Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Ubiquitously expressed integral membrane glycoproteins found in the LYSOSOME.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Rhodopsins found in the PURPLE MEMBRANE of halophilic archaea such as HALOBACTERIUM HALOBIUM. Bacteriorhodopsins function as an energy transducers, converting light energy into electrochemical energy via PROTON PUMPS.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.
A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
Functionally and structurally differentiated, purple-pigmented regions of the cytoplasmic membrane of some strains of Halobacterium halobium. The membrane develops under anaerobic conditions and is made almost entirely of the purple pigment BACTERIORHODOPSINS. (From Singleton & Sainsbury Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
An abundant lysosomal-associated membrane protein that has been found to shuttle between LYSOSOMES; ENDOSOMES; and the PLASMA MEMBRANE. Loss of expression of lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 is associated with GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE IIB.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A synaptic membrane protein involved in MEMBRANE FUSION of SYNAPTIC VESICLES with the presynaptic membranes. It is the prototype member of the R-SNARE PROTEINS.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A high molecular weight (220-250 kDa) water-soluble protein which can be extracted from erythrocyte ghosts in low ionic strength buffers. The protein contains no lipids or carbohydrates, is the predominant species of peripheral erythrocyte membrane proteins, and exists as a fibrous coating on the inner, cytoplasmic surface of the membrane.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position as syntaxin 1A in the SNARE complex and which also are most similar to syntaxin 1A in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. This subfamily is also known as the syntaxins, although a few so called syntaxins are Qc-SNARES.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
SNARE proteins where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is an ARGININE. They are classified separately from the Q-SNARE PROTEINS where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is a GLUTAMINE. This subfamily contains the vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMPs) based on similarity to the prototype for the R-SNAREs, VAMP2 (synaptobrevin 2).
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
The major sialoglycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane. It consists of at least two sialoglycopeptides and is composed of 60% carbohydrate including sialic acid and 40% protein. It is involved in a number of different biological activities including the binding of MN blood groups, influenza viruses, kidney bean phytohemagglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
A family of membrane-associated proteins responsible for the attachment of the cytoskeleton. Erythrocyte-related isoforms of ankyrin attach the SPECTRIN cytoskeleton to a transmembrane protein (ANION EXCHANGE PROTEIN 1, ERYTHROCYTE) in the erythrocyte plasma membrane. Brain-related isoforms of ankyrin also exist.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A fold of the mucous membrane of the CONJUNCTIVA in many animals. At rest, it is hidden in the medial canthus. It can extend to cover part or all of the cornea to help clean the CORNEA.
The inner layer of CHOROID, also called the lamina basalis choroideae, located adjacent to the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM; (RPE) of the EYE. It is a membrane composed of the basement membranes of the choriocapillaris ENDOTHELIUM and that of the RPE. The membrane stops at the OPTIC NERVE, as does the RPE.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.

Membrane-tethered Drosophila Armadillo cannot transduce Wingless signal on its own. (1/57141)

Drosophila Armadillo and its vertebrate homolog beta-catenin are key effectors of Wingless/Wnt signaling. In the current model, Wingless/Wnt signal stabilizes Armadillo/beta-catenin, which then accumulates in nuclei and binds TCF/LEF family proteins, forming bipartite transcription factors which activate transcription of Wingless/Wnt responsive genes. This model was recently challenged. Overexpression in Xenopus of membrane-tethered beta-catenin or its paralog plakoglobin activates Wnt signaling, suggesting that nuclear localization of Armadillo/beta-catenin is not essential for signaling. Tethered plakoglobin or beta-catenin might signal on their own or might act indirectly by elevating levels of endogenous beta-catenin. We tested these hypotheses in Drosophila by removing endogenous Armadillo. We generated a series of mutant Armadillo proteins with altered intracellular localizations, and expressed these in wild-type and armadillo mutant backgrounds. We found that membrane-tethered Armadillo cannot signal on its own; however it can function in adherens junctions. We also created mutant forms of Armadillo carrying heterologous nuclear localization or nuclear export signals. Although these signals alter the subcellular localization of Arm when overexpressed in Xenopus, in Drosophila they have little effect on localization and only subtle effects on signaling. This supports a model in which Armadillo's nuclear localization is key for signaling, but in which Armadillo intracellular localization is controlled by the availability and affinity of its binding partners.  (+info)

Membrane fusion: structure snared at last. (2/57141)

The structure of the core of the neuronal 'SNARE complex', involved in neurotransmitter release, has been determined recently. Its topological similarity to viral fusion proteins suggests how the SNARE complex might facilitate membrane fusion.  (+info)

The hematopoietic-specific adaptor protein gads functions in T-cell signaling via interactions with the SLP-76 and LAT adaptors. (3/57141)

BACKGROUND: The adaptor protein Gads is a Grb2-related protein originally identified on the basis of its interaction with the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of the docking protein Shc. Gads protein expression is restricted to hematopoietic tissues and cell lines. Gads contains a Src homology 2 (SH2) domain, which has previously been shown to have a similar binding specificity to that of Grb2. Gads also possesses two SH3 domains, but these have a distinct binding specificity to those of Grb2, as Gads does not bind to known Grb2 SH3 domain targets. Here, we investigated whether Gads is involved in T-cell signaling. RESULTS: We found that Gads is highly expressed in T cells and that the SLP-76 adaptor protein is a major Gads-associated protein in vivo. The constitutive interaction between Gads and SLP-76 was mediated by the carboxy-terminal SH3 domain of Gads and a 20 amino-acid proline-rich region in SLP-76. Gads also coimmunoprecipitated the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of the linker for activated T cells (LAT) adaptor protein following cross-linking of the T-cell receptor; this interaction was mediated by the Gads SH2 domain. Overexpression of Gads and SLP-76 resulted in a synergistic augmentation of T-cell signaling, as measured by activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), and this cooperation required a functional Gads SH2 domain. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that Gads plays an important role in T-cell signaling via its association with SLP-76 and LAT. Gads may promote cross-talk between the LAT and SLP-76 signaling complexes, thereby coupling membrane-proximal events to downstream signaling pathways.  (+info)

Sonic hedgehog signaling by the patched-smoothened receptor complex. (4/57141)

BACKGROUND: The Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins is involved in a number of developmental processes as well as in cancer. Genetic and biochemical data suggest that the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) receptor is composed of at least two proteins: the tumor suppressor protein Patched (Ptc) and the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo). RESULTS: Using a biochemical assay for activation of the transcription factor Gli, a downstream component of the Hh pathway, we show here that Smo functions as the signaling component of the Shh receptor, and that this activity can be blocked by Ptc. The inhibition of Smo by Ptc can be relieved by the addition of Shh. Furthermore, oncogenic forms of Smo are insensitive to Ptc repression in this assay. Mapping of the Smo domains required for binding to Ptc and for signaling revealed that the Smo-Ptc interaction involves mainly the amino terminus of Smo, and that the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain are required for signaling. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that Smo is the signaling component of a multicomponent Hh receptor complex and that Ptc is a ligand-regulated inhibitor of Smo. Different domains of Smo are involved in Ptc binding and activation of a Gli reporter construct. The latter requires the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain of Smo, regions often involved in coupling to G proteins. No changes in the levels of cyclic AMP or calcium associated with such pathways could be detected following receptor activation, however.  (+info)

Alzheimer's disease: clues from flies and worms. (5/57141)

Presenilin mutations give rise to familial Alzheimer's disease and result in elevated production of amyloid beta peptide. Recent evidence that presenilins act in developmental signalling pathways may be the key to understanding how senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and apoptosis are all biochemically linked.  (+info)

Vac1p coordinates Rab and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling in Vps45p-dependent vesicle docking/fusion at the endosome. (6/57141)

The vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mediates transport of vacuolar protein precursors from the late Golgi to the lysosome-like vacuole. Sorting of some vacuolar proteins occurs via a prevacuolar endosomal compartment and mutations in a subset of VPS genes (the class D VPS genes) interfere with the Golgi-to-endosome transport step. Several of the encoded proteins, including Pep12p/Vps6p (an endosomal target (t) SNARE) and Vps45p (a Sec1p homologue), bind each other directly [1]. Another of these proteins, Vac1p/Pep7p/Vps19p, associates with Pep12p and binds phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P), the product of the Vps34 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) [1] [2]. Here, we demonstrate that Vac1p genetically and physically interacts with the activated, GTP-bound form of Vps21p, a Rab GTPase that functions in Golgi-to-endosome transport, and with Vps45p. These results implicate Vac1p as an effector of Vps21p and as a novel Sec1p-family-binding protein. We suggest that Vac1p functions as a multivalent adaptor protein that ensures the high fidelity of vesicle docking and fusion by integrating both phosphoinositide (Vps34p) and GTPase (Vps21p) signals, which are essential for Pep12p- and Vps45p-dependent targeting of Golgi-derived vesicles to the prevacuolar endosome.  (+info)

Role of alphavbeta3 integrin in the activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2. (7/57141)

Interaction between integrin alphavbeta3 and extracellular matrix is crucial for endothelial cells sprouting from capillaries and for angiogenesis. Furthermore, integrin-mediated outside-in signals co-operate with growth factor receptors to promote cell proliferation and motility. To determine a potential regulation of angiogenic inducer receptors by the integrin system, we investigated the interaction between alphavbeta3 integrin and tyrosine kinase vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) in human endothelial cells. We report that tyrosine-phosphorylated VEGFR-2 co-immunoprecipitated with beta3 integrin subunit, but not with beta1 or beta5, from cells stimulated with VEGF-A165. VEGFR-2 phosphorylation and mitogenicity induced by VEGF-A165 were enhanced in cells plated on the alphavbeta3 ligand, vitronectin, compared with cells plated on the alpha5beta1 ligand, fibronectin or the alpha2beta1 ligand, collagen. BV4 anti-beta3 integrin mAb, which does not interfere with endothelial cell adhesion to vitronectin, reduced (i) the tyrosine phosphorylation of VEGFR-2; (ii) the activation of downstream transductor phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase; and (iii) biological effects triggered by VEGF-A165. These results indicate a new role for alphavbeta3 integrin in the activation of an in vitro angiogenic program in endothelial cells. Besides being the most important survival system for nascent vessels by regulating cell adhesion to matrix, alphavbeta3 integrin participates in the full activation of VEGFR-2 triggered by VEGF-A, which is an important angiogenic inducer in tumors, inflammation and tissue regeneration.  (+info)

Cell growth inhibition by farnesyltransferase inhibitors is mediated by gain of geranylgeranylated RhoB. (8/57141)

Recent results have shown that the ability of farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) to inhibit malignant cell transformation and Ras prenylation can be separated. We proposed previously that farnesylated Rho proteins are important targets for alternation by FTIs, based on studies of RhoB (the FTI-Rho hypothesis). Cells treated with FTIs exhibit a loss of farnesylated RhoB but a gain of geranylgeranylated RhoB (RhoB-GG), which is associated with loss of growth-promoting activity. In this study, we tested whether the gain of RhoB-GG elicited by FTI treatment was sufficient to mediate FTI-induced cell growth inhibition. In support of this hypothesis, when expressed in Ras-transformed cells RhoB-GG induced phenotypic reversion, cell growth inhibition, and activation of the cell cycle kinase inhibitor p21WAF1. RhoB-GG did not affect the phenotype or growth of normal cells. These effects were similar to FTI treatment insofar as they were all induced in transformed cells but not in normal cells. RhoB-GG did not promote anoikis of Ras-transformed cells, implying that this response to FTIs involves loss-of-function effects. Our findings corroborate the FTI-Rho hypothesis and demonstrate that gain-of-function effects on Rho are part of the drug mechanism. Gain of RhoB-GG may explain how FTIs inhibit the growth of human tumor cells that lack Ras mutations.  (+info)

Premature rupture of fetal membranes is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, ultrasound, and laboratory tests. Treatment options for PROM include:

1. Expectant management: In this approach, the woman is monitored closely without immediately inducing labor. This option is usually chosen if the baby is not yet ready to be born and the mother has no signs of infection or preterm labor.
2. Induction of labor: If the baby is mature enough to be born, labor may be induced to avoid the risks associated with preterm birth.
3. Cesarean delivery: In some cases, a cesarean section may be performed if the woman has signs of infection or if the baby is in distress.
4. Antibiotics: If the PROM is caused by an infection, antibiotics may be given to treat the infection and prevent complications.
5. Steroids: If the baby is less than 24 hours old, steroids may be given to help mature the lungs and reduce the risk of respiratory distress syndrome.

