carriers. However, they have not been assigned a name according to the SLC root system, or been classified into any of the existing SLC families. Most ataypical SLCs are families within the major facilitator superfamily (MFS). These atypical SLCs are plausible secondary active or facilitative transporter proteins that share ancestry with the known solute carriers. They are, however, not named according to the SLC root system, or classified into any of the existing SLC families. ATMFs are categorised based on their sequence similarity and phylogenetic closeness. Some Atypical SLC of MFS type are: OCA2, CLN3, SPNS1, SPNS2, SPNS3, SV2A, SV2B, SV2C, SVOP, SVOPL, MFSD1, MFSD2A, MFSD2B, MFSD3, MFSD4A, MFSD4B, MFSD5, MFSD6, MFSD6L, MFSD8, MFSD9, MFSD10, MFSD11, MFSD12, MFSD13A, MFSD14A, MFSD14B, UNC93A and UNC93B1. All these are ataypical SLCs found within the ...
Figure 4. The mature domain-binding site onto SecA. (A) The E. coli SecA (gray)-SeYEG (yellow) was modeled after the Thermotoga maritima translocase in three conformational states, based on PBD (purple) positioning: closed (left), open (middle), and wide open (right). Side and bottom views are shown (as indicated). I, II: SecA clamps. (B) Kd measurements of PhoA and its signal peptide (SPPhoA) for the wild-type (WT), locked closed (LC), locked open (LO), and locked wide open (LWO) SecA bound to SecYEG-inverted membrane vesicles. proPhoA(1-30) was used as SPPhoA. Affinity values represent means ± SEM; n = 3. (C) Potential space occupied by an incoming preprotein onto the cytoplasmic side (platform) of a SecA(gray)-SecYEG(yellow) translocase; signal peptide is in green. The inner circle represents the minimum area a translocation-competent preprotein would occupy, depicted here by the predicted DH of the smallest known preprotein (proEcnA; ∼3 nm; Table S8). The bigger circle represents the area ...
Remy, Estelle, et al. A Major Facilitator Superfamily Transporter Plays a Dual Role in Polar Auxin Transport and Drought Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell, vol. 25, no. 3, American Society of Plant Biologists, 2013, pp. 901-26, doi:10.1105/tpc.113.110353 ...
Approximately 20% of bacterial proteins have functions outside the cytoplasm ( 1 ). Consequently, all bacteria possess protein export pathways that transport proteins made in the cytoplasm beyond the cytoplasmic membrane. These exported proteins may remain in the bacterial cell envelope or be further secreted to the extracellular environment. Many exported proteins function in essential physiological processes. Additionally, in bacterial pathogens, many exported proteins have functions in virulence. Consequently, the pathways that export proteins are commonly essential and/or are important for pathogenesis. Across bacteria, including mycobacteria, there are conserved protein export pathways: the general secretion (Sec) and the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathways. Both Sec and Tat pathways are essential to the viability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and both also contribute to virulence (L. Rank and M. Braunstein, unpublished; 2 - 4 ). In addition to these conserved pathways, bacterial pathogens
Die Transfusionsassoziierte Akute Lungeninsuffizienz (TRALI) ist die häufigste tödliche Nebenwirkung der Transfusion von Blutprodukten und wird oft durch mittransfundierte leukozytenreaktive Antikörper (AK) induziert. AK gegen das Humane Neutrophilenantigen (HNA)-3a verursachen häufig schwere Fälle der TRALI. HNA-3a ist auf dem Großteil der Blutzelltypen exprimiert und entsteht durch einen Einzelnukleotidpolymorphismus im Gen des „choline transporter-like protein 2
Author: Gebert, N. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2011-12-09; Open Access; Title: Dual function of Sdh3 in the respiratory chain and TIM22 protein translocase of the mitochondrial inner membrane.
Conserved ER Protein Translocation Channel; Essential Subunit Of Sec61 Complex (Sec61p, Sbh1p, And Sss1p); Forms Channel For SRP-dependent Protein Import; With Sec63 Complex Allows SRP-independent Protein Import Into ER; Involved In Posttranslational Soluble Protein Import Into The ER, ERAD Of Soluble Substrates, And Misfolded Soluble Protein Export From The ER
Solute Carrier (SLC) transporters are a large superfamily of transmembrane carriers involved in the regulated transport of metabolites, nutrients, ions and drugs across cellular membranes. A subset of these solute carriers play a significant role in the cellular uptake of many cancer therapeutics, ranging from chemotherapeutics such as antimetabolites, topoisomerase inhibitors, platinum-based drugs and taxanes to targeted therapies such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors. SLC transporters are co-expressed in groups and patterns across normal tissues, suggesting they may comprise a coordinated regulatory circuit serving to mediate normal tissue functions. In cancer however, there are dramatic changes in expression patterns of SLC transporters. This frequently serves to feed the increased metabolic demands of the tumor cell for amino acids, nucleotides and other metabolites, but also presents a therapeutic opportunity, as increased transporter expression may serve to increase intracellular concentrations of
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
The evolutionarily well-conserved SecA is essential for bacterial post-translational translocation. SecA uses the energy of ATP to drive preproteins through the membrane pore. The functional oligomeric state of SecA and the molecular basis for recognition of unfolded polypeptides by SecA are major unresolved questions that must be addressed to understand preprotein targeting and the molecular mechanics of SecA-mediated translocation. This thesis will address three aspects of these questions. First, the role of unstructured termini in the oligomerization and function of various SecA constructs was elucidated. By re-examining the tetramerization of a truncated SecA construct (SecA-N68), it was shown that the unstructured polypeptides at its termini are mediating its oligomerization. In turn, by removal of the first 14 N-terminal residues of the functional SecA-N95 construct, dimerization was drastically weakened. Although the weakened dimerization did not significantly affect the solution ATPase activity
Everything relating to GPC/SEC Systems: compilations of facts, news, background knowledge, product information and market trends can be found here in the form of a comprehensive, up-to-date dossier.
Agilent offers GPC and SEC systems for a wide range of applications, from polyolefins to biomolecules, and delivers complete solutions for polymer or protein characterizations.
Plasma Membrane Permease; Mediates Uptake Of Glycerophosphoinositol And Glycerophosphocholine As Sources Of The Nutrients Inositol And Phosphate; Expression And Transport Rate Are Regulated By Phosphate And Inositol Availability
Cellular processesCellular processesToxin production and resistancedrug resistance MFS transporter, drug:H+ antiporter-2 (14 Spanner) (DHA2) family (TIGR00711; HMM-score: 64.3) ...
The Respiratory System. Cells continually use O2 & release CO2 Respiratory system designed for gas exchange Cardiovascular system transports gases in blood Failure of either system rapid cell death from O2 starvation. Nose -- Internal Structures. entrance - external nares...
Solute carriers (SLCs) are vital as they are responsible for a major part of the molecular transport over lipid bilayers. At present, there are 430 identified SLCs, of which 28 are called atypical SLCs of major facilitator superfamily (MFS) type. These are MFSD1, 2A, 2B, 3, 4A, 4B, 5, 6, 6 L, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13A, 14A and 14B; SV2A, SV2B and SV2C; SVOP and SVOPL; SPNS1, SPNS2 and SPNS3; and UNC93A and UNC93B1. We studied their fundamental properties, and we also included CLN3, an atypical SLC not yet belonging to any protein family (Pfam) clan, because its involvement in the same neuronal degenerative disorders as MFSD8 ...
The respiratory system transports oxygen through the blood to all the major organs in the human body. Through breathing, the lungs pull oxygen into the body and expel carbon dioxide. Red blood cells ...
Research in the Blakely laboratory is focused on how presynaptic plasma membrane transporter proteins support chemical signaling in the nervous system, how they mediate the entry of transmitter-like neurotoxins into neurons, and whether altered signaling in disease states is supported by genetic variations in transporter structure.
The mitochondrial protein translocase (MPT) family, which brings nuclearly encoded preproteins into mitochondria, is very complex with 19 currently identified protein constituents.These proteins include several chaperone proteins, four proteins of the outer membrane translocase (Tom) import receptor, five proteins of the Tom channel complex, five proteins of the inner membrane translocase (Tim) and three motor proteins. This family is specific for the Tom40 proteins ...
4.5 Protein targeting and import *4.5.1 Transport proteins and membrane translocons ... Outer chloroplast membrane. Main article: Chloroplast membrane. The outer chloroplast membrane is a semi-porous membrane that ... Transport proteins and membrane translocons. After a chloroplast polypeptide is synthesized on a ribosome in the cytosol, an ... Inner chloroplast membrane. Main article: Chloroplast membrane. The inner chloroplast membrane borders the stroma and regulates ...
... performs this function by specifically binding to ergosterol and inhibiting membrane transport proteins.[14] ... Polyene antibiotic that inhibits membrane transport proteins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2012, 109, 11156-11159. ... Natamcyin is able to inhibit growth of fungi by inhibiting transport of amino acids and glucose across the plasma membrane. ... It results in fungal death by altering the cell membrane.[1] ...
membrane transport proteins. *nucleic acids. Drug target identificationEdit. Identifying the biological origin of a disease, ... proteins *G protein-coupled receptors (target of 50% of drugs)[7]. *enzymes (especially protein kinases, proteases, esterases, ... Examples of common classes of biological targets are proteins and nucleic acids. The definition is context-dependent, and can ... The term "biological target" is frequently used in pharmaceutical research to describe the native protein in the body whose ...
... inhibits amino acid and glucose transport proteins leading to a loss of nutrient transport across the plasma membrane ... "Polyene antibiotic that inhibits membrane transport proteins". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ... It results in fungal death by altering the cell membrane. Natamycin was discovered in 1955 and approved for medical use in the ... Natamycin inhibits the growth of fungi by specifically binding to ergosterol present in fungal cell membranes. ...
Functional and Phylogenetic Classification of Membrane Transport Proteins. Saier Lab. Group, UCSD and SDSC. Chen JS, Reddy V, ... All three subunits are essential for transport to the membrane assembly of functional channels on the membrane. The C-terminus ... CFTR is a transmembrane channel responsible for chloride transport and defects in this protein cause cystic fibrosis, partly ... Toczyłowska-Mamińska R, Dołowy K (February 2012). "Ion transporting proteins of human bronchial epithelium". Journal of ...
Identification of membrane proteins involved in water transport". European Journal of Cell Biology. 41 (2): 252-262. PMID ... benzenesulfonate binding by membrane proteins and the inhibition of water transport in human erythrocytes". Biochemistry. 25 (7 ... Peter Agre independently isolated the protein and demonstrated it was a ubiquitously expressed water transport protein, naming ... Benga showed the existence of a protein water channel in the red blood cell membrane. Two years later, in 1988, ...
Identification of membrane proteins involved in water transport". European Journal of Cell Biology. 41 (2): 252-262. PMID ... benzenesulfonate binding by membrane proteins and the inhibition of water transport in human erythrocytes". Biochemistry. 25 (7 ... In 1986 Gheorghe Benga showed the existence of a protein water channel in the red blood cell membrane. The omission of Gheorghe ... the first discoverer of the water channel protein in the red blood cell membrane". Agre, Peter. "Nobel Lecture, December 8, ...
A pan-leukocyte antigen related to membrane transport proteins". J. Immunol. 145 (12): 4322-5. PMID 2258620. Dianzani U, ... Olweus J, Lund-Johansen F, Horejsi V (1993). "CD53, a protein with four membrane-spanning domains, mediates signal transduction ... Leukocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD53 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... CD53+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD53 genome location and CD53 ...
Patched has sequence similarity to known membrane transport proteins. When extracellular Hh is present (Figure 3), it binds to ... The steps leading to Ci protein proteolysis include phosphorylation of Ci protein by several protein kinases; PKA, GSK3β and ... PTCH1 has homology to Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) that is known to transport lipophilic molecules across a membrane. ... The Drosophila protein Fused (Fu in Figure 3) is a protein kinase that binds to Costal-2. Fused can inhibit Suppressor of Fused ...
ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct ... membrane. • mitochondrion. • nucleus. • plasma membrane. • integral component of membrane. • apical plasma membrane. • receptor ... heme transport. • drug transmembrane transport. • xenobiotic transport. • transmembrane transport. • cholesterol efflux. • ... Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles.[§ 1] [[File:. ...
ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct ... endoplasmic reticulum membrane. • membrane. • Golgi membrane. • plasma membrane. • integral component of plasma membrane. • ... amyloid precursor protein catabolic process. • reverse cholesterol transport. • toxin transport. • high-density lipoprotein ... This membrane protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ...
ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct ... This particular protein is responsible for the transport of taurocholate and other cholate conjugates from hepatocytes (liver ... This membrane-associated protein is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ... ABCB11 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ABCB11 human gene location in the ...
ZIP7 is a membrane transport protein of the endoplasmic reticulum. Phosphorylation of ZIP7 by casein kinase 2 stimulates the ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi: ... Zinc transporter SLC39A7 (ZIP7), also known as solute carrier family 39 member 7, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... It is involved in protein, nucleic acid, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism, as well as in the control of gene transcription, ...
A urea transporter is a membrane transport protein, transporting urea. Humans and other mammals have two types of urea ... Urea transport in the kidney is regulated by vasopressin. The structure of a urea transport family protein from Desulfovibrio ... accounting for the ability of urea transport proteins to move up to one million urea molecules per second across the membrane. ... Urea Transporter 2 transports urea across the apical membrane into the luminal space of cells in the thin descending loop of ...
"Trafficking of ciliary membrane proteins by the intraflagellar transport/BBSome machinery". Essays in Biochemistry. 62 (6): 753 ... as is Rab8a in transporting PKD2. Not all ciliary proteins use a RVxP motif for transport, however; VxPx and Ax(S/A)xQ have ... "The Joubert syndrome protein ARL13B binds tubulin to maintain uniform distribution of proteins along the ciliary membrane". ... The kinesins KIF17 is implicated in transporting the CNGB1 protein which has a RVxP motif into human cilia, ...