Prevention of premature rupture of fetal membranes includes good prenatal care, avoiding activities that can cause trauma to the abdomen, and avoiding infections such as group B strep. Early detection and management of PROM are crucial to prevent complications for the baby.

There are two main types of hemolysis:

1. Intravascular hemolysis: This type occurs within the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as mechanical injury, oxidative stress, and certain infections.
2. Extravascular hemolysis: This type occurs outside the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as bone marrow disorders, splenic rupture, and certain medications.

Hemolytic anemia is a condition that occurs when there is excessive hemolysis of RBCs, leading to a decrease in the number of healthy red blood cells in the body. This can cause symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, pale skin, and shortness of breath.

Some common causes of hemolysis include:

1. Genetic disorders such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia.
2. Autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA).
3. Infections such as malaria, babesiosis, and toxoplasmosis.
4. Medications such as antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and blood thinners.
5. Bone marrow disorders such as aplastic anemia and myelofibrosis.
6. Splenic rupture or surgical removal of the spleen.
7. Mechanical injury to the blood vessels.

Diagnosis of hemolysis is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as complete blood count (CBC), blood smear examination, and direct Coombs test. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include supportive care, blood transfusions, and medications to suppress the immune system or prevent infection.

Also known as: Hereditary spherocytosis (HSS)

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Most nasopharyngeal neoplasms are rare and tend to affect children and young adults more frequently than older adults. The most common types of nasopharyngeal neoplasms include:

1. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC): This is the most common type of malignant nasopharyngeal neoplasm and tends to affect young adults in Southeast Asia more frequently than other populations.
2. Adenoid cystic carcinoma: This is a rare, slow-growing tumor that usually affects the nasopharynx and salivary glands.
3. Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma: This is a type of cancer that originates in another part of the body (usually the head and neck) and spreads to the nasopharynx.
4. Lymphoma: This is a type of cancer that affects the immune system and can occur in the nasopharynx.
5. Benign tumors: These include benign growths such as papillomas, fibromas, and meningiomas.

Symptoms of nasopharyngeal neoplasms can vary depending on the size and location of the tumor but may include:

* Difficulty swallowing
* Nosebleeds
* Headaches
* Facial pain or numbness
* Trouble breathing through the nose
* Hoarseness or voice changes
* Enlarged lymph nodes in the neck

Diagnosis of nasopharyngeal neoplasms usually involves a combination of imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, endoscopy (insertion of a flexible tube with a camera into the nose and throat), and biopsy (removal of a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope).

Treatment of nasopharyngeal neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor but may include:

* Surgery to remove the tumor
* Radiation therapy to kill cancer cells
* Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells
* Targeted therapy to attack specific molecules on cancer cells

Prognosis for nasopharyngeal neoplasms varies depending on the type and stage of the tumor but in general, early detection and treatment improve the chances of a successful outcome.

1. Activation of oncogenes: Some viruses contain genes that code for proteins that can activate existing oncogenes in the host cell, leading to uncontrolled cell growth.
2. Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes: Other viruses may contain genes that inhibit the expression of tumor suppressor genes, allowing cells to grow and divide uncontrollably.
3. Insertional mutagenesis: Some viruses can insert their own DNA into the host cell's genome, leading to disruptions in normal cellular function and potentially causing cancer.
4. Epigenetic changes: Viral infection can also cause epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation or histone modification, that can lead to the silencing of tumor suppressor genes and the activation of oncogenes.

Viral cell transformation is a key factor in the development of many types of cancer, including cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), and liver cancer caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). In addition, some viruses are specifically known to cause cancer, such as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV).

Early detection and treatment of viral infections can help prevent the development of cancer. Vaccines are also available for some viruses that are known to cause cancer, such as HPV and hepatitis B. Additionally, antiviral therapy can be used to treat existing infections and may help reduce the risk of cancer development.

The disease is characterized by the presence of hyaline membranes in the distal air spaces of the lungs, which are composed of extracellular material, including surfactant proteins, lipids, and other substances. These membranes impair the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and the air in the lungs, leading to respiratory failure.

The symptoms of HMD can range from mild to severe and may include:

* Respiratory distress
* Tachypnea (rapid breathing)
* Cyanosis (blue coloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to lack of oxygen)
* Poor feeding
* Apnea (pauses in breathing)

HMD is usually diagnosed based on clinical findings and chest X-rays. Treatment typically involves providing supplemental oxygen, mechanical ventilation, and surfactant replacement therapy to help restore normal lung function. In severe cases, HMD can lead to respiratory failure and death if left untreated.

Prevention of HMD includes:

* Proper management of maternal health during pregnancy
* Avoiding smoking and other harmful substances during pregnancy
* Ensuring proper prenatal care and regular check-ups
* Delivering the baby in a medical facility equipped to handle high-risk deliveries

Early recognition and treatment of HMD are critical to preventing complications and improving outcomes for affected newborns.

Symptoms of EBV infection can vary widely, ranging from asymptomatic to severe, and may include:

* Fatigue
* Fever
* Sore throat
* Swollen lymph nodes in the neck and armpits
* Swollen liver or spleen
* Rash
* Headaches
* Muscle weakness

In some cases, EBV can lead to more serious complications such as infectious mononucleosis (IM), also known as glandular fever, which can cause:

* Enlarged liver and spleen
* Splenomegaly (enlargement of the spleen)
* Hepatomegaly (enlargement of the liver)
* Thrombocytopenia (low platelet count)
* Anemia (low red blood cell count)
* Leukopenia (low white blood cell count)

EBV is also associated with an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer, including Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

There is no specific treatment for EBV infections, and most cases resolve on their own within a few weeks. Antiviral medications may be prescribed in severe cases or to prevent complications. Rest, hydration, and over-the-counter pain relief medication can help alleviate symptoms.

Also known as Burkitt's Lymphoma.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

Epidemiology of Haemophilus Infections:

* Incidence: Hib disease was once a major cause of childhood meningitis and sepsis, but the introduction of Hib vaccines in the 1980s has significantly reduced the incidence of invasive Hib disease. Non-invasive Hib disease, such as otitis media, is still common.
* Prevalence: Hib is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children under the age of 5 worldwide. In developed countries, the prevalence of invasive Hib disease has decreased significantly since the introduction of vaccines, but it remains a significant public health problem in developing countries.
* Risk factors: young age, poverty, lack of access to healthcare, and poor sanitation and hygiene are risk factors for Hib disease. Children under the age of 5, especially those under the age of 2, are at highest risk for invasive Hib disease.

Pathophysiology of Haemophilus Infections:

* Mechanisms of infection: H. influenzae can cause both respiratory and non-respiratory infections by colonizing the nasopharynx and other mucosal surfaces. The bacteria can then disseminate to other parts of the body, causing invasive disease.
* Immune response: the immune response to Hib infection involves both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Antibodies play a crucial role in protecting against reinfection, while T cells and macrophages help to clear the bacteria from the body.

Clinical Presentation of Haemophilus Infections:

* Respiratory infections: H. influenzae can cause various respiratory tract infections, including bronchitis, pneumonia, and sinusitis. Symptoms may include fever, cough, sore throat, and difficulty breathing.
* Non-respiratory infections: Hib can cause a range of non-respiratory infections, including meningitis, epiglottitis, and septic arthritis. These infections can have more severe symptoms and may require prompt medical attention.

Diagnosis of Haemophilus Infections:

* Diagnostic tests: diagnosis of Hib disease is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and radiologic studies. Blood cultures, lumbar puncture, and chest x-rays may be used to confirm the presence of the bacteria and assess the extent of infection.
* Laboratory testing: identification of Hib is based on its distinctive gram stain appearance and biochemical characteristics. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing are also used to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment and Prevention of Haemophilus Infections:

* Antibiotics: Hib infections are treated with antibiotics, such as amoxicillin or ceftriaxone. The choice of antibiotic depends on the severity and location of the infection.
* Vaccination: the Hib vaccine is recommended for children under 5 years old to prevent Hib disease. The vaccine is given in a series of 3-4 doses, with the first dose given at 2 months of age.
* Good hygiene practices: good hygiene practices, such as frequent handwashing and proper cleaning and disinfection, can help prevent the spread of Hib bacteria.

Complications of Haemophilus Infections:

* Meningitis: Hib meningitis can have serious complications, including hearing loss, learning disabilities, and seizures.
* Permanent brain damage: Hib infections can cause permanent brain damage, including cognitive and behavioral impairments.
* Respiratory failure: severe Hib pneumonia can lead to respiratory failure, which may require mechanical ventilation.
* Death: Hib infections can be life-threatening, especially in young children and those with underlying medical conditions.

In conclusion, Haemophilus infections are a serious public health concern, particularly for young children and those with underlying medical conditions. Prevention through vaccination and good hygiene practices is essential to reduce the risk of infection. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical to prevent complications and improve outcomes.

The symptoms of chlamydia infections can vary depending on the location of the infection. In genital infections, symptoms may include:

* Discharge from the penis or vagina
* Painful urination
* Abnormal bleeding or spotting
* Painful sex
* Testicular pain in men
* Pelvic pain in women

In eye infections, symptoms can include:

* Redness and swelling of the eye
* Discharge from the eye
* Pain or sensitivity to light

In respiratory infections, symptoms may include:

* Cough
* Fever
* Shortness of breath or wheezing

If left untreated, chlamydia infections can lead to serious complications, such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women and epididymitis in men. Chlamydia infections can also increase the risk of infertility and other long-term health problems.

Chlamydia infections are typically diagnosed through a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) or a culture test. Treatment for chlamydia infections typically involves antibiotics, which can effectively cure the infection. It is important to note that sexual partners of someone with a chlamydia infection should also be tested and treated, as they may also have the infection.

Prevention methods for chlamydia infections include safe sex practices such as using condoms and dental dams, as well as regular screening and testing for the infection. It is important to note that chlamydia infections can be asymptomatic, so regular testing is crucial for early detection and treatment.

In conclusion, chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted bacterial infection that can cause serious complications if left untreated. Early detection and treatment are key to preventing long-term health problems and the spread of the infection. Safe sex practices and regular screening are also important for preventing chlamydia infections.

The main symptoms of hereditary elliptocytosis are mild anemia, fatigue, jaundice, and splenomegaly (enlargement of the spleen). The disorder can also cause recurrent infections, including bacterial infections such as pneumonia and urinary tract infections. In severe cases, hereditary elliptocytosis can lead to a condition called hemolytic anemia, which is characterized by the premature destruction of RBCs.

Hereditary elliptocytosis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, including blood smears and genetic analysis. Treatment for the disorder is generally focused on managing symptoms and preventing complications. This may include blood transfusions, antibiotics to treat infections, and splenectomy (removal of the spleen) in severe cases.

The prognosis for hereditary elliptocytosis is generally good, with most individuals leading normal lives with proper management and care. However, the disorder can be inherited by children of affected parents, and genetic counseling may be helpful for families who have a history of the condition.

The hallmark of anti-GBM disease is the presence of circulating anti-GBM antibodies and immune complexes, which are deposited in the glomeruli and lung alveoli, leading to inflammation and tissue damage. The disease can progress rapidly and lead to ESRD if left untreated.

The symptoms of anti-GBM disease vary depending on the severity of the disease and may include:

* Hematuria (blood in urine)
* Proteinuria (excess protein in urine)
* Reduced kidney function
* Fatigue
* Weight loss
* Shortness of breath
* Cough

The diagnosis of anti-GBM disease is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and kidney biopsy. Laboratory tests may include:

* Detection of anti-GBM antibodies in the blood
* Presence of immune complexes in the urine or lung tissue
* Abnormal liver enzymes
* Low complement levels

Treatment of anti-GBM disease typically involves a combination of steroids, immunosuppressive medications, and plasmapheresis (a process that removes harmful antibodies from the blood). In severe cases, kidney transplantation may be necessary. The prognosis for anti-GBM disease is generally poor, with a five-year survival rate of approximately 50%.