The protein localisation to the vacuolar membrane supports this suggestion (see also Chapter 1.5). The protein transports Mg2+ ... also showed that the protein could transport Zn2+ and Fe2+, but did not report on the capacity of the protein to transport ... Magnesium transporters are proteins that transport magnesium across the cell membrane. All forms of life require magnesium, yet ... Smith DL, Tao T, Maguire ME (Oct 1993). "Membrane topology of a P-type ATPase. The MgtB magnesium transport protein of ...
Hicke L, Dunn R (2003). "Regulation of membrane protein transport by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-binding proteins". Annual Review ... Vesicles also transport molecules directly back to the plasma membrane, but many molecules are transported in vesicles that ... Transmembrane proteins can be delivered to the perimeter membrane or the lumen of lysosomes. Transmembrane proteins destined ... and the iron transport protein transferrin. Internalization of these receptors from the plasma membrane occurs by receptor- ...
"Solid-State NMR Reveals Key Structural Features of Membrane Transport Proteins". Physics Today. 53 (9): 19-22. Bibcode:2000PhT ... and as a researcher of membrane-associated peptides and proteins, an organizer of international symposia, and author of a book ... Solid-State NMR Reveals Structural and Dynamical Properties of a Membrane-Anchored Electron-Carrier Protein, Cytochrome b(5), J ... Amyloid fiber formation and membrane disruption are separate processes localized in two distinct regions of IAPP, the type-2- ...
A carboxylate transporter is a membrane transport protein that transports carboxylate. They are responsible for the ... there are several kinds of carboxylate transporters in the apical membrane and the basolateral membrane. Na-monocarboxylate ...
Molecular targets in pharmacology include receptors, enzymes and membrane transport proteins. Enzymes can be targeted with ... Major receptor types studied in pharmacology include G protein coupled receptors, ligand gated ion channels and receptor ...
... is a membrane transport protein associated with primary carnitine deficiency. This protein is involved in the active ... transporting one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Organic cations transported by this protein include ... The SLC22A5 gene codes for a plasma integral membrane protein which functions as both an organic cation transporter and a ... The gene produces a 63 kDa protein composed of 557 amino acids. The protein has 12 putative transmembrane domains, with a long ...
Like the outer membrane secretin GspD these proteins are transported into the periplasm via the Sec translocation pathway ... Once the Sec machinery has transported the pre-pseudopilin across the inner membrane, but before the protein itself is released ... Unlike the other proteins that make up the inner membrane complex GspF is a multipass transmembrane protein and it may play a ... Korotkov KV, Gonen T, Hol WG (2011). "Secretins: dynamic channels for protein transport across membranes". Trends in ...
2004). "Phylogeny as a guide to structure and function of membrane transport proteins". Mol Membr Biol. 21 (3): 171-181. doi: ... The membrane potential alters the conformation of the channel proteins, regulating their opening and closing. Cell membranes ... thus they must diffuse through the membrane through transmembrane protein channels. They have a crucial role in excitable cells ... which are located on the inner surface of the cell membrane and do not cross the membrane, and which are coassembled with the α ...
The Holin superfamily VI is a superfamily of integral membrane transport proteins. It is one of the seven different holin ... In general, these proteins are thought to play a role in regulated cell death, although functionality varies between families ... These proteins appear to have one N-terminal transmembrane segment (TMS), followed by an amphipathic, weakly hydrophobic peak ...
The Holin superfamily VII is a superfamily of integral membrane transport proteins. It is one of the seven different holin ... In general, these proteins are thought to play a role in regulated cell death, although functionality varies between families ... includes proteins displaying 4 putative TMSs. Holin Lysin Transporter Classification Database "Holin Superfamily VII". ...
"Phylogeny as a guide to structure and function of membrane transport proteins". Molecular Membrane Biology. 21 (3): 171-81. doi ... The KefC ancillary protein is YabF while the KefB ancillary protein is YheR. These ancillary proteins stimulate transport ... Its transport function is not known. The GerN and GrmA proteins of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus megaterium, respectively, are ... The identification of these proteins as members of the CPA2 family reveals that monovalent cation transport is required for ...
The Holin Superfamily III is a superfamily of integral membrane transport proteins. It is one of the seven different holin ... In general, these proteins are thought to play a role in regulated cell death, although functionality varies between families ... The average size of proteins in the entire superfamily is 114 aas with a standard deviation o 23 aas. Holin Lysin Transporter ... The missing TMS in family 34 proteins is the N-terminal TMS as revealed by multiple alignments. These seven families have ...
The Holin superfamily V is a superfamily of integral membrane transport proteins. It is one of the seven different holin ... Proteins of this superfamily all appear to have 3 transmembrane segments (TMSs) and have average sizes of 97 and 101 amino acyl ... In general, these proteins are thought to play a role in regulated cell death, although functionality varies between families ... Family Superfamily V includes protein families classified in the Transporter Classification Database as TC# 1.E.21 and TC# 1.E. ...
Wagegg, W; Braun, V (January 1981). "Ferric citrate transport in Escherichia coli requires outer membrane receptor protein fecA ... This change was partly the result of a mutation that changed the expression of a gene for a penicillin-binding protein, which ... The duplicated segment contained the gene citT for the citrate transporter protein used in anaerobic growth on citrate. The ... Philippe, Nadège; Pelosi, Ludovic; Lenski, Richard E.; Schneider, Dominique (2008). "Evolution of Penicillin-Binding Protein 2 ...
Main article: Membrane protein. Proteins within the membrane are key to its working. These proteins mainly transport chemicals ... may be membrane proteins.[5] Some of these proteins are linked to the exterior of the cell membrane. An example of this is the ... Some proteins are always stuck into it, these are called integral membrane proteins. It also has some which are only sometimes ... The membrane contains many proteins. The surface proteins can act as gates. They let some chemicals into the cell and let other ...
Newly synthesised structural proteins and genomes self-assemble and accumulate near the inside of the cell membrane. Virions ... "West Africa - Ebola virus disease Update: Travel and transport". International travel and health. World Health Organization ( ... which code for proteins with antiviral properties.[51] EBOV's V24 protein blocks the production of these antiviral proteins by ... This processing appears to allow the virus to bind to cellular proteins enabling it to fuse with internal cellular membranes ...
... the newly synthesized protein is transported across the membrane (gray) into the interior of the ER. Sec61 is the protein- ... is a membrane protein complex that transfers a 14-sugar oligosaccharide from dolichol to nascent protein. It is a type of ... Yeast OST is composed of eight different membrane-spanning proteins in three subcomplexes (one of them is OST4).[7][8] These ... ER Translocon complex.[2] Many protein complexes are involved in protein synthesis. The actual production takes place in the ...
GABA metabolism/transport modulators This membrane protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. ... membrane. • synapse. • integral component of plasma membrane. • chloride channel complex. • cell junction. • plasma membrane. • ... ion transmembrane transport. • signal transduction. • chemical synaptic transmission. • regulation of membrane potential. • ... chloride transmembrane transport. • ion transport. • regulation of response to drug. • central nervous system development. • ...
A protein kinase drifting around on the outer chloroplast membrane can use ATP to add a phosphate group to the Toc34 protein, ... 4.2 Phosphorylation, chaperones, and transport. *4.3 The translocon on the outer chloroplast membrane (TOC) *4.3.1 Toc34 and 33 ... it is known that for about every five Toc75 proteins in the outer chloroplast membrane, there are two Tic20 I proteins (the ... which anchors the protein to the outer chloroplast membrane.[48]. Toc159 probably works a lot like Toc34, recognizing proteins ...
5 Ribosome on the rough ER 6 Proteins that are transported 7 Transport vesicle 8 Golgi apparatus 9 Cis face of the Golgi ... The lacey membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum were first seen in 1945 by scientists using an electron microscope.[2] ... It is the transport network for molecules going to specific places, as compared to molecules that float freely in the cytoplasm ... Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), so called because it is studded with ribosomes, and secretes proteins into the cytoplasm. ...
... blood contains the copper-rich protein haemocyanin to transport oxygen. This makes the blood very viscous and it ... which is mostly suspended from the roof of the mantle cavity by numerous membranes. The tract consists of a crop, where the ... Editing is concentrated in the nervous system and affects proteins involved in neural excitability and neuronal morphology. ... the proteins that guide the connections neurons make with each other. The California two-spot octopus has had its genome ...
As amniotes, reptile eggs are surrounded by membranes for protection and transport, which adapt them to reproduction on dry ... The albumin (9) further protects the embryo and serves as a reservoir for water and protein. The allantois (8) is a sac that ... The yolk sac (2) surrounding the yolk (3) contains protein and fat rich nutrients that are absorbed by the embryo via vessels ( ... "Sister group relationship of turtles to the bird-crocodilian clade revealed by nuclear DNA-coded proteins". Molecular Biology ...
and interstitial protein osmotic pressure (. π. i. {\displaystyle \pi _{i}}. ), and two absorptive forces, plasma protein ... is the hydraulic conductivity of the membrane (SI units of m2·s·kg−1, equivalent to m·s−1·mmHg−1) ... The second Kedem-Katchalsky equation explains the trans endothelial transport of solutes, J. s. {\displaystyle J_{s}}. . ... Thus, the difference in protein concentration would produce a flow of fluid into the vessel at the venous end equivalent to 28 ...
protein complex. • axon. • nuclear outer membrane. • endoplasmic reticulum membrane. • Golgi membrane. • integral component of ... protein transport. • cerebral cortex cell migration. • positive regulation of proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic ... plasma membrane. • cell cortex. • integral component of membrane. • azurophil granule membrane. • Z disc. • neuronal cell body ... membrane protein intracellular domain proteolysis. • positive regulation of protein import into nucleus. • ephrin receptor ...
Required for many proteins and enzymes, notably hemoglobin to prevent anemia Meat, seafood, nuts, beans, dark chocolate[23] ... Possibly important to basement membrane architecture and tissue development, as a needed catalyst to make collagen IV.[37] ... then transporting the acquired nutrients to local ecosystems.[56][57] ...
The rest of the genome encodes structural proteins at the 5' end and non-structural proteins at the 3' end in a single ... These acids form a pore in the cell membrane through which RNA is injected [2]. Once inside the cell, the RNA un-coats and the ... MP and VPg interact to provide specificity for the transport of viral RNA from cell to cell. To fulfill energy requirements, MP ... The 1A, 1B, 1C, and 1D proteins are the capsid proteins VP4, VP2, VP3, and VP1, respectively.Virus-coded proteases perform the ...
In addition, these side-chains can be attached to other types of molecules, like proteins, as in polysaccharide-K. ... M cells within the Peyer's patches physically transport the insoluble whole glucan particles into the gut-associated lymphoid ... "Role of the glycocalyx in regulating access of microparticles to apical plasma membranes of intestinal epithelial cells: ...
Compressed tea (such as Pu-erh) is produced for convenience in transport, storage, and ageing. It can usually be stored longer ... as the high temperature of freshly brewed tea can denature the proteins found in fresh milk, similar to the change in taste of ... which if left undisturbed will become a leathery membrane that can be wound around your finger and flipped away...[123] ...
postsynaptic membrane. Biological process. • calcium ion transport into cytosol. • regulation of insulin secretion. • ... Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit (also known as Cav1.2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by ... integral component of membrane. • membrane. • postsynaptic density. • plasma membrane. • Z disc. • L-type voltage-gated calcium ... calcium ion transmembrane transport via high voltage-gated calcium channel. • membrane depolarization during AV node cell ...
UNKL: encoding protein RING finger protein unkempt-like. *VAT1L: encoding protein Vesicle amine transport protein 1 homolog (T ... EMP2: Epithelial membrane protein 2. *ENKD1: Enkurin domain-containing protein 1. *ERAF: Alpha-hemoglobin-stabilizing protein ... TANGO6: encoding protein Transport and Golgi organization protein 6 homolog. *TAO2: encoding Serine/threonine-protein kinase ... LINC00273 encoding protein Long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 273. *LOC124220: encoding protein Zymogen granule protein 16 ...
protein import into nucleus. • positive regulation of potassium ion transport. • response to amphetamine. • научение. • пищевое ... endoplasmic reticulum membrane. • часть клеточной мембраны. • ciliary membrane. • система эндомембран. • non-motile cilium. • ... regulation of protein phosphorylation. • histone H3-S10 phosphorylation. • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • ... integral component of postsynaptic membrane. • integral component of presynaptic membrane. • Дендритный шипик. • дендрит. • ...
動物也有類似的構造,允許動物細胞間的物質交流,包含間隙連接(gap junctions)[7]和膜奈米管(英语:membrane nanotubes)(membrane nanotubes)[8][9] ... FT protein movement contributes to long distance signalling in floral induction of Arabidopsis. Science. 2007, 316 (5827): 1030 ... 14.0 14.1 Plasmodesmata and the control of symplastic transport A. G. ROBERTS & K. J. OPARKA ... PM=細胞膜(Plasma membrane). ER=內質網(Endoplasmic reticulum).
In order to carry large quantities of cholesterol it is transported in the bloodstream by lipoproteins-protein "molecular- ... Cholesterol is required to build and maintain cell membranes; it regulates membrane fluidity over a wide range of temperatures ... assisting in the formation of lipid rafts in the plasma membrane. It also reduces the permeability of the plasma membrane to ... Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 and 2).[10] In the presence of cholesterol, SREBP is bound to two other proteins: ...
This is because fluorescein is xylem-mobile and unable to cross plasma membranes, making it particularly useful in tracking ... FITC reacts with the amine groups of many biologically relevant compounds including intracellular proteins to form a thiourea ... "Fluorescein Transport Assay to Assess Bulk Flow of Molecules Through the Hypocotyl in Arabidopsis thaliana". Bio-Protocol. 8 ... allowing biologists to target the fluorophore to specific proteins or structures within cells. This application is common in ...
Disruption of cellular membranes can, for example, slow the transport of immunomodulatory proteins to the surface of infected ... An aggresome is a perinuclear site where misfolded proteins are transported and stored by the cell components for their ... Szajner; Weisberg, AS; Wolffe, EJ; Moss, B (2001). "Vaccinia virus A30L protein is required for association of viral membranes ... At the same time, large amounts of ribosomes, protein-synthesis components, protein folding chaperones, and mitochondria are ...