Symptoms of hemolytic anemia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, dizziness, headaches, and pale or yellowish skin. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause but may include blood transfusions, medication to suppress the immune system, antibiotics for infections, and removal of the spleen (splenectomy) in severe cases.

Prevention strategies for hemolytic anemia include avoiding triggers such as certain medications or infections, maintaining good hygiene practices, and seeking early medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

It is important to note that while hemolytic anemia can be managed with proper treatment, it may not be curable in all cases, and ongoing monitoring and care are necessary to prevent complications and improve quality of life.

1. Gonorrhea: a sexually transmitted infection caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae that can affect the reproductive tract, eyes, and throat.
2. Meningococcal disease: a serious and potentially life-threatening infection caused by Neisseria meningitidis that can affect the lining of the brain and spinal cord (meningitis) or the bloodstream (sepsis).
3. Pneumonia: an infection of the lung tissue caused by Neisseria species, often occurring in people with weakened immune systems or pre-existing medical conditions.
4. Peritonitis: an infection of the lining of the abdominal cavity caused by Neisseria species, often occurring in people with perforated ulcers or other injuries to the abdominal wall.
5. Endocarditis: an infection of the heart valves caused by Neisseria species, which can occur in people with pre-existing heart conditions.

Neisseriaceae infections are typically treated with antibiotics, and early treatment is important to prevent serious complications and improve outcomes. Prevention measures include practicing safe sex, getting vaccinated against meningococcal disease, and seeking medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Symptoms of ehrlichiosis typically begin within one to two weeks after the tick bite and may include fever, headache, muscle pain, joint pain, and rash. In severe cases, the infection can spread to the bloodstream and cause more serious complications, such as respiratory distress, liver failure, and kidney failure.

Ehrlichiosis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, including a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect the bacterial DNA in the blood. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, such as doxycycline or azithromycin, which are effective against the bacteria that cause ehrlichiosis.

Prevention of ehrlichiosis primarily involves avoiding tick habitats and using tick-repellent clothing and insecticides to prevent tick bites. Early detection and treatment of ehrlichiosis can help reduce the risk of serious complications and improve outcomes for infected individuals.

The disorder is caused by mutations in the HBB gene that codes for the beta-globin subunit of hemoglobin. These mutations result in the production of abnormal hemoglobins that are unstable and prone to breakdown, leading to the release of free hemoglobin into the urine.

HP is classified into two types based on the severity of symptoms:

1. Type 1 HP: This is the most common form of the disorder and is characterized by mild to moderate anemia, occasional hemoglobinuria, and a normal life expectancy.
2. Type 2 HP: This is a more severe form of the disorder and is characterized by severe anemia, recurrent hemoglobinuria, and a shorter life expectancy.

There is no cure for HP, but treatment options are available to manage symptoms and prevent complications. These may include blood transfusions, folic acid supplements, and medications to reduce the frequency and severity of hemoglobinuria episodes.

Examples of experimental liver neoplasms include:

1. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer and can be induced experimentally by injecting carcinogens such as diethylnitrosamine (DEN) or dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) into the liver tissue of animals.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: This type of cancer originates in the bile ducts within the liver and can be induced experimentally by injecting chemical carcinogens such as DEN or DMBA into the bile ducts of animals.
3. Hepatoblastoma: This is a rare type of liver cancer that primarily affects children and can be induced experimentally by administering chemotherapy drugs to newborn mice or rats.
4. Metastatic tumors: These are tumors that originate in other parts of the body and spread to the liver through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Experimental models of metastatic tumors can be studied by injecting cancer cells into the liver tissue of animals.

The study of experimental liver neoplasms is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms of liver cancer development and progression, as well as identifying potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of this disease. Animal models can be used to test the efficacy of new drugs or therapies before they are tested in humans, which can help to accelerate the development of new treatments for liver cancer.

The most common form of this disease is Meningococcal Group B (MenB). Symptoms often develop within hours or days after exposure, but can be nonspecific, such as fever, headache, and muscle aches.

Early signs that are more specific and suggestive of the diagnosis include neck stiffness, confusion, seizures, and rash. Diagnosis is by culture or PCR of a sterile site. Treatment consists of antibiotics that cover Neisseria meningitidis, which should be initiated promptly after recognition of the signs and symptoms.

Prevention with vaccines is recommended for infants at 2 months of age; boosters are given at 4 months, 6 months, and 12 to 15 months of age.

There are several types of brucellosis, including:

1. Brucella abortus: This type is primarily found in cattle and is the most common form of the disease in humans.
2. Brucella suis: This type is found in pigs and is less common in humans.
3. Brucella melitensis: This type is found in sheep, goats, and other animals, and is more virulent than B. abortus.
4. Brucella canis: This type is found in dogs and is rare in humans.

The symptoms of brucellosis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the individual's overall health. Common symptoms include:

1. Fever
2. Headache
3. Joint pain
4. Muscle pain
5. Swelling of the lymph nodes and spleen
6. Fatigue
7. Loss of appetite
8. Weight loss

In severe cases, brucellosis can cause complications such as:

1. Endocarditis (infection of the heart valves)
2. Meningitis (inflammation of the lining around the brain and spinal cord)
3. Osteomyelitis (infection of the bone)
4. Testicular inflammation in men
5. Epididymitis (inflammation of the epididymis, a tube that carries sperm from the testicle to the penis)
6. Inflammation of the heart muscle and valves
7. Pneumonia
8. Inflammation of the liver and spleen

Brucellosis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, and early treatment can help prevent complications. Prevention measures include avoiding contact with infected animals and ensuring proper hygiene practices when handling livestock or wild game.

Explanation: Neoplastic cell transformation is a complex process that involves multiple steps and can occur as a result of genetic mutations, environmental factors, or a combination of both. The process typically begins with a series of subtle changes in the DNA of individual cells, which can lead to the loss of normal cellular functions and the acquisition of abnormal growth and reproduction patterns.

Over time, these transformed cells can accumulate further mutations that allow them to survive and proliferate despite adverse conditions. As the transformed cells continue to divide and grow, they can eventually form a tumor, which is a mass of abnormal cells that can invade and damage surrounding tissues.

In some cases, cancer cells can also break away from the primary tumor and travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to other parts of the body, where they can establish new tumors. This process, known as metastasis, is a major cause of death in many types of cancer.

It's worth noting that not all transformed cells will become cancerous. Some forms of cellular transformation, such as those that occur during embryonic development or tissue regeneration, are normal and necessary for the proper functioning of the body. However, when these transformations occur in adult tissues, they can be a sign of cancer.

See also: Cancer, Tumor

Word count: 190

Neuroblastoma is caused by a genetic mutation that affects the development and growth of nerve cells. The cancerous cells are often sensitive to chemotherapy, but they can be difficult to remove surgically because they are deeply embedded in the nervous system.

There are several different types of neuroblastoma, including:

1. Infantile neuroblastoma: This type of neuroblastoma occurs in children under the age of one and is often more aggressive than other types of the cancer.
2. Juvenile neuroblastoma: This type of neuroblastoma occurs in children between the ages of one and five and tends to be less aggressive than infantile neuroblastoma.
3. Adult neuroblastoma: This type of neuroblastoma occurs in adults and is rare.
4. Metastatic neuroblastoma: This type of neuroblastoma has spread to other parts of the body, such as the bones or liver.

Symptoms of neuroblastoma can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but they may include:

* Abdominal pain
* Fever
* Loss of appetite
* Weight loss
* Fatigue
* Bone pain
* Swelling in the abdomen or neck
* Constipation
* Increased heart rate

Diagnosis of neuroblastoma typically involves a combination of imaging tests, such as CT scans and MRI scans, and biopsies to confirm the presence of cancerous cells. Treatment for neuroblastoma usually involves a combination of chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy. The prognosis for neuroblastoma varies depending on the type of cancer, the age of the child, and the stage of the disease. In general, the younger the child and the more aggressive the treatment, the better the prognosis.

Some common effects of chromosomal deletions include:

1. Genetic disorders: Chromosomal deletions can lead to a variety of genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, which is caused by a deletion of a portion of chromosome 21. Other examples include Prader-Willi syndrome (deletion of chromosome 15), and Williams syndrome (deletion of chromosome 7).
2. Birth defects: Chromosomal deletions can increase the risk of birth defects, such as heart defects, cleft palate, and limb abnormalities.
3. Developmental delays: Children with chromosomal deletions may experience developmental delays, learning disabilities, and intellectual disability.
4. Increased cancer risk: Some chromosomal deletions can increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and breast cancer.
5. Reproductive problems: Chromosomal deletions can lead to reproductive problems, such as infertility or recurrent miscarriage.

Chromosomal deletions can be diagnosed through a variety of techniques, including karyotyping (examination of the chromosomes), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and microarray analysis. Treatment options for chromosomal deletions depend on the specific effects of the deletion and may include medication, surgery, or other forms of therapy.

Psittacosis is a zoonotic disease, meaning it can be transmitted between animals and humans. It is important to take precautions when handling birds or their droppings to avoid infection. Treatment of psittacosis typically involves antibiotics, and early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

Psittacosis is a rare disease, but it is important for veterinarians, avian specialists, and other professionals who work with birds to be aware of the risk of transmission and take appropriate precautions to protect themselves and others.

There are several types of lymphoma, including:

1. Hodgkin lymphoma: This is a type of lymphoma that originates in the white blood cells called Reed-Sternberg cells. It is characterized by the presence of giant cells with multiple nucleoli.
2. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL): This is a type of lymphoma that does not meet the criteria for Hodgkin lymphoma. There are many subtypes of NHL, each with its own unique characteristics and behaviors.
3. Cutaneous lymphoma: This type of lymphoma affects the skin and can take several forms, including cutaneous B-cell lymphoma and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
4. Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma: This is a rare type of lymphoma that develops in the brain or spinal cord.
5. Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD): This is a type of lymphoma that develops in people who have undergone an organ transplant, often as a result of immunosuppressive therapy.

The symptoms of lymphoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Some common symptoms include:

* Swollen lymph nodes
* Fever
* Fatigue
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
* Itching

Lymphoma is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as CT scans or PET scans), and biopsies. Treatment options for lymphoma depend on the type and stage of the cancer, and may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, or stem cell transplantation.

Overall, lymphoma is a complex and diverse group of cancers that can affect people of all ages and backgrounds. While it can be challenging to diagnose and treat, advances in medical technology and research have improved the outlook for many patients with lymphoma.

The disorder is caused by mutations in the PEX1, PEX2, or PEX3 genes, which are involved in the peroxisomal biogenesis pathway. The defective peroxisomes are unable to function properly, leading to a wide range of symptoms and complications.

Zellweger syndrome typically affects infants and children, and the symptoms may include:

1. Developmental delays and intellectual disability
2. Hypotonia (low muscle tone)
3. Ataxia (poor coordination)
4. Cerebellar atrophy (shrinkage of the cerebellum)
5. Seizures
6. Hydrocephalus (fluid accumulation in the brain)
7. Hepatic dysfunction (liver problems)
8. Nephropathy (kidney damage)
9. Retinal degeneration (vision loss)
10. Skeletal abnormalities, such as short stature and joint deformities.

There is no cure for Zellweger syndrome, and treatment is focused on managing the symptoms and preventing complications. In some cases, liver transplantation may be necessary. The prognosis for the disorder is generally poor, and many individuals with Zellweger syndrome do not survive beyond early childhood.

Zellweger syndrome is a rare disorder, and its prevalence is unknown. However, it is estimated to affect approximately 1 in 50,000 newborns worldwide. The disorder is often diagnosed during infancy or early childhood, based on a combination of clinical features and laboratory tests, such as genetic analysis.

Overall, Zellweger syndrome is a severe and debilitating disorder that affects multiple systems in the body. While there is no cure for the disorder, early diagnosis and appropriate management can help improve the quality of life for affected individuals.

The symptoms of anaplasmosis can range from mild to severe and typically develop within 1-2 weeks after a tick bite. Mild symptoms may include fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, and fatigue. Severe symptoms can include bleeding disorders, thrombocytopenia (low platelet count), renal failure, respiratory distress, and cardiovascular complications.