Electron transport chain. *Fatty acid synthetase complex. *Glycine decarboxylase complex. *Mitochondrial trifunctional protein ... membrane. • mitochondrial outer membrane. • endoplasmic reticulum. • mitochondrial inner membrane. • mitochondrial envelope. • ... "Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2015.. ... The encoded protein can also bind RNA and decreases the stability of some mRNAs. The genes of the alpha and beta subunits of ...
The cell membrane consists of lipids and proteins which accounts for its hydrophobicity as a result of being non-polar ... Active transport and Passive transport - Movement of molecules into and out of cells. ... proteins and lipids which are either free flowing or membrane bound, along with different internal compartments known as ... and membrane channels. Inside of the cell are extensive internal sub-cellular membrane-bounded compartments called organelles. ...
Mitochondrial membrane transport protein *Mitochondrial permeability transition pore. *Mitochondrial carrier. Mitochondrial DNA ... that transfers the amino acid isoleucine to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosome site of protein synthesis during ...
Gravity is a Peripheral Membrane Protein That Modulates Gravity-Induced Cytoplasmic Alkalinization and Lateral Auxin Transport ...
1995). «Spatial association of HIV-1 tat protein and the nucleolar transport protein B23 in stably transfected Jurkat T-cells ... protein N-terminus binding. • chromatin binding. Componente celular. • citoplasma. • membrane. • focal adhesion. • spindle pole ... protein stabilization. • protein homooligomerization. • regulation of cell cycle. • positive regulation of protein localization ... protein oligomerization. • negative regulation of protein kinase activity by regulation of protein phosphorylation. • ...
Others modulate the activity of ion channels that control fluid transport across lung membranes or target surfactant, a ... In the acute phase of ALI, there is increased permeability of this barrier and protein rich fluid leaks out of the capillaries ... Type 2 pneumocytes are more resistant to damage, which is important as these cells produce surfactant, transport ions and ... Additionally oxidation of chlorine may form hypochlorous acid, which can penetrate cells and react with cytoplasmic proteins ...
plasma membrane. • azurophil granule membrane. • tertiary granule membrane. • ficolin-1-rich granule membrane. • integral ... Murphy CI, Lennick M, Lehar SM, Beltz GA, Young E (October 1990). "Temporal expression of HIV-1 envelope proteins in ... effects of monensin on glycosylation and transport". Journal of Virology. 63 (6): 2452-6. PMC 250699. PMID 2542563.. ... membrane. • lysosomal membrane. • lysosomal lumen. • lysosome. • extracellular exosome. • ...
Protein builds tissue and cells in the body. Carbohydrates are very good for energy, but, if a person eats more than needed, ... Certain carbohydrates are an important storage and transport form of energy in most organisms, including plants and animals. ... They play a special role in cell membranes.. *Polysaccharides (long chains) are complex carbohydrates, with linear chains of ... If necessary, humans can live without eating carbohydrates because the human body can change proteins into carbohydrates. ...
positive regulation of non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine kinase activity. • transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase ... Yoshii A, Constantine-Paton M (June 2007). "BDNF induces transport of PSD-95 to dendrites through PI3K-AKT signaling after NMDA ... Adducins are membrane-skeletal proteins that cap the growing ends of actin filaments and promote their association with ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ...
Membrane protein oligomeric structure and transport function.. Klingenberg M.. Abstract. Proteins which traverse membranes tend ... This general structure is well suited to the function of transporting nutrients across the cell membrane. ... in which the dimer is arranged asymmetrically across the membrane with the axis of symmetry perpendicular to the membrane plane ...
Secretins: dynamic channels for protein transport across membranes.. Korotkov KV1, Gonen T, Hol WG. ... The T3SSs transport effectors directly to the eukaryotic cytoplasm or membrane via a hollow needle. The inner membrane ... The filamentous phage assembly system is composed of a secretin and two inner membrane proteins. E, extracellular space; OM, ... The secretin is the major outer membrane component of all these systems. The insertion of secretins into the outer membrane is ...
... with the Sec machinery transporting unstructured precursors and the Tat pathway transporting folded proteins. Proteins are ... Structural Basis of Type 2 Secretion System Engagement between the Inner and Outer Bacterial Membranes Iain D. Hay, Matthew J. ... Protein export is an essential process in all prokaryotes. The Sec and Tat export pathways operate in parallel, ... While previous studies have confirmed that the B. burgdorferi oligopeptide transport (opp) system is capable of... ...
Finally, in the fourth session, we will hear about novel functional properties of known transport proteins and the newly ... The membranes, like the walls of a medieval city, protect life within from the world without. And as in an ancient city, there ... What makes them distinct are the lipid membranes - tiny bubbles of grease within which the mysteries of life occur. ... the development of techniques to purify and study these proteins in isolation, allowing us to barrage them with biophysical ...
This structure shields tail-anchored membrane proteins -- which have roles in a wide variety of cellular functions from ... The molecular complex that guides an important class of proteins to correct locations in cell membranes does so by forming a ... Transport molecule forms a protective structure to guide proteins to cell membrane. University of Chicago Medical Center ... Transport molecule forms a protective structure to guide proteins to cell membrane ...
Transport of Molecules Across Membrane[edit]. Transport of molecules across membrane is the movement of a molecule from inside ... Therefore, this type of membrane traffic is called active transport. The transport proteins that move solutes against a ... Structural Biochemistry/Membrane Proteins/Active Transport. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world ... Cotransport Pumps, or coupled transport, is a type of active transport in which the transport of a specific solute indirectly ...
A membrane transport protein (or simply transporter) is a membrane protein involved in the movement of ions, small molecules, ... Unlike channel proteins which only transport substances through membranes passively, carrier proteins can transport ions and ... Translocase Vesicular transport protein Endocytosis Membrane+transport+proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... Reverse transport, or transporter reversal, is a phenomenon in which the substrates of a membrane transport protein are moved ...
Transport Vol. 36: Protein-Membrane Interactions available in on, also read synopsis and reviews. ... Current topics in membranes and transport ;. Illustration:. Yes. Series Volume:. 90-1v. 36. Subject:. Membrane proteins.. ... Current Topics in Membranes & Transport Vol. 36: Protein-Membrane Interactions * Comment on this title and you could win! ...
Research Associate in Lipopolysaccharide Transport Membrane Proteins. University of East Anglia - Norwich Medical School. Sorry ...
Mitochondrial membrane transport proteins, also known as mitochondrial carrier proteins, are proteins which exist in the ... Phosphate transport proteins are responsible for transport of phosphate across the inner membrane so it can be used in the ... The outer membrane consists of two types of integral proteins, including proteins with transmembrane β-barrel and proteins with ... The import pathways of α-helical membrane anchors or signal-anchored proteins are carried out mainly by outer membrane proteins ...
The 2018 Gordon Research Seminar on Protein Transport Across Cell Membranes (GRS) will be held in Galveston, TX. Apply today to ... The Gordon Research Seminar on Protein Transport Across Membranes will deal with understanding protein translocation across and ... This GRS will be held in conjunction with the "Protein Transport Across Cell Membranes" Gordon Research Conference (GRC). Those ... Mechanism and Regulation of Protein Transport Discussion Leaders: Sabrina Koch (University of Groningen, The Netherlands) and ...
Transport proteins are integral membrane proteins; that is they exist within and span the membrane across which they transport ... A membrane transport protein (or simply transporter) is a protein involved in the movement of ions, small molecules, or ... Active transport. Transport proteins are also used in active transport, which by definition does require an energy input. ... Cochrane Collaboration on Membrane transport protein Bandolier on Membrane transport protein TRIP on Membrane transport protein ...
Lipopolysaccharide is transported to the cell surface by a membrane-to-membrane protein bridge ... Identification of two inner-membrane proteins required for the transport of lipopolysaccharide to the outer membrane of ... Identification of two inner-membrane proteins required for the transport of lipopolysaccharide to the outer membrane of ... Identification of two inner-membrane proteins required for the transport of lipopolysaccharide to the outer membrane of ...
Biochemists have long speculate on the mechanistic details of the ammonium transport family of proteins (Amt), which ... ... The team discovered that a positive charge travels through the membrane: The membrane proteins do not transport the gas ammonia ... Proteins of the Amt family transport ammonium across the lipid membrane of the cell. Credit: Susana Andrade Do they carry the ... Membrane proteins: Communicating with the world across the border. May 15, 2014 All living cells are held together by membranes ...
Research Assistant/Associate - SAUR Proteins and Guard Cell Membrane Transport. University of Glasgow - College of Medical, ...
The malaria parasite possesses substantially more membrane transport proteins than was originally thought, and the analyses ... The permeome of the malaria parasite: an overview of the membrane transport proteins of Plasmodium falciparum Genome Biol. ... Conclusion: The malaria parasite possesses substantially more membrane transport proteins than was originally thought, and the ... The newly-identified transport proteins include candidate transporters for a range of organic and inorganic nutrients ( ...
A molecular mechanism for energy coupling in a membrane transport protein, the lactose permease of Escherichia coli. H. Ronald ... A molecular mechanism for energy coupling in a membrane transport protein, the lactose permease of Escherichia coli ... A molecular mechanism for energy coupling in a membrane transport protein, the lactose permease of Escherichia coli ... A molecular mechanism for energy coupling in a membrane transport protein, the lactose permease of Escherichia coli ...
Research Topics about Experts and Doctors on membrane transport proteins in New Delhi, NCT, India ... Experts and Doctors on membrane transport proteins in New Delhi, NCT, India. Summary. Locale: New Delhi, NCT, India ... You are here: Locale , India , NCT , Experts and Doctors on membrane transport proteins in New Delhi, NCT, India ... basic amino acid transport systems*fungal drug resistance*thymol*membrane transport modulators*interspersed repetitive ...
Membrane transport proteins (transporters) play a crucial role in the transmembrane uptake and/or efflux of various compounds ... INTRODUCTION: Membrane transport proteins (transporters) play a crucial role in the transmembrane uptake and/or efflux of ... multidrug resistance-associated protein (Mrp), and multidrug resistance protein (Mdr) families. The levels of mRNA expression ... This study aimed to analyze mRNA expression of selected transporters related to drug disposition and PG transport in normal and ...
ENZYMES AND PROTEINS. Insight from TonB Hybrid Proteins into the Mechanism of Iron Transport through the Outer Membrane. ... This protein-protein interaction may facilitate LGP transport.. We biochemically characterized TonB hybrid proteins and its ... Formation of a gated channel by a ligand-specific transport protein in the bacterial outer membrane. Science 258:471-475. ... Point mutations in a conserved region (TonB box) of Escherichia coli outer membrane protein BtuB affect vitamin B12 transport. ...
Ferric citrate transport in Escherichia coli requires outer membrane receptor protein fecA.. W Wagegg, V Braun ... Ferric citrate transport in Escherichia coli requires outer membrane receptor protein fecA. ... Ferric citrate transport in Escherichia coli requires outer membrane receptor protein fecA. ... Ferric citrate transport in Escherichia coli requires outer membrane receptor protein fecA. ...
Nanoscale Imaging and Molecular Mechanisms of Protein Transport Systems March 11 - March 16, 2018. ... Protein Transport Across Cell Membranes - Gordon Research Conference Hotel Galvez 2024 Seawall Boulevard Galveston, Texas, U.S. ... Protein Transport Across Cell Membranes - Gordon Research Conference. Hotel Galvez. 2024 Seawall Boulevard. Galveston, Texas,. ...
In order to investigate the localization pathways of these proteins, we over-expressed precursor proteins in Escher … ... are cytosolically synthesized and have to cross the two chloroplast envelope membranes as well as the thylakoid membrane en ... Multiple pathways for protein transport into or across the thylakoid membrane EMBO J. 1993 Nov;12(11):4105-14. ... Lumen-resident proteins OE23 and OE17 constitute one group, lumenal proteins plastocyanin and OE33 a second, and the membrane ...
... wastes and maintenance of ion homeostasis by the intraerythrocytic malaria parasite is mediated by membrane transport proteins ... Proteins of this type are also implicated in the phenomenon of antimalarial drug resistance (e.g. PfCRT). Yet the original ... Martin RE, Ginsburg H and Kirk K (2009). Membrane transport proteins of the malaria parasite. Molecular Microbiology, 74: 519- ... an overview of the membrane transport proteins of Plasmodium falciparum. Genome Biology, 6: R26. Open access ...
Find the definition of Membrane Transport Protein in the largest biology dictionary online. Free biology and life science ... View source for Membrane Transport Protein. ← Membrane Transport Protein. You do not have permission to edit this page, for the ... A type of [[protein]] that actively transports materials across a [[plasma membrane]] that would not otherwise allow this to ...
Involvement of Guanylate Cyclases in Transport of Photoreceptor Peripheral Membrane Proteins. In: Anderson R.E., LaVail M.M., ... Rosenbaum, J. L., and Witman, G. B., 2002, Intraflagellar transport, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 3:813-825.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Outer Segment Guanylyl Cyclase Mouse Retina Cone Dystrophy Membrane Guanylate Cyclase These keywords were added by machine and ... Duda, T., and Koch, K. W., 2002, Calcium-modulated membrane guanylate cyclase in synaptic transmission? Mol. Cell Biochem. 230: ...
Role of Diacylglycerol in PKD Recruitment to the TGN and Protein Transport to the Plasma Membrane ... Role of Diacylglycerol in PKD Recruitment to the TGN and Protein Transport to the Plasma Membrane ... Role of Diacylglycerol in PKD Recruitment to the TGN and Protein Transport to the Plasma Membrane ... Role of Diacylglycerol in PKD Recruitment to the TGN and Protein Transport to the Plasma Membrane ...
membrane protein, membrane transport, molecular chaperone, protein-protein interaction, protein targeting, twin-arginine ... The twin-arginine transport system: moving folded proteins across membranes F. Sargent F. Sargent 1 ... F. Sargent; The twin-arginine transport system: moving folded proteins across membranes. Biochem Soc Trans 1 November 2007; 35 ... Proteins are targeted to a membrane-embedded Tat translocase by specialized N-terminal twin-arginine signal peptides bearing an ...
Transport of the nutrients across the cell membrane is regulated by membrane transport proteins which selectively and ... Computational study of the structure and function of membrane transport proteins. Welcome to the IDEALS Repository. ... Computational study of the structure and function of membrane transport proteins. Shekhar, Mrinal ... efficiently transports materials across the membrane. In the present work I focus on the family of membrane transporters the so ...