Anaplasmosis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical imaging. Laboratory tests may include blood smears, PCR (polymerase chain reaction) tests, and serologic tests to detect the presence of antibodies against the bacteria.

Treatment for anaplasmosis typically involves the use of antimicrobial drugs, such as doxycycline or azithromycin, which are effective against the bacteria. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications such as respiratory distress, renal failure, and cardiovascular problems.

Prevention of anaplasmosis includes avoiding tick habitats, using protective clothing and insect repellents when outdoors, and conducting regular tick checks on oneself and pets. It is also important to be aware of the risks of anaplasmosis in areas where the disease is prevalent and to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms develop after a tick bite.

Prevalence: Anemia, hemolytic, congenital is a rare disorder, affecting approximately 1 in 100,000 to 1 in 200,000 births.

Causes: The condition is caused by mutations in genes that code for proteins involved in hemoglobin synthesis or red blood cell membrane structure. These mutations can lead to abnormal hemoglobin formation, red blood cell membrane instability, and increased susceptibility to oxidative stress, which can result in hemolytic anemia.

Symptoms: Symptoms of anemia, hemolytic, congenital may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fatigue, weakness, pale skin, and shortness of breath. In severe cases, the condition can lead to life-threatening complications such as anemia, infections, and kidney failure.

Diagnosis: Anemia, hemolytic, congenital is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, including blood smear examination, hemoglobin electrophoresis, and mutation analysis.

Treatment: Treatment for anemia, hemolytic, congenital depends on the specific underlying genetic cause and may include blood transfusions, folic acid supplements, antibiotics, and/or surgery to remove the spleen. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary.

Prognosis: The prognosis for anemia, hemolytic, congenital varies depending on the specific underlying genetic cause and the severity of the condition. With appropriate treatment, many individuals with this condition can lead relatively normal lives, but in severe cases, the condition can be life-threatening.

Falciparum malaria can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, chills, headache, muscle and joint pain, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. In severe cases, the disease can lead to anemia, organ failure, and death.

Diagnosis of falciparum malaria typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests to detect the presence of parasites in the blood or other bodily fluids. Treatment usually involves the use of antimalarial drugs, such as artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) or quinine, which can effectively cure the disease if administered promptly.

Prevention of falciparum malaria is critical to reducing the risk of infection, and this includes the use of insecticide-treated bed nets, indoor residual spraying (IRS), and preventive medications for travelers to high-risk areas. Eliminating standing water around homes and communities can also help reduce the number of mosquitoes and the spread of the disease.

In summary, falciparum malaria is a severe and life-threatening form of malaria caused by the Plasmodium falciparum parasite, which is responsible for the majority of malaria-related deaths worldwide. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and death from this disease. Prevention measures include the use of bed nets, indoor spraying, and preventive medications, as well as reducing standing water around homes and communities.

* Earache (otalgia)
* Fever
* Hearing loss or muffled hearing
* Discharge from the ear
* Redness and swelling around the ear drum
* Fussiness or irritability in infants
* Loss of appetite or difficulty eating
* Difficulty sleeping

Otitis media is caused by a virus or bacteria that enters the middle ear through the Eustachian tube, which connects the back of the throat to the middle ear. The infection can spread quickly and cause inflammation in the middle ear, leading to hearing loss and other symptoms.

There are several types of otitis media, including:

* Acute otitis media: This is a sudden and severe infection that can develop over a few days. It is usually caused by a bacterial infection and can be treated with antibiotics.
* Otitis media with effusion (OME): This is a condition where fluid accumulates in the middle ear without an infection present. It can cause hearing loss and other symptoms but does not respond to antibiotics.
* Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM): This is a long-term infection that can cause persistent discharge, hearing loss, and other symptoms. It may require ongoing treatment with antibiotics and other therapies.

Otitis media can be diagnosed through a physical examination of the ear and a review of the patient's medical history. A doctor may also use tests such as a tympanocentesis (insertion of a small tube into the ear to collect fluid) or an otoscopic exam to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment for otitis media depends on the type and severity of the infection, but may include:

* Antibiotics: To treat bacterial infections
* Pain relief medication: To help manage ear pain and fever
* Eardrops: To help clear fluid from the middle ear and reduce discharge
* Tympanocentesis: To collect fluid from the middle ear for testing or to relieve pressure
* Ventilation tubes: Small tubes that are inserted into the ear drum to allow air to enter the middle ear and help drain fluid.

It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms of otitis media persist or worsen over time, as untreated infections can lead to complications such as mastoiditis (an infection of the bones behind the ear) or meningitis (an infection of the lining around the brain and spinal cord). With prompt and appropriate treatment, however, most cases of otitis media can be effectively managed and hearing loss can be prevented.

Sheep diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and environmental factors. Here are some common sheep diseases and their meanings:

1. Scrapie: A fatal neurological disorder that affects sheep and goats, caused by a prion.
2. Ovine Progressive Pneumonia (OPP): A contagious respiratory disease caused by Mycobacterium ovipneumoniae.
3. Maedi-Visna: A slow-progressing pneumonia caused by a retrovirus, which can lead to OPP.
4. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including sheep and goats.
5. Bloat: A condition caused by gas accumulation in the rumen, which can lead to abdominal pain and death if not treated promptly.
6. Pneumonia: An inflammation of the lungs, often caused by bacteria or viruses.
7. Cryptosporidiosis: A diarrheal disease caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, which can be fatal in young lambs.
8. Babesiosis: A blood parasitic disease caused by Babesia oviparasites, which can lead to anemia and death if left untreated.
9. Fascioliasis: A liver fluke infection that can cause anemia, jaundice, and liver damage.
10. Anthrax: A serious bacterial disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, which can be fatal if left untreated.

Sheep diseases can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of flocks, as well as the economy of sheep farming. It is important for sheep farmers to be aware of these diseases and take appropriate measures to prevent and control them.

Necrosis is a type of cell death that occurs when cells are exposed to excessive stress, injury, or inflammation, leading to damage to the cell membrane and the release of cellular contents into the surrounding tissue. This can lead to the formation of gangrene, which is the death of body tissue due to lack of blood supply.

There are several types of necrosis, including:

1. Coagulative necrosis: This type of necrosis occurs when there is a lack of blood supply to the tissues, leading to the formation of a firm, white plaque on the surface of the affected area.
2. Liquefactive necrosis: This type of necrosis occurs when there is an infection or inflammation that causes the death of cells and the formation of pus.
3. Caseous necrosis: This type of necrosis occurs when there is a chronic infection, such as tuberculosis, and the affected tissue becomes soft and cheese-like.
4. Fat necrosis: This type of necrosis occurs when there is trauma to fatty tissue, leading to the formation of firm, yellowish nodules.
5. Necrotizing fasciitis: This is a severe and life-threatening form of necrosis that affects the skin and underlying tissues, often as a result of bacterial infection.

The diagnosis of necrosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests such as biopsy. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the necrosis and may include antibiotics, surgical debridement, or amputation in severe cases.

v t e (Protein domains, Protein families, Outer membrane proteins, All stub articles, Membrane protein stubs). ... Proteins in the outer membrane efflux protein family form trimeric (three-piece) channels that allow export of a variety of ... Examples include the Escherichia coli TolC outer membrane protein, which is required for proper expression of outer membrane ... protein genes; the Rhizobium nodulation protein; and the Pseudomonas FusA protein, which is involved in resistance to fusaric ...
Membrane proteins are common proteins that are part of, or interact with, biological membranes. Membrane proteins fall into ... Membrane proteins are common, and medically important-about a third of all human proteins are membrane proteins, and these are ... Look up membrane protein in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Membrane proteins. Membrane ... Membrane proteins, like soluble globular proteins, fibrous proteins, and disordered proteins, are common. It is estimated that ...
Orientations of Proteins in Membranes (OPM) database provides spatial positions of membrane protein structures with respect to ... membrane topology, quaternary structure of proteins in membrane-bound state, and the type of a destination membrane for each ... Proteins structures are taken from the Protein Data Bank. OPM also provides structural classification of membrane-associated ... Tatulian, Suren A.; Qin, Shan; Pande, Abhay H.; He, Xiaomei (2005). "Positioning membrane proteins by novel protein engineering ...
Single-pass membrane proteins cross the membrane only once, while multi-pass membrane proteins weave in and out, crossing ... membrane protein (IMP) is a type of membrane protein that is permanently attached to the biological membrane. All transmembrane ... Seipin Membrane protein Transmembrane protein Peripheral membrane protein Annular lipid shell Hydrophilicity plot Inner nuclear ... A membrane that contains this particular protein is able to function in photosynthesis. Examples of integral membrane proteins ...
A membrane-bound protein, is a protein that is bound (attached) to a biological membrane, may refer to: Integral membrane ... Peripheral membrane protein (temporarily attached) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Membrane- ... bound protein. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. ( ...
A membrane transport protein (or simply transporter) is a membrane protein involved in the movement of ions, small molecules, ... Transport proteins are integral transmembrane proteins; that is they exist permanently within and span the membrane across ... Unlike channel proteins which only transport substances through membranes passively, carrier proteins can transport ions and ... Transporter reversal typically occurs when a membrane transport protein is phosphorylated by a particular protein kinase, which ...
Peripheral membrane proteins, or extrinsic membrane proteins, are membrane proteins that adhere only temporarily to the ... may be defined as peripheral membrane proteins. In contrast to integral membrane proteins, peripheral membrane proteins tend to ... Antimicrobial peptides Lipoproteins Membrane proteins Transmembrane proteins "extrinsic protein , biology , Britannica". www. ... Goñi, F (2002). "Non-permanent proteins in membranes: when proteins come as visitors (Review)". Molecular Membrane Biology. 19 ...
The membrane (M) protein (previously called E1, sometimes also matrix protein) is an integral membrane protein that is the most ... The M protein organizes the assembly of coronavirus virions through protein-protein interactions with other M protein molecules ... thought to have different roles in forming protein-protein interactions with other structural proteins. M protein of SARS-CoV-2 ... M forms protein-protein interactions with all three other major structural proteins. M is necessary but not sufficient for ...
Membrane fusion proteins (not to be confused with chimeric or fusion proteins) are proteins that cause fusion of biological ... Interbilayer forces in membrane fusion Viral membrane fusion proteins Classification of viral fusion proteins in TCDB database ... Membrane+fusion+proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (Articles with short ... White JM, Delos SE, Brecher M, Schornberg K (2008). "Structures and mechanisms of viral membrane fusion proteins: multiple ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC25A17 gene. SLC25A17 is a peroxisomal ... a protein closely related to the peroxisomal integral membrane protein PMP47 of Candida boidinii". European Journal of ... "PEX19 binds multiple peroxisomal membrane proteins, is predominantly cytoplasmic, and is required for peroxisome membrane ... study using human membrane protein PMP34". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (12): 9375-82. doi:10.1074/jbc.M003304200. ...
Outer membrane adhesin OpcA protein family consists of several Neisseria species specific outer membrane proteins. Neisseria ... Opc (formerly called 5C) is one of the major outer membrane proteins and has been shown to play an important role in ... This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro: IPR009876 (Protein domains, Protein families, Outer ... Sansom MS, Derrick JP, Bond PJ (2007). "Membrane Simulations of OpcA: Gating in the Loops?". Biophys. J. 92 (2): L23-5. Bibcode ...
v t e (Protein domains, Protein families, Outer membrane proteins, All stub articles, Membrane protein stubs). ... Outer membrane protein G (OmpG) is a porin, a channel proteins in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Escherichia ...
... (MATP), also known as solute carrier family 45 member 2 (SLC45A2) or melanoma antigen ... 2015). "Membrane-Associated Transporter Protein (MATP) Regulates Melanosomal pH and Influences Tyrosinase Activity". PLOS ONE. ... Protein expression is localized to the melanosome, and analysis of the by knockdown of RNA expression leads to altered ... Fukamachi S, Shimada A, Shima A (August 2001). "Mutations in the gene encoding B, a novel transporter protein, reduce melanin ...
Membrane proteins, All stub articles, Membrane protein stubs). ... Vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMP) are a family of ... Vesicle-Associated+Membrane+Protein+1 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e (Articles ... Steegmaier M, Klumperman J, Foletti DL, Yoo JS, Scheller RH (1999). "Vesicle-associated membrane protein 4 is implicated in ... VAMP1 and VAMP2 proteins known as synaptobrevins are expressed in brain and are constituents of the synaptic vesicles, where ...
The outer membrane consists of two types of integral proteins, including proteins with transmembrane β-barrel and proteins with ... Mitochondrial membrane transport proteins, also known as mitochondrial carrier proteins, are proteins which exist in the ... The import pathways of α-helical membrane anchors or signal-anchored proteins are carried out mainly by outer membrane proteins ... separated by the inter-membrane space, or inner boundary membrane. The outer membrane is porous, whereas the inner membrane ...
A single-pass membrane protein also known as single-spanning protein or bitopic protein is a transmembrane protein that spans ... Bitopic proteins in OPM database "Single-pass membrane protein". www.uniprot.org. Membrane Structural Biology: With Biochemical ... "Single-pass type I membrane protein". UniProt. Retrieved 15 June 2021. "Single-pass type II membrane protein". UniProt. ... "Single-pass type III membrane protein". UniProt. Retrieved 15 June 2021. "Single-pass type IV membrane protein". UniProt. ...
Inner nuclear membrane proteins (INM proteins) are membrane proteins that are embedded in or associated with the inner membrane ... Integral membrane protein Laminopathy Transmembrane protein Holmer, L.; Worman, H.J. (2001). "Inner nuclear membrane proteins: ... Senior, Alayne; Gerace, Larry (1988). "Integral membrane proteins specific to the inner nuclear membrane and associated with ... "Signals and structural features involved in integral membrane protein targeting to the inner nuclear membrane". The Journal of ...
SecD and SecF are prokaryotic protein export membrane proteins. They are a part of the larger multimeric protein export complex ... the mature proteins are either targeted to the outer membrane, or remain as periplasmic proteins. The translocase protein ... This family consists of various prokaryotic SecD and SecF protein export membrane proteins. The SecD and SecF equivalents of ... The translocase itself comprises 7 proteins, including a chaperone protein (SecB), an ATPase (SecA), an integral membrane ...
v t e (Protein domains, Protein families, Outer membrane proteins, All stub articles, Membrane protein stubs). ... Outer membrane protein W (OmpW) family is a family of evolutionarily related proteins from the bacterial outer membrane. This ... family includes outer membrane protein W (OmpW) proteins from a variety of bacterial species. This protein may form the ... a minor protein of the Escherichia coli outer membrane". J. Bacteriol. 181 (11): 3578-3581. doi:10.1128/JB.181.11.3578- ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)/synaptobrevin family. It is ... Vesicle-associated membrane protein 8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the VAMP8 gene. Synaptobrevins/VAMPs, syntaxins ... Vesicle-associated membrane protein 8 has been shown to interact with STX4, SNAP23, STX1A, STX8 and STX7. GRCh38: Ensembl ... Polgár, János; Chung Sul-Hee; Reed Guy L (August 2002). "Vesicle-associated membrane protein 3 (VAMP-3) and VAMP-8 are present ...
... NIGMS Glue Grant Consortia (Membrane biology, Membrane proteins, Biophysics ... The Membrane Protein Structural Dynamics Consortium (MPSDC) is a large scale collaborative consortium composed of an ... The MPSDC was largely spurred by the urgent, compelling need for high-resolution approaches to membrane protein structure and ... The Consortium conducts research on membrane protein function of energy transduction in signaling (ion channels and receptors) ...
... , also known as SMIM14 or C4orf34, is a protein encoded on chromosome 4 of the human genome ... "small integral membrane protein 14 [Homo sapiens] - Protein - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2020-04-30. Brendel, V.; ... SMIM14, a transmembrane protein, is usually expressed in the ER membrane. While there is no conventional ER retention signal ... SMIM14 has one transmembrane domain, so it is classified as a single-pass membrane protein. The transmembrane domain extends ...
The endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein complex (EMC) is a putative endoplasmic reticulum-resident membrane protein (co-) ... "The ER membrane protein complex interacts cotranslationally to enable biogenesis of multipass membrane proteins". eLife. 7. doi ... TPRs have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions and can be found in a large variety of proteins of diverse ... The EMC was shown to be involved in a pathway mediating the membrane integration of tail-anchored proteins containing an ...
... (LAMP) 64- to 68-kDa heavily glycosylated protein found in neurons, specifically it ... Innos, Jürgen; Koido, Kati; Philips, Mari-Anne; Vasar, Eero (2013-03-26). "Limbic system associated membrane protein as a ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Membrane proteins, Neurons, Limbic system ... "cDNA cloning and structural analysis of the human limbic-system-associated membrane protein (LAMP)". Gene. 170 (2): 189-195. ...
"Mitochondrial Membrane Protein-Associated Neurodegeneration". GeneReviews [Internet]. PMID 24575447. "Mitochondrial membrane ... Mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration (MPAN) is a genetic neurodegenerative disease that causes dystonia ... The protein C19orf12 is not well understood, it is expressed in most cells and is thought to localize to mitochondria and the ... "Absence of an Orphan Mitochondrial Protein, C19orf12, Causes a Distinct Clinical Subtype of Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron ...
Outer membrane transport proteins (OMPP1/FadL/TodX) family includes several proteins that are involved in toluene catabolism ... Wang Y, Rawlings M, Gibson DT, Labbé D, Bergeron H, Brousseau R, Lau PC (March 1995). "Identification of a membrane protein and ... This family also includes protein FadL involved in translocation of long-chain fatty acids across the outer membrane. It is ... Protein families, Outer membrane proteins). ...
Protein domains, Protein families, Outer membrane proteins, Virulence factors). ... Virulence-related outer membrane proteins, or outer surface proteins (Osp) in some contexts, are expressed in the outer ... virulence protein is similar to a Yersinia enterocolitica invasion protein and a bacteriophage lambda outer membrane protein". ... and encode host-cell envelope proteins. Lom is found in the bacterial outer membrane, and is homologous to virulence proteins ...
... (PfEMP1) is a family of proteins present on the membrane surface of red ... Hence, they named the earlier protein Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), to distinguish it from the ... "var Genes Encoding Endothelial Protein C Receptor-Binding P. falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1". Infection and Immunity ... Once the PfEMP1 protein is fully synthesized (translated), it is carried to the cytoplasm towards the RBC membrane. The NTS is ...
... (LMP1) is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) protein that regulates its own expression ... Gupta (2011). "Latent Membrane Protein 1 as a molecular adjuvant for single-cycle lentiviral vaccines". Retrovirology. 8 (1): ... Pratt, Z; Zhang, J; Sugden, B. (2012). "The latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) oncogene of Epstein-Barr virus can simultaneously ... Li, H; Chang, Y (2003). "Epstein-barr virus latent membrane protein 1: Structure and functions". J. Biomed. Sci. 10 (5): 490- ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MPV17L2 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl ... "Entrez Gene: MPV17 mitochondrial inner membrane protein like 2". Retrieved 2018-09-11. Hendrickson SL, Lautenberger JA, Chinn ...
The newly formed virus particles can be released during cell lysis, or they can derive a host cell produced membrane and be ... When all of the structural proteins have been produced, viral assembly takes place. ...
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) cell signaling plays a key role in diverse aspects of cardiac differentiation and ... Movement of ions across cell membranes causes these events. The cardiac conduction system (and AV node part of it) coordinates ... Contraction of heart muscle cells requires depolarization and repolarization of their cell membranes. ...
Ff phages for phage display is that they require the protein of interest to be translocated across the bacterial inner membrane ... Phage display is a laboratory technique for the study of protein-protein, protein-peptide, and protein-DNA interactions that ... a gene encoding a protein of interest is inserted into a phage coat protein gene, causing the phage to "display" the protein on ... characterize small molecules-protein interactions and map protein-protein interactions. Users can use three dimensional ...
PTGS (COX, which can be confused with "cytochrome oxidase") enzymes are monotopic membrane proteins; the membrane-binding ... Picot D, Loll PJ, Garavito RM (January 1994). "The X-ray crystal structure of the membrane protein prostaglandin H2 synthase-1 ... Increased expression of the PTGS2 gene in the fetal membranes is connected to the presence of inflammation, causing uterine ... Cyclooxygenases blocking by lornoxicam in acute stage of inflammation reduced the frequency of membrane formation by 43% in the ...