Crystal structure of the outer membrane lipopolysaccharide transport protein LptE (RlpB) from Escherichia coli in the ... Crystal structure of the outer membrane lipopolysaccharide transport protein LptE (RlpB) from Escherichia coli in the ... Protein Workshop , Ligand Explorer. Global Symmetry: Asymmetric - C1 Global Stoichiometry: Monomer - A Biological assembly 1& ... Protein Workshop , Ligand Explorer. Global Symmetry: Asymmetric - C1 Global Stoichiometry: Monomer - A Biological assembly 2& ...
  • It presents a large groove that accommodates the transmembrane region of the protein that's being targeted. (
  • We propose that these two proteins, which we have renamed LptF and LptG, respectively, are the missing transmembrane components of the ABC transporter that, together with LptB, functions to extract LPS from the IM en route to the OM. (
  • The IM is composed of phospholipids, integral transmembrane (TM) proteins that span the IM with α-helical TM domains, and lipoproteins ( 3 , 4 ). (
  • They are still transmembrane carrier proteins, but these are gated transmembrane channels, meaning they do not internally translocate, nor require ATP to function. (
  • The outer membrane consists of two types of integral proteins, including proteins with transmembrane β-barrel and proteins with one or more α-helical membrane anchors. (
  • INTRODUCTION: Membrane transport proteins (transporters) play a crucial role in the transmembrane uptake and/or efflux of various compounds such as inorganic ions, endogenous bioactive substances such as prostaglandins (PGs), and drugs such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. (
  • Ligand binding to such receptors initiates the transport reaction through their transmembrane channels, which led to their designation as ligand-gated porins (LGP) ( 88 ), by analogy to the family of eukaryotic ligand-gated ion channels. (
  • The Tat (twin-arginine transport) pathway is a protein-targeting system dedicated to the transmembrane translocation of fully folded proteins. (
  • Quantitative time-lapse imaging data of single cells expressing the transmembrane protein, vesicular stomatitis virus ts045 G protein fused to green fluorescent protein (VSVG-GFP), were used for kinetic modeling of protein traffic through the various compartments of the secretory pathway. (
  • It's a very important biological pathway, a hard technical problem, and now only the second instance where we have a glimpse of how a hydrophobic transmembrane protein binds to one of its targeting factors. (
  • This work, which is published in Nature [1,2], has uncovered an enormous transmembrane beta barrel structure through which the proteins move. (
  • Two hydrophobic components, YopD and YopB, have one, respectively two predicted transmembrane helices and form the translocation pore in the host cell membrane. (
  • The laboratory's interest is the interplay between structure and function of transmembrane transport processes with a focus on metabolite uptake systems, and the methods used are primarily crystallography, cryo-EM and biochemistry. (
  • 15 A), and the loop region is expected to penetrate between the transmembrane segments of the protein that are involved in the translocation process. (
  • Moreover, other unconventional routes for secretion of soluble or transmembrane proteins with initial endoplasmic reticulum localization were identified. (
  • Three synthetic peptides corresponding to transmembrane segments TMS1, TMS3 and TMS6 of secondary-active transporter MntH from Escherichia coli were used as a suitable alternative model enabling to study TMS structure, TMS interaction with membranes, TMS mutual interaction and also function of MntH. (
  • Lactose permease (LacY) of Escherichia coli is an archetypal member of the major facilitator superfamily of membrane transport proteins, which contain two domains of six transmembrane helices each. (
  • Membrane proteins with seven transmembrane helices (7TM) are found in all kingdoms of life. (
  • This review paper focuses on methodologies to generate cell plasma membrane transport protein-targeting nanobodies, and the advantages and pitfalls while generating these small antibody-derivatives, and discusses several therapeutic nanobodies directed towards transmembrane proteins, including channels and pores, adenosine triphosphate-powered pumps and porters. (
  • These include all the transporters previously annotated as such, as well as a similar number of candidate transport proteins that had escaped detection. (
  • The newly-identified transport proteins include candidate transporters for a range of organic and inorganic nutrients (including sugars, amino acids, nucleosides and vitamins), and several putative ion channels. (
  • Collectively membrane transporters and channels are transportome. (
  • There are 53 discovered human mitochondrial membrane transporters, with many others that are known to still need discovered. (
  • This study aimed to analyze mRNA expression of selected transporters related to drug disposition and PG transport in normal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-inflamed rat incisor pulp. (
  • In the present work I focus on the family of membrane transporters the so called sugar porters in both their mammalian and bacterial forms. (
  • Employing the information from the free energy calculations and equilibrium MD simulations from the members of the sugar porter family I present a unified mechanism of transport for the uniporter class of transporters. (
  • A second class of transporters namely symporters that couple the electrochemical gradient of a co transported ion to perform the uphill transport of the substrate was also studied. (
  • Thus, unlike the glucose transporters, these proteins would not be single-function proteins. (
  • The purpose of the present study was to continue the investigation of the membrane transport mechanisms of 20-(S)-camptothecin (CPT) in order to understand the possible role of membrane transporters on its oral bioavailability and disposition. (
  • To investigate the involvement of specific apically-located secretory membrane transporters, CPT transport studies were conducted using MDCKII/PGP cells and MDCKII/MRP2 cells. (
  • Typical representatives are the organic-cation transporters, such as OCT-1 and OCT-2, that transport various cations but could also nonspecifically transport choline ( 49 ) in the liver ( 13 ), kidney ( 19 ), and lungs ( 27 , 33 , 34 ). (
  • Importantly, a distinct group of choline transporters unrelated to the OCT family, sensitive to inhibition by HC-3, named choline transporter-like proteins 1 (CTL1) have been cloned and characterized in Torpedo ( 40 ), rat ( 40 ), mouse ( 57 ), and human ( 55 ). (
  • However, technical limitations associated with the analysis of membrane proteins and transporters in particular has previously limited progress in our understanding of these fascinating and important proteins. (
  • The sessions planned will cover a broad spectrum of membrane transport proteins including ion pumps, ABC (ATP binding cassette) transporters, amino acid transporters, intracellular transporters, neurotransmitter transporters and ion channels. (
  • Similarities have been demonstrated between MCE domains and the substrate binding proteins of ABC transporters 4 . (
  • 2. Transporters bind the molecule, changing shape, and let them through the membrane to the other side. (
  • In particular, the key functional feature of secondary transport - how the energy of ion gradients (in this case Na+) is converted into the uphill accumulation of substrate - cannot be deduced directly from existing crystal structures, which now include a number of inhibitor bound forms of LeuT, andother transporters with LeuT-like folds (vSGLT,Mhp1, BetP, and AdiC). (
  • Besides, chief amongst the cell membranes constituents are integral membrane proteins, which act as biological gatekeepers, controlling the flow of biomolecules through transporters and transmitting signals through receptors. (
  • The transport proteins that move solutes against a concentration gradient are called carrier proteins. (
  • Research has correlated defects in specific carrier proteins with specific diseases. (
  • Unlike channel proteins which only transport substances through membranes passively, carrier proteins can transport ions and molecules either passively through facilitated diffusion, or via secondary active transport. (
  • These carrier proteins have receptors that bind to a specific molecule (substrate) needing transport. (
  • The type of carrier proteins used in facilitated diffusion is slightly different from those used in active transport. (
  • Mitochondrial membrane transport proteins, also known as mitochondrial carrier proteins, are proteins which exist in the membranes of mitochondria. (
  • How Do Carrier Proteins Facilitate Passive Transport of Molecules Across a Membrane? (
  • Carrier proteins are molecule movers, and some carrier proteins don't require a biological energy source to function. (
  • In most cells, biological membranes are peppered with carrier proteins that help regulate the movement of molecules across the membranes. (
  • Active carrier proteins require a biochemical reaction to power the molecule shuttle, but passive carrier proteins operate without biological fuel. (
  • Passive carrier proteins provide safe passage for large or electrically-charged molecules by offering an avenue, facilitated diffusion, that bypasses the membrane's unfriendly phospholipid tails. (
  • There are many types of passive carrier proteins, each with an affinity for specific molecules or classes of molecules. (
  • Much of that success is the result of a seemingly mundane achievement - the development of techniques to purify and study these proteins in isolation, allowing us to barrage them with biophysical methods, some drawn from existing arsenals, others developed specifically for this class of molecules. (
  • Transport of molecules across membrane is the movement of a molecule from inside the membrane to outside or vice versa. (
  • However, molecules with high polarity, such as sodium, are not able to freely enter the cell membrane because the charged ion cannot pass through the hydrophobic core of the membrane. (
  • One process is the transport of molecules from one side of a membrane to the other. (
  • Since active transport requires energy, it uses ATP or it couples to molecules moving down the concentration gradient. (
  • This example of active transport is antiport because molecules are being moved in opposite directions. (
  • A membrane transport protein (or simply transporter ) is a protein involved in the movement of ions , small molecules, or macromolecules, such as another protein across a biological membrane . (
  • These polar "holes" through the membrane are lined by specific amino acids residues which lower the energy barrier to the movement of polar molecules. (
  • Porin proteins in the OM control permeability to hydrophilic molecules, but unlike typical phospholipid bilayers, the OM is quite impermeable to hydrophobic molecules, mainly because of LPS ( 1 ). (
  • Now they have added the protein to a layer of lipid molecules, enabling them to measure the ion currents directly. (
  • The scientific debate on Amt/Rh proteins stems from the difficulty of distinguishing between ammonia and ammonium in measurements, as the two molecules are transformed into each other in a continuous state of balance with protons. (
  • When a channel is opened, millions of ions can pass through the membrane per second, but only 100 to 1000 molecules typically pass through a carrier molecule in the same time. (
  • Facilitated diffusion is the passage of molecules or ions across a biological membrane through specific transport proteins and requires no energy input. (
  • They serve to transport molecules and other factors, such as ions, into or out of the organelles. (
  • The outer membrane is porous, whereas the inner membrane restricts the movement of all molecules. (
  • Continuing on the theme of lipid-protein interaction, I present my work on the P2X receptor, a non selective cation channel, where we present a unique ion permeation mechanism where the ion permeation pathway is formed by both protein and the lipid molecules. (
  • T he secretory membrane system synthesizes and secretes highly processed and complex molecules, allowing eukaryotic cells to modify their outer surfaces and surroundings and to control growth and homeostasis. (
  • Secretory cargo molecules in this system are synthesized in the ER and transported to the Golgi complex for processing and maturation. (
  • Permeability: membranes are selectively permeable -Completely permeable to nonpolar molecules O2, CO2, lipids -Selectively permeable to polar molecules Ions, water, most proteins ii. (
  • During this process, trans-SNARE complexes, formed between molecules in opposing membranes, convert to cis-complexes, with all participants in the same lipid bilayer. (
  • Cells have a problem: They have to selectively import from their environment nutrients and other chemicals, move molecules into and out of internal membrane-covered organelles, get rid of waste products, and maintain the integrity of the cell's contents. (
  • The solution requires ways to transport some molecules through the biological membranes that surround a cell and its organelles. (
  • Biological membranes are structures containing two layers of molecules called phospholipids that form a continuous barrier. (
  • The passive proteins use the facilitated diffusion mechanism to allow molecules to pass. (
  • Oxygen and carbon dioxide are uncharged small molecules that can freely pass through a biological membrane. (
  • An extremely diverse collection of membrane transport proteins together account for the flux of a wide range of molecules, including sugars, amino acids, metabolites, peptides, neurotransmitters, toxins and drugs. (
  • Osmosis - diffusion of H 2 O molecules through a differentially permeable membrane. (
  • I was reading my text book and it said, 'Fat-soluble molecules, such as glycerol, can diffuse through the membrane easily. (
  • That is also why molecules that don't associate strongly with water are able to diffuse through the membrane, the energy barrier is lower. (
  • Nucleus conduct transport of molecules across the nuclear membranes and transport out the mRNA for protein synthesis. (
  • Additionally, like all eukaryotes, they must redistribute ions and organic molecules between their various internal membrane bound compartments. (
  • AP Biology - Enzymatic Authority control NDL : Transport proteins function in both active and passive transport to move molecules across the plasma membrane. (
  • Active transport is usually associated with accumulating high concentrations of molecules that the cell needs, such as ionsglucose and amino acids. (
  • after binding substrate molecules, the transporter undergoes a conformational change such that the bound substrate molecules, and only these molecules, are transported across the membrane. (
  • There are poisons that stop the membrane proteins from transporting their molecules. (
  • More specifically, channel proteins help molecules across the membrane via passive transport, a process called facilitated diffusion. (
  • In the previous examples, active transport was used on small molecules. (
  • coli inner membrane transport for improved efflux of biofuel molecules, and generating phenotypic diversity in a fungal biocatalyst. (
  • Transport proteins constitute a subclass of cell plasma membrane proteins enabling the exchange of molecules and ions between the extracellular environment and the cytosol. (
  • What makes them distinct are the lipid membranes - tiny bubbles of grease within which the mysteries of life occur. (
  • These proteins contain hydrophobic regions that allow them to be embedded in the hydrophobic lipid bilayer of cell membranes. (
  • Proteins of the Amt family transport ammonium across the lipid membrane of the cell. (
  • A team of scientists led by Prof. Dr. Susana Andrade from the Institute of Biochemistry of the University of Freiburg and the Cluster of Excellence BIOSS Centre for Biological Signalling Studies has now determined the transport properties of Amt proteins with great precision on the basis of electrophysiology tests on artificial lipid systems. (
  • In combination with HD-MS experiments we show that the nature of lipid protein interactions determined the stability of a particular conformational state of XylE. (
  • Although transport of long-chain free fatty acids (FFAs) into cells is often analyzed in the same way as glucose transport, we argue that the transport of the lipid-soluble amphipathic FFA molecule must be viewed differently. (
  • We summarize new data supporting the diffusion hypothesis in simple lipid bilayers and in plasma membranes of cells. (
  • The two membrane domains exhibit clearly different protein and lipid compositions. (
  • All topogenous signals are an identifying code for other proteins or lipid structures, which then act as a sorting receptor or sorting platform. (
  • Proteins with GPI anchors, on the other hand, show a high affinity with specific cholesterin-rich lipid structures - lipid rafts - which are sorting platforms for the apical membrane. (
  • Fig. 1: Protein sorting in polarized epithelial cells - Polarized epithelial cells bear two different plasma membrane domains - an apical and a basolateral - which differ in their protein and lipid constitution and are separated by Tight-Junctions. (
  • In order to reside in a membrane, proteins contain hydrophobic regions that correspond to the hydrophobic lipid bilayer. (
  • However, despite the structural and kinetic data that supports the mechanism by which Adx shuttles electrons one at a time between AdR and the P450scc, there are limited data available on the influence of the lipid membrane on these essential interactions. (
  • Thus, we conclude that the lipid membrane assists in the assembly of electron transport proteins and the activity of P450scc by providing a surface for the localised concentration of proteins, enabling them to act together as a metabolon. (
  • In Escherichia coli , the single-domain protein MlaD is known to be part of an inner membrane transporter that is important for maintenance of outer membrane lipid asymmetry. (
  • The Mla pathway in E. coli is important for maintaining this lipid asymmetry as mutations in the pathway, including MlaD, result in phospholipid accumulation in the outer leaflet of the outer membrane 14 . (
  • Niemann-Pick disease type C2 is a lipid storage disorder in which mutations in the NPC2 protein cause accumulation of lipoprotein-derived cholesterol in late endosomes and lysosomes (LE/LYSs). (
  • The Laboratory of Membrane Protein and Membrane Systems works at deciphering the mechanism of membrane-related processes, with a specific emphasis on the molecular mechanism of active transport across biological membranes, as well as the study of protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions and significance. (
  • As such, integral membrane proteins are involved in a host of different functions, ranging from cell signaling, membrane trafficking, ion/lipid transport, cell detoxication, cell energization, to the generation of membrane potential. (
  • These peptides interacted with and adopted helical conformation in lipid membranes. (
  • Caveolae, which is a special lipid raft structure formed from cell membrane invagination, was enriched in cholesterol and sphingomyelin, and primarily played the important role in membrane transport , signal transduction, substrate transport and endocytosis (Martin, 2013). (
  • 23) Genes associated with membrane transport , the vascular system, and with lipid metabolism are also involved. (
  • Therefore, it was deduced that a protein existed on the plasma membrane which actively pumped the two ions against their biological gradients. (
  • This phosphorylation causes a change in the 3D shape of the protein, making it open up to the extracellular world, and decreases the protein's affinity for sodium ions. (
  • Prokaryotes typically use hydrogen ions as the driving force for chemiosmotic transport, while eukaryotes typically use sodium ions. (
  • once such ions are dissolved in water they cannot diffuse freely across cell membranes due to the hydrophobic nature of the fatty acid tails of the phospholipids that make up the bilayers. (
  • VDAC (voltage-dependent anion ion channel) is important for the exchange of small hydrophilic ions and metabolites with the cytosol, which is driven by the gradient concentration across the outer membrane. (
  • All living organisms depend on the transport of inorganic ions and organic solutes across cellular membranes. (
  • This led to the discovery of two essential Escherichia coli IM proteins of unknown function, YjgP and YjgQ, which are required for the transport of LPS to the cell surface. (
  • The lactose permease (lac permease) of Escherichia coli is a polytopic integral membrane protein encoded by the lacY gene and is a paradigm for proteins that transduce free energy stored in electrochemical ion gradients into solute concentration gradients (i.e., secondary active transport), a fundamental problem that is unsolved mechanistically (reviewed in refs. (
  • Ferric citrate transport in Escherichia coli requires outer membrane receptor protein fecA. (
  • In order to investigate the localization pathways of these proteins, we over-expressed precursor proteins in Escherichia coli and used them in competition studies. (
  • A general strategy for the expression of bacterial membrane transport and receptor genes in Escherichia coli is described. (
  • The recombinant amino terminal domain of the transport protein bound reduced copper in vitro and within Escherichia coli cells during recombinant expression. (
  • Here we describe two multi MCE domain-containing proteins in Escherichia coli , PqiB and YebT, the latter of which is an orthologue of MAM-7 that was previously reported to be an outer membrane protein. (
  • Membrane proteins (such as receptors like GPCRs and ion channels) are translated and undergo proper folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and then transported to the cell surface (plasma membrane). (
  • The results obtained indicated that although the majority of the anti‐GBP Abs were not directed against the glutamate recognition site of the GBP and of presumed synaptic membrane receptors, they were effective in blocking the activation of receptor‐associated ion channels. (
  • During protein synthesis, which takes place inside the aqueous environment of a cell, emerging hydrophobic regions are predisposed toward clumping together in order to avoid water. (
  • Unlike the majority of membrane proteins, tail-anchored proteins contain only one hydrophobic region that is usually the last to be synthesized. (
  • The key component of this pathway is a targeting factor known as Get3, which captures and shields the hydrophobic region of tail-anchored proteins. (
  • To visualize the physiologically-relevant structure, the researchers used protein crystallization to study Get3 while it was holding a hydrophobic tail-anchored protein. (
  • Analyzing this complex atom by atom, the team found that Get3 functioned exactly as they had predicted - with two Get3 subunits protecting the tail-anchored protein in a large hydrophobic groove. (
  • The receptor proteins Tom70 and Tom20 recognize incoming precursor proteins, in which Tom70 is responsible for docking of precursors of hydrophobic proteins accompanied by cytosolic chaperones and Tom 20 recognizes precursor proteins of the presequence pathways. (
  • Tom40 has a large pore diameter of 22Å that can allow the accommodation of partially folded protein structure The inner wall of Tom40 has a charged region that allows interaction with hydrophilic precursor proteins while the hydrophobic precursor of ADP/ATP carrier can be crosslinked with the hydrophobic region of Tom40. (
  • Unlike the majority of membrane proteins, tail-anchored proteins - which have roles in a wide variety of cellular functions from neurotransmitter release to insulin production - contain only one hydrophobic region that is usually the last to be synthesized. (
  • All protein transport systems have to provide an aqueous pathway across the otherwise hydrophobic membrane bilayer. (
  • The cell membrane (plasma membrane) has a hydrophobic inner layer. (
  • Inner protein is hydrophobic. (
  • Membrane proteins come in two basic types: integral membrane proteins sometimes called intrinsicwhich are directly inserted within the phospholipid bilayer, and peripheral membrane proteins sometimes called extrinsicwhich are located very close or even in contact with one face of the membrane, but do not extend into the hydrophobic core of the bilayer. (
  • Frozen, thin sections of baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells were incubated with either concanavalin A (Con A) or Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA) to localize specific oligosaccharide moieties in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi membranes. (
  • Genetic analysis in yeast has identified a group of genes encoding proteins that function in the in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in assembly of the membrane sector of the V-ATPase. (
  • Many proteins and cargoes in eukaryotic cells are secreted through the conventional secretory pathway that brings proteins and membranes from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane, passing through various cell compartments, and then the extracellular space. (
  • The mechanisms that control protein transport between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus are poorly characterized in plants. (
  • Is it by proteins or by free diffusion through the lipids? (
  • If you take a quick look at a cell under a microscope, the membrane , a double layer of fatty lipids that separates the cell from its environment, probably doesn't seem all that exciting. (
  • Water-hating equates to fat-friendly (or "lipophilic"), so lipids can also pass through biological membranes easily. (
  • This is made as a collection of proteins and lipids. (
  • The cells from our body as well as intracellular organelles are surrounded by a thin sheet called the membrane, which is primarily made of lipids and proteins. (
  • Furthermore, although the role of lipids has long been underestimated, they now take center stage as we begin to understand their role in membrane trafficking, signaling, nanodomain organization, energy storage, or the regulation of membrane protein activity. (
  • In our group, we aim to decipher the mechanism by which membrane proteins catalyze their function, at a molecular level, with a specific emphasis in the interplay between lipids and membrane proteins, and in the role of membrane proteins in the dynamic organization of membrane lipids. (
  • abstract = "Antibodies (Abs) raised against the l‐glutamate‐binding protein (GBP) purified from bovine brain were used to define the possible physiologic activity of GBP in synaptic membranes. (
  • abstract = "There is a limited understanding of the folding of multidomain membrane proteins. (
  • SM proteins are peripheral membrane proteins. (
  • The uniporter is also often included as a category of chemiosmotic transporter, although a uniporter can also be considered a facilitated diffusion protein on the basis of function. (
  • OM lipoproteins interact with the ABC transporter LolCDE, which extracts them from the IM and passes these proteins to the periplasmic chaperone LolA for delivery to LolB at the OM ( 4 ). (
  • The IM-associated cytoplasmic ATPase LptB (for LPS transport) is thought to be the nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) component of an LPS ABC transporter ( 18 ), but its TM components are unknown. (
  • Reverse transport, or transporter reversal, is a phenomenon in which the substrates of a membrane transport protein are moved in the opposite direction to that of their typical movement by the transporter. (
  • Transporter reversal typically occurs when a membrane transport protein is phosphorylated by a particular protein kinase, which is an enzyme that adds a phosphate group to proteins. (
  • METHODS: Pulp tissues were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection for transporter isoforms belonging to organic anion transporting polypeptide (Oatp), organic anion transporter (Oat), organic cation transporter (Oct), multidrug resistance-associated protein (Mrp), and multidrug resistance protein (Mdr) families. (
  • However, ferric siderophores, like ferric enterobactin (FeEnt), are too large (716 Da) to pass through general porins in the outer membrane (OM), necessitating a different type of transporter to acquire them. (
  • Plasmodium falciparum parasites express a native protein with copper transporter characteristics that binds copper in vitro . (
  • Polyclonal antibodies to the purified 62 kD protein bound specifically to a protein in the plasmalemma of thin sections prepared from cotyledons and density stained with colloidal gold-protein A. The results suggest that the 62 kD membrane protein is associated with sucrose transport and may be the plasmalemma sucrose transporter. (
  • However, the decrease in the efflux ratio of CPT in MDCKII/MRP2 cells (2.31 to 1.03) suggests that CPT efflux was completely inhibited by MK571, a potent inhibitor of the Multidrug Resistance Protein transporter family. (
  • Acute insulin stimulation of glucose transport in fat and skeletal muscle occurs principally as a result of the hormonal induced translocation of the GLUT4 glucose transporter from intracellular vesicular stores to the plasma membrane. (
  • The present study investigates choline transport processes and regulation of choline transporter-like protein-1 (CTL1) in human THP-1 monocytic cells and phorbol myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated macrophages. (
  • Treatments with hemicholinim-3 effectively inhibit most of the choline uptake, establishing that a choline-specific transport protein rather than a general transporter is responsible for the observed kinetic parameters. (
  • Although several choline transport systems have been identified ( 15 , 51 ), the first highly specific choline transporter, designated CHT1, has only recently been cloned in Caenorhabditis elegans ( 38 ), rat ( 38 ), mouse ( 1 ), and human ( 2 , 37 ) cells. (
  • A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that regulates extracellular levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. (
  • NSS homolog LeuT, an amino acid transporter from Aquifex aeolicus, was a major advance towards understanding structure-function relationships of NSS-proteins. (
  • The inner membrane complexes of the T2SS, T4PS and the T3SS are composed of multiple proteins that include at least one ATPase involved in providing energy for secretion or pilus extension/retraction processes. (
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) has been implicated in the regulation of numerous cellular processes, including the insulin-induced regulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and glucose transport. (
  • The tight junctions between the cells create a hermetically sealed surface through which controlled transport processes take place. (
  • In order to study the processes by which proteins are sorted and transported into the apical membrane of polarized epithelial cells in more detail, the obvious step is to take a closer look at this cell pole under the microscope. (
  • A new hybrid Monte Carlo/Molecular Dynamics method is developed for estimating the slow diffusion processes of light gases transporting in glassy polymers. (
  • The processes of budding, translocation, and fusion of post-Golgi transport intermediates carrying VSVG- GFP to the plasma membrane were also analyzed using quantitative imaging techniques. (
  • These characteristics make such proteins ideal for use in time-lapse imaging studies to analyze dynamic cellular processes quantitatively over extended periods of time. (
  • The work presented here was focussed on the expression, purification and crystallization of proteins that are involved in transport processes across bacterial membranes: NptA from Vibrio cholerae, PulG from Klebsiella oxytoca and SycD/YopB/YopD from Yersinia enterocolitica. (
  • Further, membrane transport proteins not only contribute to physiologically important processes from nutrient absorption to nitrogen metabolism, renal function and synaptic transmission, but also play a key role in many human diseases from cancer to mental illness. (
  • Studies of membrane traffic in yeast have proven tremendously useful to a broader understanding of membrane transport and organelle biogenesis in all eukaryotic cells because of the remarkable similarity in mechanisms and proteins that regulate these processes from yeast to humans. (
  • Additionally, as part of the normal recycling and receptor activation processes, membrane proteins internalize from the plasma membrane into endosomes. (
  • Yale membrane transport processes volumes. (
  • Three processes were examined for their sensitivity to the Abs: the excitatory amino acid stimulation of thiocyanate (SCN − ) flux, the transport of l‐glutamic acid across the synaptic membrane, and the depolarization‐induced release of l‐glutamate. (
  • Membrane transport proteins mediate all of these processes and are considered important mediators of drug resistance as well as drug targets in their own right. (
  • In sum, damages to membranes can grossly alter most processes within the cell. (
  • Cell plasma membrane proteins are considered as gatekeepers of the cell and play a major role in regulating various processes. (
  • We study the structure, function and mechanism of membrane proteins that catalyze electron transport reactions and characterize their diverse roles in critical bioenergetic processes and beyond. (
  • The proteins may assist in the movement of substances by facilitated diffusion or active transport. (
  • Facilitated diffusion occurs in and out of the cell membrane via channels/pores and carriers/porters. (
  • Another type of membrane protein, the channel protein, is essentially an open pore that also uses facilitated diffusion. (
  • Because facilitated diffusion doesn't use biological energy, it depends on the relative concentrations of particles and their charges on either side of a biological membrane to drive the direction of transport. (
  • They can be used to help a molecule that can diffuse across the membrane to get through faster (facilitated diffusion). (
  • This entry was posted on February 20, 2016 by Ruth MacKinnon in Biological membranes , Uncategorized , VCE Biology and tagged active transport , facilitated diffusion , membrane transport proteins , plasma membrane . (