Membrane protein stubs). ... "Direct protein-protein coupling enables cross-talk between ... Liu F, Wan Q, Pristupa ZB, Yu XM, Wang YT, Niznik HB (January 2000). "Direct protein-protein coupling enables cross-talk ... Moss SJ, Doherty CA, Huganir RL (July 1992). "Identification of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C ... Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GABRG2 gene. Gamma-aminobutyric ...
Kaplan JM, Varmus HE, Bishop JM (March 1990). "The src protein contains multiple domains for specific attachment to membranes ... c-Src can be activated by many transmembrane proteins that include: adhesion receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, G-protein ... Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src, also known as proto-oncogene c-Src, or simply c-Src (cellular Src; pronounced "sarc ... Nada S, Okada M, MacAuley A, Cooper JA, Nakagawa H (May 1991). "Cloning of a complementary DNA for a protein-tyrosine kinase ...
Membrane protein stubs, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the United States National Library of Medicine, Ion channels ... The Kir2.6 also known as inward rectifier potassium channel 18 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCNJ18 gene. ... Inwardly rectifying potassium channels, such as Kir2.6, maintain resting membrane potential in excitable cells and aid in ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Protein pages needing a picture, Genes on human chromosome ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the rhomboid protease family of integral membrane proteins. This family ... Rhomboid-related protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RHBDL2 gene. ... profiling of the substrate repertoire of RHBDL2 has identified a number of additional type I membrane proteins substrates, ... "Proteolytic ectodomain shedding of membrane proteins in mammals-hardware, concepts, and recent developments". The EMBO Journal ...
Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Membrane proteins, Ion channels). ... "TRIP Database". a manually curated database of protein-protein interactions for mammalian TRP channels. ( ... The three proteins TRPML1, TRPML2 and TRPML3 are encoded by the mucolipin-1 (MCOLN1), mucolipin-2 (MCOLN2) and mucolipin-3 ( ... comprises a group of three evolutionarily related proteins that belongs to the large family of transient receptor potential ion ...
In developmental biology, choriogenesis is the formation of the chorion, an outer membrane of the placenta that eventually ... Leclerc RF, Regier JC (November 1993). "Choriogenesis in the Lepidoptera: morphogenesis, protein synthesis, specific mRNA ...
In addition to its interactions with RNA, N forms protein-protein interactions with the coronavirus membrane protein (M) during ... Like the other structural proteins, the gene encoding the N protein is located toward the 3' end of the genome. N protein is ... Coronavirus proteins, Viral protein class, Viral structural proteins). ... The nucleocapsid (N) protein is a protein that packages the positive-sense RNA genome of coronaviruses to form ...
... by the SeqA protein), and reactivation of DnaA by the lipid membrane. Once priming is complete, DNA polymerase III holoenzyme ... which contains multiple binding sites for the initiator protein DnaA (a highly homologous protein amongst bacterial kingdom). ... In E. coli these proteins include DiaA, SeqA, IciA, HU, and ArcA-P, but they vary across other bacterial species. A few other ... Relaxase may work alone or in a complex of over a dozen proteins known collectively as a relaxosome. In the F-plasmid system ...
ASCL1 protein encoded by the ASCL1 gene, Dok-7 protein encoded by the DOK7 gene, enolase 2 encoded by the ENOL2 gene, ... cells that normally rest on the basement membrane of mammary gland ducts and function to contract and thereby expel milk from ... and the expression of neuroendocrine differentiation-related proteins such as the GDNF family of ligand proteins encoded by the ... and HER2/neu protein (however, 46.4% of the cases were not tested for the HER2/neu). In a second histopathological study of 44 ...
... neurotransmitter receptors and other proteins to be endocytosed or taken up across neuronal membranes and across the membranes ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode: ... The CLINT1 protein binds to the terminal domain of the clathrin heavy chain and stimulates clathrin cage vesicle assembly. ... This enables a turnover of neuroreceptors or other proteins to be maintained and thus the numbers of receptors can be fine ...
These proteins form a lattice in the membrane. Sulfate residues are abundant on the glycan chains of the glycoprotein, giving ... H. salinarum express the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin, which acts as a light-driven proton pump. It consists of two parts ... To prevent the salting out of proteins, H. salinarum encodes mainly acidic proteins. The average isoelectric point of H. ... salinarum proteins is 5.03. These highly acidic proteins are overwhelmingly negative in charge and are able to remain in ...
Membrane protein stubs). ... also known as solute carrier family 2 member 13 is a protein ...
Membrane protein stubs, Human chromosome 19 gene stubs). ... LILRA3+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine ... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LILRA3 gene located within the leukocyte receptor complex on chromosome 19q13.4. ... the LILRA3 might impair interactions of membrane-bound LILRs (such as LILRB1, an inhibitory receptor expressed on effector and ... Protein Science. 13 (10): 2819-24. doi:10.1110/ps.04682504. PMC 2286551. PMID 15340161. ...
Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Protein domains, Peripheral membrane proteins). ... Proteins containing this domain have been found to bind PtdIns(4,5)P2 and Ins(1,4,5)P3 suggesting that the domain is a membrane ... The N-terminal alpha-helix of this domain is hydrophobic and inserts into the membrane like a wedge and helps to drive membrane ... Epsin causes a strong degree of membrane curvature and tubulation, even fragmentation of membranes with a high PtdIns(4,5)P2 ...
... epithelial membrane antigen) → - GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein) → + Synaptophysin → - Chromogranin → - NSE (neuron- ... These cells have proteins that make up the characteristics of the tumor. These proteins arise from blood vessels, nerve cells ... The cells of this tumor usually show a columnar to cuboidal cytoplasm with a well-defined cytoplasmic membrane. Vacuolated, or ... The cytoplasmic and often nuclear expression of S100 protein is present in nearly all tumor cells, and vimentin typically ...
... comprises a group of proteins that are critical to the stability of muscle fiber membranes and to the linking of the actin ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode:2005Natur. ... Alpha-sarcoglycan is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SGCA gene. The dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) ... a 50-kD transmembrane protein (Roberds et al., 1993).[supplied by OMIM] SGCA has been shown to interact with Biglycan. GRCh38: ...
In prokaryotes, these proteins are found in the cell's inner membrane. These proteins use the energy from reduced molecules ... Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell ... This is done in eukaryotes by a series of proteins in the membranes of mitochondria called the electron transport chain. ... Electrolytes enter and leave cells through proteins in the cell membrane called ion channels. For example, muscle contraction ...
WD repeat domain phosphoinositide-interacting protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the WIPI2 gene. WD40 repeat ... "Entrez Gene: WIPI2 WD repeat domain, phosphoinositide interacting 2". Orsi A, Polson HE, Tooze SA (December 2009). "Membrane ... 2001). "Toward a Catalog of Human Genes and Proteins: Sequencing and Analysis of 500 Novel Complete Protein Coding Human cDNAs ... Members of the WIPI subfamily of WD40 repeat proteins, such as WIPI2, have a 7-bladed propeller structure and contain a ...
This protein is also far more effective in targeting bacterial membranes than mammalian membranes, though it can target many ... The 9 kDa form functions as a pore-forming protein, as it is able to permeabilize cell membranes.The 9kDa form can cytolyze ... It exists in its own granule after translation, and release of the protein is triggered by Protein Kinase C (PKC). Its C- and N ... It is expressed in 2 forms: a 15kDa precursor protein, the translation product, and a 9kDa cytotoxic protein, which is formed ...
Saier MH Jr (1998). "Molecular phylogeny as a basis for the classification of transport proteins from bacteria, archaea and ... family of membrane transporters. A role for proline residues in transmembrane helices". J. Biol. Chem. 267 (34): 24661-8. doi: ... "Identification of a second Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene cluster encoding proteins of an ABC phosphate transporter". FEBS ...
Pre-eclampsia is a disorder of pregnancy in which there is high blood pressure and either large amounts of protein in the urine ... When the amniotic sac has not ruptured during labour or pushing, the infant can be born with the membranes intact. This is ... Another prominent sign of labour is the rupture of membranes, commonly known as "water breaking". This is the leaking of fluid ... While inside the uterus the baby is enclosed in a fluid-filled membrane called the amniotic sac. Shortly before, at the ...
2005). "BH3 domains of BH3-only proteins differentially regulate Bax-mediated mitochondrial membrane permeabilization both ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the BCL2 protein family. BCL2 family members form hetero- or homodimers and act as ... This protein contains a single BCL2 homology domain 3 (BH3), and has been shown to bind BCL2 proteins and function as an ... This protein is found to be sequestered to myosin V motors by its association with dynein light chain 2, which may be important ...
They exhibit a high degree of protein dynamics, alone or in complex. Several types of catenins work with N-cadherins to play an ... VEGF-B treatment of hepatoma carcinoma cells can cause α-catenin to move from its normal location on the membrane into the ... Catenins are a family of proteins found in complexes with cadherin cell adhesion molecules of animal cells. The first two ... Mutations in genes encoding these proteins can lead to inactivation of cadherin cell adhesions and elimination of contact ...
2006). "Identification of secreted and membrane proteins in the rat incisor enamel organ using a signal-trap screening approach ... Odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ODAM gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... 2001). "Creation of genome-wide protein expression libraries using random activation of gene expression". Nat. Biotechnol. 19 ( ... tumor-associated amyloid consists of a novel human protein". J Lab Clin Med. 142 (5): 348-55. doi:10.1016/S0022-2143(03)00149-5 ...
As tendons develop they lay down collagen, which is the main structural protein of connective tissue. As tendons pass near bony ... which is thought to equalize air pressure on the tympanic membrane. Located between the mandibles but below the occiput, it ... Pepsin allows for the further breakdown of proteins into amino acid chains. Other enzymes include resin and lipase. ... Most food is digested and absorbed into the bloodstream from the small intestine, including proteins, simple carbohydrate, fats ...
MAG is localized on the inner membrane of the myelin sheath and interacts with axonal membrane proteins to attach the myelin ... MAG can also act as a signaling molecule as a soluble protein after it has been proteolytically shed. This form of the protein ... is a type 1 transmembrane protein glycoprotein localized in periaxonal Schwann cell and oligodendrocyte membranes, where it ... MAG is a member of the SIGLEC family of proteins and is a functional ligand of the NOGO-66 receptor, NgR. MAG is believed to be ...
Jiansen Jiang, studies the structures and mechanisms of some important membrane proteins, ... The Laboratory of Membrane Proteins and Structural Biology, led by Dr. ... Laboratory of Membrane Proteins and Structural Biology. The Laboratory of Membrane Proteins and Structural Biology, led by Dr. ... The target membrane proteins we are working on are small, fully embedded in the lipid membrane without a large extramembrane ...
Structural Biology of Membrane Proteins (R01) PA-06-119. NIGMS ... Specific membrane proteins may be of interest to one or more of ... centers and the Specialized PSI centers focusing on membrane proteins (5).. An increase in the number of known membrane protein ... Stephen H. White, Protein Science (2004), 13:1948-1949. (2) Structural Biology of Membrane Proteins Program Announcements (PA- ... In addition to the structures of integral membrane proteins, the structures of the complexes formed between these proteins and ...
The following are examples of the types of membrane proteins of interest to the participating institutes: o Membrane protein ... membrane proteins and the difficulty of applying well-developed solution NMR methods to the study of most membrane proteins. ... that underlie all membrane protein structure and function. Research on the non-membrane proteins associated with many of the ... membrane proteins are vital to health and specific defects are associated with many known disease states. Membrane proteins are ...
... [Abstract Epithelial Membrane ... Epithelial Membrane Protein 2 Governs Transepithelial Migration of Neutrophils into the Airspace. ... Protein 2 Governs Transepithelial Migration of Neutrophils into the Airspace] [Synopsis Epithelial Membrane Protein 2 Governs ...
Mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration (MPAN) is a disorder of the nervous system. Explore symptoms, ... medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/mitochondrial-membrane-protein-associated-neurodegeneration/ Mitochondrial membrane protein- ... Mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration due to C19orf12 mutation. *Mitochondrial protein-associated ... The protein produced from this gene is found in the membrane of cellular structures called mitochondria. , which are the energy ...
This photograph shows Yumi Yamashita, Ph.D., working with acryl amide gels to separate proteins after electropheresis. The ...
Newly made membrane proteins are first inserted into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The majority of these membrane ... Our genomes encode ~5000 integral membrane proteins. These proteins are essential for sensing the environment, communication ... How Cells Make Membrane Proteins. Download VideoCast. You can download this VideoCast and play it on your device. There are ... Our research aims to understand how such complex membrane proteins are made correctly. We have taken a biochemical approach to ...
Protein-mediated membrane fusion T Stegmann et al. Annu Rev Biophys Biophys Chem. 1989. ... Protein-mediated membrane fusion T Stegmann 1 , R W Doms, A Helenius ... Viral and cellular membrane fusion proteins. White JM. White JM. Annu Rev Physiol. 1990;52:675-97. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ph. ... Gonococcal membrane proteins: speculation on their role in pathogenesis. Blake MS, Gotschlich EC. Blake MS, et al. Prog Allergy ...
We survey computational approaches that tackle membrane protein structure and function prediction. While describing the main ... Discrimination of Native-like States of Membrane Proteins with Implicit Membrane-based Scoring Functions. Dutagaci B, ... Membrane protein prediction methods Marco Punta et al. Methods. 2007 Apr. Free PMC article Show details Display options Display ... Membrane protein prediction methods Marco Punta 1 , Lucy R Forrest, Henry Bigelow, Andrew Kernytsky, Jinfeng Liu, Burkhard Rost ...