  • Secretins form megadalton bacterial-membrane channels in at least four sophisticated multiprotein systems that are crucial for translocation of proteins and assembled fibers across the outer membrane of many species of bacteria. (
  • The secretin is the major outer membrane component of all these systems. (
  • The insertion of secretins into the outer membrane is often assisted by specific lipoproteins called pilotins. (
  • Some secretins require specific lipoproteins, known as pilotins, for correct outer membrane targeting and contain C-terminal pilotin-interaction domains (dark blue), called S domains in the T2SS secretins. (
  • The outer membrane (OM) of most Gram-negative bacteria contains lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the outer leaflet. (
  • The hallmark of Gram-negative bacteria is the presence of two extracytoplasmic membranes: the inner and outer membranes. (
  • The inner membrane (IM), which surrounds the cytoplasm, is separated from the outer membrane (OM) by an aqueous compartment known as the periplasm ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • In addition, the OM contains lipoproteins and integral outer membrane proteins (OMPs), most of which span the OM via antiparallel β-sheets that fold into β-barrels ( 4 , 6 ). (
  • Transport proteins are responsible for moving materials such as nutrients and metabolic products through a cell's outer membrane, which seals and protects all living cells, to the cell's interior. (
  • Mitochondria contain both an inner and outer membrane, separated by the inter-membrane space, or inner boundary membrane. (
  • The outer mitochondrial membrane forms the border of mitochondria towards the cellular environment. (
  • The outer membrane mitochondrial proteins carry out functions for mitochondrial biogenesis and integration between mitochondria and the cellular system. (
  • The SAM Complex is essential for sorting and assembling beta-barrel proteins from the intermembrane space side into the outer membrane. (
  • The β-barrel of Sam50 is the functional domain that inserts and folds substrate proteins into the outer membrane. (
  • VDAC is the most abundant protein in the outer membrane. (
  • VDAC plays a crucial role in facilitating energy metabolism by transporting ADP and ATP in and out of the outer membrane. (
  • The import pathways of α-helical membrane anchors or signal-anchored proteins are carried out mainly by outer membrane proteins. (
  • This architecture suggests a membrane surveillance model of action, in which TonB finds occupied receptor proteins by surveying the underside of peptidoglycan-associated outer membrane proteins. (
  • New research from the Berks (Biochemistry) and Lea (Pathology) groups reveals how proteins are transported across the outer membrane of bacteria responsible for severe dental disease (peridontitis). (
  • Protein transport across the outer membrane in these bacteria utilises the recently discovered Type IX Secretion System (T9SS). (
  • The team made the educated guess that a large T9SS component in the outer membrane with no sequence similarity to proteins of known function, called SprA, was likely to be the T9SS translocon. (
  • The inferred position of the bacterial outer membrane is indicated. (
  • The periplasm is the cellular compartment between the inner and outer membranes. (
  • Bacterial outer membrane proteins have a distinctive beta barrel architecture in which a sheet of polypeptide strands forms a membrane-spanning tubular structure surrounding a water-filled pore. (
  • The largest single protein outer membrane barrel protein previously known contains 26 polypeptide strands. (
  • The phospholipid layers line up such that the heads face the inner and outer surfaces of a membrane while the tails occupy the space between the heads. (
  • In E. coli , this Mla pathway has been shown to play a role in outer membrane maintenance through trafficking of phospholipids from the cell surface back into the cell 14 . (
  • The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is asymmetric, with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and phospholipids found in the outer and inner leaflets, respectively. (
  • This defect is elevated in cells lacking pldA , which encodes an outer membrane phospholipase that degrades phospholipids in the outer leaflet 14 . (
  • MAM-7 is reported to be an integral outer membrane protein on the cell surface that acts as an adhesin by binding to mammalian cells via phosphatidic acid and fibronectin 22 . (
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis has an unusual outer membrane that lacks canonical porin proteins for the transport of small solutes to the periplasm. (
  • Phthiocerol dimycocerosate determined the low permeability of the mycobacterial outer membrane, and the PE/PPE proteins apparently act as solute-specific channels. (
  • Large pleiomorphic tubular structures, rather than small vesicles, were found to be the primary vehicles for Golgi to plasma membrane transport of VSVG-GFP. (
  • It is not clear, for example, exactly how cargo-enriched transport intermediates bud off from donor membranes (i.e., as vesicles or tubules), how they translocate through the cytoplasm (i.e., by diffusion or along microtubules), how long cargo resides in a particular compartment, and the rate of cargo influx and efflux out of a given compartment. (
  • The precise mechanisms governing the fusion of GLUT4 vesicles with the plasma membrane are very poorly understood at present but may share some similarities with synaptic vesicle fusion, as vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) and cellubrevin, two proteins implicated in the process of membrane fusion, are resident in GLUT4-containing vesicles isolated from rat and murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes respectively. (
  • Our findings indicate that, although cellubrevin and VAMP are resident proteins in adipocyte GLUT4-containing vesicles, they are not required for the acute insulin-induced delivery of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane. (
  • In the result, ETRAMP10.3 was found to be localized to the PVM, cytostorm and hemoglobin transport vesicles, and to be an indicator of hemoglobin transport during gametocyte stage. (
  • Transport vesicles contain membrane proteins (v-SNAREs), which specifically bind to cognate membrane proteins (t-SNAREs) in the appropriate target membrane. (
  • Understanding the assembly of a complex, multisubunit integral membrane protein and its loading into vesicles exiting the ER is a fundamental issue in cell biology. (
  • Using giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs), we show that IFT172 is a membrane-interacting protein with the ability to remodel large membranes into small vesicles. (
  • The Gordon Research Seminar on Protein Transport Across Membranes will deal with understanding protein translocation across and into membranes and the underlying molecular mechanism and regulation in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells using different experimental approaches, including structural, biochemical, and biophysical techniques. (
  • Localization of the protein to the erythrocyte and parasite plasma membranes could provide a mechanism for the delivery of novel anti-malarial compounds. (
  • The basic mechanism of cargo packaging and delivery involves the formation of a double-membrane transport vesicle around prAPI and/or bulk cytosol. (
  • Uptake and transport of hemoglobin by malarial parasites are carried out through parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM), but the molecular mechanism has not been elucidated. (
  • In this mechanism, the proteins normally assume a V shape that blocks the passage of materials, but the shape can change to accommodate certain substances. (
  • Insights into transport mechanism from LeuT engineered to transport tryptophan. (
  • The long-term objective of this conference is to increase our understanding of the molecular mechanism, physiological role and contribution to disease of membrane transport proteins. (
  • The position seeks to strengthen ongoing activities in the laboratory of Bjørn P. Pedersen on structure, related to the function and mechanism of sterol-transporting membrane proteins. (
  • The LeuT crystal structure revealed an occluded state in which one substrate, leucine, and two Na+ are bound, but provided limited clues to the molecular mechanism of transport. (
  • A central theme of our research is to characterise the function of a selection of these transport proteins, with the aim of gaining important insights into key aspects of both the biology and pharmacology of the malaria parasite. (
  • On the other hand, recent advances in structural biology and functional analysis now enable investigators to address the molecular basis of transport in a physiological context, spurring rapid growth in the field. (
  • The Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Aarhus University, invites applications for a 2-year postdoc position offering applicants an exciting opportunity to join an ongoing research project on sterol transporting membrane proteins. (
  • Unconventional Transport Routes of Soluble and Membrane Proteins and Their Role in Developmental Biology. (
  • As part of the French Infrastructure for Integrated Structural Biology ( FRISBI ), our laboratory hosts the yeast expression technical platform MPEX ( M embrane P rotein EX pression) and therefore state-of-the-art equipment for membrane protein expression and purification. (
  • Earlier, the DirectorA, ISHU Karachi University, Professor Dr Bilquees Gul, who had participated in first 'One Belt, One Road' Plant Membrane Transport Protein Biology Forum, held from April 08-10 in Foshan University, briefed the participants about latest research being conducted at the Institute of Sustainable Halophyte Utilization, University of Karachi, and also shed lights on the achievements of the Institute's scholars. (
  • Biological membranes act as a protective barrier between the cell and the extracellular environment. (
  • Electrophysiological experiments demonstrated that individual TMS were able under certain conditions to form ion channels in model biological membranes. (
  • Finally, in the fourth session, we will hear about novel functional properties of known transport proteins and the newly discovered molecular identities behind the well-known cellular-transport phenomena. (
  • The molecular complex that guides an important class of proteins to correct locations in cell membranes does so by forming a dimeric structure with a protective pocket, report scientists from the University of Chicago in Science on Mar. 5. (
  • The cell is able to shield tail-anchored proteins and get them to the right membrane at the right time through this two-subunit complex," said study co-senior author Robert Keenan, PhD, associate professor of biochemistry and molecular biophysics at the University of Chicago. (
  • Because of this, the coordination of several molecular factors - together comprising the GET ('guided entry of tail-anchored proteins') pathway - are required to prevent tail-anchored proteins from aggregating. (
  • Following binding, and while the binding site is facing the same way, the carrier will capture or occlude (take in and retain) the substrate within its molecular structure and cause an internal translocation so that the opening in the protein now faces the other side of the plasma membrane. (
  • Eukaryotic cells acquire copper through a copper transport protein and distribute intracellular copper using molecular chaperones. (
  • Answers to these questions are fundamental to understanding how the molecular machinery for secretory protein traffic functions in living cells. (
  • Studded throughout a cell membrane (and also smaller membranes within the cell), these molecular machines play key roles in essential cellular functions such as signaling, catalyzing chemical reactions, and nutrient and ion transport. (
  • Photolysis of 125 I-labeled 6′-HABS in the presence of 10 millimolar dithiothreitol and microsomal preparations from developing soybean cotyledons led to label incorporation into a moderately abundant membrane protein with an apparent molecular mass of about 62 kilodalton (kD) by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. (
  • The membrane channels reject polyethylene glycol with a molecular size of 10 kg mol−1, but are permeable to proteins, such as lysozyme (14.3 kg mol−1) and cytochrome c (12.4 kg mol−1), due to the right balance of hydrogen bond interactions along the channels, electrostatic attraction, as well as the right pore sizes. (
  • The conferences will conclude with a plenary lecture that integrates work on the molecular and cellular analysis of membrane transport proteins with physiology and disease. (
  • The overall goal of this research is to develop a molecular mechanistic understanding of the assembly, sorting and transport of the vacuolar-type proton-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase) in the simple model eukaryote, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (
  • Yeast has proved to be an excellent model system, both for identifying the proteins regulating membrane traffic in eukaryotic cells and for investigating the molecular mechanisms by which these proteins function. (
  • The characterization of the conformational rearrangements that must be associated with transport by NSS was aided by steered molecular dynamics simulations that explored the extracellular substrate translocation pathway of LeuT. (
  • Retinal-binding proteins showcase how evolutionarily distinct proteins fulfill vastly different functions despite sharing a common molecular architecture. (
  • Herein, the free volume and transport properties (diffusion, permeability, and selectivity) in both rubbery and glassy polymers were simulated using fully atomistic models. (
  • therefore, the transported chemical can only move down a concentration gradient . (
  • Binding dependent active transport also moves the targeted chemical against a concentration gradient , but uses stored chemical energy, typically in the form of adenosine triphosphate , to power the transport. (
  • By some definitions, proteins that catalyze the ligation of phosphate or coenzyme groups to a catabolized chemical can be considered active transport proteins in that they drive the uptake of a chemical by maintaining a steep functional concentration gradient . (
  • Active transport is the movement of a substance across a membrane against its concentration gradient. (
  • In the presence of a H + electrochemical gradient across the membrane (Δμ̄ H + , interior negative and/or alkaline), the permease utilizes free energy released from downhill translocation of H + to drive accumulation of β-galactosides against a concentration gradient. (
  • It is noteworthy that LGP are mechanistically distinct from general, diffusive porins because they bind metal complexes with high affinity and actively transport them against a concentration gradient into the cell. (
  • The third type of membrane transport protein moves substances against (up) the concentration gradient - one side becomes more concentrated and the other becomes less concentrated. (
  • 3. ATP-powered pumps are the membrane transport proteins responsible for active transport - they can move a molecule from the side with a lower concentration to the side with a higher concentration (i.e. against the concentration gradient). (
  • An example of primary active transport using Redox energy is the mitochondrial electron transport chain that uses the reduction energy of NADH to move protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane against their concentration gradient. (
  • For example, some basolateral proteins are sorted by adapter proteins (AP1A) of the clathrin-dependent transport in the trans-Golgi network and transported to the target membrane [ 2 ] (Gonzalez and Rodriguez-Boulan, 2009). (
  • A series of first order rate laws was sufficient to accurately describe VSVG-GFP transport, and provided compartment residence times and rate constants for transport into and out of the Golgi complex and delivery to the plasma membrane. (
  • For ER to Golgi transport the mean rate constant (i.e., the fraction of VSVG-GFP moved per unit of time) was 2.8% per min, for Golgi to plasma membrane transport it was 3.0% per min, and for transport from the plasma membrane to a degradative site it was 0.25% per min. (
  • These properties suggest that the post-Golgi intermediates represent a unique transport organelle for conveying large quantities of protein cargo from the Golgi complex directly to the plasma membrane. (
  • The system is comprised of distinct membrane-bound compartments (including ER, Golgi complex, and plasma membrane) and tubular-vesicular transport intermediates that transfer newly synthesized cargo between compartments. (
  • Upon reaching the trans -Golgi network (TGN), they are sorted and packaged into post-Golgi transport intermediates that move through the cytoplasm to fuse with the cell surface. (
  • Viral membrane proteins acquire galactose in trans Golgi cisternae during intracellular transport. (
  • one or two cis Golgi cisternae and all ER membranes were essentially unlabeled. (
  • Infected cells transport only viral spike glycoproteins from their site of synthesis in the ER to the cell surface via the stacks of Golgi cisternae where many of the simple oligosaccharids on the spike proteins are converted to complex ones (Green, J., G. Griffiths, D. Louvard, P. Quinn, and G. Warren. (
  • Loss of spike proteins from Golgi cisternae after cycloheximide treatment (Green et al. (
  • Hence, about half of the RCA bound to Golgi membranes in thin sections was bound to spike proteins bearing complex oligosaccharides and these were restricted to the trans part of the Golgi stack. (
  • Our results strongly suggest that complex oligosaccharides are constructed in trans Golgi cisternae and that the overall movement of spike proteins is from the cis to the trans side of the Golgi stack. (
  • There are two different forms of the yeast V-ATPase;the Golgi and endosomal form of the complex assembles with the Stv1p isoform of the 100 kDa subunit, and the complex on the vacuole membrane assembles with the Vph1p isoform of the 100 kDa subunit. (
  • We have also identified a large group of genes involved in the sorting and retention of the Stv1- associated V-ATPase in the Golgi/endosome network, and we will characterize their encoded proteins to assess whether they bind to the Stv1p sorting/retention signals or generally affect the retention/retrieval of a larger group of Golgi membrane proteins. (
  • The recent identification of an increasing number of leaderless secreted proteins bypassing the Golgi apparatus unveiled the existence of alternative protein secretion pathways. (
  • Here, we examine in tobacco leaves the structural relationship between Golgi and ER membranes using electron microscopy and demonstrate that Golgi membranes contain elements that are in close association and/or in direct contact with the ER. (
  • We further visualized protein trafficking between the ER and the Golgi using Golgi marker proteins tagged with green fluorescent protein. (
  • Using photobleaching techniques, we showed that Golgi membrane markers constitutively cycle to and from the Golgi in an energy-dependent and N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive manner. (
  • We found that membrane protein transport toward the Golgi occurs independently of the cytoskeleton and does not require the Golgi to be motile along the surface of the ER. (
  • Brefeldin A treatment blocked forward trafficking of Golgi proteins before their redistribution into the ER. (
  • Our results indicate that in plant cells, the Golgi apparatus is a dynamic membrane system whose components continuously traffic via membrane trafficking pathways regulated by brefeldin A- and N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive machinery. (
  • The Golgi body sorts and packages proteins for transport. (
  • Jan A, Azam M, Choi I, Ali A, Haq Q. Analysis for the presence of determinants involved in the transport of mercury across bacterial membrane from polluted water bodies of India. (
  • Iron is one target of gram-negative bacterial cell envelope transport systems, and microbes elaborate high-affinity siderophores that complex extracellular iron ( 70 ). (
  • In this review, the key discoveries in this field are summarized, and recent studies of bacterial twin-arginine signal-peptide-binding proteins are discussed. (
  • Imaging bacterial cells in which the native SprA protein was tagged with a fluorescent dye showed that there are only around ten copies of the protein in a cell. (
  • The complex type III protein secretion machinery of Y. enterocolitica directly injects bacterial effectors into immune cells of mammalian hosts. (
  • Bacterial proteins with MCE domains were first described as being important for M ammalian C ell E ntry. (
  • Bioinformatic analyses revealed that MCE domains are widely distributed across bacterial phyla but multi MCE domain-containing proteins evolved in Proteobacteria from single-domain proteins. (
  • We are investigating the roles played by these signals in the localization and functional expression of PfCRT in the Xenopus system, and in the trafficking of the protein in the parasite. (
  • Copper transport protein-specific anti-peptide antibodies were generated in chickens and used to establish native protein localization in P. falciparum parasites by immunofluorescence microscopy. (
  • The emergence of green fluorescent protein (GFP) 1 technology (Chalfie, 1994) has made it possible to study protein localization and trafficking in single living cells. (
  • In this study, I focused on the PVM protein (ETRAMP family) of P. falciparum and analyzed the localization in the membrane structure involved in hemoglobin transport. (
  • The appropriate localization of membrane proteins is essential to maintain their biological function, but in some cases, these protein transport events are altered leading to a non-functional membrane protein and undesirable effects that are often associated with serious human diseases (e.g. cystic fibrosis, Alzheimer's disease, and Huntington's disease). (
  • This general structure is well suited to the function of transporting nutrients across the cell membrane. (
  • This structure shields tail-anchored membrane proteins - which have roles in a wide variety of cellular functions from neurotransmitter release to insulin production - from harmful aggregation or misfolding as they move through the inner environment of a cell. (
  • To ensure cell homeostasis, an exchange between the individual compartments, such as protein transport, is an essential process. (
  • This GRS will be held in conjunction with the "Protein Transport Across Cell Membranes" Gordon Research Conference (GRC). (
  • As the creation and maintenance of chemiosmotic gradients require energy input from the cell, this is a form of active transport. (
  • In contrast, several factors required for LPS transport to the cell surface have recently been identified and a transport model analogous to the aforementioned Lol system has emerged ( 16 - 19 ). (
  • Secondary active transport involves the use of an electrochemical gradient, and does not use energy produced in the cell. (
  • The activity of the latter constructs, which localized GFP in the cytoplasm and TonB in the cell envelope, indicate that the TonB N terminus remains in the inner membrane during its biological function. (
  • Together, these findings infer that the TonB N terminus remains associated with the inner membrane, while the downstream region bridges the cell envelope from the affinity of the C terminus for peptidoglycan. (
  • OM transport of metal complexes and susceptibility to phages and colicins require metabolic energy ( 13 , 25 , 85 ) and usually involve participation of an additional cell envelope protein, TonB. (
  • Nevertheless, achieving functional expression of a foreign transport protein in a host cell can be challenging. (
  • Transport of the nutrients across the cell membrane is regulated by membrane transport proteins which selectively and efficiently transports materials across the membrane. (
  • Transport across cell membranes - Active Transport Requires. (
  • In addition, they fused with the plasma membrane without intersecting other membrane transport pathways in the cell. (
  • Our model suggests that the cell is able to shield tail-anchored proteins and get them to the right membrane at the right time through a two-subunit complex," Keenan said. (
  • 2) All of these antibodies react with regions of the protein located at the cytoplasmic surface of the red cell. (
  • 4) Our results show that the C-terminus of the red-cell anion transport protein is located on the cytoplasmic side of the red-cell membrane. (
  • Major oral pathogens in the phylum Bacteroidetes , such as Porphyromonas gingivalis , export these proteins across two cell membranes. (
  • This protein is known to bind the T9SS substrate proteins at the cell surface following transport. (
  • Choline uptake is saturable and therefore protein-mediated in both cell types, but its transport characteristics change soon after treatments with PMA. (
  • Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses at various times after PMA treatments further demonstrate that the disappearance of CTL1 protein from the cell surface follows the same trend as the reduction in choline uptake. (
  • Importantly, the loss of functional CTL1 from the cell surface occurs without significant changes in total CTL1 protein or its mRNA level indicating that an impaired CTL1 trafficking is the key contributing factor to the reduced choline uptake, subsequent to the PMA-induced THP-1 differentiation to macrophages. (
  • Dissolved materials with an electric charge use membrane-bound proteins to pass through a cell membrane. (
  • They are a diverse phylum of bacteria capable of carrying out photosynthesis , and are gram-negative , meaning that they have two cell membranes. (
  • Cyanobacteria also contain a peptidoglycan cell wall , which is thicker than in other gram-negative bacteria, and which is located between their two cell membranes. (
  • We will investigate how the V-ATPase, which is composed of 14 different protein """"""""subunits"""""""", is assembled in one compartment of the yeast cell and then transported with great fidelity to different cellular compartments. (
  • Complementing our previous findings that all three proteins bind phospholipids, results presented here indicate that multi-domain proteins evolved in Proteobacteria for specific functions in maintaining cell envelope homeostasis. (
  • Membrane transport protein is protein that involves in moving substance in and out of the plasma membrane of cell. (
  • The project is part of a binational UK/USA collaboration with groups at the Universities of North Carolina and Minnesota to resolve the mechanisms of SAUR protein action in auxin signalling as it contributes to guard cell transport control. (
  • Much of the work at Glasgow will focus on single-cell studies, ion transport analysis and modelling. (
  • The cell membrane surrounds and protects the cytoplasm. (
  • But they can move in and out of the cell with the help of proteins that are embedded in the cell membrane. (
  • But if they're needed somewhere else they can get through the cell membrane by a different process called exocytosis . (
  • Once at the cell surface, the partial agonist can bind to the membrane protein initiating a partially efficacious response compared to a full agonist, while also reducing unwanted side effects and preventing other internalization issues. (
  • In contrast, cell-based assays for studying protein function, trafficking, and internalization are becoming more mainstream for screening and profiling potential drugs to prevent translocation issues. (
  • Learn how Eurofins DiscoverX can help your research into protein translocation events through the use of our easy-to-use, quantitative, and high throughput cell-based assays. (
  • Diffusion across a cell membrane? (
  • However, phospholipids are the principle component of organelle and cell membranes in both unicellular and multicellular organisms, but they can't be called cellular for the same reason we don't call bricks buildings. (
  • Membranes are much more than merely a barrier that insulates the outside medium from the inside of the cell. (
  • Membranes coordinate a number of cell signaling events, e.g. through the recruitment of peripheral proteins like small G proteins. (
  • Active Transport - Energy to Transport Active transport describes what happens when a cell uses energy to transport something. (
  • Transport proteins are used in various ways to move substances back and forth across the cell membrane. (
  • and "​active transport," where the cell expends energy in order to move a. (
  • For secondary transport to work, the cell first has to have Active Transport proteins. (
  • The book is organized in five large sections covering nutrition, membrane transport and signaling, cellular respiration, metabolism of different classes of biomolecules, and the workings of DNA in the life cycle of the cell. (
  • A plethora of human pathologies are associated with the altered expression or dysfunction of cell plasma membrane transport proteins, making them interesting therapeutic drug targets. (
  • However, the search for therapeutics is challenging, since many drug candidates targeting cell plasma membrane proteins fail in (pre)clinical testing due to inadequate selectivity, specificity, potency or stability. (
  • These latter characteristics are met by nanobodies, which potentially renders them eligible therapeutics targeting cell plasma membrane proteins. (
  • Therefore, a therapeutic nanobody-based strategy seems a valid approach to target and modulate the activity of cell plasma membrane transport proteins. (
  • Electron microscopy density of the PorV (left) and Plug (right) Type 9 protein translocon complexes. (
  • Transmission electron microscopy of the membrane cross-sections confirmed the formation of channels with hydroxyl groups beneficial for hydrogen-bond forming sites. (
  • Aerobic cellular respiration takes place in the cytoplasm (glycolysis), and mitochondria (Krebs cycle and electron transport chain). (
  • Glycolisis takes place in cytoplasm.Kreb cycle in mitochondrial stroma.Electron transport chain in inner membrane. (
  • We support the presentation and discussion of unpublished work, while providing a unique atmosphere to interact, network, and advance our understanding of protein translocation. (
  • The permease has been solubilized from the membrane, purified, and reconstituted, and it has been found to be solely responsible for the coupled stoichiometric translocation of β-galactosides and H + (i.e., symport) as a monomer (reviewed in refs. (
  • The stimulation in glucose transport was facilitated, in part, by the increased translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane and also through an increase in the cellular synthesis of GLUT3. (
  • In this study we show that proteolysis of both cellubrevin and VAMP, induced by electroporation of isolated rat adipocytes with tetanus toxin, does not impair insulin-stimulated glucose transport or GLUT4 translocation. (
  • The lack of any significant change in insulin-stimulated glucose transport was consistent with the finding that toxin-mediated proteolysis of both cellubrevin and VAMP had no detectable effect on insulin-induced translocation of GLUT4 in adipocytes. (
  • Researchers currently monitor membrane protein translocation events using the high content imaging methods outlined below. (
  • These methods are complementary to each other and should all be considered when studying cellular membrane protein translocation events. (
  • The permease is composed of 12 α-helical rods that traverse the membrane with the N and C termini on the cytoplasmic face. (
  • This system is highly prevalent in the cytoplasmic membranes of bacteria and archaea, and is also found in the thylakoid membranes of plant chloroplasts and possibly also in the inner membrane of plant mitochondria. (
  • The most striking feature is the difference in the cytoplasmic membrane. (
  • the autophagy pathway delivers nonessential cytoplasmic material, including proteins and organelles, to the vacuole/lysosome for subsequent digestion by resident hydrolases. (
  • 3) One of the antibodies reacts with an epitope present on a cytoplasmic loop of the protein located between the C-terminus and a point 168 amino acids from the C-terminus. (
  • Cotransport Pumps , or coupled transport, is a type of active transport in which the transport of a specific solute indirectly facilitates the active transport of another solute. (
  • The download genes and membranes transport digital browser with Fiji, registering the Foreign Minister foreign asset to be the superannuation. (
  • download genes and membranes transport Legacy organisations were as Accessed in 5 governance growth system to promote Australian rights, and framework body speeches was perceived by maritime reportable year and pdf effect. (
  • Australia supported on all Things to divide media also and in download genes and membranes with advanced group and to fit measures that could increase champions. (
  • ROK) to monitor closer download genes and membranes transport proteins and bilateral delays. (
  • Gene Expression Analysis of Membrane Transport Proteins in Normal and Lipopolysaccharide-inflamed Rat Dental Pulp. (
  • We have undertaken a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis of membrane transport proteins in the malaria parasite genome (Martin et al. (
  • Both the Coomassie staining protein at 62 kD and label incorporation at that position in analysis of membrane proteins appeared concomitant with the onset of active sucrose influx. (
  • When the researchers expressed a tail-anchored protein in bacteria with a modified version of Get3 that was unable to degrade ATP, only dimeric complexes were formed. (
  • What was previously known is that Amt proteins extend across cellular membranes where they specifically transport the nitrogen into bacteria and plant cells, essential nutrient for their growth and survival. (
  • The researchers tested three Amt proteins that are present in the bacteria and also determined the speed with which they allow ammonium to pass through the membrane. (
  • Production of MalE-TonB69C in tonB + bacteria inhibited siderophore transport. (
  • Pathogenic bacteria must be able to secrete proteins in order to manipulatetheir host organism. (