Drug treatments against tuberculosis (TB) induce expression of several mycobacterial proteins, including IniA, but its ... IniA also deforms membranes and exhibits GTP-hydrolyzing dependent membrane fission. These results confirm the membrane ... Mycobacterial dynamin-like protein IniA mediates membrane fission Nat Commun. 2019 Aug 29;10(1):3906. doi: 10.1038/s41467-019- ... The structures reveal that IniA folds as a bacterial dynamin-like protein (BDLP) with a canonical GTPase domain followed by two ...
... Guest Editors:. Julian M. Carosi: South Australian Health and Medical ... BMC Molecular and Cell Biology is calling for submissions to our Collection on Membrane and Protein Trafficking. In Eukaryotic ... BMC Molecular and Cell Biology is calling for submissions to our Collection on Membrane and Protein Trafficking. All eukaryotic ... During the submission process you will be asked whether you are submitting to a Collection, please select "Membrane and Protein ...
How the PEX5 or PEX14 NTDs bind to the peroxisomal membrane and how the interaction between the two proteins is modulated at ... How the PEX5 or PEX14 NTDs bind to the peroxisomal membrane and how the interaction between the two proteins is modulated at ... Here, we characterize the membrane interactions of the PEX5 NTD and PEX14 NTD in vitro by membrane mimicking bicelles and ... Here, we characterize the membrane interactions of the PEX5 NTD and PEX14 NTD in vitro by membrane mimicking bicelles and ...
... expansion of the very successful Membrane Protein Production and Technologies meeting to include membrane protein structural ... and reagents being developed will be useful to the membrane protein community for characterizing new membrane proteins and ... In particular, the panel found that the focus of the program, namely to allocate resources to improving membrane protein ... Even though the Centers are making significant progress, membrane protein production is still very challenging and much more ...
Protein Interactions Governing Membrane Transport in Pulmonary Health and Disease (R01) PA-06-076. NHLBI ... Title: Protein Interactions Governing Membrane Transport in Pulmonary Health and Disease (R01) Announcement Type New ... In order to identify useful therapeutic targets, it is critical to understand all the protein interactions governing membrane ... Present research efforts have identified a small number of protein interactions that occur during membrane trafficking. These ...
Your search for HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B CAPSULAR POLYSACCHARIDE MENINGOCOCCAL OUTER MEMBRANE PROTEIN CONJUGATE ANTIGEN ...
Retroviral Gag polyprotein is the structural determinant that assembles in a protein lattice on the hosts plasma membrane to ... Membrane Binding of HIV-1 Matrix Protein: Dependence on Bilayer Composition and Protein Lipidation. ... that assembles in a protein lattice on the hosts plasma membrane to trigger formation of the viral protein/membrane shell. In ... We thus observe that the isolated matrix protein, in the absence of protein-protein interaction conferred by the full-length ...
HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B CAPSULAR POLYSACCHARIDE MENINGOCOCCAL OUTER MEMBRANE PROTEIN CONJUGATE ANTIGEN. 1 g in 1 g. ... haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide meningococcal outer membrane protein conjugate antigen liquid. ... HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B CAPSULAR POLYSACCHARIDE MENINGOCOCCAL OUTER MEMBRANE PROTEIN CONJUGATE ANTIGEN (UNII: LUY6P8763W ... haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide meningococcal outer membrane protein conjugate antigen liquid. Number of ...
Mouse Membrane Proteins from Zyagen Available with Gentaur Genprice for UK & Europe Distribution. Online Purchase Available or ... Mouse Embryo E13 Membrane Protein , MT-104-13-MEM Zyagen Mouse Membrane Proteins ... Mouse Embryo E15 Membrane Protein , MT-104-15-MEM Zyagen Mouse Membrane Proteins ... Mouse Embryo E17 Membrane Protein , MT-104-17-MEM Zyagen Mouse Membrane Proteins ...
Membrane surface potential is an important determinant in regulation of membrane transport, cell-cell recognition, and membrane ... Charged groups play the well-recognized roles in functioning of proteins, nucleic acids, phospholipids, and their supra- ... Phospholipid molecules, building blocks of cellular membranes, mostly contain zwitterionic or negatively charged headgroups ... Membrane surface potential is an important determinant in regulation of membrane transport, cell-cell recognition, and membrane ...
... in the group of Dr Luning Liu of the Institute of Integrative Biology to study biological membrane structures and protein ... G-Protein, Imaging, Membrane, Microscopy, Organelle, Protein, Research, Stress, Synthetic Biology, T-Cell, TIRF Microscopy ... Liverpool researchers use JPKs NanoWizard AFM system to study biological membrane structures, protein dynamics. *Download PDF ... The Group applies the JPK ULTRA Speed AFM to study biological membrane structures and protein dynamics. AFM has been used to ...
We show that Ups1 interacts with membranes in a membrane curvature dependent manner. Ups1 predominantly binds to membrane ... Membrane interactions of mitochondrial lipid transfer proteins. Fereshteh Sadeqi, Kai Stroh, Marian Vache, Dietmar Riedel, ... Membrane interactions of mitochondrial lipid transfer proteins Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... The mitochondrial inner membrane is an integral part of the cellular lipid biosynthesis network. Intramitochondrial lipid ...
Retraction Note to: SARS-CoV-2 infects T lymphocytes through its spike protein-mediated membrane fusion. *Xinling Wang1 na1, ... Retraction Note to: SARS-CoV-2 infects T lymphocytes through its spike protein-mediated membrane fusion ... Wang, X., Xu, W., Hu, G. et al. Retraction Note to: SARS-CoV-2 infects T lymphocytes through its spike protein-mediated ... SARS-CoV-2 infects T lymphocytes through its spike protein-mediated membrane fusion. Cell Mol. Immunol. https://doi.org/10.1038 ...
... ... 1976)‎. Altered membrane proteins of monkey erythrocytes infected with simian malaria / by Donald F. H. Wallach, Margaret ...
A class of proteins of special interest is membrane proteins, in particular plasma membrane proteins. Despite their biological ... membrane proteins have been determined. In order to aid in identification of membrane proteins, a number of computational ... integral membrane proteins. These methods can play a critical role in determining protein structure and, hence, identifying ... both a positive identification of a membrane protein and the number of transmembrane segments per protein are considered. Such ...
Protein classi Protein class(es) of the gene product according to selected gene lists. List of protein classes. ... Protein classi Protein class(es) of the gene product according to selected gene lists. List of protein classes. ... Cell Cycle Dependent Proteini Cell cycle dependency of protein expression in the FUCCI U-2 OS cell line, determined by ICC-IF ... Cell Cycle Dependent Proteini Cell cycle dependency of protein expression in the FUCCI U-2 OS cell line, determined by ICC-IF ...
Reconstitution dun canal Kv dans les membranes lipidiques des étudesstructurales et fonctionnelles… ... Reconstitution dun canal Kv dans les membranes lipidiques des étudesstructurales et fonctionnelles… ...
... protein) interactions. A BioBeta specification provides a protein signature together a set of protein reactions, in the spirit ... protein) interactions. A BioBeta specification provides a protein signature together a set of protein reactions, in the spirit ... protein) interactions. A BioBeta specification provides a protein signature together a set of protein reactions, in the spirit ... protein) interactions. A BioBeta specification provides a protein signature together a set of protein reactions, in the spirit ...
  • The distal end of its Trunk domain exists as a lipid-interacting (LI) loop, which binds to negatively charged lipids for membrane attachment. (nih.gov)
  • Originating from the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Golgi system, vesicles transport cargo - macromolecules, proteins and lipids - to various organelles, as well as the extracellular space through exocytosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, formation of vesicles via endocytosis plays a key role in recycling of plasma membrane proteins and lipids through the endolysomal pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hence, our results demonstrate that Ups1 specifically binds to membrane regions where extraction and insertion of lipids is enhanced. (biorxiv.org)
  • These include the transfer of lipids between different membrane structures, a role in surfactant recycling and homeostasis, and involvement in modulation of the innate defense system. (ucm.es)
  • In humans, there are 23 enzymes embedded in the cell membrane that belong to the DHHC family of protein acyltransferases, a group of enzymes that link a certain type of fat molecule to other proteins in the cell. (nih.gov)
  • The Laboratory of Membrane Proteins and Structural Biology, led by Dr. Jiansen Jiang, studies the structures and mechanisms of some important membrane proteins, such as solute carriers, that are linked to human disease or drug transport. (nih.gov)
  • The general interests in Dr. Jiang's laboratory is to elucidate the structures and mechanisms of important membrane proteins associated with membrane transport. (nih.gov)
  • Projects that will lead in the near term to determining the structures of biologically important membrane proteins are also encouraged. (nih.gov)
  • Our genomes encode ~5000 integral membrane proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we utilized five topology prediction methods (TMHMM, SOSUI, waveTM, HMMTOP, and TopPred II) in order to estimate the ratio of integral membrane proteins in the human proteome. (iospress.com)
  • Such a broad range of prediction depends on the selectivity of the individual method in predicting integral membrane proteins. (iospress.com)
  • An increase in the number of known membrane protein structures will contribute to an enhanced understanding of many basic phenomena underlying cellular functions essential to human health. (nih.gov)
  • RESEARCH OBJECTIVES Membrane proteins play a crucial role in many cellular and physiological processes. (nih.gov)
  • During his PhD, Dr Carosi studied how autophagy - a powerful cellular 'waste disposal' system - removes and destroys toxic proteins that accumulate in the brains of people with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phospholipid molecules, building blocks of cellular membranes, mostly contain zwitterionic or negatively charged headgroups exposed on the membrane/water interface. (nih.gov)
  • In this process, it employs multiple signals - electrostatic, hydrophobic and lipid-specific interactions conferred by the matrix domain - to recruit the protein to the proper cellular location and assist protein-protein interactions located on full-length Gag in lattice formation. (nist.gov)
  • The mitochondrial inner membrane is an integral part of the cellular lipid biosynthesis network. (biorxiv.org)
  • Mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration (MPAN) is a disorder of the nervous system. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Dogu O, Krebs CE, Kaleagasi H, Demirtas Z, Oksuz N, Walker RH, Paisan-Ruiz C. Rapid disease progression in adult-onset mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hartig M, Prokisch H, Meitinger T, Klopstock T. Mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration (MPAN). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The major virulence factor and variant surface protein PfEMP1 (P falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1) acts as a ligand to adhere to endothelial receptors avoiding splenic clearance. (edu.au)
  • We thus observe that the isolated matrix protein, in the absence of protein-protein interaction conferred by the full-length Gag, binds the membrane with sub-micromolar affinities. (nist.gov)
  • Ups1 predominantly binds to membrane domains of positive curvature. (biorxiv.org)
  • After detergent solubilization the purified protein binds to laminin-coated Sepharose beads at a higher rate than to beads coated with either fibronectin or collagen types I and IV. (nih.gov)
  • Here we report a bacterial protein with BAR domain-like activity, BdpA, from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, known to produce redox-active membrane vesicles and micrometer-scale outer membrane extensions (OMEs). (elifesciences.org)
  • BdpA is required for uniform size distribution of membrane vesicles and influences scaffolding of OMEs into a consistent diameter and curvature. (elifesciences.org)
  • The interaction of the protein, called LB 68, with laminin was also studied after incorporation into synthetic lecithin vesicles. (nih.gov)
  • This FOA solicits applications to establish Centers for Membrane Protein Structure Determination that will become a vital component in fulfilling the expanded goals of the NIGMS PSI:Biology network for high-throughput-enabled structural biology. (nih.gov)
  • The panel members listed above met on January 4, 2008 to conduct a mid-course review of the two Centers for Innovation in Membrane Protein Production that were awarded by the Structural Biology Roadmap Working Group to address bottlenecks in membrane protein structural biology. (nih.gov)
  • The two Centers are staffed by extraordinarily talented scientists and they are doing state of the art research on membrane protein structural biology. (nih.gov)
  • We were impressed with the breadth of experiments conducted, and also with the diversity of approaches taken by the Centers to improve membrane protein production. (nih.gov)
  • While the Centers were formed just three years ago, they are likely to have a major influence nationally and internationally on membrane protein research. (nih.gov)
  • The community would benefit from learning which approaches work and which do not, and we suggest several solutions: updating/expanding the websites to educate the community, expansion of the very successful Membrane Protein Production and Technologies meeting to include membrane protein structural biologists not funded through the Roadmap program, and establishing training workshops that would teach 'students' the various techniques and approaches employed at the Centers. (nih.gov)
  • Producing sufficient quantities of functional and homogeneous membrane proteins was the limiting factor for structural studies when the Centers were established and it remains so today. (nih.gov)
  • Even though the Centers are making significant progress, membrane protein production is still very challenging and much more must be learned to significantly advance the field. (nih.gov)
  • By studying how this chaperone functions, we revealed a new conceptual framework for membrane protein biogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Bin/Amphiphysin/RVS (BAR) domain proteins belong to a superfamily of coiled-coil proteins influencing membrane curvature in eukaryotes and are associated with vesicle biogenesis, vesicle-mediated protein trafficking, and intracellular signaling. (elifesciences.org)
  • The methods covered include: sequence alignment, motif search, functional residue identification, transmembrane segment and protein topology predictions, homology and ab initio modeling. (nih.gov)
  • Applications include membrane proteins, including surface proteins and receptors. (avivasysbio.com)
  • The target membrane proteins we are working on are small, fully embedded in the lipid membrane without a large extramembrane domain, and/or dynamic. (nih.gov)
  • These processes must be carefully orchestrated from vesicle formation to transportation along the cytoskeletal network and fusion with the target membrane. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our research aims to understand how such complex membrane proteins are made correctly. (nih.gov)