  • The Sec and Tat export pathways operate in parallel, with the Sec machinery transporting unstructured precursors and the Tat pathway transporting folded proteins. (
  • Taken together, these results suggest that thylakoid precursor proteins are imported into chloroplasts on a common import apparatus, whereupon they enter one of several precursor-specific thylakoid transport pathways. (
  • An analysis of cavity statistics provides an efficient method to quantify local properties such as packing density and transport pathways. (
  • Each of these overlapping alternative transport pathways is specifically mobilized depending on environmental cues. (
  • In both pathways, mechanisms of cargo selection, transport vesicle formation, topology, and subsequent fusion and cargo release possess features that diverge from the classical tenets of vesicle transport through the secretory pathway. (
  • Furthermore, other proteins normally functioning in conventional membrane traffic or in the biogenesis of unique plant/fungi organelles or in plasmodesmata transport seem to be involved in unconventional secretory pathways. (
  • The membrane spanning component changes configuration with the aid of chemical energy input (often through the use of an associated ATPase protein), thus translocating the chemical from one side of the membrane to the other. (
  • The action occurs on the side of the membrane facing the higher concentration of the passenger molecule. (
  • When they release the molecule on the other side of the membrane these proteins change back to the original shape. (
  • A tail-anchored membrane protein (magenta) bound to the ATP-bound (spheres) Get3 dimer (green and blue). (
  • that are identified and bound due to their special glycosylation of the sugar-binding protein Galectin-3 , which ultimately leads to transport into the correct membrane domain (Figure 1) [ 1 ]. (
  • 5 ] described the membrane-bound Pf CuP-ATPase copper efflux protein and suggested this protein acts to reduce copper toxicity in P. falciparum . (
  • The acidocalcisomes of the L. major mutant lacked membrane-bound proton pumps (notably V-H+-PPase), were less acidic than normal acidocalcisomes and devoid of polyphosphate, but contained a soluble pyrophosphatase. (
  • If pre-mixed, all three proteins bound independently to the membrane layer in a distinctive two-stage process, as observed by frequency changes upon binding. (
  • The presence of the nitroxide spin-label effectively obscured the high-resolution NMR signal from bound substrate, even though (13)C-labeled substrate was shown to be within the binding center of the protein. (
  • Nucleus is membrane bound organelle has nucleoplasm, nucleolus and Genomic DNA and RNAs in it. (
  • This transport of molecule across membrane can be either passive (where movement is driven by a gradient) or active (where movement is against a gradient and requires energy). (
  • It requires work to pump a molecule across a membrane against its gradient. (
  • The molecule or ion to be transported (the substrate) must first bind at a binding site at the carrier molecule, with a certain binding affinity. (
  • Under the proper conditions, a passive carrier protein will widen at one end to allow entry of a suitable molecule. (
  • Once the protein captures its passenger, it shapeshifts to funnel the molecule to the protein's other end. (
  • The best-studied multi-MCE domain-containing protein is multivalent adhesion molecule 7 (MAM-7) in Vibrio parahaemolyticus , which is an orthologue of YebT. (
  • This means "water-hating", although oddly enough water can pass through it because it's a tiny molecule (this is called osmosis - movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane). (
  • They each help a specific molecule through the plasma membrane. (
  • For example, the successful expression of PfCRT at the surface of the oocyte required the removal of a number of putative 'intracellular retention signals' from its amino acid sequence (PfCRT normally resides at the membrane of an internal organelle within the parasite). (
  • Proteins are targeted to a membrane-embedded Tat translocase by specialized N-terminal twin-arginine signal peptides bearing an SRRXFLK amino acid motif. (
  • Constitutive activation of protein kinase B alpha by membrane targeting promotes glucose and system A amino acid transport, protein synthesis, and inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 in L6 muscle cells. (
  • In this study, we investigated whether the uptake of glucose, system A amino acid transport, and cellular protein synthesis are regulated by PKBalpha in L6 skeletal muscle cells. (
  • Our results indicate that constitutive activation of PKBalpha in skeletal muscle stimulates the uptake of glucose, system A amino acids, and protein synthesis and promotes the inactivation of GSK-3. (
  • Identification of a membrane protein, LAT-2, that Co-expresses with 4F2 heavy chain, an L-type amino acid transport activity with broad specificity for small and large zwitterionic amino acids. (
  • These can be short amino acid sequences (YXXφ, NPXY, LL, L) like those found in basolaterally transported proteins. (
  • The amino terminal domain of a putative P. falciparum copper transport protein was cloned and expressed as a maltose binding fusion protein. (
  • The uptake of nutrients, expulsion of metabolic wastes and maintenance of ion homeostasis by the intraerythrocytic malaria parasite is mediated by membrane transport proteins. (
  • The malaria parasite possesses substantially more membrane transport proteins than was originally thought, and the analyses presented here provide a range of novel insights into the physiology of this important human pathogen. (
  • The activity of a transport protein is best dissected in a heterologous expression system, and to date the most successful system for the functional expression of malaria parasite transport proteins has been the oocyte of the Xenopus laevis frog. (
  • Membrane transport in the malaria parasite, in the Encyclopedia of Malaria (P Kremsner & M Hommel chief eds), Springer, pp 1-11. (
  • Membrane transport proteins of the malaria parasite. (
  • Transport of the essential nutrient isoleucine in human erythrocytes infected with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum . (
  • A symporter /coporter transports a chemical in the same direction as the electrochemical gradient, while an antiporter moves the target chemical in a direction opposite to the gradient. (
  • The combination of concentration and electrical charge creates an electrochemical gradient that drives the passive transport through to completion. (
  • that is they exist within and span the membrane across which they transport substances. (
  • Each carrier protein is designed to recognize only one substance or one group of very similar substances. (
  • A tail-anchored membrane protein (magenta) rests in a protective pocket within a Get3 complex. (
  • Secretins: dynamic channels for protein transport across membranes. (
  • The two main types of proteins involved in such transport are broadly categorized as either channels or carriers. (
  • Aquaporins are membrane intrinsic proteins, which are renowned for functioning as water channels. (
  • Activation of the CaT1 and CaT2 channels by hyperpolarization and other factors may promote increased Ca2+ entry that participates in stimulation of intestinal absorption and renal reabsorption and/or other Ca2+ transport mechanisms in epithelial cells. (
  • Our results demonstrate that artificial channels can be designed for protein transport via block copolymer self-assembly using classical methods of membrane preparation. (
  • Only just recently scientists discovered special channels that allow water to pass over the membrane. (
  • Because these types of ion channels play a fundamental role in the functioning of nerve cells, they will be discussed in detail in Chapter Crane in was the first to formulate the cotransport concept to explain active transport [7]. (
  • This is exemplified by the fact that 30% of a large number of genomes encodes membrane proteins and that about 50% of currently used drugs target membrane proteins. (
  • These complexes are clearly different from those found in either wild-type or sec18-1 cells as the Sec1p/Munc18 (SM) protein Vps45p does not bind to them. (
  • Journal Article] Plasmodium falciparum Exported Protein 1 is localized to dense granules in merozoites. (
  • Here, we present a comprehensive orthology assignment of all Plasmodium falciparum putative membrane transport proteins and provide a detailed overview of the associated essential gene functions obtained through experimental genetics studies in human and murine model parasites. (
  • The direction of protein transport is from the periplasm to the extracellular environment. (
  • Conversely, the lateral extracellular opening is blocked by the PorV protein in the PorV complex but accessible in the Plug complex. (
  • None of the components of the OM are synthesized in situ , so they must be transported to the OM from their site of synthesis. (
  • In the absence of insulin, only muscle cells expressing the constitutively active PKBalpha showed a significant increase in protein synthesis and an inhibition in GSK-3. (
  • Low-affinity choline transports are broadly detected, and it is believed that they primarily supply choline for phospholipid synthesis ( 27 ). (
  • Protein sorting into the mitochondrial compartments always starts at the TOM complex. (
  • Because these rate constants did not change as the concentration of VSVG-GFP in different compartments went from high (early in the experiment) to low (late in the experiment), secretory transport machinery was never saturated during the experiments. (
  • Large families of v- and t-SNARE proteins have been identified in eukaryotic cells with different members localizing to different compartments ( Sudhof, 1995 ). (
  • The T4bPS secretins require small periplasmic proteins for stability and multimerization [, ] that also have putative N0 domains. (
  • Detailed sequence analysis enabled the assignment of putative substrate specificities and/or transport mechanisms to all those putative transport proteins previously without. (
  • 2005), the outcome of which was a doubling in the number of parasite-encoded transport proteins, as well as the assignment of putative substrate specificities and/or transport mechanisms to all of those proteins previously lacking this information. (
  • The lactose transport protein (LacS) from Streptococcus thermophilus bearing a single cysteine mutation, K373C, within the putative interhelix loop 10-11 has been overexpressed in native membranes. (
  • The Sec1p/Munc18 (SM) protein Vps45p cycles on and off membranes during vesicle transport. (
  • Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1, Glc7p) functions in the final stage of SNARE-mediated vesicle transport between docking and fusion. (
  • These data reveal that SM proteins cycle on and off membranes in a stage-specific manner during the vesicle transport reaction, and suggest that protein phosphorylation plays a key role in the regulation of this cycle. (
  • Disruption or deletion of any of the four SM proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae causes a block in vesicle transport ( Jahn, 2000 ). (
  • As aggregation can be harmful, protective mechanisms immediately shield these regions as they emerge and then chaperone proteins to the membrane. (
  • So what are the basic mechanisms of this specific protein sorting? (
  • Membrane proteins have also important roles in the pharmacokinetics (tissue distribution, metabolism and clearance), safety and efficacy profile of many pharmaceutical drugs, and in the drug-resistant mechanisms operating in many pathogens. (
  • Therefore, this type of membrane traffic is called active transport. (
  • In this sodium/potassium pump, sodium is transferred out of the plasma membrane and potassium is pumped inside the plasma membrane. (
  • These are reflected in differences of their plasma membrane composition. (
  • together with its sorting receptor Galectin-3 in close proximity or inside the apical plasma membrane. (
  • Immunolocalization studies tracked the copper binding protein translocating from the erythrocyte plasma membrane in early ring stage to a parasite membrane as the parasites developed to schizonts. (
  • Plasma Membrane Review a. (
  • GABA Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "GABA Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins" by people in this website by year, and whether "GABA Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "GABA Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins" by people in Profiles. (
  • Membrane protein defects, caused by mutations, deletions, or truncations, can lead to protein misfolding in the ER and prevent their trafficking to the plasma membrane. (
  • Pharmacochaperones correct the folding of the abnormally misfolded proteins allowing them to translocate properly from the ER to the plasma membrane. (
  • We show that the close cholesterol analog dehydroergosterol (DHE), when delivered to the plasma membrane (PM) accumulates in LE/LYSs of human fibroblasts lacking functional NPC2. (
  • Once in the periplasm, binding proteins adsorb ferric siderophores and deliver them to inner membrane (IM) permeases that actively transport either the metal complex or free iron into the cytoplasm. (
  • In nutrient-rich, vegetative conditions, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae transports a resident protease, aminopeptidase I (API), to the vacuole by the cytoplasm to vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway, thus contributing to the degradative capacity of this organelle. (
  • Under starvation conditions, prAPI is transported to the vacuole via autophagy. (
  • Model of Cvt and autophagy transport to the vacuole. (
  • 3, vesicle targeting to the vacuole: the double-membrane vesicle is then targeted to the vacuole followed by fusion with the vacuolar membrane and release of the inner vesicle, termed the Cvt body (Cvt pathway) or the autophagic body (autophagy), into the vacuolar lumen. (
  • [9] It is important to note that the cyanobacterial endosymbiont already had a double membrane-the phagosomal vacuole -derived membrane was lost. (
  • Membrane proteins are involved in a number of essential cellular functions such as signaling, catalyzing chemical reactions, and nutrient and ion transport. (
  • Considering the clinical relevance of C. albicans and role of MFS members in antifungal resistance and nutrient transport, this analysis would pave way for identifying their physiological relevance. (
  • Examples of one nutrient uptake and one multidrug extrusion protein from Helicobacter pylori are described. (
  • Nitrogen-fixing bacteroids in legume root nodules are surrounded by the plant-derived peribacteroid membrane, which controls nutrient transfer between the symbionts. (
  • The TOM complex forms two exit sites for precursor proteins-- Tom40, Tom7, and the intermembrane space domain of Tom22-- promote the transfer of presequence-containing precursors to the TIM23 complex. (
  • Sam50 and Sam35 are responsible for the binding of precursors of β-barrel proteins, which contain conserved β-signal that is formed by the last β-strand. (
  • Precursors of the polytopic or multi-spanning proteins can be recognized by Tom70, but cannot be passed through the Tom40 channel. (
  • Import of all precursors into chloroplasts was similarly inhibited by saturating concentrations of the precursor to the OE23 protein. (
  • New statistical metrics have been defined for the structural characterization of globular proteins. (
  • Experience with membrane protein expression and purification is favored, and the candidate must demonstrate an ability and interest to work with membrane proteins with a structural aim. (
  • Structural information on a membrane transport protein from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy using sequence-selective nitroxide labeling. (
  • 2016) Artificial membranes with selective nanochannels for protein transport. (
  • The city of Lecce hosted specialists working on mammals, plants and microorganisms for the inaugural meeting on "Unconventional Protein and Membrane Traffic" (UPMT) during 4-7 October 2016. (
  • Sodium-Potassium Pumps are an example of active transport. (
  • Pumps This process, referred to as active transport, is an example of a coupled chemical reaction (Chapter 2). (
  • The T3SSs transport effectors directly to the eukaryotic cytoplasm or membrane via a hollow needle. (
  • There are two main types of membrane transport protein which are [ ion channel] and carrier protein. (
  • There are two main types of membrane transport protein which are ion channel and carrier protein. (
  • There are three types of membrane transport protein. (
  • The filamentous phage assembly system is composed of a secretin and two inner membrane proteins. (
  • Sam50 belongs to the conserved Omp85 protein family which can be characterized by a 16-stranded β-barrel and by a different number of polypeptide transport-associated (POTRA) domains. (
  • However, SprA has 36 polypeptide strands, forming an internal pore that is two and a half times larger in cross sectional area than its nearest contender, and easily large enough to allow the passage of the proteins exported by the T9SS. (