  • We report the interaction of non-lipidated and myristoylated HIV-1 Gag matrix domains with bilayers composed of purified lipid components to dissect these complex membrane signals and quantify their contributions to the overall interaction. (nist.gov)
  • Newly made membrane proteins are first inserted into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. (nih.gov)
  • We show that Ups1 interacts with membranes in a membrane curvature dependent manner. (biorxiv.org)
  • All eukaryotic cells rely on intracellular vesicle trafficking for the maintenance of membranes and organelles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute invites research grant applications to delineate the protein interactions and pathways governing membrane trafficking pathways operative in pulmonary health and disease and develop novel therapeutic interventions. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we characterize the membrane interactions of the PEX5 NTD and PEX14 NTD in vitro by membrane mimicking bicelles and nanodiscs using NMR spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry. (frontiersin.org)
  • Charge-charge interactions in the absence of the phosphatidylinositide PI(4,5)P 2 attract the protein to acidic membrane surfaces, and myristoylation increases the affinity by a factor of 10, arguing against a PI(4,5)P 2 -trigger of myristate exposure. (nist.gov)
  • Lipid-specific interactions wit the PI(4,5)P 2 , the major signal lipid in the inner plasma membrane, increase membrane attraction at a similar level as the protein lipidation. (nist.gov)
  • While cholesterol does not directly engage in interactions, it augments protein affinity strongly, apparently by unlocking steric obstacles to efficient myristate insertion and PI(4,5)P 2 binding. (nist.gov)
  • We introduce the BioBeta Framework, a meta-model for both protein-level and membrane-level interactions of living cells. (aau.dk)
  • in particular, higher-level (e.g. membrane) activities can be given a formal biological justification in terms of low-level (i.e., protein) interactions. (aau.dk)
  • The SBRWG initiative is successfully promoting research on membrane protein expression, purification, characterization, and structure determination. (nih.gov)
  • We have developed the exclusive Magic™ platform that allows both cell-based and cell-free protein expression and purification. (prunderground.com)
  • However, in the recent past, advances in methods for crystallization and analysis of proteins by x-ray and electron diffraction methods, and improvements in NMR methods, have led to new opportunities. (nih.gov)
  • Biophysical Characterization of Membrane Proteins. (bvsalud.org)
  • Membrane transport, a collection of transport of diverse molecules, is mostly carried out by membrane proteins in a tightly regulated way. (nih.gov)
  • 1) How do membrane proteins (channels or transporters) select their substrate molecules or ions? (nih.gov)
  • o Methods to elucidate the organization of lipid and detergent molecules within protein crystalline arrays (e.g., neutron diffraction). (nih.gov)
  • Although its function is unknown, researchers suggest that the C19orf12 protein plays a role in the maintenance of fat (lipid) molecules, a process known as lipid homeostasis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Membrane proteins are valuable assets to drug discovery as their functions are involved in extensive biological processes in the human body, such as ligand-receptor binding, signal transduction, transportation of molecules, and intracellular recognition. (prunderground.com)
  • Using a clever experimental trick, the team also uncovered the structure of human DHHC20 when it is linked to a fat molecule, a development which offers insights into how DHHC enzymes bind to fat molecules before latching onto other proteins. (nih.gov)
  • The structures reveal that IniA folds as a bacterial dynamin-like protein (BDLP) with a canonical GTPase domain followed by two helix-bundles (HBs), named Neck and Trunk. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, the AFM (located in the Centre for Cell Imaging) is used to explore the assembly dynamics of bacterial microcompartment shell proteins and the formation process of shell facets. (news-medical.net)
  • Based on the ability of BdpA to alter membrane architecture in vivo , we propose that BdpA and its homologs comprise a newly identified class of bacterial BAR domain-like proteins. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, during this same decade the rate of soluble protein structure solution has accelerated greatly and there remains a gap between the understanding of membrane proteins and their soluble protein counterparts. (nih.gov)
  • PEX5 is a soluble receptor for cargo enzymes comprised of an N-terminal intrinsically disordered domain (NTD) and a C-terminal tetratricopeptide (TPR) domain, which recognizes peroxisomal targeting signal 1 (PTS1) peptide motif in cargo proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • PEX5 cycles between a soluble and a membrane associated state. (frontiersin.org)
  • Retrieved on May 28, 2023 from https://www.news-medical.net/news/20160323/Liverpool-researchers-use-JPKs-NanoWizard-AFM-system-to-study-biological-membrane-structures-protein-dynamics.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • The PEX14 NTD weakly interacts with membrane mimicking bicelles with a surface that partially overlaps with the WxxxF/Y binding site. (frontiersin.org)
  • These methods can play a critical role in determining protein structure and, hence, identifying suitable drug targets in humans. (iospress.com)
  • The majority of these membrane proteins have to be weaved back and forth multiple times across the lipid bilayer, folded into a functional three-dimensional structure, and sometimes assembled with other subunits. (nih.gov)
  • In general, predictions of functional and structural features of membrane proteins are improving, although progress is hampered by the limited amount of high-resolution experimental information available. (nih.gov)
  • Despite the importance of membrane proteins, the knowledge of their high resolution structures and mechanisms of action has lagged far behind the knowledge of these properties of proteins in general. (nih.gov)
  • Many membrane transport proteins (MTP) are essential for Plasmodium infection and gain importance as candidate drug targets in malaria therapy, whereas the physiological functions often remain enigmatic. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Skeleton-binding protein 1 functions at the parasitophorous vacuole membrane to traffic PfEMP1 to the Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocyte surface. (edu.au)
  • We have taken a biochemical approach to identify and mechanistically dissect the factors involved in membrane protein targeting, insertion, folding, and assembly. (nih.gov)
  • These difficulties have led to a reluctance of many investigators to pursue high resolution structural studies of membrane proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Retroviral Gag polyprotein is the structural determinant that assembles in a protein lattice on the host's plasma membrane to trigger formation of the viral protein/membrane shell. (nist.gov)
  • Creative Biolabs provides a one-stop membrane protein antibody discovery solution covering from antigen preparation to the following antibody generation stages. (prunderground.com)
  • These results confirm the membrane remodeling activity of BDLP and suggest that IniA mediates TB drug-resistance through fission activity to maintain plasma membrane integrity. (nih.gov)
  • A class of proteins of special interest is membrane proteins, in particular plasma membrane proteins. (iospress.com)
  • Despite their biological and medical significance, the 3-dimensional structures of less than 1% of plasma membrane proteins have been determined. (iospress.com)
  • In order to identify laminin-binding components in the muscle cell surface, plasma membranes from mouse thigh muscle and from rat L6 myoblasts were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transferred to nitrocellulose paper by electroblotting. (nih.gov)
  • was isolated by affinity chromatography of muscle cell plasma membranes on laminin-Sepharose. (nih.gov)
  • The results suggest that SP-C dimerizes in pulmonary surfactant membranes, forming dimers of different topologies. (ucm.es)
  • As peroxisomes lack a protein synthesis machinery, peroxisomal matrix proteins need to be imported into the organelle post-translationally. (frontiersin.org)
  • JPK Instruments, a world-leading manufacturer of nanoanalytic instrumentation for research in life sciences and soft matter, reports on the use of their NanoWizard ® ULTRA Speed AFM system at the University of Liverpool in the group of Dr Luning Liu of the Institute of Integrative Biology to study biological membrane structures and protein dynamics. (news-medical.net)
  • Using interdisciplinary approaches, the Liu Lab aims to explore the molecular mechanism underlying the self-assembly, dynamics and regulation of biological membranes and macromolecular protein complexes. (news-medical.net)
  • The Group applies the JPK ULTRA Speed AFM to study biological membrane structures and protein dynamics. (news-medical.net)
  • Creative Biolabs has been exploring antibody and protein discovery and engineering dedicatedly for decades and has established high-end technical platforms to help global customers with their research projects involving such biological reagents in a one-stop manner. (prunderground.com)
  • Membrane proteins are the targets of a large number of pharmacologically and toxicologically active substances and are responsible, in part, for their uptake, metabolism, and clearance. (nih.gov)
  • Creative Biolabs, possessing industry-leading technology platforms and professional experience in protein discovery, provides full-set solutions for research involving membrane proteins, one of the most critical targets for therapeutics and diagnostics discovery. (prunderground.com)
  • Our exclusiveness lies in cell-free protein expression that is flat-out robust to produce tricky targets in a highly controllable manner, including complex, toxic, and unstable proteins. (prunderground.com)
  • Membrane proteins are responsible for a large variety of tasks in organisms and of particular interesting as drug targets. (bvsalud.org)
  • This demonstrates that docking of PEX5 to PEX14 at the membrane does not reduce the overall binding affinity between the two proteins, providing insights into the initial phase of PEX5-PEX14 docking in the assembly of the peroxisome translocon. (frontiersin.org)
  • Membrane surface potential is an important determinant in regulation of membrane transport, cell-cell recognition, and membrane bound enzymes. (nih.gov)
  • We survey computational approaches that tackle membrane protein structure and function prediction. (nih.gov)
  • Clearly the approaches and reagents being developed will be useful to the membrane protein community for characterizing new membrane proteins and solving structures. (nih.gov)
  • While predictions of transmembrane segments and protein topology rank among the most accurate methods in computational biology, more attention and effort will be required in the future to ameliorate database search, homology and ab initio modeling. (nih.gov)
  • If this search returns at least one good match (template) with a high-resolution structure, it will be possible to apply homology modeling techniques to obtain a model for the target proteins whose resolution will in general depend on the similarity with the template. (nih.gov)
  • View conserved domains detected in this protein sequence using CD-search. (nih.gov)
  • Stephen F. Altschul, Thomas L. Madden, Alejandro A. Schäffer, Jinghui Zhang, Zheng Zhang, Webb Miller, and David J. Lipman (1997), "Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs", Nucleic Acids Res. (nih.gov)
  • This pathway is facilitated by designated protein complexes in the intermembrane space. (biorxiv.org)
  • IniA also deforms membranes and exhibits GTP-hydrolyzing dependent membrane fission. (nih.gov)
  • Alpha-synuclein lipid-dependent membrane binding and translocation through the alpha-hemolysin channel. (nih.gov)
  • thus it is vital for cells to transport substances across the membranes. (nih.gov)
  • Dysfunctions associated with membrane transport may lead to adverse effects or disease. (nih.gov)
  • We are particularly interested in two questions concerning membrane transport. (nih.gov)
  • These proteins are essential for sensing the environment, communication with other cells, transport of nutrients and metabolites, neurotransmission, and countless other physiologic processes. (nih.gov)
  • Creative Biolabs is a conscientious contract research organization working in biotechnology areas with a particular emphasis on protein discovery, which helps design and engineer proteins for diverse research objectives, including immunogens and membrane transport proteins . (prunderground.com)
  • Because the erythrocyte is devoid of protein transport machinery, the parasite provides infrastructure for trafficking across membranes it traverses. (edu.au)
  • In this study, we show that the P falciparum skeleton-binding protein 1 (PfSBP1) is required for transport of PfEMP1 to the P falciparum-infected erythrocyte surface. (edu.au)
  • Completion of the Human Genome Project and technological advances now make it possible to probe the molecular pathology of rare and common pulmonary diseases associated with disorders in membrane trafficking pathways. (nih.gov)
  • Surfactant protein C (SP-C) has several functions in pulmonary surfactant. (ucm.es)
  • Isolation of a laminin-binding protein from muscle cell membranes. (nih.gov)
  • Protein palmitoylation impacts a wide range of physiological processes and DHHC enzymes have been linked to a number of diseases, particularly neuropsychiatric diseases and cancer. (nih.gov)
  • This PA solicits applications to develop research and methods to enhance the rate of membrane protein structure determination and to determine specific membrane protein structures. (nih.gov)
  • Considerable research is ongoing in the area of membrane protein structure and function, yet relatively few investigators have applied the techniques of x-ray crystallography, electron diffraction, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to study directly the structures of their proteins. (nih.gov)
  • http://www.nigms.nih.gov/funding/psi.html ) proposes to accelerate the rate of protein structure solution even more. (nih.gov)
  • and 2) To encourage additional research to further develop methods for studying the structure of membrane proteins at atomic resolution. (nih.gov)
  • Predicting structure and function for a protein experimentally known to be an IMP. (nih.gov)
  • Drug treatments against tuberculosis (TB) induce expression of several mycobacterial proteins, including IniA, but its structure and function remain poorly understood. (nih.gov)
  • Due to the low abundance in the nature and intricate structure, it has always been a challenge for the industry to artificially develop membrane proteins with native conformations and satisfactory bioactivities. (prunderground.com)
  • IRP researchers, led by Anirban Banerjee, Ph.D. , undertook the challenge of determining the high-resolution atomic structure of two different DHHC proteins, DHHC15 and DHHC20. (nih.gov)
  • Fatty acyl recognition and transfer by an integral membrane S-acyltransferase. (nih.gov)
  • Intramitochondrial lipid transfer shuttles specific lipid species between the two mitochondrial membranes. (biorxiv.org)
  • In order to aid in identification of membrane proteins, a number of computational methods have been developed. (iospress.com)